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CHAPTER 33

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS


ALUES in the following tables are in consistent units to
assist the engineer looking for approximate values. For data
on refrigerants, see Chapter 29; for secondary coolants, see
Chapter 31. Chapter 26 gives more information on the values for
materials used in building construction and insulation. Many
Table 1

properties vary with temperature, material density, and composition. The references document the source of the values and provide more detail or values for materials not listed here. The
preparation of this chapter is assigned to TC 1.3, Heat Transfer
and Fluid Flow.

Properties of Vapor

Molecular
Mass

Normal
Boiling
Point, F

Critical
Temperature,
F

Critical
Pressure,
psia

Alcohol, Ethyl
Alcohol, Methyl
Ammonia
Argon
Acetylene
Benzene
Bromine
Butane
Carbon dioxide
Carbon disulfide

46.07a
32.04a
17.03a
39.948a
26.04a
78.11a
159.82a
58.12a
44.01a
76.13h

173.3a
148.9a
28a
302.5*
118.5a
176.2a
137.8a
31.1a
109.3a
115.2h

469.6b
464.0b
270.3b
188.5*
96.8b
553.1d
591.8d
305.6d
87.9d
534h

927.3b
1157b
1639b
704.9*
911b
714.2d
1499d
550.7d
1071d
1046h

Carbon monoxide
Carbon tetrachloride
Chlorine
Chloroform
Ethyl chloride
Ethylene
Ethyl ether
Fluorine
Helium
Hydrogen

28.01a
153.84g
70.91a
119.39h
64.52h
28.03h
74.12h
38.00h
4.0026a
2.0159a

312.7a
169.8h
30.3a
143.1h
54.2h
154.6h
94.4h
304.5h
452.1i
423.0i

220.4d
541.8h
291.2d
506.1h
369.0h
49.9h
378.8h
200.5h
450.2h
399.9i

507d
661h
1118d
794h
764h
742h
523h
808h
33.21i
190.8i

0.078d

Hydrogen chloride
Hydrogen sulfide
Heptane (m)
Hexane (m)
Isobutane
Methane
Methyl chloride
Naphthalene
Neon
Nitric oxide

36.461a
34.080a
100.21a
86.18a
58.12f
16.04a
50.49a
128.19a
20.183a
30.01a

120.8a
77.3a
209.2a
154a
11.1*
263.2a
11.6a
424.4*
412.6a
241.6a

124.5d
212.7d
512.2b
454.5d
275.0j
115.18j
289.6j
876.2j
379.7j
135.2j

1198d
1307d
394b
440d
529.1j
673.1b
968.5b
576.1j
391.3j
949.4j

0.1024b
0.0961b
0.21k
0.21k
0.154s (70)
0.0448b
0.1440b

320.4a
127.3a

232.4j
97.5j
316.8j
181.5*
385.9j
786b
206.1*
197.2l
315b
705.18*

492.3b
1049.3j
1469.6j
731.4*
489.5j
889b
616.1*
670.3l
1142b
3200.0*

Material

Nitrogen
Nitrous oxide
Nitrogen tetroxide
Oxygen
n-Pentane
Phenol
Propane
Propylene
Sulfur dioxide
Water vapor

28.01a
44.01a
92.02a
31.9977*
72.53a
74.11b
44.09g
42.08b
64.06b
18.02b

297.3*
97.0*
358.5b
43.76*
53.86l
14.0b
212.0m

Density,
lb/ft3

0.0482b
0.1114b
0.0732b
0.167e (176)
0.38f (138)
0.168g
0.123g

0.201d
0.1793b
0.0783b
0.1022b
0.0111i
0.00562i

0.16k
0.126g
0.120l
0.183b
0.0373m

Specific
Heat,
Btu/lbF

Thermal
Conductivity,
Btu/hftF

0.362j
0.322j
0.525aa
0.125c
0.377a
0.31e (176)
0.055f (212)
0.377aa
0.20g
0.1431p (80)

