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FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL ENGINEERING LAB MATERIAL

REPORT
Subject Code Code & Experiment Title Course Code Date Section / Group Name Members of Group BFC 31901 U5 SPACE FRAME 2 BFF 21/03/2012 SECTION 9 / GROUP 7 MUHAMMAD IKHWAN BIN ZAINUDDIN 1.NUR EZRYNNA BINTI MOHD ZAINAL 2.MUHAMMAD NUH BIN AHMAD ZAIRI 3.NUR EEZRA ATHIRLIA BINTI GHAZALI 4.MUHAMMAD HUZAIR BIN ZULKIFLI 5.ZIRWATUL FAUZANA BINTI CHE JEMANI EN. MOHD KHAIRY BIN BURHANUDIN 4/04/2012

(DF100018) (DF100118) (DF100093) (DF100147) (DF100040) (DF100027)

Lecturer/Instructor/Tutor Received Date

Comment by examiner

Received

STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC (SCE)


DEPARTMENT OF STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL ENGINEERING FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

We, hereby confess that we have prepared this report on our effort. We also admit not to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge that everything mentioned in the report is true.
___________________________ Student Signature Name : MUHAMMAD IKHWAN BIN ZAINUDDIN Name ___________________________ Student Signature : NUR EZRYNNA BINTI MOHD ZAINAL

Matric No. : DF100018 Date : 04/04/2012

Matric No. : DF100118 Date : 04/04/2012

___________________________ Student Signature Name : NUR EEZRA ATHIRLIA BINTI GHAZALI Name

___________________________ Student Signature : MUHAMMAD HUZAIR BIN ZULKIFLI

Matric No. : DF100147 Date : 04/04/2012

Matric No. : DF100040 Date : 04/04/2011

_______________________ Student Signature Name : MUHAMMAD NUH BIN AHMAD ZAIRI Name

_______________________ Student Signature : ZIRWATUL FAUZANA BINTI CHE JEMANI

Matric No. : DF100093 Date : 04/04/2012

Matric No. : DF100027 Date : 04/04/2012

1.0

INTRODUCTION In architecture and structural engineering, a space frame or space structure is a truss-like,

lightweight rigid structure constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. Space frames can be used to span large areas with few interior supports. Like the truss, a space frame is strong because of the inherent rigidity of the triangle; flexing loads (bending moments) are transmitted as tension and compression loads along the length of each structure.

Figure 1.0 - The roof of this industrial building is supported by a space frame structure

Space frames were independently developed by Alexander Graham Bell around 1900 and Buckminster Fuller in the 1950s. Bell's interest was primarily in using them to make rigid frames for nautical and aeronautical engineering. Few of his designs were realized. Buckminster Fuller's focus was architectural structures; his work had greater influence.

Figure 2.0 - Simplified space frame roof with the half-octahedron highlighted in blue

2.0

OBJECTIVE To verify member forces obtain from experiment with tension coefficient method

3.0

LEARNING OUTCOME 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Application of theoretical engineering knowledge through practical application To enhance the technical competency in structural engineering through laboratory application. Communicate effectively in group. To identify problem, solving and finding out appropriate solution through laboratory application.

4.0

THEORY If the members of a truss system is situated not in a two dimensional plane, then the truss is

defined as a space frame truss. In other words, space truss has components in three axis i.e. x, y and z. Consider a member with nodeA (xA,yA) and B (xB,yB).

Figure 3.0 Space truss component Assume the force in the member is TAB (+ve tension) and length LAB Definition of tension coefficient (t), tAB = TAB LAB At A, the horizontal component TAB is: TABcos = tABLABcos = tABLAB (xB-XA) LAB = tAB (xB-xA)

Used the same method , the vertical component at A is = tAB(yB yA) At B, the horizontal component TAB = tAB(xA-xB) Vertical component TAB=tAB(yA-yB) Using statics, write the equation for each joint using the coordinate value and solve for t. Convert it into force using:

5.0

PROCEDURES Part 1: 1. Select any weight between 10 to 50 N. 2. Ensure distance a = 500mm and place load hanger on D. 3. Measure the distance b,c dan d and record it in Table 1. 4. Record the dynamometer readings for members S1, S2 dan S3. 5. Put the selected load on the hanger at D and record the 6. Repeat step (2) to (4) with different value of a. 7. Calculate the theoretical member forces and record it in Table 1. Part 2: 1. For part 2, use a distance of 350 mm for a. 2. Place the hanger on D. 3. Measure the distance b, c and d. Record the dynamometer readings for member S1, S2 and S3 in Table 2. 4. Put a load of 5N on the hanger and record the dynamometer readings.. 5. Repeat step 2 to 4 using different load. 6. Complete Table 2 by calculating the theoretical member value. 7. Plot the graph of force against load for the theoretical and experimental results.

