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KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

SAUDI ORGANIZATION FOR INDUSTRIAL ESTATES & TECHNOLOGY ZONES

PLANNING AND DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ESTATES

DevelopmentofIndustrialEstates,Planning,andDesignGuidelines TableofContents Section1 11 111 112 113 114 12 13 Section2 21 211 212 213 22 221 222 223 224 225 226 Section3 31 311 312 313 P.No. Introduction 1 Studies and plans consultant of specific industrial estate developer 5 shouldsubmit Technicalreportrelatedtoplanningandeconomicstudies 5 Identifyingtheessentialneedsandrequirements 5 Siteanalysis 6 Masterplanoftheindustrialestate 7 Provisionofutilitiesandservicesthroughthedetailedplan 7 Alistoffigures,plansandmastermapsprovidedtoSOIETZ 7 Proceduresofpreparingplansoftheindustrialestate 9 Principles of setting up the master and detailed plan of the industrial 10 estate Masterplanoftheindustrialestate 10 Identifyingpatternoftheurbanstructure 10 Alternatives of the possible solutions for planning of the industrial 13 estateandselectingtheoptimumoption Transitionalgrowthplanoftheindustrialestate 14 Detailedmasterplan 15 Landsubdivision 20 Urbandesign 22 Planofsitelandscaping 23 Designplans 24 Buildingcodesplan 24 Executiveprograms 25 Principles,rates,andstandardsofplanninganddesign 27 Principles of identifying general distribution of land uses within the 27 industrialestate Principles of the spatial distribution for industrial activities within the 27 industrialestate Determining relationship of factories with the other uses in the 34 industrialestate Determining relationship of the industrial estate with the green and 34 Subject

314 32 321 322 323 324 33 331 332 333 334 335 34 341 342 343 35 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 36 37 371 372

openspaces Distributionoflanduseswithintheindustrialestate Principlesandstandardsofservicesandutilities Identifyingthenecessaryservicesfortheindustrialestate Settingupprogramsandstandardsofservices Distributionofservices Distributionofserviceusesproportions Standardsofplanninganddesignoftheroadnetwork Determiningofthetrafficstudyrequirements Principles and considerations of planning of the road network for the industrialestate Designofthegeneralstructureoftheroadnetworkanditshierarchy Designprinciplesoftheroadnetworkfortheindustrialestate Designprinciplesofthelightingnetworkfortheroads Designstandardsandprinciplesoftheparkingareas Determiningofparkingarearequirements Principles of determining requirements of the parking areas in the industrialestate Designprinciplesofparkingareas Designprinciplesofpublicutilities Determiningofutilityrequirements Principles and standards of the services and utilities networks needed intheindustrialestate Principles and considerations of designing storm water drainage network Principlesandconsiderationsofdesigningfeedingnetworksofdrinking waterandwaterforindustry Principles and considerations of designing waste water and industrial wastetreatmentplants Principlesandconsiderationsofdesigningcommunicationsnetwork Principlesandconsiderationsofdesigningpowerdistributionnetwork Principlesandconsiderationsofdesigninggasnetwork Principlesandstandardsofplanningemployeehousing Principlesandstandardsofdesigningcentralservicebuildings Entrancesoftheroadsandfrontage Rulesofdensity

37 40 40 42 44 44 45 45 45 46 47 57 58 58 58 60 60 60 63 63 67 75 77 79 81 81 82 82

373 374 375 376 38 Section4 Appendix1

Requirementsofheight 82 Usagefactor 82 Parkingareas 83 Standardsandrequirementsoflandscaping 83 Requirementsofsecurityandsafetyintheindustrialestate 84 Technicalappendices 86 Guiding rates for land area allocated for factories according to their 86 type Appendix2 Guideof environment impacts assessment for the project of setting up 89 anindustrialestate Appendix3 Standards of industrial waste and details of industrial waste treatment 95 processesforsomeindustries Appendix4 Protection degrees for electrical appliances against entrance of foreign 103 objectsandwater

Tables Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Description P.No. Indicativelandusesproportionsintheindustrialestate 13 Gradationofallowableroadnetworkintheindustrialestate 48 Maximumlimitofthesidetiltandradiiofcurvesintheindustrialestate 56 Parkingareaplacesaccordingtolanduses 59 The required places with vehicle dimensions for parking areas in the 60 industrialestate BasicAmericanstandardsasmaximumlimitsfordrinkingwaterinterms 64 ofmicrobialpollutants Standards of health hazardous substances that must not exceed their 65 limitsindrinkingwater(mg/l) Specific standards for output water flow after treatment for industrial 70 usesanddrinkingwater Maximumpollutionloadsinliquidpollutantsforbasicindustries 71 Specimenandtypeofanalysisofindustrialliquidwastes 72 Typeofanalysesrequiredforindustrialwastes 72 Maximumratedcurrentfor1000k.vcables 79 Maximumratedcurrentfor13.8k.vcables 80 Maximumratedcurrentfor33k.vcables 80

Figures Figure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Description P.No. Designstagesofplanningunits 17 Stagesoftheestategrowth 18 Controlsofdevelopment 26 Distributionofthegeneralstructureoflanduses 29 Determiningtherelationshipoffactorytypeswitheachother 31 Proposedprinciplesfordistributionofindustrialactivities 36 Distributionofusesintheindustrialestate 39 Carparking 49 Visualizationofroadnetworkstructure 50 Roadsections 53 Measurementsofthehorizontalprojectionsandwidthoflanesforcars 55

Introduction: The main purpose of the Saudi Organization for Industrial Estates and Technology Zones (SOIETZ) is planning specified industrial estates in the Kingdom, encouraging their establishment, development, management, maintenance, and supervising. This includes issuing rules and specifications, performance standards, and the measures related to establishment of industrial estates, their development, management, commissioning,andmaintenance. Based on article eighteen of the regulation issued upon the cabinet decree number (235) dated 27/7/1422H: No establishment of any industrial facilities or management, development, commissioning, or maintaining thereof will be done unless after approval of the Organization. The Saudi Organization for Industrial Estates and Technology Zones (SOIETZ) also issues the necessary licenses containing controls and conditions. Based on article twenty, licenses for development and commissioning of the specified industrial estates includethefollowing: Landuseswithinthespecifiedindustrialestates. The developer or operator should provide the necessary infrastructures, utilities, and services in the industrial estate and maintainthemtobefitforcommissioningitefficiently. Ensure compliance with the specifications and performance standardsindicatedintheregulations. Based on article (11) of the executive regulation for organizing the Saudi Organization for Industrial Estates and Technology Zones (SOIETZ) approved by Board of Directors decree number (5/2003) dated 3/12/1423H concerning bases of determining specified site or lands to be a specified industrial estate that should be taken into consideration including: Theexistinglanduseanddistributionoftheindustriallands.

Environmental impacts resulted from allocation of the land or the site for the industrial activity, and the available practical procedures to mitigate these impacts and risks associated to allocatingthelandorsite. Level of services available in the land or site, along with the social indicators and costs implied in supplying the required infrastructure. Area of available land or site in relation to the current needs and thenecessaryareaforexpansioninthefuture. Article (12) of the executive regulation stated as part of site developmentconditionforexample: Mattersrelatedtospecialenvironmentalorplanningcontrols. Constraintstotheallowedactivitiesinthelandorsite. Thepossibledensityofdevelopment. Areaofthelandorsitethatcouldbeincludedinthedevelopment contract. Article (15) of the special executive regulation stated as part of license conditionsthattheymustcontainwithoutlimitation: The minimum and maximum limits of areas and the environmentalconditions. Allowableworksinthesite. Timescheduleforstagesofdevelopmentandfinance. Any other conditions specified by the Saudi Organization for IndustrialEstatesandTechnologyZones(SOIETZ). Therefore, this guide was prepared to set out the technical aspects in theprocessofplanninganddesignfordevelopmentofindustrialestates, and to comply with the basic regulation of the Saudi Organization for Industrial Estates and Technology Zones (SOIETZ) and its executive
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regulation. The guide is composed of four sections to facilitate handling anddealingwithit.Thesesectionsareasfollows: Section1:Reportofstudiesthatshouldbesubmittedbythedeveloper's consultantincludingthefollowing: Technical report concerning the industrial estate and its needs of servicesanddevelopmentstages. A list of drawings including plans and general maps thatshould be presented. Alistofproceduresforpreparingplansoftheindustrialestateand approvingthem. Section 2: which indicates principles of setting up the general and detailedplansfortheindustrialestateincluding: Principlesofsettingupthemasterplanoftheindustrialestates. Principlesofsettingupthedetailedplan Section 3: which indicates principles and standards of planning and designoftheindustrialestatetoserveasguidelinesincluding: Principles of determining the general distribution of land uses in theindustrialestate. Principlesandstandardsofservicesandfacilities. Principles and standards of planning and design of the road networkandlightingoftheroadnetwork. Principlesandstandardsofdesigningcarparking. Principles of designing public utilities (storm water discharge networks water networks sanitary drainage networks communicationsnetworkselectricitynetworks). Principles and standards of designing central service buildings (mosque administration police civil defense medical dispensarycommercialservicesworkshopwarehouse).
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Section4:whichindicatestechnicalappendicesessentiallyrelatedtothe industrialestateincluding: Ratesoflandareasforfactories. Guide of environmental impacts assessment of the industrial estateestablishmentproject. Standards of industrial waste water discharge and details of industrial waste water treatment coming out from factories for some industries and standards of output of treatment for industrial uses and irrigation uses for green spaces and standards ofdrinkingwater.

Section 1: Studies and plans that should be submitted by the developersconsultantforspecifiedindustrialestate. Theconsultantshouldpresentastudyincludingthefollowing: 11 Technicalreportaboutplanningandeconomicstudies: The report should contain objectives, benefits, and advantages of the project and its economic feasibility. The following are the elements and components of the technical report related to planning of the industrial estate which will be submitted to the Saudi Organization for Industrial Estates and Technology Zones (SOIETZ). 111 Relation of developing the industrial estate with the strategic plans: A Strategyofindustrialestates Fiveyearplansofindustrialdevelopmentandtheirobjectives. HistoricalinductionofdevelopingfactoriesintheKingdom. Currentstatusoftheindustrialestates. Extent of participation and relevance of the project to the industrialplans. B Assessmentofdemandvolumeonindustriallands AttheleveloftheKingdom. Atthelevelofthesite. Growthconstituentsoftheindustryatthesitearea. C Determination of the industrial estate pattern according to the industrialmixintheregion. D Determination of types and volumes of the industries to be emerged intheindustrialestate.
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E Determinationoftheemploymentcapabilityoftheindustrialestate. F Assessment of the needed external services (electricity water sanitary roads housing) and coordination with the agencies relatedtotheseservices. 112 SiteAnalysis: A Principlesofselectingtheindustrialestatesite. Inrelationtositesasindustrialestatesortechnologyzonesowned bythestate. In relation to sites as industrial estates owned by the private sector. Inrelationtotheadjacentlanduses. Inrelationtoconnectingthesitetothestructuralplans. B Basicdataandinformationofthesite:(SiteInventory) Identification of the site: (In relation to the estate, road network, area,anddimensions). Identification of the site ownership (public private) and type of development. Identification of the site natural characteristics: (Topographic GeologicalClimatic). Identification of the site urban, economic, and social characteristics: (Existing and surrounding uses, and networks of theinfrastructure)andtheirrelationtothestructuralplan. C Potentials and parameters analysis of the site, and inducing the planning considerations: (Geographic analysis ownership and development type analysis site natural characteristics analysis site urban characteristics analysis environmental and visual impact).
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113 DevelopmentofMasterPlanoftheindustrialestate: Identification of the required spaces according to principles and standardsanddesignrequirements. Development Program of elements and components of the industrialestate. Planning Concepts Alternatives (Idea of distributing services, road networks,anduses). Distributionoftheregionlandusesonthemasterplan. Settingupphasesplanforgrowthoftheindustrialestate. 114 SubmittaloftheDetailedMasterPlanforutilitiesandservices: RoadandTransportationProfilesandSections LandSubdivision. UrbanDesign. Landscape. Detailed plans of the master plan (roads pavement lighting storm water discharge networks water and sanitary networks electricity networks communications networks residential buildingscentralservicebuildingsgardenlandscapingetc). Zoningplan:(DevelopmentRequirements). ExecutivePlan. 12 List of drawings of plans and general maps presented to the Saudi Organization for Industrial Estates and Technology Zones (SOIETZ):

A general site drawing illustrating the plan region submitted as industrial estate and indicating the current and proposed uses in the site and showing the uses surrounding to the submitted plan region.
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A general site drawing illustrating relationship of the submitted plan to the existing and proposed infrastructure networks and the technical utility units (road network electricity network telecommunications network water network sanitary drainage networkpowerplantstreatmentplants). Survey drawing illustrating topographic and climatic characteristics of the site with a special mention to the outstanding natural elements in the site (hills wadis watercoursesstormwaterrunoffsdistinctplantsreserves..). Land uses drawing for the master plan with indicating land uses ratios and services with carrying out analysis using illustrations andpercentagetables. Detailedplansforroads,sections,andcoordinates. Services drawing (mosques dispensaries commercial buildings policeandcivildefensecarparkinggardensetc). Detailed plan drawing for the site showing industrial land subdivisions, their numbers and development requirements, road network, car parking, pedestrian sidewalks, green and open spaces, and services. It should illustrate type of subdivisions, their areaanddevelopmentrequirements. Drawing of road network and passages showing road sections and design requirements of traffic roundabout, corners, and crossings with a detailed study of car parking spaces and attracting areas and analysis of criteria of providing parking for industrial facilities andserviceelements. Drawings of infrastructure networks (storm water discharge water, sanitary, electricity, and communications sites of transformerstationstreatmentplantsandwatertanks). Drawingsoflaborhousingregion(ifany).
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Proceduresofpreparingplansoftheindustrialestate:

Submitting a report of technical study including planning and economic aspects and presenting it to the Saudi Organization for IndustrialEstatesandTechnologyZones(SOIETZ). Preparingtheinitialmasterplanofthesite. Submitting the master plan with the study report to the Saudi Organization for Industrial Estates and Technology Zones (SOIETZ) forconsiderationanddiscussion. After approval on the initial master plan is obtained, the following proceduresaretobedone: Submittingthedetailedmasterplan. Reviewing and approving the detailed master plan by the Saudi OrganizationforIndustrialEstatesandTechnologyZones(SOIETZ). Preparing detailed design plans for utilities and facilities then presenting them to the Saudi Organization for Industrial Estates andTechnologyZones(SOIETZ). Reviewing and approving the design plans by the Saudi OrganizationforIndustrialEstatesandTechnologyZones(SOIETZ).

