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Past Perfect FORM [had + past participle] Examples: You had studied English before you moved to New

York. Had you studied English before you moved to New York? You had not studied English before you moved to New York.

Complete List of Past Perfect Forms USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past
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The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past. Examples:

I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai. I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet. Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times. Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand? She only understood the movie because she had read the book. Kristine had never been to an opera before last night. We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance. A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006? B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)


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With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.

Examples: We had had that car for ten years before it broke down. By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years. They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years. Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect


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Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary. Example:

She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

MOREOVER If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct. Examples: She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996. She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

HOWEVER
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If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used. Examples:

She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. Examples: You had previously studied English before you moved to New York. Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE Examples: George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license. ACTIVE Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license. PASSIVE

Form of Past Perfect Simple


Positive Negative Question

no differences I had spoken. I had not spoken. Had I spoken?

For irregular verbs, use the past participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add ed.

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed


Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed Example
love loved

after final e, only add d

final consonant after a short, stressed vowel admit admitted or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled travel travelled

final y after a consonant becomes i

hurry hurried

Use of Past Perfect

action taking place before a certain time in the past (putting emphasis only on the fact, not the duration) Example: Before I came here, I had spoken to Jack.

Conditional Sentences Type III (condition that was not given in the past) Example: If I had seen him, I would have talked to him.

Signal Words
already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day (with reference to the past, not the present) If-Satz Typ III (If I had talked, )

Exceptions in Spelling when adding ed


Write the participle form (3rd form) of the regular verbs. Note the exceptions in spelling when adding ed. 1. push 2. carry 3. cycle 4. drop 5. follow 6. play 7. empty 8. close 9. dial 10. sail -

Positive Sentences in Past Perfect Simple


Write the verbs in Past Perfect Simple. 1. The pupils talked about the film they (watch) 2. I was late for work because I (miss) 3. We lived in the house that my father (build) 4. We admired the picture that Lucy (paint) 5. They watered the trees that they (plant) . . the bus. . .

6. The teacher corrected the tests that the pupils (write) 7. I received a good mark in my test because I (practise) 8. The mail order house did not send me the shirt that I (order) 9. I had to clean the floor because my cats (knock) 10. My friend was in hospital because she (slip)

. on ego4u. . over the flower pots. on a banana skin.

Put the verbs into the correct form (past perfect simple). 1. The storm destroyed the sandcastle that we (build) 2. He (not / be)
had built

to Cape Town before 1997. her homework. . six weeks before. . the week before. from the tree.

3. When she went out to play, she (do / already) 4. My brother ate all of the cake that our mum (make) 5. The doctor took off the plaster that he (put on) 6. The waiter brought a drink that I (not / order) 7. I could not remember the poem we (learn) 8. The children collected the chestnuts that (fall) 9. (he / phone) 10. She (not / ride)

Angie before he went to see her in London? a horse before that day.

Chapter III
The ghost did not appear for the rest of the week. The only strange thing that happened was the blood stain, which they found on the library-floor every morning. It was also quite strange that the colour of the stain changed from time to time. Some mornings it was red, then brown or purple, or even green. These changes amused the family very much, and bets on the colour were made every evening. The only person who did not enter into the joke was Virginia. For some unexplained reason, she was rather annoyed at the sight of the blood-stain, and nearly cried the morning it was green. The second appearance of the ghost was on Sunday night. Shortly after the family had gone to bed they heard a fearful crash in the hall. A suit of armour had fallen on the floor and in a chair sat the Canterville ghost and rubbed his knees, which seemed to hurt. When the twins started shooting peas at him with their pea-shooters, the ghost stood up with an angry growl and passed through them like a mist. He also blew out the candle, leaving them all in total darkness. On top of the stairs the ghost turned around and,

in order to frighten the Otis boys, laughed his most horrible laugh. Just then, a door opened and Mrs Otis came out of her bedroom. I am afraid you are not well, she said, I have therefore brought you this bottle of medicine. The ghost looked at her furiously, and then he disappeared. When he reached his room, he was completely exhausted. This American family was extremely annoying. But what annoyed him most was, that he had not been able to wear the suit of armour. The weight of it had made him fall and hurt his knees. For some days after this the ghost only left his room to renew the blood-stain. However, on Friday, the 17th of August, he tried to frighten the Otis family again. At half-past ten the family went to bed. For some time the ghost heard the twins laugh, but at a quarter past eleven all was still. So, at midnight he left his secret chamber and glided through the corridors, when suddenly, behind one corner, a horrible ghost stood right in front of him. As the Canterville ghost had never seen another ghost before, he was terribly frightened. He quickly hurried back to his room. But then he thought that he should go and and speak to the other ghost. After all, two ghosts were better than one, and his new friend might help him to frighten the twins. However, when he came back to the spot, he found that this 'other ghost' was not real, but only a white sheet which the twins had hung there to play a trick on him. Very upset the Canterville ghost went back to his chamber.

Test
Write the past participle (3rd form) of the following irregular verbs. 1. speak 2. catch 3. eat 4. understand 5. begin Complete the sentences in Past Perfect Simple (positive). 1. I lost the key that he (give) 2. She told me that she (see) 3. I went downstairs because I (hear) 4. When they came home, Sue (cook) to me. a ghost. a noise. dinner already. our address book.

5. We could not send you a postcard because we (forget)

Complete the sentences in Past Perfect Simple (negative). 1. The waiter served something that we (not / order) 2. He went to Alaska where he (not / be) 3. She put on the red dress, which she (not / wear) 4. He (not / play) tennis before that day. her with the shopping. before. for ages. .

5. His mother was angry because he (not / help) Complete the questions in Past Perfect Simple. 1. (you / finish) 2. (why / you / clean) 3. (you / have) 4. (she / find) 5. (where / she / live)

your homework before you went to the cinema? the bathroom before you bathed the dog? breakfast before you came here? a place to stay when she went to Boston? before she moved to Chicago?