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Synopsis for registration as a research student for doctoral degree On

Quality testing of food grains using soft computing

Submitted by

Mr. Uttam Patil (Reasearch Scholar)

Under the guidance of

Dr. Nandini S. Sidnal (Research Supervisor)

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, BELGAUM 2013-14

1. INTRODUCTION

The quality of food grains is referred to every aspect of the profit of supply and marketing. The varietals purity is one of the factors whose inspection is more difficult and more complicated than that of other factors. In the present grain-handling system, grain type and quality are rapidly assessed by visual inspection. This evaluation process is, however, tedious and time consuming. The decision-making capabilities of a grain inspector can be seriously affected by his/her physical condition such as fatigue and eyesight, mental state caused by biases and work pressure, and working conditions such as improper lighting, climate, etc. The farmers are affected by this manual activity. The customer is affected when he is purchasing grains from the merchants. Hence, these tasks require automation and develop imaging systems that can be helpful to identify quality of grain images. A model of quality grade testing and identification is proposed which is based on appearance features such as the morphological and color with technology of computer image processing and neural network, fuzzy logic.

1.2 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

A model of quality testing and identification is proposed which is based on appearance features such as the shape and color with technology of image processing and neural network, fuzzy logic. The system will take an image of grain and identifies the grains and impurities if any and gives the quality of the grain.

1.3 PROPOSED WORK

Identifying quality of food grains of different types is the proposed system which will take an image and identifies the grains and impurities if any and gives the quality of the grain. Image of the food grain is captured using image a digital Camera.

Different texture features will be extracted [8] for different food grains (about 10 types) of various grade and quality and stored in knowledge base. By using fuzzy logic and any of neural network method (ANN,BPNN,PNN) training will be given. Later the quality /grade of unknown food grain can be found by testing. The proposed work is also to compare the training by different methods

The bulk grain samples exhibit different textures and provide information about the variation in the intensity of a surface by quantifying properties such as smoothness, coarseness, and regularity. So the Color feature and Morphological feature will be extracted.

In order to train the neural network, a set of training images of grains will be required, and the varieties will be predefined. During training, the connection weights of the neural network will be initialized with some random values. The training samples in the training set will be given as input to the neural network classifier in random order and the connection weights were adjusted according to the error backpropagation learning rule [5].Figure1,shows the Block diagram of proposed method

Training phase

Testing phase

Input grain image

Input grain image

Preprocess the input image

Preprocess the input image Image Segmentation, Crop the ROI

Image Segmentation, Crop the ROI Feature Extraction

Feature Extraction

Neural Networks/Fuzzy logic

Recognition

Result

Fig.1: Block diagram of proposed method.

2. LITERATURE SURVEY 2.1. Work related to classification of grain, impurities and Quality
[1] HAN Zhong-zhi; LI Yan-zhao; LIU Jing; ZHAO You-gang, Quality Grade Testing of Peanut Based on Image Processing, 2010,IEEE

This research is intended to build a set of integrated quantizing system for the grading of peanut kernels appearance quality based on the image processing and machine vision. The quantizing model of peanut kernels appearance quality is built based on the international data, trade standard and expert knowledge. It includes three main objectives. The first one is to build lager sample and feature database breaking through the former limitations of testing based on small sample set and feature set. The second one is to build pertinently testing-item system on account of the national and other trade standard. The third one is to build integrate image testing program and method of peanut kernels quality after searching for the quantitative model of grains with some features and specification grade.

[2] D. M. Hobson, R. M. Carter, Y. Yan, Characterization and Identification of Rice Grains through Digital Image Analysis,2007,IMTC

This research Characterizes and Identifies Rice Grains through Digital Image Analysis. In the food industry there are various food stuffs in the form of grains. Of particular importance is rice, being a commodity crop. The ability to recognize defining characteristics for identification is desirable as fraudulent mislabeling of rice grain varieties is a growing problem In the present work a digital imaging approach has been devised in order to investigate different types of characteristics to identify different rice varieties. Eight different common rice varieties were used in tests for defining features. These include existing 5

standards for grain length and aspect ratio features, but also successfully show the effectiveness of compactness as a feature. A novel texture feature is also shown to be able to distinguish brown and milled rice in greyscale images. All of these techniques are employed in an inexpensive imaging system that is non-intrusive and nondestructive. A highly effective yet simple imaging setup and processing system is established, permitting image acquisition, image processing, and feature extraction.

