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0 OBJECTIVES

Explain the mechanics of fluid friction phenomenon in pipes Analyze basic knowledge of major losses in straight pipes Analyze basic knowledge of major losses in pipe bends

2.0 INTRODUCTION

Pipes are all around us. Every time we turn the faucet, we expect water to come out. We expect there to be sufficient pressure to get the job done, be it filling a glass of water in a timely manner or taking a nice shower. A lot of experimentation went behind the selection of pipe sizes used in various applications to ensure that what comes out is acceptable. In any stock piping system, the pump provides flow and develops hydraulic pressure (head) to overcome the differential in head between two points. This total head differential consists of pressure head, static head, velocity head and total friction head produced by friction between the pulp suspension and the pipe, bends, and fittings. The total friction head is the most difficult to determine because of the complex, nonlinear nature of the friction loss curve. This curve can be affected by many factors. The friction loss of pulp suspensions in pipe, as presented here, is intended to supersede the various methods previously issued. Friction head losses in straight pipes of different sizes can be investigated over a range of Reynolds' numbers from 103 to nearly 105, thereby covering the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes in smooth pipes. A further test pipe is artificially roughened and, at the higher Reynolds' numbers, shows a clear departure from typical smooth bore pipe characteristics. In addition to the smooth and roughened pipes, a wide range of pipeline components are fitted, including pipe fittings and control valves, allowing investigation of the losses caused by this type of connection. A clear acrylic section of pipeline houses a Venturi meter, an orifice plate assembly and a Pitot tube, so that these can be investigated as flow measurement devices.

3.1 Bernoulli's Equation The basic approach to all piping systems is to write the Bernoulli equation between two points, connected by a streamline, where the conditions are known. Such as, between the surface of a reservoir and a pipe outlet.

The total head at point 0 must match with the total head at point 1, adjusted for any increase in head due to pumps, losses due to pipe friction and so-called "minor losses" due to entries, exits, fittings, etc. Pump head developed is generally a function of the flow through the system, however this will be dealt with in another section of the course.

The overall head loss for a pipe system consists of the head loss due to viscous effects in the straight pipes, named the major head loss and denoted by , and the head of the various pipe components, named the minor head loss and denoted by head loss. , and the sum of both of these losses make up the total

Do not be misled by the terms major and minor because they do not necessarily reflect the relative importance of each type of loss. For instance, in piping system that is short but contains many components it is expected for the minor loss to be much greater than the major loss. It is often necessary to determine the head losses, and

, that occur in a pipe flow so that the energy equation can be used in the analysis

of pipe flow problems. As shown in figure 1, a typical pipe system usually consists of various lengths of straight pipe interspersed with various types of components.

Figure 1. Typical pipe system used in water purification. 1 3.2 Major Losses The head loss due to viscous effects in straight pipes is named the major head loss and it is denoted by . One parameter that affects the flow inside the pipes and the major loss experienced is the friction factor. Knowledge of the friction factor will allow us to obtain a variety of information regarding pipe flow. For turbulent flow the dependence of the friction factor on the Reynolds number is much more complex than for laminar flow. For fully developed laminar flow, the friction factor can be described as follows.

F is termed the friction factor, or sometimes the Darcy friction factor . As you can see, in laminar flow the friction factor is independent of D/. The expression used to expresses the friction factor in turbulent flow is more complicated and it is called the Colebrook equation

For horizontal pipes the change in pressure is a function of the length and diameter of the pipe, coupled with the physical properties of the fluid and the pipe. The pressure drop due to friction and the density of the fluid (in a horizontal pipe) is written below.

If we apply this new expression to the energy equation we obtain the expression below.

The roughness of a pipe usually depends on the type of material used to build the pipe, the way it was produced, or by schedule number. In commercially available pipes the roughness is not as uniform and well defined as in the artificially roughened pipes used by Nikuradse. However, it is possible to obtain a measure of the effective relative roughness of typical pipes and thus obtain the friction factor. Typical roughness values for various pipe surfaces are given in the table below.

The functional dependence of f on Re and is called the Moody chart in honor of L.F. Moody. Note that the moody chart covers a wide range of Re numbers.

2.3 Minor Losses Minor head losses are experienced due to the presence of pipe components. The minor loss can be very small or it can be infinite, as it would be in the case of a closed valve. The minor loss coefficient is KL, and it is described below.

The table below has some figures for minor loss coefficients.