Section 2: Principles of setting up the master and detailed plans for industrialestate: 21MasterPlanoftheindustrialestate: Themasterplanissetuptoincludethefollowing: A Zoningordinances. B Landuses. C Utility networks (roads rain water discharge water electricity communications.etc.). D Plans of growth phases in terms of volume, flexibility, and the proposedexecutionphasesbypreparingthemonmapsinsuitable scale. 211Determiningtheurbanstructurepattern: The phase of preparing urban planning for the industrial estate requires setting up three design alternatives and considering them to find the suitablealternativeaccordingtothefollowingcriteriainordertoachieve theplanningobjectives: PlanningConceptswhichwillbedoneaccordingtothefollowing: A Generalanalysisoftheexistingconditionsintheindustrialestate. B Settingupplanningstandardsandrates. C Identifying principles and constituents of planning and targeted development. D Analysis of the site potentials and identifying the optimum use to achievethetargetedplanningfortheindustrialestate. E Identifying the general concepts proposed for planning of the industrialestate. Development of the planning concepts for distribution of land uses so thatthroughthisstep,thefollowingshouldbeidentified:
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A Thespacesallocatedforfactories. B Therequiredservicesandutilities. C Openandgreenspaces. D Variousroadnetworksandtheirgradation. E Thekeypedestriansidewalks. F Areasallocatedforlaborhousing. Setting up a program for the project elements and components: which identifiesthefollowing: A Theproposedfactorytypes. B Landneedsofsuchfactories. C Serviceandutilityneedsofsuchfactories. D Principlesofdesigningthefactories. E Principles of designing each type of the required services and utilities. Planning proposals: to expand and develop the industrial estate through achieving balance between requirements of urban development factors, and economic development factors. Based on the specialized studies (environmental urban economic social etc) potentials of the site are identified, and proposed activities (factories), and their service and utility requirements, showing the functional relations between elements and components of the project (factory types and volumes) and classifying them into main, medium, and weak relations, based on homogeneity of uses. Also, based upon identifying these relations, elementsandcomponentsoftheprojectareassembledbydeducingthe followingrelations: A Relations that constitute functional and spatial homogeneous groups. B Relationsthatrequiredirectspatialproximityorconnection.
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C Relationsthatcouldbeachievedthroughthemaintrafficcorridors withpossibilityoftheirdepartingfromeachother. Based upon these relations, land uses are determined: Principles, standards, and considerations of uses distribution, their relations with each other, type of the required services (public and private), travel distances between each of them, areas, and width of roads required for each element according to their position in the region so that they constitute coherent core formation. Regions of different uses and sites of activity are distributed in the industrial estate according to various parameters,themostimportantofwhichare: A Natural,environmental,andurbanparameters. B Requirementsofdevelopingtheindustrialestate. C Planning concept and principles, and urban planning programs of elementsandcomponents. D Functional relations between various elements and components witheachothers. E Executionphasesandintegrationofeachphase. The main features of the urban planning are formed through integration of the project uses and elements, traffic corridors, spaces and green areas. This integration should result in that all elements perform their functionsandfindinginteractionamongthedevelopedenvironment. Landusebudgets The industrial estate is planned after setting up a general strategy to provide all industrial and social services and provision of the necessary publicutilitiestoestablish,manage,andoperatetheestateefficiently. Table (1) shows land use percentages in the industrial estate for guidanceondesign.
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Table(1):Guidinglandusepercentagesintheindustrialestate Use Industrialuses Services Roadsandcarparking Greenandopenspaces 212 Alternatives of the possible solutions for planning the industrial estateandselectingtheoptimumoption: A PlanningOptions: Planningprinciplesandconsiderationsforeachalternative. Identifyingtheplanningcriteria. Advantagesanddisadvantagesofeachalternative. B Assessmentofalternativesandidentifyingtheoptimumoption: Identifying the assessment methodology and elements (quantitative/qualitative). Assessment according to natural, environmental, urban, economic,andindustrialprinciplesandconsiderations. C Developingtheselectedoptimumoption: Identifyinglanduses. Identifyingconceptanddistributionofservicesandtheirtypes. Identifying concept of road network and distribution of car parkingareas. Identifyingprinciplesanddesigningofroadsections,roundabouts, radiiofcorners,andintersections. Identifyingprinciplesandmethodologyofdesigningcarparking. Landusepercentage% Minimum Maximum Average 60 70 65 3 7 5 18 32 25 3 7 5

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Identifyingrequirementsandbuildingcodesinvariousplots. Identifyingmethodologyoflandscapeinsites. Preparingtheaccuratedetailedplan. Preparing the time schedule for developing and marketing the industrialestate. 213Transitionalgrowthplanoftheindustrialestate: Growthoftheindustrialestateshouldincludethefollowingfactors: A Specific growth with setting up general framework for growth and its phases, through which the first phase of the industrial estate growth is identified. Figure (1) shows phases of design of the planning units. Figure (2) illustrates growth phases of the industrialestate. B Specific growth through each phase of execution of the industrial estateuntilitiscompleted. C Reassessment of the growth plan according to changes in reality withconditionsdifferentfromgrowthrates. D Specific growth through each phase of execution of the industrial estate with directing growth in the next phases by identifying its trend. Thiswouldrequirethefollowing: Study of growth policies of the industrial estate: which aims at achievingmultipleobjectives,suchas: A Achievingflexibilitytomeetthechangingdemand. B Achievinggrowthwiththeleastpossiblecost. C Achievinghighindustrialeconomics.
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Identifyingtheevaluationcriteriaforgrowthalternatives: A Complying with the general form of the master plan of the industrialestate. B Integrationateachphaseofgrowth. C Efficiencyincaseofslowgrowthoftheindustrialestate. D Economics of infrastructure and integration of the phases with planningoftheindustrialestateandplanningofnetworks. E Relationsbetweenlandusesintheindustrialestate. Execution phases: a detailed time schedule should be set up that includesthefollowing: A Settingoutthedifferentphasesforgrowingtheindustrialestate. B Setting up a detailed plan for each phase: showing the land to be paved and prepared, in addition to utilities and services to be providedforeachoftheprojectphases. C Identifying the period lapsed by the entire (final) development of theindustrialestate. 22DetailedMasterPlan: In this stage, detailed plans are prepared which include plans of land uses and plans of subdivision, and their alternatives and proposals. In the stage of general planning, required areas are identified according to principles,standards,anddesignprinciplesthroughthefollowing: A Areas of land plots: required to be subdivided according to subdivisionprinciples. B Number of land plots: required for the industrial estate based on thewholelandareaavailableinconnectiontoratesandcriteria. C Percentages of land plots: from the different areas required to be providedintheindustrialestate.

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D Executionphases:theproposedperiodforgrowthoftheindustrial estatebasedonflexibilityofthedesign. Preparation of the detailed master plan of the industrial estate, which includesthefollowing:

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Figure(1)phasesofdesigningtheplanningunits

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Figure(2)phasesofgrowthoftheindustrialestate

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Figure(2)continued,phasesofgrowthoftheindustrialestate

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221LandSubdivision: It includes distribution of uses and identifying areas and dimensions which are affected by type of factories since each type of factory has its needsofnecessaryareaoflandplotsthataresoldorrentedtoinvestors basedonstandards,principles,andrulesofsubdivision. To prepare land subdivision plans, planning module should be identified for land plots and areas, and the proposed methodology of land subdivisionintheindustrialestateshouldalsobeindicatedbasedonthe following: A Principles of factory classification and their distribution in the regions. B Specificspecializationinsideeachsubdivisionareaoffactories. C Principles of the proposed module network and its characteristics andplanninglevels. The following are principles of subdividing groups of industrial lands for idealplanningmodules: The theoretical approach is identified for subdividing factory lands into groups, each of which represents the area that includes homogeneous plots in area where each plot is allocated for a factory in the industrial estate.Therearethreemaintypesofplotgroups: A Inner plots group bordered by inner distribution roads of the industrialestate. B Outer plots group bordered by main traffic roads and arteries in theestate. C Boundary plots group bordered by roads in the estate and boundariesofthesite. In order to allocate land for specific factories with certain area, any group could be subdivided into classes with regular dimensions that we consider subdivision module which we call planning module. An industrial project might occupy a number of such planning modules
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accordingtonecessitiesofthefactoractivityneedsandspecialization standards. There are also proposed standard measurement dimensions for the groups to meet the factory activity needs and variation of the required areas needed for them and such dimensions are identified asfollows: A First group with 75 m depth and 50 m width as minimum (3750 m2). B Second group with 100 m depth and 65 m width as minimum (6500m2). Dimensionsofthesegroupsdependonpossibilityofresubdividingor assembling any of them according to necessities of the market needs and its future changes, which achieve maximum flexibility in subdivision of the group itself. Each group is subdivided into main modules. Width of each one of such modules is fit with the width of thegroupitselfandtherequiredareasneededforplots.Throughthis system, flexibility is achieved for the industrial estates management on allocating land groups that meet needs of factories of various activitiesthroughobservingthefollowingcriteria: A The minimum width of the site should not be less than one module. B Width of frontage of the site on the road should not be less than half of the group depth and the ratio should not be more than 2:3 toachievemaximumbenefitfromfrontagesoftrafficnetworkand therefore,utilityandinfrastructurenetworks. C The maximum frontage of a site should not be more than its width. D Length of connected groups should not be more than 510 modulesifthereisnoplanningnecessityforthis.

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Principlesandcriteriaoflandsubdivisionintheindustrialestate:when designing areas allocated for factories, subdivision should be made for land plots with a suitable distribution for the plots areas to provide for the varioussized factory buildings. Hence, there should be flexibility in designing and subdivision of land plots in the industrial estate so that theycoverdifferent areasofland plotsthataresuitable foreachtypeof factories. Conditions, measurements, and criteria are set up to follow when designingandsubdividingplotsallocatedforfactoriesasfollows: A Block lengths: 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 meters and relationship betweenblocklengthandwidthisinratioof3:1. B Measurementsoflandplots:inratiosof1:2to2:3. C Lengthsandwidthsoftheroadnetwork:(main,branch,inner). D Pedestriansidewalks:withnolessthan6meterswidth. 222UrbanDesignoftheindustrialestate: A Identifying the urban character: where the urban character is a group of complex attributes that characterizes the site by itself. It includes urban concepts, architectural elements, features of the siteandtheproposedactivitieswithinit. B Identifying the design principles: to reach an urban pattern in which building requirements are mingled to serve the urban design as constraints to control development of the industrial estateresultedfromit. C Identifying constraints related to visual shaping such as: landscapingandtreeplantingpassagesfenceslandmarks. D Identifyingconstraintsofurbandesignforthebuiltelements:such ascolorsandarchitecturaldetailsofthebuilding. E Identifying the public and private uses of lands: so that interference is done in harmony with the general form of the project.
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F Identifying the architectural elements: to ensure sequence of spacesandaestheticalelementsofthegeneralform. G Identifying the main roads of the region: reviewing the general ideas of the road network and identifying car and truck parking areas. 223Planofsitelandscaping: Preparingaplanofsitelandscapingandtheopenspaces(withasuitable scale)showing: A Identifying the objectives: landscaping should fulfill the proposed functionalusesintheproposedurbandesign. B Identifying trees and shrubs or the suitable palms for each use whether they are open, buffer, green regions on sides of roads accordingtothegeneralclimateofthesiteandindustrialestate. C Identifyingthetechnicalmeansusedinlandscaping. D Identifying the various irrigation systems which include fulfillment oftheplantneedsofwater. Landscaping aims at designing general spaces in sites to suit the proposedactivities.Thiswillincludethefollowing: Setting out philosophy of landscaping of the proposed sites: where landscaping starts with planning the sites and takes part in urban and architectural aspects and coordinating the whole site in forming the urbanandenvironmentalplanningconcepts. Identifying methodology of the proposed work to landscape the sites: Thiswillincludethefollowingelements: A Analysis of the site to recognize spatial and visual parameters and potentials. B Spatial formulating of the general spaces and the proposed activities. C Initialdesignofthegeneralspaces.
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The following is percentages of distributing green spaces, the area of which represents 37 % with 5 % as an average for the industrial estate areatoserveasaguidewhensettingupthedesign: A Buffer regions represent 4060 % with 50 % as an average of the greenandopenspaces. B Open gardens represent 3050 % with 40 % as an average of the greenandopenspaces. C Wastedumpingregionrepresents515 %with 10 %asanaverage ofthegreenandopenspaces. 224DesignDrawings: They include uses distribution plans and identifying areas, dimensions, and numbering of the land plots, preparation of executive drawings for the detailed plan, road and traffic plans, and plans of utility supply (watersanitarysolidwasteselectricitycommunicationsetc). 225ZoningPlan: General requirements of front, back, and side setbacks are set up for land subdivisions. Also, height requirements and building percentages are identified according to planning rates, criteria, and principles of the industrial estate so that they include development controls as follows: (figure3). A Building requirements: these building requirements specify form, requirements, and possibility of using the building according to factory types. So, building requirements should be prepared for every industrial estate to suit needs and demands of its factories. Requirements are identified in terms of setbacks, occupation percentage, built up density, height, extrusion, fence characteristics, materials and style of development because they are related to industrial security and visual view (according to requirements stated in guide of criteria and requirements for buildingfactoriesandfacilitiesofassistingindustries).