Figure 4.0 - Space Frame Equipment

Figure 5.0 Space Frame Dimension

6.0

RESULT TABLE 1

Dimension (mm) S1 a b c d Unloaded 500 460 295 360 400 490 247 360 300 515 186 360 200 540 65 360 0.3 0.6 1.4 2.5

Dynamometer Reading S2 Loaded 0.53 7 10 16 Unloaded 0.3 0.7 1.4 2.7 Loaded 0.57 6.8 9.7 16.1 S3 Unloaded 5 6 6 8 Loaded 13 17 22 31 S1 0.23 6.4 0.4 13.5

Force (N) Experiment S2 0.27 6.1 8.3 13.4 S3 8 11 16 23 S1 5.35 5.44 11.15 17.55 Theory S2 5.35 5.44 11.15 17.55 S3 -10.93 -16.46 -16.73 -27.20

LX=b, LY=b/2 LZ=a-c F=L x t

TABLE 2
Dimension (mm) S1 Dynamometer Reading S2 S3 Loaded 12 19 25 31 37 S1 3.4 7 11 15 19.5 Experiment S2 3.5 7.2 11.1 15.3 19.6 S3 6 13 19 25 31 S1 5.35 5.51 11.26 17.41 24.04 Force (N) Theory S2 5.35 5.51 11.26 17.41 24.04 S3 -5.56 -5.51 -21.42 -32.53 -37.48

LOAD (N) 5 10 15 20 25

d 360 360 360 360 360 1 1 1 1 1

Unloaded Loaded Unloaded Loaded Unloaded 350 495 257 350 505 221 350 513 187 350 518 160 350 523 115 4.4 8 12 16 20.5 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 4.7 8.4 12.3 16.5 20.8 6 6 6 6 6

LX=b, LY=b/2 LZ=a-c F=L x t

7.0 7.1 S1 S2 S3

DATA ANALYSIS PART 1 Load = 10 N Dimension a = 500 mm Dimension b = 460 mm Dimension c = 295 mm Dimension d = 360 mm Lx (mm) 460 460 460 0 Ly (mm) -180 180 0 0 Lz (mm) 205 205 -295 -10 L= Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2 L (mm) 534.81 534.81 546.47 t 0.01 0.01 - 0.02 F 5.35 5.35 -10.93

Force (N) = Theory

Member

Load L=

Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2

= 4602 + (-180)2 + 2052 = 534.81 mm FOR F : t * L Fx = 0 460 ts1 + 460 ts2 + 460 ts3 = 0 Fy = 0 -180 ts1 + 180 ts2 + 0 + 0 = 0 180 ts2 = 180 ts1 ts2 = ts1 Fz = 0 205ts1 + 205 ts2 - 295 ts3 = 10 Substitute ts2= ts1 into (1) and (3) 460 ts1 + 460 ts2 + 460 ts3 = 0 920 ts2 + 460 ts3 = 0 205ts1 + 205 ts2 - 295 ts3 = 10 410 ts2 - 295 ts3 = 10 (1)

= 4602 + (-295)2 = 546.47mm

(2) (3) (1) (4) (3) (5)

From equation ( 4 ) 920 ts2 + 460 ts3 ts3 ts3 Substitute into ( 5) 410 ts2 - 295 ts3 = 10 410 ts2 -295 ( -2 ts2 ) = 10 410 ts2 + 590 ts2 = 10 1000 ts2 = 10 ts2 = 10 1000 ts2 = ts1 = 0.01 Substitute into ( 4 ) ts3 = -2 ts2 = - 2 (0.01) = - 0.02 =0 = - 920 ts2 460 = -2 ts2