The fluid friction apparatus experimental unit with the drain above the volumetric tank is set up. Rear star handle nuts for pressure gauge mounting is unscrewed and the pressure gauge is moved down one hole, star handle nuts are tighten again. Hose connections between hydraulic bench and the unit are set up. Fluid friction apparatus drain is opened but the main valve is closed. The pump is switch on and the main valve is open slowly. Pressure gauge is connected to the desired measuring points. Ball cock is opened slowly before the desired measuring section and the pressure gauge of the Dual pressure gauge is vent. The vent and drain valves on the pressure gauge are adjusted simultaneously, the water level is regulated such that both water columns are in the measuring range. The volumetric flow is determined. Stop at the time, t required to top up the volumetric tank from 10 to 20 or 30 litres. The drain valve below the tank is closed. To leak the water back into the bottom sump, the drain valve is opened when the volumetric tank is full or the bottom sump is almost drained. Do not run the pump dry.

Pipe bend

Pipe elbow

5.1 Pipe flow friction factor 1. Section (a) of the fluid flow apparatus is used. 2. Fluid friction apparatus (mention in the experimental setup) is set up. 3. The dual pressure gauge for appropriate water column height is set up. 4. 7 different variation of fluid flow is altered to provide 7 measurements of volumetric flow and head loss with the pump running. 5. The required values are noted. 5.2 Pipe elbow loss coefficient and equivalent length 1. Section (b) of the fluid flow apparatus is used. 2. Fluid friction apparatus (mention in the experimental setup) is set up. 3. The dual pressure gauge for appropriate water column height is set up. 4. In order to set the maximum value of the volumetric flow, the pump is set. 5. The dual pressure gauge is attached at the first set of elbows, which is the pipe elbow. 6. The head loss across the pipe elbows is noted. 7. Step 5 and 6 for the pipe bends and the pipe angle 45 are repeated.

6.0 RESULTS

6.1 Pipe flow friction factor V (l) 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 = 1.275 min

= V/t = 10 / 1.275 V

(l/min) V

= 7.8431 l/min

Volumetric flow,

(l/min) V

3.4043

7.8431

12.0313

18.6567

25.8398

31.1688

35.1700

Measured head loss, hloss (m) 0.007 0.021 0.050 0.099 0.156 0.230 0.300

6.2 Pipe elbow loss coefficient and equivalent length Pipe elbow Pipe bend Pipe angle 45 = 0.6475 min

= V/t = 10 / 0.6475 V

V (l) 10 10 10

(l/min) V

t = 38.85 sec

= 15.4440 l/min Volumetric (l/min) Pipe elbow 0.097 Pipe bend 0.071 17.057 Pipe angle 45 0.115 avg = (15.32567 + 15.44402 + 20.40122) / 3 = 17.05697 l/min V flow,

V

7.0 ANALYSIS

7.1 Pipe flow friction factor Length of the pipe, l = 800 mm PVC pipe internal diameter = 20 mm PVC pipe thickness = 1.5 mm Volumetric flow,

(l/min) V

3.4043

7.8431

12.0313

18.6567

25.8398

31.1688

35.1700

Volumetric flow,

V

0.0567 (10-3

0.1307

0.2005

0.3109

0.4307

0.5195

0.5862

m3/s) Flow speed, v (m/s) Reynolds number, Re Balsius pipe friction factor, f Calculated head loss, hloss (m) Measured 0.00272 0.0117 0.0248 0.0534 0.0944 0.1311 0.1620 0.0409 0.0332 0.0298 0.0267 0.0247 0.0235 0.0228 3576.2 8239.4 12639.2 19599.4 27145.3 32743.8 36947.1 0.1806 0.4161 0.6383 0.9898 1.3708 1.6536 1.8658

0.007 -61.14

0.021 -44.29

0.050 -50.40

0.099 -46.06

0.156 -39.49

0.230 -43.00

0.300 -46.00

1 l = 0.001 m3

= 7.8431 l/min = (7.8431/1000) / 60 V

4V d 2

Flow speed, v =

vd

Reynolds number, Re = ,

= (1000) (0.4161) (0.02) / 1.01x10-3 = 8239.406

0.3164

4

Re

f l v2 d 2g

= (0.03321) (0.8) (0.41609)2 / 2 (0.02) (9.81) = 0.01172 m Variance = [(0.017 0.021) / 0.021] 100% = -44.29 %

