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Image Processing: Image processing is referred to processing of a 2D image (picture) by a computer. An image is an array, or a matrix, of square pixels (picture elements) arranged in columns and rows. The major topics in the field of image processing are Image Restoration 2. Image Enhancement 3. Image Compression 4. Image Segmentation

Image Restoration: It Is the process of taking an image with some known or estimated degradation and restoring it to its original appearance. Image restoration is often used in the field of photography or publishing where an image was somehow degraded but needs to be improved before it can be printed or processed. Image Enhancement: It involves taking an image and improving for processing. One of the simplest enhancement techniques is to simply stretch the contrast of an image. Enhancement methods are problem specific. For example, a method that is used to enhance iris images may not suitable for enhancing fingerprint images. Image Compression: It involves reducing the typically massive amount of data needed to represent an image. This done by eliminating data that are visually unnecessary and by taking advantage of the redundancy that is inherent in most images. Image Segmentation: Image segmentation is the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments. The main objective of segmentation is to simplify and/or change the representation of an image into something that is more meaningful and easier to analyze.

In this literature study, segmenting the blood vessels from the retinal images using image processing, neural network and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) techniques are analyzed. This technique can be used to identify the person based on their biometric data. Here retinal image is consider as biometric data. Stavros M. Panas et. al., (1998), proposed unsupervised fuzzy algorithm for vessel tracking i.e C-means clustering algorithm. This method efficiently handled the junctions and forks, and overcomes the problems of initialization and vessel profile modeling. But during the tracking processes, if vessel contrast was less than minimum contrast then the tracking terminates. O. Chutatape and S. M. Krishnan (1998) proposed two step process to detect the blood vessels. They were scanning and tracking. Scanning process was used to locate the center point and width of the vessel using Gaussian matched filter. Tracking process helped to estimate the next possible location of blood vessel segment. This method provided complete segmentation of the blood vessels. But, Scanning over the whole image was very computationally intensive and requires more time and space. And this method was not suitable, if the blood vessel fades away in the middle part and emerges again in its extended direction. Tim McInerney et. al., (1999) proposed a class of deformable contours (snakes) was generated and applied them in segmentation of medical images. It was defined in terms of affine cell image decomposition (ACID). This method can be used to segment some of the most complex-shaped biological structures from medical images. And also, this method was elegant mechanism for contour re-parameterization. But the result may fall in local minimum. Frederic Zana and Jean-Claude Klein (2001) proposed a four step processes to segment the vessel like patterns. They were, Noise Reduction, Linear pattern with gaussian-like profile improvement, Cross-curvature evaluation and linear filtering. Its tree-like geometry made it a usable feature for registration between images that can be of a different nature. This method provided good result for biggest vessels but some smaller vessels of poor contrast were not detected completely. Xiaoyi Jiang et. al.,(2003) proposed a method to generate object hypotheses by binarization using hypothetic thresholds and accepted/rejected by a verification procedure was

explained. This method was otherwise called as knowledge-guided adaptive thresholding. This general framework was suitable if the background intensity in images were uniform. Joes Staal et. al.,(2004) proposed a vessel segmentation method in retinal images was done on the extraction of image ridges. The ridges were used to compose primitives in the form of line elements. With the line elements an image was partitioned into patches by assigning each image pixel to the closest line element. Every line element constitutes a local coordinate frame for its corresponding patch. For every pixel, feature vectors were computed that make use of properties of the patches and the line elements. The feature vectors were classified using a NNclassifier. Ana Maria Mendonca et. al.,(2006) proposed the algorithm to extract vessels centerlines, which were used as guidelines for the subsequent vessel filling phase. The final segmentation was obtained using an iterative region growing method that integrates the contents of several binary images resulting from vessel width dependent morphological filters. This method may detect other retinal structures like the optic disc, several pathological areas and background structures. It may not detect thin vessel branches. Joao V. B. Soares et. al., (2006) proposed a method to classify each pixel in image as vessel or non-vessel using Gabor wavelet transform and Bayesian classifier. The main advantage of this method was easy to segment the vessels of different diameters. But the detection may be false at the border of the optic disc. Renzo Perfetti et. al., (2007) proposed a technique using basic line detector. A line detector, which was used in mammography, was applied to the green channel of the retinal image. And this used, two orthogonal line detectors along with the grey level of the target pixel to construct a feature vector for supervised classification using a support vector machine. This technique gave good performance with small training sets. But this technique was not suitable for abnormal regions like hemorrhages. Ming-Kuei Hu (2008) proposed a theory of two-dimensional moment invariants for planar geometric figures. A fundamental theorem was established to relate such moment invariants to the wellknown algebraic invariants. Complete systems of moment invariants under translation, similitude and orthogonal transformations were derived. Some moment invariants

under general two-dimensional linear transformations were also included. Both theoretical formulation and practical models of visual pattern recognition based upon these moment invariants were discussed. It was shown that recognition of geometrical patterns and alphabetical characters independently of position, size and orientation can be accomplished. It was also indicated that generalization was possible to include invariance with parallel projection. Benson Shu Yan Lam et. al., (2008) proposed a method, in that, blood vessel-like objects were extracted using the Laplacian operator and noisy objects were pruned according to the centerlines, which were detected using the normalized gradient vector field. This technique produced accurate result especially for pathological retina image but poor results near blood vessels edges. Mohd Ariffanan and Bin Mohd Basri (2009) proposed a method to classify the medical image and detect symptom using neuro fuzzy. In that, the conventional method in medicine for brain MR images classification and tumor detection was by human inspection. Operator-assisted classification methods were impractical for large amounts of data and were also nonreproducible. MR images also always contain a noise caused by operator performance which can lead to serious inaccuracies classification. The use of artificial intelligent techniques, for instance, neural networks, fuzzy logic, neuro fuzzy had shown great potential in this field. In the proposed method the neuro fuzzy system or ANFIS was applied for classification and detection purposes. Decision making was performed in two stages: feature extraction using the principal component analysis (PCA) and the ANFIS trained with the backpropagation gradient descent method in combination with the least squares method. Monireh Sheikh Hosseini and Maryam Zekri (2012) reviewed the application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) as classifier in medical image classification. It classifies the pixels in medical image based on various parameters. ANFIS was a fuzzy inference system (FIS) implemented in the framework of an adaptive fuzzy neural network. It combines the explicit knowledge representation of an FIS with the learning power of artificial neural networks (ANNs). The objective of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system was to integrate the best features of fuzzy systems and neural network. A brief comparison with other classifiers, main advantages and drawbacks of this classifier were investigated.