0.0073a
0.0174r
0.0128b
0.0094a
0.0108b
0.0041e
0.0035a
0.0079a
0.0084a

0.0343j (60)
0.0358j (30)
0.0225aa
0.0507a
0.0226a
0.017a
0.041a
0.017a
0.033h

0.25f
0.206q (80)
0.117a
0.126j
0.426r
0.352aa
0.589h (95)
0.194j
1.241aa
3.40j

0.0133a

0.0147j
0.0823aa
0.0972aa

0.040a
0.0375j
0.030a
0.038j
0.0378q
0.0231aa
0.0273q
0.089j
0.0452aa
0.0203aa

0.191j
0.238j
0.476j
0.449j
0.376aa
0.520aa
0.184aa
0.313q (77)
0.246aa
0.238j

0.00757j
0.00751j
0.0107j
0.00971j
0.0081aa
0.0178aa
0.0054aa

0.0321j
0.0281j
0.0168j
0.0182j
0.0168aa
0.0250aa
0.0244aa

0.0268aa

0.0718aa
0.0712j

0.248j
0.203j
0.201p (80)
0.218j
0.400a (80)
0.34k
0.3753j (40)
0.349aa
0.145l
0.489aa

0.0138aa
0.01001j (80.3)
0.0232r (131)
0.0141aa
0.00877j (80.3)
0.0099k
0.0087j
0.0081aa
0.0049j
0.0143m

0.0402aa
0.0543j

*Data source unknown.


Notes: 1. Properties at 14.696 psia and 32F, or the saturation temperature if higher than 32F, unless otherwise noted in parentheses.
2. Superscript letters indicate data source from the References section.
Copyright ASHRAE
Provided by IHS under license with ASHRAE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

33.1

Licensee=CH2M Hill Worldwide/5960458046, User=El-Hossari, Elias


Not for Resale, 11/16/2009 11:42:43 MST

0.0046a
0.0081r
0.00504j
0.0102aa

Viscosity,
lb/fth

0.0462aa
0.0282j
0.029k
0.0179j
0.0195aa
0.0281j
0.0293aa

--`,,`,,`,,,`````,,```,`,``,,`,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

33.2

2009 ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals


Table 2
Specific Heat,
cp
Btu/ Temp.,
lbF
F

Acetic acid
Acetone
Allyl alcohol
n-Amyl alcohol
Ammonia
Alcohol, Ethyl
Alcohol, Methyl
Aniline
Benzene
Bromine
n-Butyl alcohol
n-Butyric acid
Calcium chloride
brine (20% by mass)

245.3a
133.2a
206.6a
280.6i
-28a
173.3a
148.9a
363.8a
176.2a
137.8a
243.5a
326.3a

174.1b
228.9b
294.1b
216.3b
583.2b
367.5b
473.0b
186.6b
169.4h
79.4d
254.3h
217.0h

Carbon disulfide
Carbon
tetrachloride
Chloroform
n-Decane
Ethyl ether
Ethyl acetate
Ethyl chloride
Ethyl iodide
Ethylene bromide
Ethylene chloride
Ethylene glycol
Formic acid

115.3a
170.2a

148.8h
83.7h

0.240i
0.201f

142.3v
345.2b
94.06v
170.8v
54.2j
162.1a
268.8a
182.3a
388.4a
213.3a

106v

Glycerin
(glycerol)
Heptane
Hexane
Hydrogen chloride
Isobutyl alcohol
Kerosene
Linseed oil
Methyl acetate
Methyl iodide
Naphthalene
Nitric acid
Nitrobenzene

359*
(20 mm)
209.2a
154a
-120.8a
226.4a
400560b

151v
183.8v
165.9f (68)
82.1f (160)
99.2f (210)
153.4f (308)
344.0f (651)
215.8f (420)

0.522b 79203
0.514b 3773
0.655b 70205

Thermal
Vapor
Enthalpy
Density
Conductivity
Pressure
of
Freezing
Temp., Btu/ Temp., mm of Temp., Point,
Temp., Fusion,
F
hftF F
Hg
F
lb/hft
F
Btu/lb lb/ft3
F
Viscosity

2.956f
0.801f
3.298f
9.686f
0.643f
2.889f
1.434f
10.806f
1.58a
2.39a
7.13f
3.73a
4.8i