7.2 Pipe elbow loss coefficient and equivalent length All elbows and bends has the same internal diameter as 17 mm

Volumetric flow, V -3 (l/min) (10

m3/s) Pipe elbow Pipe bend Pipe angle 45 17.057 0.2843 1.2524

4V d 2

Flow speed, v =

v2 2g

Length (mm) Pipe elbow 203 Pipe bend 322 Pipe angle 247 45

Reynolds number, Re

1.2524

21080.67

Reynolds number, Re = ,

vd

= (1000) (1.25244) (0.017) / 1.01x10-3 = 21080.6733

0.3164

4

Re

d

Equivalent length, Le = K f

8.0 DISCUSSIONS

8.1 Pipe flow friction factor 8.1.1 What conclusion can be made from the head loss and the flow speed?

V

directly proportional to the flow speed, v. hloss v2. According to the head loss formula, head loss, hloss = directly proportional to the square of flow speed, v.

increase, the head loss, hloss will increase. When the When the volumetric flow, V decrease, the head loss, hloss will also decrease. volumetric flow, V

f l v2 , the hloss is d 2g

There is difference between the measured head loss and the calculated head loss because of other losses other than head loss. For example, the minor losses of pipe.

8.1.2 What would happen to head loss if the length of the pipe is increased? From the head loss formula, hloss =

f l v2 , the head loss is directly proportional to the d 2g

length of the pipe (hloss l). When the length of the pipe is increased, the head loss will increase.

8.1.3 What would happen to head loss if the diameter of the pipe is increased? From the head loss formula, hloss =

f l v2 , the head loss is inversely proportional to the d 2g

diameter of the pipe (hloss 1/d). When the diameter of the pipe is increased, the head loss will decrease.

8.2.1 What is the relationship between flow speed and head loss? From the head loss formula, hloss =

f l v2 . Under the circumstance where friction d 2g

factor (f), length of pipe (l), and diameter of pipe (d) are constant, the head loss is directly proportional to the flow speed (hloss v). When the flow speed is increasing, the head loss will also be increasing.

8.2.2 What is the connection between elbow and bends in terms of its turning radius, head loss and loss coefficient? In terms of turning radius, bends have greater turning radius compared to elbow. Hence, the loss coefficient value for bends is greater than elbows and result in having greater value of head loss in bends, hloss = K

v2 (head loss is proportional to loss coefficient 2g

8.2.3 What is the conclusion can be made considering elbow and bends in term of its turning radius and equivalent length? Bends have greater turning radius compared to elbow, so bends have greater value of loss coefficient compared to elbows. Equivalent length, Le = K f . This equation shows that under condition of same diameter of pipe, d, and friction factor, k (as the flow speed and Reynolds number are the same) are constant, the value of equivalent length depends solely on loss coefficient, K. Therefore, if the value of loss coefficient increases, equivalent length will also increase.

d

CONCLUSION

In this lesson we learned that head losses, friction loss, and minor losses are all involved in properly calculating the head losses within the entire system. Energy losses occur in pipeline restrictions called fittings, valve sudden enlargement, bends, tees, elbows and orifices. It is very important to keep all of the energy losses in a fluid system to a minimum, acceptable level. This requires the proper selection of pipe sizes and fittings that make up a system. The resistance of fittings can be determined using empirical formulae that have been developed via experimentation. This permits the calculation of energy losses for any system component. We had learned about the relation of loss coefficient, flow speed, diameter of pipes, and friction factor with head loss. And the use of different pipe such as bends and elbows with different turning radius will affect the value of head loss.

REFERENCE

1. Fluid Mechanics, 2nd edition, by J.F Douglas, J.M Gasiorek and J.A Swaffield 2. A Brief Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 3rd edition, by Donald F Young, Bruce R. Munson and Theodore H. Okiishi 3. Fluids Mechanics with Engineering Applications, 10th edition, by E John Finnemore and Joseph B Franzini 4. Fluid Mechanics 1 by Cheng See Yuan. 5. A.-M Cazabat, J.-B. Fournier and P. Carles. Lecture Notes in Fluid Physics, World Scientific, London (1994). 6. Principle of Fluid Mechanics by Andreas Alexandrou 7. Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications by Yunus A. Cengel and John M.Cimbala. 8. http://infohost.nmt.edu/~mecheng/Fluids_LAB_Website/lab1and2.pdf 9. http://www.pipeflow.co.uk/public/control.php?_path=/497/503/510 10. http://www.rocw.raifoundation.org/mechanical/BTecMec/fluid_mechanics/lecture -notes/Lession-12.pdf

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