*Do the same step for other calculation Load = 10 N Dimension a = 400 mm Dimension b = 490 mm Dimension c = 247 mm Dimension d = 360 mm Lx (mm) 490 490 490 0 Ly (mm) -180 180 0 0 Lz (mm) 153 153 -247 -10 L (mm) 543.98 543.98 548.73 t 0.01 0.01 -0.03 F 5.44 5.44 -16.46

Member S1 S2 S3 Load

L=

Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2

L=

Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2

= 4902 + (-180)2 +1532 = 543.98 mm FOR F : t * L Fx = 0 490 ts1 + 490 ts2 + 490 ts3 = 0 Fy = 0 -180 ts1 + 180 ts2 + 0 + 0 = 0 180 ts2 = 180 ts1 ts2 = ts1 Fz = 0 153ts1 + 153 ts2 - 247 ts3 = 10 (2) (1)

= 4902 +(-247)2 = 548.73mm

(3)

Load = 10 N Dimension a = 300 mm Dimension b = 515 mm Dimension c = 186 mm Dimension d = 360 mm Lx (mm) 515 515 515 Ly (mm) -180 180 0 Lz (mm) 114 114 -186 -10 L= Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2 L (mm) 557.33 557.33 557.56 t 0.02 0.02 -0.03 F 11.15 11.15 -16.73

Member S1 S2 S3 Load L=

Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2

= 5152 + (-180)2 +1142 = 557.33 mm FOR F : t * L Fx = 0 515 ts1 + 515 ts2 + 515 ts3 = 0 Fy = 0 -180 ts1 + 180 ts2 + 0 + 0 = 0 180 ts2 = 180 ts1 ts2 = ts1 Fz = 0 114ts1 +114 ts2 - 186 ts3 = 10 (2)

= 5152 + (-186)2 = 557.56mm

(1)

(3)

Load = 10 N Dimension a = 200 mm Dimension b = 540mm Dimension c = 65 mm Dimension d = 360 mm Lx (mm) 540 540 540 0 Ly (mm) -180 180 0 0 Lz (mm) 135 135 -65 -10 L= L (mm) 585.00 585.00 543.90 0 t 0.03 0.03 -0.05 0 F 17.55 17.55 -27.20 0

Member S1 S2 S3 Load L=

Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2

Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2

= 5402 + (-1802) +1352 = 585.00 mm FOR F : t * L Fx = 0 540 ts1 + 540 ts2 + 540 ts3 = 0 Fy = 0 -180 ts1 + 180 ts2 + 0 + 0 = 0 180 ts2 = 180 ts1 ts2 = ts1 Fz = 0 135ts1 +135 ts2 - 65 ts3 = 10 (2) (1)

= 5402 + (-652) = 543.90mm

(3)

7.2

PART 2 LOAD = 5 N Dimension a = 350 mm Dimension b = 495 mm Dimension c = 257 mm Dimension d = 360 mm

Force (N) = Theory

Member S1 S2 S3 Load L=

Lx (mm) 495 495 495

Ly (mm) -180 180 0

Lz (mm) 93 93 -257 -5 L=

L (mm) 534.86 534.86 557.74

t 0.01 0.01 -0.01

F 5.35 5.35 -5.56

Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2

Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2

= 4952 + 1802 + 932 = 534.86mm FOR F : t * L Fx = 0 495 ts1 + 495 ts2 + 495 ts3 = 0 Fy = 0 -180 ts1 + 180 ts2 + 0 + 0 = 0 180 ts2 = 180 ts1 ts2 = ts1 Fz = 0 93 ts1 + 93 ts2 -257 ts3 = 5 (2) (1)

= 4952 + (-257)2 = 557.74mm

(3)

LOAD = 10 KN Dimension a = 350 mm Dimension b = 505 mm Dimension c = 221 mm Dimension d = 360 mm Lx (mm) 505 505 505 Ly (mm) -180 180 0 Lz (mm) 129 129 -221 -10 L= Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2 L (mm) 551.42 551.42 551.24 t 0.01 0.01 -0.03 F 5.51 5.51 -5.51