68
68
68
73.4
-28.3
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68

68
68

0.88a
2.34a

68
68

0.234v
0.50b
0.541v
0.468v
0.368f
0.368f
0.174f
0.301f

68
68
68
68
32
32
68
68

1.36v

68

0.526f

68

1.099b
32
0.680b 32208
b
0.601 5968
0.512b 46180
0.412h
68
0.107f
68
0.563f
68
f
0.515
68
0.744i
68

0.56v
1.09v

68
68

0.0239f
0.0694f
0.0338f

68
68
68

0.0719f

68

43.1f

84.0b
42.1b
48.0b
142.9b
46.4b
42.7a
48.8b
54.2h
28.5d
53.9b
54.1a

24.8d
12.8d

86.9b
42.4v
51.2b
29.68a
24.82a
38.02a
77.86a
118.89a

68

138f
145f
191f
249f

0.532j
0.538j

68
68

0.990a
0.775d

0.116f
0.50n

68
68

177f
82.6f
136f
270v
142b

0.468f

68

0.402f
0.42v
0.348b

m.p.
68
68

9.45f
6.0b
104b
0.940f
1.21f
2.18b
2.2k
5.20b

68
68
68
68
68
m.p.
68
68

Octane
258.3b
Petroleum
n-Pentane
96.8a
Propionic acid
286.0a
Sodium chloride brine
20% by mass
220.8a
10% by mass
215.5a
Sodium hydroxide and water
15% by mass
215.0v
Sulfuric acid and water
100% by mass
550.0v
95% by mass
575.0v
90% by mass
500.0v

131.7b
98-165w
153.6h
177.8f

0.51b
0.4-0.6w
0.558h
0.473h

68
68
68
68

1.36b
19-2900w
0.546d
2.666a

68
68
68
68

0.745x
0.865x

68
68

3.80x
2.85x

68
68

0.864b

68

0.335b
0.35v
0.39v

68
68
68

231b
303a
211.9*

156b
123v
970.3m

0.404v
0.42b
0.999m

68
68
68

1.42v
1.32b
2.39m

68
68
68

143.5b

291b
283b
281b

149b
147b
146b

0.411b
0.400b
0.393b

68
68
68

2.01b
1.52b
1.62b

68
68
68

55.1b
46.9b
69.3b

0.90b
0.80b

68
68

3.80a
2.54a

68
68

Toluene (C6H5CH3)
Turpentine
Water
Xylene [C6H4(CH3)2]
Ortho
Meta
Para
Zinc sulfate and water
10% by mass
1% by mass

134.6a
108.5a
411.4a
186.8v
411.6b

*Data source unknown.


Approximate solidification temperature.

Copyright ASHRAE
Provided by IHS under license with ASHRAE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

53b
52v
60v

68
68

60.4b
65.0b
23.6f

64.9b
71.5v
40.28v
77.70b
50.1h

68
68
68
30.9b

65.49a 68
49.4a
68
53.31a 68
51.06f
59
43.50b -50
49.27a 68
49.40a 68
63.77a 68
54.9d
68
194.7f
68
50.6a
68
a
60.2
68
73.8i
68

0.099b
0.102b
0.104b
0.094b
0.29b
0.105b
0.124b
0.100b
0.085h
0.070a
0.089h
0.094h
0.332i

68
86
7786
86
586
68
68
3268
68
77
68
54
68

78.9d
99.5d

68
68

0.093b
0.062j

86
68

92.96v
45.6b
44.61v
52.3v
56.05a
120.85a
136.05a
77.10a
69.22a
76.16a

68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
68

0.075v
0.086b
0.081b
0.101b
0.179f
0.214f

68
68
68
68
33.6
86

0.100f
0.104a

78.72a

68

42.7a
41.1a
74.6d
50.0f
51.2a
58d
60.6a
142a
60.9y
94.45v
75.2b

400a
400a
400a
100a
400a
100a
100a
10a
75d
165d
5d
0.7d

295d
87d

210
103
176
186
-49.7
94.8
70.2
156.9
68
68
68
68

68
68

61.9a
-139.6a
-200.2a
-110.2a
-107.9a
-179.1a
-144.0a
20.84a
42a
19a
-130a
20a
2i