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B Environmental requirements and industrial security: environmental requirements specify the allowable limits of environmental hazards to maintain security of labor in the industrial estate, and if every type of factory has an amount of output pollution allowable in the surrounding areas, so environmental requirements for every respective type should be prepared so that they fit volume and type of output pollution inside and outside each factory in line with requirements and standards issued from Presidency of Meteorology and Environment to achieve industrial safety for labor and those who arearoundthefactories. C Administrative requirements: in terms of obtaining licenses and timeschedulesforexecutionwhichincludethefollowing: Policyofsellingorlettingthesitesorindustrialbuildings. Proposedmethodforcontrollinggrowthintheindustrialestate. Proposals related to organizing processes of development and operatingtheindustrialestate. Commissioningrequirements. Maintenancerequirements. Wastecollectingrequirements. 226ExecutionPlan: It aims at identifying time schedule for execution of the detailed plan to find integrated temporary environment that helps to achieve highest growth rates. Also, execution programs are linked to financing abilities ofthedevelopmentprocessesintheindustrialestate.

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Figure(3)DevelopmentControls

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Section3:Planninganddesignprinciples,standards,andrequirements 31 Principles of identifying general distribution of land used in the industrialestate: Relationsbetweenvarioususesrelatedtotheindustrialestateshouldbe recognized. There are three uses and relations from perspective of the factories,whichare: First: Industrial uses: which identify factory types' relation with each others. Second: Nonindustrial uses in the industrial estate: which identify factorytypes'relationwithnonindustrialusesintheindustrialestate. Third: Uses surrounding the industrial estate: which identify factory types'relationwithusesaroundtheindustrialestate. Figure(4)illustratesdistributionofthegeneralstructureoflanduses 311 Spatial distribution principles for industrial activities in the industrialestate: Principlesofidentifyingfactorytypes'relationwitheachothers: A Study of site characteristics for land plots: in terms of proportions oflength,width,landplotsarea,setbacks,occupationpercentage, and heights which are reflected in characteristics of the homogeneous position, leading to achieving more functional efficiencyoftheplan. B Study of utility supply: the more the spatial distribution of factories is suitable for hierarchy of utility supply, the less costs areincurredindevelopment. C Study of flexibility of industrial uses: according to factory types in the industrial estate, where flexibility of amending usage is between two different uses and appears through proximity regions between factories. It could be also a region of mixed uses through proximity regions between factories. It could be as well a regionofmixedusesoffactories.
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D Organizing the spatial relationship between different factories: by identifying factory types according to their needs of land and infrastructure based on determining their characteristics and consequently, spatial relationship between different types of factoriesasfollows: Pollution: factories having similar environmental characteristics should be assembled in a place that is suitable for needs and features of such factories to reduce costs of environment protection. Linkage: linkage and integration relationship between such factories should be identified in terms of spatial distribution of factories. E Identifying the standards of assembling compatible and homogeneousfactories: Threeassemblylevelsshouldbeidentified,namely:(seefigure5) Inevitable or possible assembly for activities of interacting and homogeneousfactories. Refusedassemblyforfactoriesofconflictingactivities.

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Figure(4)distributionofgeneralstructureforlanduses

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Figure(4)continued

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Figure(5)Identifyingrelationshipoffactorytypeswitheachothers

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There is a group of considerable criteria and principles for assembly of relevant factories activities within the sites allocated for factories as follows: First:Assembly according to nature of production and its requirements including: A Assembly according to required area: factories with nearly same areas should be assembled in assembly frame to achieve some kind offlexibilityinplanningofthegroupsandplotsallocatedforvarious factories. B Assembly according to activity: a consideration should be given to application of the three assembly levels; interactive, compatible, and conflicting, so that there is separation between factories of different activities and assembling factories having similar or integratedactivitiestogetbestbenefitfromproductionintegration. C Assemblyaccordingtoneedsoffutureexpansion:someactivitiesof medium and large factories require flexibility in possible expansion and growth in the future. Therefore, factories with similar expansionrequirementsshouldbeassembledinacertainregion. Second: Assembly according to nature of product and its requirements of transport and storage: Some types of factories require sites directly connected to transport arteries, traffic networks, and main roads for marketing purposes. This can be achieved by assembling types of factories in adjacency or proximity to facilitate flow of transport, cargo, andstorage,aswellastofacilitateroadtrafficandnetworks. Third: Assembly according to labor: intensivelabor factories should be adjacent and at near distances from the main or secondary service centersintheindustrialestate. Fourth: Assembly according to operation technologies and requirements: some factory activities with high or advanced technology require quality of services and utilities, which necessitates allocation of assembly sites for such factories to provide higher economic efficiency fromutilityandinfrastructurenetworks.
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Fifth:Assemblyaccordingtositepotentials,including: A Assembly according to environmental and climatic parameters: full separation should be achieved between factories affecting negatively on environment whether in terms of pollution resulted from vapors, odors, or noise pollution etc from those noncausing pollution factories or those in need of clean external ambience. Therefore, factories are assembled according to their conditions and environmental requirements taking into account prevailing wind directioninthesitetoavoidtransferofpollutionoutput. B Assembly according to natural and topographic parameters: factory activities require flat sites with natural tilt (slope percentage) of no more than 3% so that they fit nature of production activity itself. Tilt percentage may reach 5% especially in mountainous land that often fits in case of large factories. Therefore, limited and small activities should be assembled in flat sites where contour and topographic natureofthesesitesallowsdevelopingandgrowingofsuchfactories. C Assembly according to urban potentials and conditions of the site: activities and industries should be assembled in a manner that is linked and compatible with the urban potentials available in the site and its urban scope of transport and traffic networks, services, or utilities. Through identification of these proposed criteria and principles concerning assembling and allocating sites for factory activities in the industrial estate, types of industrial activities can be determined (nature of production type of product labor required levels of production technology) and recognizing parameters and potentials of the site and location.Fromallthis,weconcluderesultstoestablishaclassificationto assembletypesofactivitiesorseparatethemincertainassemblyregions according to assembly levels. Therefore, site of such activity can be identified in assembly regions, the matter which necessitates preparing detailed lists of factories that can be established and identifying the suitableoradequatesitesfortheminexecutivephasesoftheproject.

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To identify the general assembly plan for sites of factory activities, the alternative relationship should be analyzed between factory types according to assembly levels and specific requirements of each of these industrialactivities.Animagecanbedrawnforalternativeandassembly relationships of factory lists and their activity groups. This could achieve planning efficiency with considering sufficient flexibility in that approach and its relevance to the transitional executive potentials or at completing development of the integrated industrial estate. Figure (6) illustratestheproposedprinciplesfordistributingindustrialactivities. 312 Identifying relationship between factory types and other uses in theindustrialestate: This relationship is identified through characteristics and needs of factory types linked to such uses. Since these uses are identified in kinds ofbasicservices(whicharelaborandmanagementservices,securityand safety services, and equipment maintenance services), then by sorting out factory types in terms of linkage with each type, relationship betweenfactorytypesandservicescouldbeidentified. 313 Identifying relationship between the industrial estate and green andopenspaces: Green and open spaces are allocated for protecting or maintaining the surrounding uses against detrimental impact of the near factories. Therefore, green belts should be established between selected site of the industrial estate and the adjacent uses or leaving an open space. Specifications and types of trees that should be used for this purpose mustbeidentifiedasfollows: A Trees should be evergreen and not deciduous to eliminate and alleviate pollution harms resulted from factories of all types around theyear. B These trees and plants should be characterized by resisting harms resulted from factories which are summarized as follow: Windbreaks, droughtresistant, heatresistant, sand and dust resistant.
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C Thesetreesshouldbeoftypesthatgrowinsandysoilandshouldbe salttolerant.
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Figure(6)Proposedprinciplesfordistributingindustrialactivities

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Thefollowingareforestation(treeplanting)usesinindustrialestates: Using forestation as a protecting green belt that separates the industrialestatefromtheurbanbodyofthecity. Using forestation to purify air from carbon dioxide and extract pureoxygen. Using forestation to purify air from harmful gases (such as nitric oxideandsulfurdioxide). Using forestation to purify air from dust that is spread in the atmosphereofindustrialestates. Usingforestationtoremoveradioactivesubstances. Usingforestationtoeliminatestenchesfromatmosphere. Usingforestationtofixsoilandreducepollution. Usingforestationinalleviatingnoise. 314Distributionoflandusesintheindustrialestate: Inner distribution of land uses can be identified in the industrial estate especiallytheindustrialfacilitiesasfollows:figure(7). A Distribution of different factories with large truck sizes near the main roads: especially the factories that deal with cheap, heavy weight, or large volume raw materials so that to remove burden of trafficoftruckstransportingrawmaterialsfromtheroadnetworkin theregion. B Achieving highest possible degree of integration between different factories which encourages more to specialization in industrial processes and provide the opportunity to develop used technologiesandenhanceproductionquality. C Achieving functional interdependence, as possible, between factory sites and commercial stores, as well as the necessary services, thus

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achieving the necessary dynamic to the success of the industrial estate. D Seeking to achieve the highest degree of flexibility in allocating spaces to fulfill the various needs of industrial facilities, without prejudice to the urban planning of the various sectors of the industrialestatethroughselectingsuitableplanningmodules. E Take into account that the spatial order of the patterns of medium andsmallfactoriesisfromnorthtosouthasfollows,forexample: Foods factories, then wooden products factories, then metal productsfactories,thenchemicalproductsfactories. It is preferred to establish a special block or a model group for each industrial pattern, which should include varied sizes of factories(medium small)throughselecting thesuitable planning modules. Take into account that distribution of industrial facility sizes in each industrial pattern is done in a way so that sites of smaller sizes come near the inner roads, and that of larger sizes come on the main roads in direction of potential expansion of the industrialestate.

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Figure(7)

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F Take into account to choose service sites on the regional road for: first: because they will represent urban interface of the industrial estate, second: their site will be in line with the natural gradation requiredtoachievethemultiplefunctionsoftheindustrialestate. 32Principlesandstandardsofservicesandfacilities 321Identificationofthenecessaryservicesfortheindustrialestate: The industrial estate should be provided with central service units (technical economic social general) with determining these proposed services in the industrial estate, in terms of quantity and quality, for the factory labors, and this should be according to the technicalandplanningconsiderations. Therefore,providetheminimumlogisticservicesintheindustrialestate. Services that should be provided for the industrial estate are classified intothefollowing: Technicalindustrialservices:whicharefocusingproductionprocessesby work of some equipment necessary for one factory in an isolated unit separated from the rest of factories. Such services should be localized in theindustrialestatetoservethefactories.Theycanbedividedinto: A Services having commercial, large size nature: that can not be acquired by a single factory alone due to their huge size and its inabilitytoutilizeitwithitsfullcapacitylikethermaltreatment. B Services having supply nature: like equipment workshop, test laboratory,andcalibrationlaboratory. The following are the technical industrial services that should be provided in service centers in industrial estates, taking into consideration that service type depends on type and distribution of the factoryactivityintheindustrialestates.
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Technicalandeconomicservices: A Workshops, repair, and maintenance centers: (workshops central workshops for maintenance and repair of industrial equipment equipment letting centers industrial facilitation center a variety ofworkshops). B Ideal and educational service center for industrial guidance (description and explanation center vocational training center industrial consulting center research and information center headquarters of "Industrial Control" and Saudi Arabian Standards Organization"SASO"). C Storing services (oil reservoirs warehouses and stores of goods centralstoresavarietyofwarehouses) D Marketingservices(marketingofficesmarketingshowrooms.) E Utility services (hot and cold water generating plant pumping stations,disposal,andtreatmentofindustrialwastes). Factories should be identified which would be established in the industrial estate: to identify the necessary services for factories such as information,technicalconsulting,equipmentletting,andelectroplating. Factories of the industrial estates should be encouraged to provide servicestoeachothers. Social services: social services should be provided (health food housing entertainmentetc)forfactorylaborsin theindustrial estate asfollows: A Health services (first aid center central clinic health care service unit) B Commercialservices(supermarketrestaurantscafeterias) C Wireless and telecommunications (post and telegraph office telephoneandfaxoffice). D Religiousservices(mosque).
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E Entertainment and landscaping services (open and green spaces landscapingofstreetsandroads). Public and miscellaneous services: these services should be provided in light of identifying types and needs of the existing factories in the industrial estate and the range of their expected needs of services. The following are the public and miscellaneous services required for the industrialestate: A Administrative services (general management of the industrial estate). B Bankingservices(bankbranches). C Securityandfirefighting(policedepartmentcivildefense). D Officeservices. E Building and city maintenance (a center for environment protectionanddevelopment.). F Multi purpose special hall (meeting auditorium showroom for products). G Miscellaneousservices(printingpress,publication,andtranslation gasstation). 322Settingupprogramsandstandardsofservices: Magnitude of such logistic and complementary services should depend on economic factors, planning and urban efficiency, and urban level of this estate, as well as the standards specified for these needs and numberofbeneficiaries. Site of services should be identified at suitable movement distances of the service field for any of such services in the industrial estate which necessitates that access roads to service centers should be facilitated and safe within transport and traffic networks especially pedestrian movement and should also be provided with car parking and facilities of cargoandstevedoring.
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Servicesinindustrialestate