[3] ABDELLAOUI Mehrez , DOUIK Ali, Hybrid method for cereal grain identification using morphological and color features, 1-4244-0395-2/06/$20.00 2006 IEEE. In this paper, a hybrid method for cereal grain identification is presented. This method combines a statistical pattern recognition method using morphological and color features and a new method based on the fuzzy logic decision making. The classification is made by the combination of these two methods. We achieved this method to win in precision of the statistical method and in capability of decision making of the method based on the fuzzy logic.

[5] Sanjivani Shantaiya, Mrs.Uzma Ansari, Identification Of Food Grains And Its Quality Using Pattern Classification, Special Issue of IJCCT Vol. 2 Issue 2, 3, 4; 2010 for International Conference [ICCT-2010], 3rd-5th December 2010

The research work deals with an approach to perform texture and morphological based retrieval on a corpus of food grain images. The work has been carried out using Image Warping and Image analysis approach. The method has been employed to normalize food grain images and hence eliminating the effects of orientation using image warping technique with proper scaling. The images have been properly enhanced to reduce

noise and blurring in image. Finally image has segmented applying proper segmentation methods so that edges may be detected effectively and thus rectification of the image has been done. The approach has been tested on sufficient number of food grain images of rice based on intensity, position and orientation. A digital image analysis algorithm based on color, morphological and textural features was developed to identify the six varieties rice seeds. Nine color and nine morphological and textural features were used for analysis. A back propagation neural network-based classifier was developed to identify the unknown grain types. The color and textural features were presented to the neural network for training purposes. The trained network was then used to identify the unknown grain types.

[6] B. S. ANAMI, D. G. SAVAKAR, Improved Method for Identification and Classification of Foreign Bodies Mixed Food Grains Image Samples, ICGST-AIML Journal, ISSN: 16874846, Volume 9, Issue I, February 2009

The paper presents an improved method for identification and classification of foreign bodies mixed food grain image samples using a Neural Network Approach. Any matter other than major food grains is considered as a foreign body in this work, such as stones, soil lumps, plant leaves, pieces of stems, weed, other types of grains etc. The amount of foreign bodies decides the purity of the food grains. In manual system human inspectors look at the foreign bodies in the samples and evaluate the grades for grains. It is necessary to automatically determine the amount of foreign body present in food grains to help farmers in sowing and also marketing. Here inpainting technique is used to replace the foreign bodies. Different food grains like wheat; groundnut, green gram, jawar and rice are considered in this study. The color and textural features are presented to the neural network for training and later identification of the unknown grain types mixed with foreign bodies. The combination

of both color and texture features is employed in the work. This study reveals that the presence of even 10 percent of foreign bodies within food grain image samples reduces its identification and classification accuracies as low as 60%. When the foreign body percentage is greater than 50, it becomes difficult to identify and classify food grain image samples.

[7] Basavaraj .S. Anami and Vishwanath.C.Burkpalli, Texture based Identification and Classification of Bulk Sugary Food Volume 9, Issue 4, August 2009 This paper presents a methodology for identification and classification of bulk sugary food objects. In order to develop an automated system for food quality evaluation and food serving in the restaurants, the food is considered as an object and the work presented here gives a neural network based classification of Indian sweet objects using textural features. A method for classification and gradation of different boiled food grains like Red Gram; Green gram etc., with their level of boiling. Different color and texture features are extracted to develop a knowledge based classifier for classification. The texture features are extracted using gray level co-occurrence matrix method. The multilayer feed forward neural network is developed to classify bulk sugary food objects. An analysis of the efficiency of methodology is found 90%. Color and texture features are used to develop a neural network model for classification of different food objects. Objects, ICGST-GVIP Journal, ISSN: 1687-398X,

[8] Basavaraj S. Anami, Dayanand G. Savakar, Effect of Foreign Bodies on Recognition and Classification of Bulk Food Grain Image Samples, Journal of Applied Computer Science, no. 6 (3) /2009, Suceava.