-168a
-9a

68
33

160v
1.3b
440v
72b
400y
100y
10y
60y
1y
40y

68
68
68
68
53.1
64.4
65.5
64.6
128
75.2

-81.8v
-21.5b
-177.3v
-116.3v
-213.5a
-162.4*
49.2a
-31.64a
12.7a
47.1a

0.113a

68

1a

125.5

68a

68
68
b.p.
68
68
68
68
68
m.p.
68
68

0.0741j
0.0720j

68
68

35.5y
120.0y

68
68

0.082f
0.086n

68
68

9.7y

68

-132a
-139a
-174.6a
-162.4a

0.093f

68

0.16v
0.96b

68
68

169.8y
320y
2.18b
1.77v
< 0.01b

68
68
68
68
68

-11a
-144.6a
-87.7a
176.4a
-42.9v
42.3b

43.9b
40-66w
39.1a
61.9a

68

0.084b

68

0.42b

68

-69.7b

68
68

0.066h
0.100*

68
54

68
68

-201.5a
-5.4a

71.8x
66.9x

68
68

0.337x
0.343x

68
68

68
68

2.6x
20.6x

72.4b

68

114.4v
114.6v
113.4v

68
68
68

0.22b

68

54.1b
53.9b
62.32m

68
68
68

0.090b
0.073b
0.348m

68
68
68

55.0b
54.1b
53.8b

68
68
68

0.90b
0.90b

68
68

69.2r
63.0r

68
68

0.337a
0.346a

68
68

425d
3d
0.57x
0.65x

-5.8b
< 0.01b
< 0.01v
< 0.01v

68
68
68

0.88b

68

17.59*

68

0.196b
0.218b
0.227b

68
68
68

Notes: Superscript letters indicate data source from the section on References.
m.p. = melting point
b.p. = boiling point

Licensee=CH2M Hill Worldwide/5960458046, User=El-Hossari, Elias


Not for Resale, 11/16/2009 11:42:43 MST

50.9b
-18v
15.0v
-139b
32.018m
-13b
-53b
56b
29.7a
31.7a

--`,,`,,`,,,`````,,```,`,``,,`,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Name or
Description

Enthalpy
Normal
of
Boiling
VaporizaPoint,
tion,
F at
14.696 psia Btu/lb

Properties of Liquids

Physical Properties of Materials

33.3
Table 3

Properties of Solids
Emissivity

Material Description

Specific
Heat,
Btu/lbF

Aluminum (alloy 1100)

0.214b

171u

Aluminum bronze
(76% Cu, 22% Zn, 2% Al)
Asbestos: Fiber
Insulation
Ashes, wood
Asphalt
Bakelite
Bell metal
Bismuth tin
Brick, building

0.09u
0.25b
0.20t
0.20t
0.22b
0.35b
0.086t (122)
0.040*
0.2b

517u
150u
36b
40b
132b
81u

58u
0.097u
0.092b
0.041b (122)
0.43b
9.7u

123u

37.6*
0.4b

0.09u

548u

87u

0.09u
0.104t
0.055a
0.17a

519u
530t
540f

0.32b
0.16b
0.215t
0.20t
0.17b

3.4t
120i
143t
15a
200b

69u
17d (32)
53.7b
0.20b (2)
0.04b
0.033t
0.017i
0.48*
0.03a (392)
0.67b

0.22b
0.3b
0.35b (104)
0.36b (752)
0.156b (392)
0.092u
0.485t
0.319u
0.253b
0.147b

63t
90t
75b
62b
144b
556u
5.4t
95u
181b
151t

Clay
Coal
Coal tars
Coke (petroleum, powdered)
Concrete (stone)
Copper (electrolytic)
Cork (granulated)
Cotton (fiber)
Cryolite (AlF3 3NaF)
Diamond
Earth (dry and packed)
Felt
Fireclay brick
Fluorspar (CaF2)
German silver (nickel silver)
Glass: Crown (soda-lime)
Flint (lead)
Heat-resistant
Wool
Gold
Graphite: Powder
Impervious
Gypsum
Hemp (fiber)
Ice: 32F
-4F
Iron: Cast
Wrought
Lead
Leather (sole)
Limestone
Linen
Litharge (lead monoxide)
Magnesia: Powdered
Light carbonate
Magnesite brick