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323Distributionofservices: Distribution of services in the industrial estate should follow two patterns; the first is the central collective pattern for all services, their elements, and basic levels (central bar corner). The second pattern depends on ascending hierarchy for distribution of services within boundaries of urban gradation and scope of service for factory activity levels (gradual scattered). The following points should be taken into account: A The main service centers are found in the center of the industrial estate to attract factories, facilitate their operation, enhance their economicposition,andraisetheirproductionefficiency. B Makingservicecentersmoreattractivetoworkersandvisitors. C Providing a space in the middle of the elements and looked up by vital uses (such as the mosque and the market) and posing civil defense unit and police department on the main roads to provide easinessandflexibilityinmovementoftheirvehicles. 324Distributionofserviceusespercentages: Thefollowingistherelativedistributionofserviceusesforguidance: Serviceuses:withanareanotlessthan5%ofthe whole industrial estate'sarea: Industrial services: their area represents 3050% of the service uses' areawithanaverageof40%. Social services: their area represents 2040% of the service uses' area withanaverageof30%. Publicandmiscellaneousservices:theirarearepresents2040%ofthe serviceuses'areawithanaverageof30%. The following service elements should not be less than the following:

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Civil defense: 8 12% with an average 10% of the public and miscellaneousservicesarea. Police: 6 8% with an average 7% of the public and miscellaneous servicesarea. Mosque:1020%withanaverage15%ofthepublicandmiscellaneous servicesarea. Commercial: 15 25% with an average 20% of the public and miscellaneousservicesarea. Health: 5 7% with an average 6% of the public and miscellaneous servicesarea. 33StandardsofPlanningandDesigningroadnetwork: 331Identificationoftrafficstudyrequirements: Requirements of the industrial estate of transport and means of travel, should be identified, and hence, identification of requirements of roads, inner movement, and parking spaces (for workers visitors trucks) in theindustrialestate.Percentageofroadareainsidetheindustrialestate should range from 18 32% of the industrial estate's area with an averageof25%. 332 Principles and considerations of planning road network for the industrialestate: A Separation of traffic types with different nature and speed (vehicles and trucks private transport mass transport pedestrian movement)andidentificationoftracksforeachtype. B Studying the relationship between factories that produce heavy traffic flow taking into account capacity of streets leading to these factories. C Providing sufficient parking spaces in regions adjacent to factories and service centers in the industrial estate at which large number of vehiclesgathertogether.
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D Setting up requirements of loading and unloading in the industrial estate where constraints of cargo and stevedore require taking the followingintoconsideration:Figure(8) Loading and unloading should be carried out within boundaries of the factory land in a manner that it does not conflict with traffic movementintheroads. Loading and unloading areas should be allocated from the rear frontparts. Providingsufficientinnerspacesforturningmovementoftrucksin addition to providing a space for parking of these trucks based on sizesoftrucks. 333 Designing the general structure of road network and its hierarchy: The general structure of road network follows land uses in the industrial estate. Hence, we find that the general structure of road network in the industrialestateisaffectedbyeachofthefollowing: A Identification of characteristics of traffic between the industrial estateandusesoutsideit. B Identification of characteristics of traffic between uses in the industrialestate. C Identificationoftheroadnetworkhierarchy. D Identificationoftheroadnetworklength. E Identificationofthegeneralstructurepatternofroadnetwork. Planning of parking spaces should be carried out when planning road network in the industrial estate along with determining requirements of parkingspacesforvehiclesandtrucksontheestate'ssite.
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334Principlesofdesigningroadnetworkintheindustrialestate: Streets surrounding the industrial estate should have service roads. However, in the inner regions, parking, loading, and unloading spaces should be provided inside each plot. Design principles of road network aredeterminedinthefollowing: Hierarchy of road network: a classification should be set up for road networkintheindustrialestateaccordingtopurposesandusesrequired from each of them. Design of roads should be made to fit their uses. Roads can be divided according to their levels into three types as the following: LocalRoads CollectorRoads MainRoads Figure (9) illustrates theoretical concept of road network. Table (2) illustrateshierarchyofroadnetworkallowedintheindustrialestate.

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Table(2):hierarchyofroadnetworkallowedintheindustrialestate
RankofRoads 1RegionalRoads Function DesignPrinciples Carrying traffic movement in large speed and No factories are allowed to open on highways for volumes to outside of the estate, to transport regionalmovement. factory products to consumer centers and link themtoeachother

Carrying traffic movement from inside the Widewidthsreaching4060m. 2Mainroads AMaintrafficroads industrial estate to the other uses (other parts of the estate) and to regional roads and Serving large depths for large land plots allocated forfactories. highways. Access to factories established on these roads based on providing service road parallel to the mainroad. BSecondaryRoads Roads surrounding the industrial estate to They should have service roads and their width separate it from the other uses and allocated rangesfrom3040m. forspeedtraffic. They should have specified entrances and exits selected at far distances to carry traffic volumes pooled from one point to another without obstacles. They are the backbone of the industrial estate Car parking should be avoided on sides of these for serving local roads to collect traffic before it roads. becomes jam and carry it to the main roads. Additionally, they serve the factories Factoriesestablishedonthemmusthaveextension forcarentrance. establishedonthem. Collector roads are used in extending public They must be designed at maximum distance of 400mfromterminalstationofmasstransportation utilitylinestofactories. formostindustrialfacilities. Minimum width of a collector road should range from 20 40 m with a pavement of 12 m width (4 lanes,2ineachdirection). Intersections should be in T form to avoid accidents. 4LocalRoads Servingthefactoriesestablishedonthem. Width of local roads ranges from 20 30 m to servetrucks.

3CollectorRoads

They pass through industrial groups respectively to link industrial facilities of each Entrances of local roads on collector roads should group. notbelessthan20m. They should have entrances from the collector Take into account requirements of locations roads. relatedtocarparkingoutsidestreetboundary.

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Figure(8)

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Figure (9) Theoretical concept of road network and distribution of parking

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Planning of streets and roads of the industrial estate: On planning of suchstreets,takeintoconsiderationthattransportvehicles,trailers,and trucks are the main means of transport in these streets. Width of local road ranges from 22 30 m. Furthermore, take into account requirements of the place of car parking outside the road boundary, dischargeofsurfacewater,andbuildingsetbacks. Roads inside the industrial estate: widths of roads that serve traffic in the industrial estate (Right of Way) should not be less thanthefollowing: ArterialRoads:4060mwithanaverageof50m. Secondary Arterial Roads (branches): 30 40 m with an averageof35m. CollectorStreets:2240m. LocalStreets:2230mwithanaverageof25m. Identification of mass transport tracks and stations: Industrial estate should be provided with network of mass transport tracks to transfer labor to the industrial estate. There should be a ring road for buses around the industrial estate with comparing number of their units with the amount of work at hours of entrance and exit from it. Bus stations should be found in the industrialestateandtheyshouldbedesignedtobeatdistancesof 250 500 m with an average of 350 m according to demand and inner division of the industrial estate. However, farthest walking distance for mass transport users should not exceed 500 m to the busstation. Pedestrian sidewalks: pedestrian sidewalks should be provided with the road network and provided by shading, ever green trees. Sidewalk width should not be less than 6 m with a movable obstacle for entering cars. Only fire fighting vehicles should be let to enter on emergency. Sidewalks and pedestrian crossing places aretobeallocatedatroadintersections.
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Width of lanes: widths of the right of way and pavement depend ontrafficdemandforecasts. It is preferred that designing of road sections in the industrial estate should be in two separate lanes for each direction. Roundabout should also be found at far distances to permit free movement and return. Parkingshouldbeavoidedatsidesoftheroad. In the industrial estates, there should be variety in options of pavement width and the right of way (asphalt). The right of way should not be less than15 minrelationtotwopavedlanes(7.5m).That'stosaythattrack width in the industrial estate should not be less than 3.75 m. These measurements fit secondary, collector, and access roads and require additional lanes in larger development to add a capacity for accommodating peak time forecasts. 2 lanes are to be added as per demand. As for main feeding roads, minimum 20 m for paved, and intersections should have curves with a radius of no less than 20 m to accommodatetrailersortruck. Figures (10, 11) the ideal sections of road network, measurements of vehicles,andlanewidthsinroads.

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Figure(10)

53

Figure(10),continued

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Figure(11)

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Inclination of roads and discharge of water: Inclination in main and collector roads should not exceed 2 % and in local roads it should not exceed3%. Horizontal turning: short sharp turnings should be avoided. Furthermore, radii of turnings should not be less than the following: 150metersformainarterialstreets 60matersforsecondary(branch)arterialstreets 35metersforcollectorstreets 25matersforlocalstreets Or they should be according to whatever specifications issued by Ministry of Transport, or Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs. In addition, tangent length in opposite turnings of the streets should notbelessthan30meters. Radii of turnings in intersections: radius of turning should not be lessthan20mfortrucksintheindustrialestate, Corners: should be designed to meet goods transporting trucks wheretheywillbeusedasasecondarylanetomaketurningwhen using a mix of trucks and trailers. This will fit for using longer radius. Radii of curves: table (3) shows the maximum side inclination and radiiofcurvesofroadsintheindustrialestate. Table (3): maximum side inclination and radii of curves of roads in the industrialestate
TypeofRoad MaximumSideInclination MinimumDesignSpeed Regionalhighways 0.10 90 MainArterialRoads 0.10 60 BranchCollectorRoads LocalRoads 0.12 0.12 50 40

Middle islands: width of these islands in collector and main roads shouldnotbelessthan5metersintheindustrialestate.
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Parking on road sides: tracks of side longitudinal parking are used intheindustrialestateatinevitablenecessarywheneveratruckor vehiclebreaksdownandtheyareestablishedononeorbothsides asneededandtheirwidthshouldnotbelessthan2.5meters. Pedestrian Sidewalks: traverse inclination of pedestrian sidewalks should not be less than 1.5 % for purposes of discharging surface water. They should also be used on the road sides and their width should not be less than 2 meters up to 4 meters or more in heavy pedestrianmovementregions. 335Designprinciplesofroadlightingnetworks: A Lighting design and identification of its levels is done according to SaudistandardMKS335. B Metal halide lamps are preferred (comply with Saudi standards) to similar lamps containing pure mineral vapors because they give betterlightingandhavehigherefficiency. C Lampposts are erected so that they are standing upright on the groundlevelandfixedwellontheirbases. D Buried lampposts are equipped with protecting stainless insulator tapethatextends200mmaboveandundergroundlevel. Takeintoaccountidentificationofthefollowing: Lightingintensityinvariousroads(maximumandminimumlimits) Distancesbetweenlamppostsforeveryroad. Heightoflamppostsforeveryroad. Minimumpowerloadsandtypesofloads. Methodsofinstallinglightingcablesinservicepassageinroads. Power distribution panels for lighting and maximum lighting units oneachcircuit.

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Methods of control in operating lighting units whether by photo celldevicesortimer. 34Standardsanddesignprinciplesofcarparking: 341Identifyingcarparkingrequirements: Requirements of car parking must be identified to fit the factories whether for trucks or vehicles. They depend on requirements of private uses. Percentage of car parking spaces in the industrial estate amounts to37%withanaverageof5%oftheindustrialestate'sarea. 342Principlesofassessmentofcarparkingintheindustrialestate: For factories in the industrial estate, it is recommended to provide two car parking areas at least for every three employees if factories have no buses of mass transportation. However, if there are buses, then the number of employees who regularly benefit from service of such buses may be deducted from the total factory employee number. Car parking spaces should be provided for visitors. Parking requirements for factoriesintheindustrialestateareassessedaccordingtothefollowing: A Assessment of employment according to categories: i.e. positions of managers,officeemployees,andworkersoffactoriesineachshift. B Assessment of parking for each employment category: taking into considerationchangeandusingagroupofcars. C Study of times of "start" and "end" of work shift: to identify car parkingrequirementsatpeaktime. D Amending parking requirements by: study of seasonal fluctuations, efficiencyfactorsofparkingspaces,andproblemsofovertime. Some ideal measurements of car parking in industrial estates are to consider one parking space for every 500 m2 of the land area and two parkingspacesforeverythreeworkers. 343Designprinciplesofcarparkingspaces:

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Car parking spaces are integral part of the road network in industrial estate. Therefore, these places should be planned when planning road networkofindustrialestate. Table (4) shows proposed average car parking spaces when planning landusesintheindustrialestate.However,thefollowingremarksshould benoticed: A Whennumberofrequiredparkingspacesisattributedtothebuilding area, then total floor areas should be measured with eliminating the areainsidethebuildingusedascarparkingorloadingspaces. B When number of parking spaces is attributed to employee number, thenemployeesworkinginthefactoryshouldbecounted. Table(4):carparkingspacesaccordingtolanduses
Usage Mosque Localhealthcenter Administrativecentersandpostoffice Officebuildings Banksandprofessionaloffices Factory Minimumcarparkingthatshouldbesecuredoutsidestreets One parking for every 20 50 worshipers or one parking for every 2.25 m2 of theareaofprayer Parkingfor10cars. 0.75spaceforeveryemployee. Oneparkingspaceforevery4060m2ofthetotalfloorarea. One parking space for every 25 30 m2 of the total floor area, or 0.33 spaces foreveryoffice+0.25spacesforeveryemployee. One parking space for every employee, or 0.25 spaces for every employee + additionsasperdemand. Oneparkingspaceforevery3050m2ofthetotalfloorarea.