This paper presents an effect of Foreign Bodies (FB) on accuracies of recognition and classification of bulk food grain image samples using a Neural Network Approach. Any matter other than major food grains is considered as a foreign body in this work, such as stones, soil lumps, plant leaves, pieces of stems, weed, other types of grains etc. The amount of foreign bodies decides the quality of the food grains and hence it is necessary to determine the amount of foreign body present in food grains automatically to help farmers in sowing and marketing. Different food grains like, Green gram, Groundnut, Jowar, Rice and Wheat are considered in the study. The color and texture features are presented to the neural network for training and later of the unknown grain types mixed with foreign bodies

3. OBJECTIVES
To study and implement the existing methodologies of Quality grade testing To design and develop an algorithm for Quality grade testing of food grains To develop a case study for Quality testing of grains which are distributed to the BPL card holders

4. METHODOLOGY

In the present grain-handling system, grain type and quality are rapidly assessed by visual inspection. This evaluation process is, however, tedious and time consuming. The decision-making capabilities of a grain inspector can be seriously affected by many factors such as physical condition such as fatigue and eyesight, mental state caused by biases and work pressure, and working conditions such as improper lighting, climate, etc. The farmers are affected by this manual activity. Hence, these tasks require automation and develop imaging systems that can be helpful to identify quality of grain images. A model of quality grade testing and identification is proposed which is based on appearance features such as the morphological and color with technology of computer image processing and neural network, fuzzy logic.

5. POSSIBLE OUTCOME Outcome of our proposed work is 1. A model of quality grade testing and identification will be built. 2. To publish the above works in journals with impact factor.

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6. REFERENCES
[1] HAN Zhong-zhi; LI Yan-zhao; LIU Jing; ZHAO You-gang, Quality Grade

Testing of Peanut Based on Image Processing, 2010,IEEE [2] D. M. Hobson, R. M. Carter, Y. Yan, Characterisation and Identification of Rice Grains through Digital Image Analysis,2007,IMTC [3] ABDELLAOUI Mehrez , DOUIK Ali, Hybrid method for cereal grain

identification using morphological and color features, 06/$20.00 2006 IEEE. [4] LIU Zhao-yan ,CHENG Fang , YING Yi-bin , RAO Xiu-qin ,Identification of rice seed varieties using neural network, Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE [5] Sanjivani Shantaiya, Mrs.Uzma Ansari, Identification Of Food Grains And Its Quality Using Pattern Classification, Special Issue of IJCCT Vol. 2 Issue 2, 3, 4; 2010 for International Conference [ICCT-2010], 3rd-5th December 2010 [6] B. S. ANAMI, D. G. SAVAKAR,Improved Method for Identification and Classification of Foreign Bodies Mixed Food Grains Image Samples, ICGST-AIML Journal, ISSN: 1687-4846, Volume 9, Issue I, February 2009 [7] Basavaraj .S. Anami and Vishwanath.C.Burkpalli, Texture based Identification and Classification of Bulk Sugary Food Objects, ICGST-GVIP Journal, ISSN: 1687398X, Volume 9, Issue 4, August 2009 [8] Basavaraj S. Anami, Dayanand G. Savakar, Effect of Foreign Bodies on Recognition and Classification of Bulk Food Grain Applied Computer Science, no. 6 (3) /2009, Suceava. [9] Tianfeng Jiang, Yuan Zhang, Fuhong Cai, Jun Qian and Sailing He ,Optical Coherence Tomography for Identifying the Variety of Rice Grains. Image Samples, Journal of

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