0.487t
0.465t
0.12v (212)

0.222b (212)

490b
49.7b
13b
158b

Magnesium
Marble
Nickel, polished
Paints: White lacquer
White enamel
Black lacquer
Black shellac
Flat black lacquer
Aluminum lacquer

0.241b
0.21b
0.105u

108u
162b
555u

0.0309u
0.217b
0.055b
0.234b (212)

57.5b
450b
485b
707u
62.4b
103b

63u

*Data source unknown.


Notes: 1. Values are for room temperature unless otherwise noted in parentheses.

Copyright ASHRAE
Provided by IHS under license with ASHRAE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Surface Condition

0.09n
0.20n

Commercial sheet
Heavily oxidized

0.93b

Paper

0.93*
0.030b
0.033b

Highly polished
Highly polished

0.02d
0.81a

0.098f (32)
0.07b
0.55b (752)
0.54b
227u
0.028t (23)
0.024u

0.34*

About 250F

0.072n

Commercial, shiny

27t

20.6b
112t
199v
545u
154u
267u
139t
3.25t
1208u
117u
78b
93u

Ratio

128u

95t
0.198b (212)
0.21b
0.09u
0.18b
0.117b
0.20b
0.157b
0.0312u
0.165*
0.16u
0.259b
0.323u

Thermal Conductivity,
Btu/hftF

0.037*
0.03b
0.58b (392)
0.63v
19u
0.59t (200)
0.79r
0.59t (200)
0.022t
172t
0.106*
75u
0.25b
1.3b
1.41*
27.6b (129)
34.9b
20.1u
0.092b
0.54b
0.05b

0.41*
0.75n

At 1832F

0.135n
0.94n

Polished
Smooth

0.02n

Highly polished

0.75n
0.903b

On a smooth plate

0.95*
0.435b
0.94b
0.28n
0.36* to 0.90

--`,,`,,`,,,`````,,```,`,``,,`,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Brass: Red (85% Cu, 15% Zn)


Yellow (65% Cu, 35% Zn)
Bronze
Cadmium
Carbon (gas retort)
Cardboard
Cellulose
Cement (portland clinker)
Chalk
Charcoal (wood)
Chrome brick

Density,
lb/ft3

Freshly turned
Dull, oxidized
Gray, oxidized
At 145 to 380F

0.35b (117)
0.034b
2.2b (400)
91u
1.5b
34.4u

0.15u

0.55n
0.931b
0.045n
0.80n
0.91n
0.80n
0.91n
0.96n
0.39n

Oxidized
Light gray, polished
Electroplated
On rough plate
Matte finish
On rough plate

2. Superscript letters indicate data source from the section on References.

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33.4

2009 ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals

Specific
Heat,
Btu/lbF

Material Description
Paper
Paraffin
Plaster
Platinum
Porcelain
Pyrites (copper)
Pyrites (iron)
Rock salt
Rubber, vulcanized: Soft
Hard

0.32*
0.4bb
0.032u
0.18*
0.131b
0.136b (156)
0.219u
0.48*
0.191b

Sand
Sawdust
Silica
Silver
Snow: Freshly fallen
At 32F
Steel (mild)
Stone (quarried)
Tar: Pitch
Bituminous
Tin
Tungsten

0.316b
0.0560u
0.12b
0.2b
0.59v
0.0556u
0.032u
0.45/0.65b

Wood: Hardwoods
Ash, white
Elm, American
Hickory
Mahogany
Maple, sugar
Oak, white
Walnut, black
Softwoods
Fir, white
Pine, white
Spruce
Wool: Fiber
Fabric
Zinc: Cast
Hot-rolled
Galvanizing

0.570b
See Table 4,
Chapter 25
0.325u
0.092u
0.094b

Properties of Solids (Continued)