Source:Theconsultant,apoolofapprovedstudiesatMinistryofMunicipalandRuralAffairs(MOMRA).

Platform of loading goods in the factory: loading platform will accommodate trucks of transporting goods or backup vehicles. Therefore, the place should be 5 m width and 18.5 m depth with addition of 18.5 m for manipulation. For backup vehicles, platform should be 4 m width and 7.5 m depth with addition of 7.5 m for manipulation. Loading platforms should not be established on sides of theroadconfrontingthebuilding. When designing car parking, vehicle volumes in the industrial estates depend on parking angle as shown in table (5) which illustrates required places and vehicle measurements for car parking in industrial estate

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where car parking and car manipulation consume considerable area of industrialestatelands. Table (5): required places and vehicle measurements for car parking in industrialestate
Parkingangle 90 90 60 53 Placewidth(m) 3 2.75 2.75 2.75 Carwidth(m) 7.3 7.9 5.5 5.5 Unitdepthofcarparking(m) 18.9 19.5 16.5 16.1 Widthofoneplacepercar(m) 3 2.75 3 3.35

Source:Theconsultant,apoolofapprovedstudiesatMinistryofMunicipalandRuralAffairs(MOMRA).

35Designprinciplesofpublicutilities: 351Identifyingutilityrequirements: Sophisticated rates should be used for approximate usage of electric energy, water, and land area per worker. Therefore, when planning an industrial estate, requirements of public utilities should be identified (water electricity gas sewage liquid and solid wastes "special sewage"communicationsetc). 352 Principles and criteria of utility network required in industrial estate: Utilitynetworksconsistof: A Water supply (fresh for drinking irrigation industry fire fighting). B Sanitarydrainageandtreatmentplants. C Rainwaterdischargenetwork. D Disposalofsolidwastes(collectionandtreatment). E Electricenergy. F Communications. Aspects that should be taken into consideration when providing public utilitiesinindustrialestate.

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A The industrial estate should be part of comprehensive and integrated development (environmental urban economic socialetc) B Preparing plans of the proposed public utilities and identification oftheirpassagesandsuitablelocations. C Utility networks should achieve four important considerations: efficiencysufficiencyflexibilityeconomy. D The proposed factories in the industrial estate and extent of their needs of public utilities (in terms of quantity and quality) taking intoaccountthefutureexpansiontofulfilltheincreaseddemand. E Assemblyoffactorieshavingsimilarneedsofpublicutilitiesinone regionoftheindustrialestate. Thus, necessary public utility networks should be designed to fulfill needsandrequirementsoffactoriesintheindustrialestate.Publicutility networks are linked to general structure of land uses and general structureofroadnetworksandtheirhierarchy. Principles of water and fire fighting networks: studying extent of water needsinindustrialestate,andthefollowingapproximationscanbeused forguidance: Highneedfactorieswithanaverageof200m3/hectare/day. Lowneedfactorieswithanaverageof25m3/hectare/day. Laborneedsinthefactoryare30liters/person/day. Individualneedsintheresidenceregionare150liters/person/day. Setting up an accurate plan for water supply and distribution in the industrialestate. There are some principles and requirements for water network in the industrialestate.

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Pipe network should cover all the estate with sufficient diameter to fulfillsocialneeds. Every site on which a factory is established should have an extension towaternetwork. Water pipelines should be buried under the ground in the road sanctuary as far as possible from sewage pipelines to avoid possible pollutionofwater(distancenotlessthan3meters). Water pipelines should be at a higher level than sewage pipelines (drainage)sothatnowaterleaksfromsewagepipelinesandavoiding pollutionofthedrinkingwater. Criteriaoffirefightingtaps: Firefightingtapsshouldbeinstalledonpipelinenetworkatadequate distance (not less than 200 m) to allow serving all factories lying withintheircircles.Itispreferabletoallocateonefirefightingtapfor each factory. These principles and requirements should comply with requirementsandspecificationsofthecivildefense. Fire fighting valves should be installed on pipeline network at a distancethatdependson: A Waterpressureinpipes. B Possibilitiesofoccurringfire. C Usesoftheregion(commercialindustrialresidential). D Typeofmaterialsusedinbuildingsandtheircombustibility. Generally, distance between fire fighting valves in industrial and commercialregionsshouldnotexceed160200mm. Furthermore, a fire fighting valve should not be installed on a pipeline less than 150 mm in diameter and the valve should be equipped with threeexits.

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353 Principles and considerations of designing rain water discharge network: Rain water is collected by a network of inclinations (slopes) or channels, takingthefollowingintoconsideration: Maximumdistanceofwatermotiondoesnotexceed200mm. Rainwaternetworkisimplementedonthemainroads. Principlesanddesign: A Speedisnotlessthan0.75m/sec. B Minimumdiameterofrainwaterdischargepipesis300mm. C Design of networks is carried out on behavior of a storm for (5) years and storm watercourse on behavior of maximum storm for (5)years. D Distance between inspection chambers (manholes) up to 700 mm notexceeding120mandupto1000mmnotexceeding160m. 354 Principles and considerations of feeding with potable water and industrywater: 3541Drinkingwatersupply: The most important features that should be available in good potable watercanbeclassifiedasfollows: A Clean,colorless,odorless,palatable,cool,anddesirable. B Contains only minute allowable amount of germs, free of E. Coli in random samples up to 100 cm3 (table 6). It should also be free generally of all pathogens, and does not contain any active or inactivesuspendedmaterials. C Should not contain whatever chemicals that can cause diseases and totalacidity(pH)notexceeding68degrees. D Shouldnotcontainwhatevermineralsorcorrosivesubstances.
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Table (6), maximum basic American standards for potable water (MCL Maximum Contaminant Level) in terms of microbial contaminants (Coliform Bacteria) (standards of EPA "Environment Protection Agency" 1975)thatshouldbeobserved.
Methodortechnologyoftest ARubberfilter Monthlybasis 1inmorethan100ml Individualbasisofsamples Lessthan20samples/month.CountofColiformshould notexceed4/100mlinmorethanonesampleandinno morethan5%ofsamples Coliformbacteriashouldnotexistin3dosesormorein morethanonesampleinnomorethan5%ofsamples Fivedosesinmorethan5dosesinmorethanone sampleoutof20%ofsamples

BFermentationtube: standardsample(10ml) standardsample(100ml)

Morethan10%ofdoses Morethan60%ofdoses

Since Health Services Center in USA, and WHO (World Health Organization)identifiedstandardsofdetrimentalsubstancesthatshould not exceed their limits in any drinkable materials, these substances are shownintable(7). Along with health hazardous substances, contamination of potable water with organic substances plays an increasingly important role in determining validity or non validity of water for drinking due to effect of organicsubstancesinimpedingtreatmentofdrinkingwater.Presenceof such substances even in trace concentrations results in occurrence of bad odor in water and making it unpalatable in addition to developing a biologicallayeroninnerwallsofwaterdistributionnetworkpipes.

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Table (7): criteria of health hazardous substances that should not exceedtheirlimitsindrinkingwater(mg/l)
Elementsorcompounds Arsenic(As) Lead(Pb) Cadmium(Cd) Chromium(Cr) Copper(Cu) Zinc(Zn) Chlorides(Cl) Cyanide(Cn) Nitrates(NO3) Phenol(C6H5OH) Sulfates(SO4) Mercury(Hg) Silver(Ag) WHO(WorldHealthOrganization) 0.1 0.1 1.0 5.0 0.001 HealthServicesCenterinUSA 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.05 1.0 5.0 250 0.01 45 0.001 250 0.002 0.05

3542WaterforIndustry: Industry is first class water consumer, where its need of water is far morethanthatofcitieslikethelargeindustrialestates. Factory needs of industry water amount to 30 40 m3 daily as an indicative average. This rate may decrease or increase depending on industry type. To cover industry needs of water, available surface water sourcesareoftenused. As there is variety of water uses in industry purposes according to factory type and its product, so industry water characteristics that should be secured are not constant but rather they are determined according to factory type, nature of the raw material, and importance andvolumeoftheproducedmaterial. The most important use of water in industry is often related to cooling purposes like boiler cooling water as well as in different purposes in manufacturingofsomekindsofproducts. In cooling purposes, used water should not have corrosive nature or does not gain this feature during cooling processes through thermal conditions that imbalance compound of water in calcium and carbonic acid.
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Cooling water should never cause any narrowing in diameters of cooling pipes in the factory as a result of changing compound balance of water, precipitation, or any other similar reasons. Organically contaminated water in considerable amount in factories which use closed ring system recycle water more than once leading to grow algae or fungi and consequentlyresultinprecipitationsandblockageofpipesoverthetime asthecaseincondensersforexample. 3543 Water used for irrigation: the following can be taken for guidance: Waterneedforirrigationamountsto10mm3/day/m2. In case of irrigating arable land, presence of the maximum amount of saltsinwaterinexcessof500mg/lnegativelyaffectssoilandplant. The amount of free Sodium (Na) in total amount of Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na), and Potassium (K) cations should be as small as possible because its presence in larger amount than (0.8 %) makesthiswaterinvalidforirrigation. 3544Storingwater: GroundSubsurfaceWaterTank: Purposeofgroundwatertank: A mixeschlorinewithwaterwell. B Stores reserve water amount (for emergency) and portion of fire fightingwater. Water is stored in ground tank in an amount sufficient for consumption ofthecityfor68hours.Tankisbuiltofconcretewithaceilingequipped withholescoveredbyminutewiremeshthatallowsairtoenterwithout insectsanddust. Tank is divided into two separate sections where one section can be discharged. Ground water tank is designed on basis that water amount in tank = 25 % of the daily average consumption in the city + water of firefighting.
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ElevatedTanks: Tank is built of stainless steel or concrete and installed on columns or concretecylinder. Elevatedtankisbuiltforthefollowingreasons: A Storingthedifferencebetweentheestate'sneedindayandnight. B Makingpressureconstantallovertheestate'sparts. C Avoid occurrence of water hammer phenomenon on high pressure pumps. Water tank is designed on basis of water storing in about 15 % of the totalestate'sconsumptionaccordingtoapplicablespecifications. 355 Principles and considerations of designing sanitary drainage and industrialwastewatertreatmentplants: 3551Treatmentofsanitarydrainagewastewater: Treatment process of sanitary drainage waste water is carried out in the followingsteps: Pretreatmentstage: A Removaloffloatingmaterialsandlargeparticlessuchaswoodand plasticsbymeansofmechanicalsieves. B Removalofsandbyprecipitation. C Removal of grease by means of floating it in specially prepared basinsforthatpurpose. Initialtreatmentstage(Initialprecipitation). Settling down organic and inorganic suspended substances to reduce organic load in water by means of precipitation in initial precipitation basins (20 30 of Biochemical Oxygen Demand for sewage waste water of organic substance, and time lapsed for water in these basins ranges fromtwotothreehours).
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Biologicaltreatment: In this unit, removal of suspended organic substance is done by growing some types of aerobic bacteria through aeration of waste water either naturallyormechanically. Naturalaeration: By using fixed biological filter system where water is passed over fixed plastic media on which bacteria grow which naturally allow passage of aircurrentfrombelowtoabovethefilters. Mechanicalaeration: By using active sludge where waste water is mixed with high concentrations of suspended aerobic bacteria then it is returned to secondary precipitation basins. This system is aerated by means of surfaceaerationblowersflappers. Finalprecipitationstage: In this stage, precipitation of suspended substance is done where afterwardsmorethan80%ofpurificationefficiencycanbeobtained. Tripletreatmentstage(sandfilters): Removal of the remaining suspended substance through sand filters. Water output from this stage is valid for unconstrained agricultural purposes. Sterilizationstage: Sterilizationiscarriedoutforthefinalsurpluswaterbyinjectingchlorine gasincontactbasins. Treatmentofsludge: Sludge is collected from initial precipitation units and treated in anaerobic basins in order to break organic substance and kill bacteria andharmfulgerms.

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Sludge is dried in uncovered desiccation basins or through mechanical desiccationunits. Table(8)showsspecificstandardsofwateraftertreatment. 3552Treatmentofindustrialwaste: Treatment is carried out to industrial waste on basis of achieving standardssothatitbecomesvalidfordischargeinwatercourseortothe sewage network directly. Coordination is done with the relevant agencies in this regard. Discharge of contaminated industrial waste water into the network is determined based on certain effecting factors likestructural powerofthe networkandsusceptibilityofwastewaterto treatment on arrival to parts of treatment units allocated for waste water. Ideal standards of discharging industrial water into the network are determined by rate of discharge, BOD 20 and suspended substance 600 mg/l to avoid increase load of the sewage network or treatment unit. Take into consideration possibility of using treatment output in some industrial uses such as cooling, or production processes of some factories like paper and so on. It can also be used in irrigating green spacesinsidetheindustrialestates.Table(8)showsspecificstandardsof wateroutputaftertreatmentasmaximum. Consider also commitment that treatment should be triple according to decreeofthecabinetinthisregard.