Member S1 S2 S3 Load L=

Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2

= 5052 + 1802 + 1292 = 551.42 mm FOR F : t * L Fx = 0 505 ts1 + 505ts2 + 505 ts3 = 0 Fy = 0 -180 ts1 + 180 ts2 + 0 + 0 = 0 180 ts2 = 180 ts1 ts2 = ts1 Fz = 0 129 ts1 +129 ts2 - 221 ts3 = 10 (2) (1)

= 5052 + (-221) 2 = 551.24 mm

(3)

LOAD = 15 KN Dimension a = 350 mm Dimension b = 513 mm Dimension c = 187 mm Dimension d = 360 mm Lx (mm) 513 513 513 Ly (mm) -180 180 0 Lz (mm) 172 172 -187 -15 L= Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2 L (mm) 563.04 563.04 535.45 t 0.02 0.02 -0.04 F 11.26 11.26 -21.42

Member S1 S2 S3 Load L=

Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2

= 5132 + 1802 + 1722 = 563.04 mm FOR F: t * L Fx = 0 513 ts1 + 513 ts2 + 513 ts3 = 0 Fy = 0 -180 ts1 + 180 ts2 + 0 + 0 = 0 180 ts2 = 180 ts1 ts2 = ts1 Fz = 0 172ts1 +172 ts2 - 187 ts3 = 15 (2) (1)

= 5132 + (-187)2 = 535.45mm

(3)

LOAD = 20 KN Dimension a = 350 mm Dimension b = 518 mm Dimension c = 160 mm Dimension d = 360 mm Lx (mm) 518 518 518 Ly (mm) -180 180 0 Lz (mm) 190 190 -160 -20 L= Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2 = 542.15 mm L (mm) 580.37 580.37 542.15 t 0.03 0.03 -0.06 F 17.41 17.41 -32.53

Member S1 S2 S3 Load L=

Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2

= 5182 + (-1802) + 1902 = 580.37 mm FOR F : t * L Fx = 0 518 ts1 + 518ts2 + 518 ts3 = 0 Fy = 0 -180 ts1 + 180 ts2 + 0 + 0 = 0 180 ts2 = 180 ts1 ts2 = ts1 Fz = 0 190ts1 +190 ts2 - 160 ts3 = 20 (2) (1)

= 5182 + (-1602)

(3)

LOAD = 25 KN Dimension a = 350 mm Dimension b = 523 mm Dimension c = 115 mm Dimension d = 360 mm Lx (mm) 523 523 523 Ly (mm) -180 180 0 Lz (mm) 235 235 -115 -25 L= Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2 L (mm) 600.96 600.96 535.49 t 0.04 0.04 -0.07 F 24.04 24.04 -37.48

Member S1 S2 S3 Load L=

Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2

= 5232 +(- 1802) + 2352 = 600.96 mm FOR F : t * L Fx = 0 523 ts1 + 523ts2 + 523 ts3 = 0 Fy = 0 -180 ts1 + 180 ts2 + 0 + 0 = 0 180 ts2 = 180 ts1 ts2 = ts1 Fz = 0 235ts1 +235 ts2 - 115 ts3 = 25 (2) (1)

= 5232 +(- 1152) = 535.49 mm

(3)

8.0 1.

RESULT Compare the graph of theoretical and experimental results. Comment on the results. From the graph, the theoretical and experimental result is almost the same. When we compare the both graph, its a linear. For the third graph, there are negative gradient. It is because of the some error while doing experiment. There are may be errors in calibrating the scale of the apparatus and all the reading taken consist of errors. Zero error occurs. Where the scale does not start with zero or the zero ends is spoilt

2.

Gives reasons for any discrepancy in the results. Several reading of the value are taken, their values may differ from one another. However these reading and closed to the real value. The errors may be due to the charges in condition of the experiment or surrounding which can be controlled. We should record the average of this value as the best reading for this quantity

9.0

CONCLUSION From the experiment, we had verified member forces obtain from experiment with tension

coefficient method. From this experiment, the value of S1 and S2 was almost the same compared to the value of S3 caused by distance and angle influences. The values of theoretical and experimental graph are just a little bit different. From S1 and S2 graph, it shown the gradient are almost the same while S3 graph had negative gradient

10.0

REFERENCES

1. Structure Analysis ; UTHM 2. Teori Struktur ; Yusuf Ahmad ; UTM 3. Fundamentals of Structural Analysis; Tung Au; Carnegie; Mellon University