Emissivity
Density,
lb/ft3
58b
47bb
132b
1340u
162u
262b
310v
136u
68.6t
74.3t

0.075b
0.14b (32)
0.43b (167)
39.9u
1.3u

94.6b
12b
140v
654u
7y
31t
489b
95t
67u
75t
455u
1210u

0.19b
0.03b
0.83t (200)
245u
0.34t
1.3t
26.2b

REFERENCES
of chemistry and physics, 63rd ed. 1982-83. Chemical Rubber
Publishing Co., Cleveland, OH.
bPerry, R.H. Chemical engineers handbook, 2nd ed., 1941, 5th ed., 1973.
McGraw-Hill, New York.
cTables of thermodynamic and transport properties of air, argon, carbon
dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and steam. 1960.
Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY.
dAmerican Institute of Physics handbook, 3rd ed. 1972. McGraw-Hill, New
York.
eOrganick and Studhalter. 1948. Thermodynamic properties of benzene.
Chemical Engineering Progress (November):847.
fLange. 1972. Handbook of chemistry, rev. 12th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.
gASHRAE. 1969. Thermodynamic properties of refrigerants.
hReid and Sherwood. 1969. The properties of gases and liquids, 2nd ed.
McGraw-Hill, New York.
iChapter 19, 1993 ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals.
jT.P.R.C. data book. 1966. Thermophysical Properties Research Center, W.
Lafayette, IN.
kEstimated.
lCanjar, L.N., M. Goldman, and H. Marchman. 1951. Thermodynamic properties of propylene. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry (May):1183.
mASME steam tables. 1967. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New
York.
nMcAdams, W.H. 1954. Heat transmission, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, New
York.

Copyright ASHRAE
Provided by IHS under license with ASHRAE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

0.08t
0.092t

Ratio

Surface Condition

0.92b

Pasted on tinned plate

0.91b
0.054b
0.92b

Rough
Polished
Glazed

0.86b
0.95b

Rough
Glossy

0.02n

Polished and at 440F

0.12n

Cleaned

0.06h
0.032n

Bright and at 122F


Filament at 80F

0.90n

Planed

0.05n

Polished

0.23n

Fairly bright

0.51v
0.41u
37.5u
116u

23/70z
43z
36z
50z
34u
45z
47z
39z
22/46z
27z
27z
26z
82u
6.9/20.6u
445u
445b

*Data source unknown.


Notes: 1. Values are for room temperature unless otherwise noted in parentheses.

aHandbook

Thermal Conductivity,
Btu/hftF

0.065/0.148z
0.0992z
0.0884z
0.075u
0.108z
0.102z
0.061/0.093z
0.068z
0.063z
0.065z
0.021/0.037u
65u
62b

2. Superscript letters indicate data source from References.

oStull,

D.R. 1947. Vapor pressure of pure substances (organic compounds).


Industrial and Engineering Chemistry (April):517.
thermochemical tables. 1965. PB 168 370. National Technical
Information Service, Springfield, VA.
qPhysical properties of chemical compounds. 195561. American Chemical
Society, Washington, D.C.
rInternational critical tables of numerical data. 1928. National Research
Council of USA, McGraw-Hill, New York.
sMatheson gas data book, 4th ed. 1966. Matheson Company, Inc., East
Rutherford, NJ.
tBaumeister and Marks. 1967. Standard handbook for mechanical engineers. McGraw-Hill, New York.
uMiner and Seastone. Handbook of engineering materials. John Wiley and
Sons, New York.
vKirk and Othmer. 1966. Encyclopedia of chemical technology. Interscience
Division, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
wGouse and Stevens. 1960. Chemical technology of petroleum, 3rd ed.
McGraw-Hill, New York.
xSaline water conversion engineering data book. 1955. M.W. Kellogg Co.
for U.S. Department of Interior.
yTimmermans, J. Physicochemical constants of pure organic compounds,
2nd ed. American Elsevier, New York.
zWood handbook. 1955. Handbook No. 72. Forest Products Laboratory, U.S.
Department of Agriculture.
aaASHRAE. 1976. Thermophysical properties of refrigerants.
bbLane, G. ed. 1986. Solar heat storage: Latent heat materials, Vol IITechnology. CRC Press, Chicago.
pJANAF

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Not for Resale, 11/16/2009 11:42:43 MST

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Table 3