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Table(8):specificstandardsofwateroutputaftertreatment
Maximumallowablelimit(mg/l(+)) Naturalfeedingof Dischargeto Reuseforirrigation Characteristics purposes Sea Flood,wadis,water thegroundwater catchments BOD5(BiochemicalOxygenDemand) 50 50 COD(ChemicalOxygenDemand) 150 200 150 DissolvedOxygen 1* 1* 5* 1* Totaldissolvedsubstances 2000 1500 2000 Totalsolidsuspendedsubstances 100 50 pH(powerofHydrogen) 6.58.4 6.59.0 5.59.0 6.5+9.0 Color 15 75 15 Temperaturechange 4 Oilsandgrease 5 10 15 Phenol 0.002 0.002 1 0.002 Detergents 15 25 NitratesNitrogen 30 12 12 Ammonia(NH3) 5 5 12 5 TotalNitrogen 50 125 PhosphatesPhosphorus 15 Chloride 350 500 500 Sulfates 400 500 500 Fluoride 1.5 1.5 Bicarbonates 500 Sodium(Na) 400 Magnesium(Mg) Calcium(Ca) Sodiumadsorptionpercentage 9 Aluminum 5 0.3 5 Arsenic 0.1 0.05 0.1 0.05 Boron 1 1 1 TotalChromium 0.1 0.05 0.2 0.1 Copper 0.2 2 0.1 2 Iron 5 0.1 2 1 Manganese 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 Nickel 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 Lead 0.1 0.1 0.1 1 Selenium 0.02 0.5 0.02 0.02 Cadmium 0.01 0.02 0.07 0.01 Zinc 2 15 15 Cyanide 0.1 0.1 1.0 0.1 Mercury 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 + Unit is mg/l unless otherwise stated. Monthly average is approved except severe poisonous characteristics. *AmountofdissolvedOxygenistheminimum. ** This depends on type of agricultural products, amount of production, approved methods of irrigation,typeofsoil,climate,andgroundwaterinthatregion. Unspecifiedanddependsindeterminationongeneralandstandardrequirements. Source:Industrialpollutionmanagement(liquidwastes)Dr.AdilAwadfirstrelease(1996).

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The following tables (9, 10, 11) show maximum pollution loads in liquid wastesinadditiontomodelandqualityofrequiredanalysesofindustrial wastesaccordingtoindustrytype. Table(9):maximumpollutionloadsinliquidwastesofbasicindustries Industry(1) Paper Paperrecycling Textiles (A)Wool (B)Cotton (C)Fiber Dyes Fertilizers Iron Oils Tires Inorganic Tanneries Canning Dairy Poultry Energy Sulfur Electronics Softdrinks Refractories Pharmaceuticals

Units BOD5 COD SS Oils Kg/ton(2) 2.2 3.5 2.5 0.2 Kg/ton 0.9 1.6 1.2 0.1 Kg/ton Kg/ton 4.6 8.0 2.5 0.4 Kg/ton 2.4 6.0 1.5 0.3 Kg/ton 3.5 15.0 1.9 0.05 Kg/ton 5 20.0 2.0 0.1 Kg/ton 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.005 Kg/ton 0.01 0.02 0.005 0.02 Kg/ton 0.8 2.5 0.8 0.3 Kg/ton 0.5 4.0 1.2 0.1 Kg/ton(3) 0.1 1.0 0.5 0.3 Kg/ton(3) 10.0 20.0 10.0 1.0 Kg/ton(3) 0.3 1.0 30.0 0.5 Kg/ton(3) 0.5 1.5 1.0 0.3 Kg/ton(3) 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.2 Kg/ton 20 30 30 10 Kg/ton 80 100 100 30 Kg/ton 60 80 50 20 Kg/ton 100 130 40 10 Kg/ton 80 100 150 40 Kg/ton 50 60 20 10

Otherpollutants Color50units Cyanide0.1mg/l Sulfur0.5mg/l Sulfur0.5mg/l Zinc100mg/l Chromium15mg/l Ammonia0.6mg/l Mercury0.1mg/l Chromium10mg/l Mercury0.10mg/l

(1) Proposed maximum limits based on findings of treatment experimentsandpotentialsoftheindustry. (2) Kg/tonoftheproduct. (3) Kg/tonoftherawmaterial. Source: Industrial pollution management (liquid wastes) Dr. Adil Awad firstrelease(1996).

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Table(10):amodelandqualityofliquidindustrialwasteanalyses Physicalanalyses 1 Color 2 PowerofHydrogen(pH) 3 Temperature 4 Turbidity 5 Electricconnectivity 6 Dissolvedsolidsubstances 7 Suspendedsolidsubstances 8 Precipitatedsolidsubstances 9 Oilsandgrease 10 ReleasedOxygen 11 BOD 12 COD Chemicalanalyses 13 TOC 14 PO4 15 NH4N 16 NorgN 17 NO3N 18 SO4 19 F 20 Cl 21 Detergents 22 Copper 23 Nickel 24 Zinc 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Biologicalanalyses Cadmium Lead Iron Tin Chromium Mercury Cyanide Sulfur Totalhardness Phenol Totalbacterialcountper100ml E.Coliper100ml

Table (11): quality of required industrial waste analyses according to typeofindustry


Industrytype Dairy Milk Sugar Textiles Cement Poultryandmeat SteelandIron Plastics Organicchemicals Inorganicchemicals Soapandoils Fertilizers Oilrefinery Ironmetals Phosphates Energy Tanneries Glass Asbestos Rubber Pulpandpaper Electronics Requiredanalyses 1to18,20,31,32,33,35,36 1to18,20,33,34,35,36 1to18,20,33 1to15,17,18,20,24,26,27,28 2,5,8,9,18 1to18,23,33,35,36 2to15,17,18,20,22to29 1to29,31,33 1to18,20,21,31,34 1to15,17,18,19,20,30,31,32,34 1to21,23,24,26,27,32,33,34,35,36 1to20 1to18,20to30,34 2to12,17,18,19,21,22,to32 1to20,34 3,6,9,10,22,24,27,29 1to18,20to36 1to15,26,30 1to8 1to19,26,29 1to18,20,21,30,31 1to9,17to20,30

Source: Industrial pollution management (liquid wastes) Dr. Adil Awad firstrelease(1996).
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Componentsofsanitarydrainagenetwork: Inclinationpipes: Themostimportanttypesofinclinationpipes: Vitrified Clay Pipes (with flexible or fixed extension). They are characterized by resistance against acids and do not need inner or outer insulation. ReinforcedConcretePipes: These pipes are produced in large diameters and with flexible extension resistant to ground collapse. Pipes are reinforced up to 800 mm in diameter with one reinforcing mesh and the larger pipes with two reinforcingmeshes.Cementresistanttosulfateisusedinindustry. Pipes are painted inside with epoxies resistant to acids with netcoat 550 or chemapoxy 110 and thickness of paint with a layer of PVC for protectionisnotlessthan450micron. FiberGlassReinforcedPipes: They are produced with flexible extension to enable them to resist any collapse of ground. They are high resistant to sunrays and high temperatures. They are also high resistant to acidic and alkaline solutionsaswellastooxidantsandotherchemicals. Designprinciplesofpipes: Leastdiameterofpipesisnotlessthan200mm.Designdependsonthe following: Numberofpopulationatthepresentandinthefutureineachregion. Maximumdrainage=mxaveragedrainage,where(m)isafactorthat dependsonnumberofpopulationtobeserved. Inclination of drainage pipes on basis of least drainage 0.8 x average drainage.
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Inspectionchambers: They are vertical chambers established on inclination lines with suitable measurements to enable maintenance workers carry out wiring of the pipes to remove sediments deposited inside inclination lines. Compliance is established to enable entering new lines on the originalline. Typesofinclinationchambers: A Chamberscastonsitefromnormalconcreteroundorsquare. B Chamberscastonsitefromreinforcedconcrete. C Precastreinforcedconcretechambers. D Fiberglasschambers. Placesofbuildinginspectionchambers: Atchangingpipediameter. Atchangingpipetype. Atchanginglinedirection. Atchanginglineinclination. At specified distances (according to pipe diameter) based on the following:
Pipediameter(inch) 68 910 1215 1820 2430 3240 4048 5060 7290 100120 Source: Construction engineering of water and sanitary drainage utilities Eng. Mahmoud HusseinAlMuseilhey1996. 74 Distancebetweenchambers(meter) 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 80 100

Weight of used covers should not be less than 70 kg for medium service and25kgforcomprehensiveserviceaccordingtoBritishspecifications. Expulsionpipelines: Flexible cast iron pipes are used according to German specifications Din28616 for models KA, K10 and external insulation complies with GermanspecificationsDin30674. 356 Principles and considerations of designing Communications network: Building of infrastructure for communications network includes excavation and fitting PVC channels of normal plastic pipes with different measurements according to designs approved by Saudi Telecommunications Company (STC) with which coordination should be doneforeachindustrialestaterespectively. A Implementing of these works in the plan is carried out during developmentofthesiteundersupervisionofSTC. B Works include building manholes and establishing an integrated networkofvoidchannelssothattheyreacheachplotoftheplan. C Fittinganddrawingcablesinsidethesevoidchannelsondemanding communicationservicebythedeveloper. D Installing elements of the communication network such as cabins, distributionnodes,andcasesofserviceconnection. E Linking the plan with the main communication network including excavationandcables. Technical specifications of inner extensions that should be observed whenmakinginnerdesign: A All wire extensions inside the building should be hidden inside the buildingfittings.Theyshouldbeextendedinsuitablechannels(pipes)

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and should be enough to meet needs of population and factories fromcommunicationservicesatthepresentandinthefuture. B Wireextensionsofcommunicationsserviceshouldbeinsideseparate channels, and no other electric or other wires should be put inside the same channel that contains communications wires where it becomes hard for STC to connect communications service to such extensions. C It is not allowed to use other service circuits (other than communications) common in one wire or cable with communications circuits. D Welding on wires if necessary should be done in cases used for drawingwires.Theseweldingshouldbeavoidedinsidetheportionof channelcourselocatedbetweenthecases. E Wires or cables (minimum: 4 wires or 10 pairs of cables) inside a channel of each housing unit to the point of inserting the service into the building at the common connection box (protector or node of distribution). In case there are many buildings of separate housing units in one compound, one cable should be extended from each building to location of the said box or to one location in the main building,andthenitisdrawntotheboxlocation. F One communications socket is installed in each room to which communicationsserviceisrequiredtobeconnected. G STC connects ends of service buried wire or ends of secondary cable pairsandmakesnecessaryconnectionsinthecommonbox. H STC holds irresponsible for providing wires or cables for connecting appliances or equipment after node of connection in the common box. I The developer should use the commercially available channels made of PVC with diameters of 30 50 mm to cover future needs of communications wires and cables. These channels should be allocatedforthatpurposeonly.
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J Communications wires should be used according to specifications approvedbySTC. K Outlet terminals of communications service should be of the standardsocketsapprovedbySTCwithwhichsocketsof4screwsare used or typical compact sockets (type RJ 11). They should be used interfacedwiththewallonserviceoutletboxesfixedinsidethewall. L Used sockets and plugs should be of the type manufactured for communicationsservice.Itisnotallowedunderanycircumstancesto usesocketsandoutletsmanufacturedforelectricity. Generalrules: A PVCpipesarefittedwithdiameterof3050mmineachroom. B Pipesdonotcontainanywiresexceptcommunicationswires. C Wiresconnectedinsidechannelsshouldnotbeextended. D Wireextensionsinsidedrawingcasesshouldnotbemadeandfitted. E Drawing boxes should be fitted in channels with a length more than 15metersandinbends. F A cavity should be made on the outside frontage of the fence and openchannelismadefromthecavitytothegroundsurface,andPVC channel is extended with diameter of 15 cm outside ownership boundaries. 357 Principles and considerations of designing electricity distribution network When supplying electricity to the industrial estate, the following should betakenintoconsideration: Power supply should be in continuous, regular sufficient amounts for factories. A group of transformer plants and a special power plant maybeestablishedtoensurecontinuity.

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Initialestimatesaresetupforrequiredpoweramounts.Mediumand small factories need (from 55 110 watt/m2) of the factory area or from (10 12 watt/m2) of the entire area of industrial estate supposing that factories will use all modern equipment. These rates are to be taken with caution as they depend on the nature of industrial mix in the industrial estate and industrial processes in the factory. It should be taken into consideration that usage voltage inside industrialestatesis3phase380/220v,60hertz,4wires.Distribution network average voltage is 13.8 k v or 33 k v according to location of the industrial estate and cooperation with Saudi Electricity Company branchesinthosesites. Electric works should be designed according to Saudi specifications issued from Saudi Arabian Standards Organization "SASO" or any otherinternationalstandards. Ambient temperature should be considered (50 C) in calculations of designingelectricworksofcablesandprotectiondevices. Saudi Electricity Company (SEC) undertakes supplying industrial estates with necessary electric energy (we recommend that the designer contacts Saudi Electricity Company's relevant branch for coordination about how to fulfill electricity needs of the industrial estate).Statealsoelectricloadsestimates. Grounding protection system and its components should be described in addition to specifications of used materials and stating themaximumallowedresistanceforGroundinggroup. Table (12) can be used for guidance which shows capacities of cables 1000 k v. Nevertheless, the designer can use any other specification provided that complete information and tables of cable capacities should be submitted as well as country of manufacturer, and the variousfactorsaffectingoncablecapacities.

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Table (12): maximum codified current for cables at (50 C amp) with voltageof1000kvforguidance.
Crosssectionarea(mm2) 1 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Singlecorecablesfittedinsidepipes (nomorethan3cablesinsideonepipe) ModelNYA(70C) 8.250 11.25 15 18.75 24.75 33.75 45.75 62.25 77.25 99 123.75 147.75 176.25 210 232.50 270 300 Triplecorecablesandgroundrod ModelNYY/NYBY(70C) 18 24 30.75 39 51.75 66.75 87 103.5 123.75 153.75 183.75 210 237 267 310.50 347.25

Source:SaudiArabianStandardsOrganization"SASO" Tables(13,14)canalsobetakenasguidanceforcablevoltageof13.8kv and33kv. 358Principlesandconsiderationsofdesigninggasnetwork: Gas network is subject to applicable rules and regulations in gas distributioncompaniesandtherelevantauthorities.

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Table (13): specifications of cable voltage (13.8 k v) IEC 502 specificationforguidance


Crosssector(mm2) 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 400 500 630 Dia.ofcond. 5.9 6.9 8.1 9.7 11.4 12.9 14.3 16 18.4 20.7 23.2 26.7 30.5 Weightof cond.Kg/km 220 305 141 595 827 1043 1287 1610 2116 2650 3384 4352 5623 Insulation thick(mm) 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 Leadsheath thick(mm) 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 Conductor k.amp 3.575 5.005 7.150 10.010 13.585 17.160 21.450 26.455 34.320 42.900 57.200 71.500 90.090

Source: RIYADH CABLES MEDIUM VOLTAGE XLPE INSULATED LEAD SHEATHEDCABLES Table(14):specificationsofcablesvoltage(33kv)IEC502specification forguidance
Crosssector(mm2) 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Dia.ofcond. 8.1 9.7 11.4 12.9 14.3 16 18.4 20.7 Weightof cond.Kg/km 1260 1820 2518 3175 3919 4902 6443 8069 Insulation thick(mm) 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 Leadsheath thick(mm) 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3 3.1 3.2 Conductor k.amp 7.150 10.010 13.585 17.160 21.450 26.455 34.320 42.900

Source: RIYADH CABLES MEDIUM VOLTAGE XLPE INSULATED LEAD SHEATHEDCABLES

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36Principlesandstandardsofplanninglaborresidenceregion: Labor houses should be provided along with identification of the necessary space required for this purpose according to growth of the industrial estate and increase of labor number residing therein. However, the following points should be taken into consideration when planningthehousingarea: Development of a safe housing environment that achieves social, aesthetic,andeconomicrequirements. Provisionofthedailynecessaryservicesforresidents. Separation of the housing area allocated for singles from that allocatedforfamilies. Therefore, the various required unit types and the residents categories areidentifiedtakingintoaccountthepopulationdensity. In case population exceeds 1200 persons, a local mosque, kindergarten, and supermarket should be provided so that service scope or walking distancetotheseservicesdoesnotexceed275matmaximum. Height requirements: number of floors does not exceed 3 with a maximumof9meters. Building Percentage: building percentage should not exceed 65% in the region and the rest should be left as green and open spaces, and inner roads. 37Principlesandstandardsofdesigningcentralservicebuildings Criteria of providing central services in industrial estates are identified based on proposed population number in the estate for which these services should be provided (administration mosque civil defense police dispensary commercial services banks workshops) taking intoaccountthefollowingdesignstandards:
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371StreetAccessandFrontage: A Theminimum frontageofeachplot inthecentralserviceareashould notbelessthan45monthemainroad. B The minimum frontage of each plot located on a closed end road, curveofaroad,orwithabnormalfeaturesshouldnotbelessthan30 m. C Accessesofbuildingsitesshouldbeoncollectoror arterialroadsthat areeasytoreachfromanyplaceoftheestate. D The minimum frontage of each plot on a local road area should not belessthan15m. 372DensityRegulations: A Buildingsshouldnotcovermorethan30%ofthetotalplotarea. B Buildings and paved spaces should not cover more than 50% of the totalplotarea. 373HeightRequirements: Maximumfloornumberoffacilitiesis(3)floors. 374FloorAreaRatio(FAR): Floor Area Ratio is the total building construction area including floor number and relation of these built areas with site land area. FAR is identifiedasfollows: A FARofalandplotshouldnotbemorethan(2). B Saudi Organization for Industrial Estates and Technology Zones (SOIETZ) may identify or propose more than 2 as a requirement of FAR basedonthedevelopersuggestion whichincludesmanysuitable worksaspresentedaccordingtothedevelopment.
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375ParkingAreas: A The minimum parking area number which should be provided is as follows: One parking space for each 25 m2 for nonindustrial areas which include offices, technical laboratories, and educational areas (collegesandtrainingcentersetc). One parking space for each 95 m2 of workshops and warehouses area. B The minimum parking area number in CBD (Central Business District) shouldbeprovidedasfollows: Kindergarten and day care center: one parking area for each employeeinadditiontooneparkingareafor10children. Cafeteria:placesequivalentto30%oftheauthorizedseatcapacity. Medical centers and polyclinics: one parking place for each 20 m2 of thetotalfloorarea. Office buildings: one parking place for each 25 m2 of the total floor area. Restaurants: places equivalent to 25 % of the authorized seat capacity. Retail and facility services: one parking place for each 20 m2 of the totalfloorarea. 376Criteriaandrequirementsoflandscaping: Criteriaofsitedesignlandscapingarelimitedto: A Green spaces and landscaping should not be less than 5 % of the totaldevelopedplotarea. B Roads of mechanical movement traffic are not calculated in the sitelandscaping.

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C Pathwaysandspacesofpedestrianmovementandtheotherareas related to greening and plantation are calculated as landscaping elements. D Plots adjacent to residential region should be surrounded by a fence of no less than 2.4 meters high and no less than 1.5 meters setbacks from possession boundary after the residential district andleftforsitelandscapingelements. E All site landscaping elements such as the fence and walls should be built according to applicable systems and specifications in the region and requirements of Saudi Organization for Industrial EstatesandTechnologyZones(SOIETZ). 38Requirementsofsafetyandsecurityfortheindustrialestate: Onsubmittingplansoftheindustrialestatetogetapproval,thereshould be compliance with the building codes and explaining the site location, adjacent buildings and field of their usage. Also streets surrounding the site should be mentioned. Access for civil defense vehicles and equipment should be available to the nearest possible point to the development. When multiple buildings are concentrated such as complexes,thefollowingshouldbeobserved: Necessityofprovidingsufficientinnerstreets. Necessityofprovidingsufficiententrancesandexitsforvehicles. Necessityofdistributionofgroundfirepumpsaroundthebuilding. 20 % of the industrial estates area should be left for using in fire protection works. This would be done with consent of civil defense through constructing natural buffers between buildings of a subdivision(one block)orbetweenbuildingsofasubdivisionandthe adjacentsubdivisions. Providing sufficient roads and streets for access of civil defense vehicles andequipmenttotherequireddistancefromthebuilding.

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Qualified street or road for moving civil defense vehicles should be subjecttothefollowingconditions: Itsnetwidthshouldnotbelessthan4meters. Providing enough area for manipulation that its diameter should not belessthan18meters. Heightofgatesandpathwaysandstreetentrancesshouldnotbeless than4.5meters. Ground of the street or covers of inspection chambers should be constructed so that they can stand moving various types of civil defensevehicles. Required distance should be calculated between building boundary andnearestpointtowhichcivildefensevehiclesshouldreach. On planning the industrial estate, take into consideration confronting disasters and epidemics which result from leak of gases or radiation and taking the necessary measures for mass evacuation according to requirementsofcivildefenseandMinistryofHealth.

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Section4:TechnicalAppendices Firstappendix:Guidingratesoflandareasfordifferentfactorytypes Activity First:Engineeringandmetallurgicindustries Basicmetals Preparatorymetals Nonelectricdevices Electricappliances PrecisionInstruments Second:Textilesandclothingindustry Textiles Clothing Third:Paperandprintingindustry Paper Printing Fourth:Leatherindustries Leathers Fifth:Woodenindustries Furniture Sixth:Chemicalandpetroleumindustries Chemicals Rubber Seventh:Foodindustries Foods Eighth:Constructionmaterialsindustry Glassandstone Ninth:Transportationandstoring Meansoftransport Tenth:Others
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Landareaperlabor(m2) 120 55 45 30 50 50 20 50 40 38 70 60 35 80 60 40 40

Approximate areas of industrial corporation land based on their production Industrytype Productioncapacity (annualthroughput) 1.6mtons 1.31.1mtons 35thtons 1001000th.tons 1018th.tons 56th.tons 30mpairs 18mpieces 6mpieces 965th.pieces 1600mpieces 110th.tons 280th.tons 700mbooks 5000tons 55th.tons 35mpairs 1525th.pieces 25th.pieces+30th.m3 2570th.m3 Mainindustrial landarea (hectare) 65 9070 34 3080 2427 6 4 5 4 4 1 60 100 8 68 25 2 1018 30 2027

First:Engineeringandmetallurgicindustries Pipesfactory Metalproductsfactory Castingsfactory Equipmentfactory Chemicalequipmentfactory Second:Textilesandclothingindustry Medicalcottonfactory Stockings(menandwomen)factory Cottonunderwearfactory Cottonclothingfactory Clothingfactory(300machines) Underwearfactory(200machines) Third:Paperandprintingindustry Paperandcellulosefactory Paperboardfactory Printingpress Fourth:Leatherindustries Leatherfactory Artificialleatherfactory Shoesfactory Fifth:Woodenindustries Furniturefactory Integratedfurniturefactory Woodveneerfactory

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Approximate areas of industrial corporation land based on their production,continued Industrytype Sixth:Chemicalandpetroleumindustries Artificialfiberfactory Rubberproductsfactory Varnishanddyefactory Dissolvedyeastfactory Oilsandmargarinefactory Detergentfactory Seventh:Foodindustries Flourmachine Breadfactory Bakery Confectionary Vegetableandfruitcanningfactory Yeastfactory Diaryfactory(inoneshift) Cheesefactory(inoneshift) Meatfactory(inoneshift) Fishcanningfactory Eighth:Constructionmaterialsindustry Housebuildingfactory Glassfactory Ninth:miscellaneousindustries Woodentoyfactory Metaltoyfactory Productioncapacity (annualthroughput) 18th.tons 15th.tons 130th.tons 35th.tons 46th.tons 30th.tons 58th.tons 1520th.tons 4th.tons 48th.tons 15m.cans 2.5th.tons 50150tons 2550tons 10tons 3.3th.ton 500th.m3 3243m.pieces 260th.pieces 700th.pieces Mainindustrial landarea(hectare) 10 50 27 7 30 3 2 23 0.5 12 12 1 24 34 4 2 60 810 1 1

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Appendix 2: Guide of Environmental Impact Assessment of industrial estateprojectestablishment Objective: regular inspection of the unintentional impacts resulted from industrial estate project with the aim to reduce or mitigate severity of thenegativeimpactsandincreasepositiveimpacts. 411Introduction: A Brief description of the project with mentioning its objectives and maincomponents. B Identify boundaries of the whole region and boundaries of the study region(description+maps). C Explaining reasons why the project needs to be implemented and whatwillbeachievedasaresultofitsimplementation. D Giving background about the project such as arrangement of the projectphasesinatimesequence. 412Descriptionoftheproposedproject:including: Detaileddescriptionoftheindustrialestatecomponentsand thevarious industrialprocesses. A General characteristics of the site: in terms of its advantages and proximity to infrastructure and services showed on a site map indicatingthesiteboundariesandtopography. B Subdivision plan of the site land: indicating through description and mapsthefollowingpoints: Theproposedpatternoflanduses. Sizeandlocationoflandplots. Utilitynetworkanddistribution. Distribution of the important facilities (administrative facilities wastemanagementutilities).

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Location of the other important facilities (such as civil defense servicewaysetc). Descriptionofdevelopmentphases. C Major components of the project: it presents detailed information on the major facilities to be established in the industrial estate to meet the needs of factories that will be built in it. examples of such facilities: Roadnetwork,parkingareas,andsidewalks. Waternetwork,sewagenetwork,andtreatmentplants. Solidwastesdisposalutilities. Electricitylines. Telecommunicationlines. Administrative buildings, CBD (Central Business District), and civil defensefacilities. Factoriesandstoringsites. Mapsandsectionaldrawingsshouldbeutilized. D Constructionmanagementplan:consistsofthreemajorparts: First:specifiesproposedconstructionscheduleforthewholeprojectand foreachoneofitsmainphases. Second: indicates construction practices: proposed measures to accelerate construction or control the negative impacts resulted from constructionactivities. Third: contain projected numbers of labor force in each one of the construction phases (illustration using charts of the required monthly manpowerandlaborneeds). E Operationandmaintenance:thispartmustcoverwholeoperationof theindustrialestateandincludesthefollowing:
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Description of types and volume of industries that will be established intheindustrialestate. Description of regulations and rules organizing land uses in the industrialestate. Description of public services that will be provided to occupants of theindustrialestate. Description of ways of following up factories that will be established intheestatetoidentifyextent oftheircommitmenttothelaiddown plansforconstructionandoperation. Description of emergency plan such as fire fighting and evacuation of theindustrialestateetc. On presentation of the various services, a detailed explanation of the operationalmeasuresshouldbesubmittedforthefollowing: A Watersupplyandtreatmentofsanitaryandindustrialdrainage. B Managementanddisposalofsolidandhazardouswastes. C Reducingemissionstotheatmosphere. 413Descriptionoftheambientenvironment: Comprehensive description of the environment around the industrial estate to identify base line. This description should fulfill one or more of thefollowingpurposes: A Help identify expected environmental changes as a result of implementationoftheproject. B Help lay down design of the project so as to mitigate the expected negativeimpactsandincreaseitsprojectedpositiveimpacts. 4131Naturalenvironment:including: A Topographyofthesite:includinggeneralterrainsandslopes.
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B Soil:itscharacteristics,hardness,andporosity. C Geology:characteristicsofthegeologicalstrata. D Groundwater: its characteristics and averages, and variation of its flow. E Climate and weather: temperature degrees, rain, humidity, and prevailingwinds. 4132 Social, cultural, and economic context: description of the social, cultural,andeconomicenvironmentintheprojectregion.Itemsthatcan beproposedinthissectioninclude: A Social circumstances and status of society: such as population statistics, society features, characteristics of the residential regions, currentutilitiesandservicesintheregion. B Landuses:aroundtheindustrialestate. C Economicconditionsoftheregion:workpatterns,availabilityofwork force (labor market), income levels, commercial and industrial activities,andlandvalue. Maps should be provided (whenever possible) to present sites and distributionofsocialandeconomicfeaturessituatedintheprojectsite. 414Regulatoryconsiderations: The objective is to identify magnitude of environmental issues and their priorities to guarantee focus of environmental studies and analyses and measuresofmitigatingtheseissuesofpriority,inlightofregulationsand standards organizing environment protection, safety and security of laborintheindustrialestatealongwithcontroloflanduses. 415 Assessment and identifying environmental impacts of the industrialestateandmeasureofachievingthem: To clearly identify negative and positive expected impacts as a result of establishing the industrial estate. Forecasted impacts should be
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identified in relation to each one of environmental factors respectively as a result of construction and operation factors with identifying mitigationmeasures.Thefollowingisamodelofpresentingeachtypeof suchenvironmentalimpacts: A Negative impacts: industrial impacts (direct and indirect) forecasted as a result of establishing the industrial estate. This should include: advantages and disadvantages of such forecasted environmental impacts, location, duration, and the purpose of restoring the environmental situation to what it was previously in relation to each oneoftheseenvironmentalimpactsrespectively. B Measuresofmitigationandcorrection: Methodsofmitigatingtheexpectedenvironmentalimpactsshouldbe described along with identifying commitment to implement mitigationmeasures. An emergency plan should be laid down to follow during emergency cases. Study findings should indicate all environmental aspects, expected impacts, and capability of the proposed mitigation measure to limit them. 416Alternativesoftheproposedproject: The objective is to give brief description of any possible alternatives of the industrial estate (changes in planning and design reidentifying the site.etc).Advantagesanddisadvantagesofeachalternativeshouldbe stated according to their environmental impacts and investment cost in additiontoidentifyingmajorreasonsofrefusingeachoneofthem. 417Environmentalmonitoringplanandenvironmentalmanagement: This is one of the most important supporting fundamentals of mitigating measuresofthe industrialestateenvironmental impactswiththeaimto provide necessary mechanisms to ensure continuous existence of the
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industrial estate without causing damages to the environment and withoutbreachingthesafestandardsofenvironmentalemissions.Italso showsthesystemofmonitoringandfollowupofallmitigationplansand managing them. The plan of environmental monitoring followed by Saudi Organization for Industrial Estates and Technology Zones (SOIETZ) consistsofthefollowing: A Establishment of a unit of environmental monitoring and follow up which tasked by recording violations and accidents that may arise in theindustrialestateinphasesofconstruction,operation,production, andmarketing. B Establishment of environmental monitoring, measuring, and control system tasked by monitoring environment pollution such as air, soil, and water in addition to any change in shape of the estate such as remnants of construction, occupation of the road, the green belt, urbanplanningoftheestate,visualandindustrialpollution. C Recording all measurements and previous evidences in the environmentalconditionregistryoftheindustrialestate. 418Executivesummary: It indicates important findings and major conclusions of the report of negative and positive environmental impacts, in addition to recommendationsformitigationandaproposedprogramofmonitoring. It should be brief, clear and synchronized with sequence of the report topics.Italsoshouldbeputatthebeginningofthereport. 419 Requirements and rules of the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment: All these requirements and rules should comply with the conditions already issued and that which will be issued later by the Presidency of MeteorologyandEnvironment.

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Appendix 3: Standards of industrial waste water drainage and details oftreatmentofindustrialwastewaterforsomeindustries: 1 Details of industrial waste water treatment process for meat manufacturing Sedimentationtank Activesludgetank Treatmentprocessname Sedimentation Naturaloxidationlake Sedimentation 3 3 330m /day 330m /day Treatmentcapacity Reinforcedconcrete Reinforcedconcrete Typeofconstruction 4.8x4.8x4.15 14.5x13x6.4 Dimensions 3 3 50m 840m Treatmentcapacity 3.6hours 7.6days Durationofsettlement Usedchemicals Sludgetreatment:treatmentbyconcentration Finaldisposal:dischargetotheseaoranywatercourse. 2 Details of industrial waste water treatment process for slaughterhouse
Finalsedimentation tank Sedimentation 1400m3/day Reinforcedconcrete 9mx8mx5m 175m3 3hours Rotarydisktank Organismsfilm 1400m3/day Reinforcedconcrete 4mx6mx1.2m(6 tanks) 175m3 3hours Initialsedimentation tank Sedimentation 1400m3/day Reinforcedconcrete 9mx8mx5m 175m3 3hours Pressureand floatationtank Floatation+Pressure 1400m3/day Reinforcedconcrete 6.5mx2.2mx5m 58.4m3 40minutes Treatmentprocess name Treatmentmethod Treatmentcapacity Typeofconstruction Dimensions Cubic Durationofsettlement Usedchemicals

Sludgetreatment:dehydration Finaldisposalofsludge:spreadingandsettlementofsludge.

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3Detailsofindustrialwastewatertreatmentprocessforinorganicchemicalmanufacturing
Filter Filterpress 4000kg/day Hardresin 4000kg/day 27.5hours Sludgeconcentrationtank 560m3 Solidlinedpanels 4.5mx4.5mx3.3m 30m3 75minutes Flocculationand sedimentationtank Flocculationand sedimentation 4000kg/day Solidlinedpanels Diameter10.3x3.15 227m3 90minutes Flocculationtank 4000kg/day Solidlinedpanels Diameter3.7x2.5 20.7m3 20minutes Activeflocculantkg/day Neutralizationtank Neutralization 4000kg/day Solidlinedpanels Diameter2.4x1.8 8.2m3 10minutes Causticsoda87kg/day, sulfuricacid121 kg/day Mixingtank 4000kg/day Solidlinedpanels 12.5mx5mx3.2m 200m3 75minutes Lime1670kg/day Treatmentprocess name Treatmentmethod Treatmentcapacity Typeofconstruction Dimensions Cubic Durationofsettlement Usedchemicals

Sludgetreatment:dehydrationbyfiltration Finaldisposalofsludge:spreadingandsettlementofsludge.

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4Detailsofindustrialwastewatertreatmentprocessforsyntheticdetergentmanufacturing
Activecarbon adsorption tower Activecarbon 720m3/day Solidpanels Diameter 1.6mx3.5(2 towers) 4m3/tower 8minutes Activecarbon Centrifugal separator Centrifugal separator 36m3/day Solidpanels 1.84mx1.3mx1.6m Sandfiltertower Secondprecipitator tank Sedimentation 36m3/day Solidpanels Diameter2.4x4.6 Firstprecipitator tank Sedimentation 720m3/day Solidpanels Diameter7.1x3.1 Biologicaloxidation Neutralization tank Neutralization 720m3/day Reinforced concrete 2.5mx2.5mx1.6m Treatmentprocess name Treatmentmethod Treatmentcapacity Typeofconstruction Dimensions

Filtration 720m3/day Solidpanels Diameter2.7x6.8

Contactoxidation 75m3/daypertank Reinforcedconcrete 1.5m3x5.5mx4(3 towers) 100m3/tower 48hours

1m3 30minutes Strongflocculant

20m3 40minutes

12m3 6hours Sulfuricacid,Caustic soda,Strong flocculant

80m3 3hours Sulfuricacid,Caustic soda,Strong flocculant

10m3 20minutes Sulfuricacid98%

Cubic Durationof settlement Usedchemicals

Sludgetreatment:dehydrationbyheating Finaldisposalofsludge:spreadingandsettlementinlandfill.

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5Detailsofindustrialwastewatertreatmentprocessforcokeproductionplant
Activecarbonadsorptiontower Movableverticalcylinderground 2120m3/day Steellinedpanels Diameter2.8mx12m 74m3 0.8hours Activecarbon1800kg/day Flocculationandsedimentationtank Flocculationandsedimentation (verticalconicalconcentrationtank) 2120m3/day Reinforcedconcrete Diameter13mx3m 350m3 4hours Lime3200kg/day,strongflocculant 25kg/day Aerationtank Activesludge 3150m3/day Reinforcedconcrete 23mx23mx6.8m(4tanks) 12.5m3 95.25hours Phosphoricacid Rawwatertank Steel 5.8mx6.1mdiameter 9.67mx7.55m 150m3 1.75hours Treatmentprocessname Treatmentmethod Treatmentcapacity Typeofconstruction Dimensions Cubic Durationofsettlement Usedchemicals

Sludgetreatment:dehydrationbyburningreduceswatercontentfrom95%to80% Finaldisposalofsludge:reuseofthesematerialsincokefurnaces.

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6Detailsofindustrialwastewatertreatmentprocessforsteelmaking
FreeNH3 removing equipment Steam stripping 1500m3/day Iron Diameter 3.8mx13.3m 136.5m3 4hours Cokefiltrationtank Sludgeconcentration tank Sedimentation Reinforcedconcrete 4.45mx45mx22.5m Flocculationand sedimentationtank Flocculationand sedimentation 1550m3/day Reinforcedconcrete Diameter21mx25m Aerationtank Ammoniatank Treatmentprocess name Treatmentmethod Treatmentcapacity Typeofconstruction Dimensions

Cokeadsorption Reinforcedconcrete 7.2mx5.2mx3.1m

Activetypicalsludge 1740m3/day Reinforcedconcrete 16mx16mx3.9m

Iron Diameter 11.6mx7.6mx diameter8mx8m 1200m3 35.50hours

78m3 2.3hours

45m3 11.25hours

1017m3 7.25hours Lime1670kg/day,ferric chloride765kg/day

250m3 22.75hours Phosphoricacid153 kg/day

Cubic Durationofsettlement Usedchemicals

Sludgetreatment:dehydrationbyburning Finaldisposalofsludge:mixingwithcarbonandreuseincokefurnaces.

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7Detailsofindustrialwastewatertreatmentprocessforfittingmanufacturingplant(chinawareandtoilets)
Ironreciprocaltower Ironreciprocal 640m3/day Reinforcedconcretelinedwith rubber Diameter2mx3.5mx2towers 9.6m3 CausticSodahydrochloricacid Neutralizationtank Neutralization 640m3/day Reinforcedconcretelined withresin 2mx4.5mx3m 27m3 Sulfuricacidkg/37.4day Twolayerfilter Byfiltration 640m3/day Steelpanelslinedwith resin Diameter 3mx2.44mx2filter 17.5m3 Clearator Flocculationand sedimentation 640m3/day Steelpanelslinedwith resin Diameter9mx4.2m 200m3 2hours CausticSodaferric chloride Rawwaterstoring tank Reinforcedconcrete linedwithresin 25mx4.5mx2.86m 323m3 12hours Treatmentprocessname Treatmentmethod Treatmentcapacity Typeofconstruction Dimensions Cubic Durationofsettlement Usedchemicals

Sludgetreatment:pressdehydration Finaldisposalofsludge:spreadingandsettlementinlandfill.

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8Detailsofindustrialwastewatertreatmentprocessforrailwaycarrepairshop
Pressurefloatationtank Floatation 170m3/hour Reinforcedconcrete 4.2mx11.2mx1.35m 63m3 20minutes Reactiontank Neutralizationandsedimentation 170m3/hour Reinforcedconcrete 8.2x3.2x1.8 3.5x4.2x1.8 75m3 26minutes Sulfuricacid10kg/dayCausticSoda kg/dayflocculants5kg/5days Rawwatertank Oilseparation+solidssedimentation 170m3/hour Reinforcedconcrete 12.5mx9mx3.7 420m3 2.4hours Treatmentprocessname Treatmentmethod Treatmentcapacity Typeofconstruction Dimensions Cubic Durationofsettlement Usedchemicals

Sludgetreatment:burninginfurnaces. Finaldisposalofsludge:spreadingandsettlementinlandfill.

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9Detailsofindustrialwastewatertreatmentprocessforsugarmanufacturing
Sedimentationtanknumber(1)and (2) Sedimentation 850m3/day Reinforcedconcrete 8mx6.3mx4.5m(height) 110m3 3.5hours Filternumber(1)and(2) Filters 850m3/day Reinforcedconcrete 8.4mx10mx7m(height) 1000m3 Morethan10seconds Distributiontank number(1)and(2) Reinforcedconcrete 15m3 40minutes Sulfuricacid, aluminumsulfate, aluminumphosphate Rawwatertank Reinforcedconcrete 10mx13.8mx4m (height) 500m3 17hours Treatmentprocessname Treatmentmethod Treatmentcapacity Typeofconstruction Dimensions Cubic Durationofsettlement Usedchemicals

Sludgetreatment:pressdehydration Finaldisposalofsludge:spreadingandsettlementinlandfill.

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Appendix 4: protection degrees for electric appliances against entry of foreignobjectsandwater The following four tables show method of using Saudi specification M Q S 980 which identifies protection extents for electric appliances against entryofforeignobjectsandwater. MeaningofprotectioncodeIP20
0 2 Noprotection Protectionagainstentryofsolid againstwaterentry foreignobjectswithdiametermore thanorequals12.5mm IP Internationalprotection

MeaningofprotectioncodeIP40
0 Noprotection againstwaterentry 4 Protectionagainstentryofsolid foreignobjectswithdiameter morethanorequalsto1mm IP Internationalprotection

MeaningofprotectioncodeIP53
3 Protectionagainst watersplash 5 Protectionagainstentryofdust IP Internationalprotection

MeaningofprotectioncodeIP55
5 Protectionagainst gushedwaters 5 Protectionagainstentryofdust IP Internationalprotection

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