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THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF PLUM JAMS MADE WITH DIFFERENT SWEETENERS Stamatovska Viktorija1, Karakashova Ljubica2, Babanovska-Milenkovsk Frosina2, Delchev Naiden3, Nakov Gjore 1, Necinova Ljupka1 1 Faculty of Technology and Technical Science- Veles, University Ss. Kliment OhridskiBitola, R. Macedonia 2 Food Institute, Faculty of Agricultural Science and Food, University Ss. Cyril and MethodiusSkopje, R. Macedonia 3 Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Food Technologies- Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Abstract This research was made in order to determine quality characteristics of jams, produced with different sweeteners: sucrose, fructose, sorbitol and Agave syrup. The pomological properties of fresh plums, variety Stanley, were made by analysis on: weight, height, width and thickness of the fruit. For estimation and comparison of quality characteristics between fresh plums and processed jams, the chemical analyses were made on: total dry matter, soluble solids, total acids, pH, sugars, vitamin C, proteins and ash. The highest value of total dry matters was recorded in jam with sucrose (49.44 %). In the jams were found lower values for the content of vitamin C from 11.84 mg/100 g to 12.3 mg/100 g comparing to the fresh plum (14,5 mg/100 g). By sensory analysis, all varieties of jams were evaluated as acceptable. Microbiological examinations indicate that jams are microbiologically proper according to standards. Keywords: plum, quality characteristics, sweeteners, jams.

Plums belong to the Prunus genus of plants and are relatives of the peaches, apricots, almonds and nectarines. The scientific name for plums is Prunus domestica. The spontaneous and planned cross hybridization has created more than 2.500 varieties of plums with different sizes, flavors, colors and shades. The best known varieties are: Italian Prune, California blue, aanska ljepotica, aanska rodna, aanski eer, Stanley and others [11, 12]. In Macedonia plum trees are cultivated in several regions: Osogovo, Ohrid valley, Malesh, Pelagonija and Polog [5]. It takes the second place after apples, with an annual production of 18 to 25 thousand tons and in total fruit production it even participates with about 20 % [6]. The fruit of the plum tree has great nutritional and dietary value. The composition of the meat and the epidermis of the plum fruit includes: water, carbohydrates, pectin, organic acids, lipids, nitrogen compounds, tannins, colored and volatile substances, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals such as phytohormones [12, 30]. Plum belongs to the group of fruits with strong antioxidant properties. It is raw material who is rich with biologically active substances. It contains flavonoids and phenols, including neochlorogenic

and chlorogenic acids and catechins. These phytonutritients, along with vitamin C, provide strong antioxidant protection [9, 29, 30]. Plums can be used fresh, dried or processed in many processed foods like: marmalade, jam, syrup, sweet, brandy etc. [30]. Jam is a homogeneous and molded product which is obtained by boiling fresh, frozen or semiprocessed chemically canned fruits with added sugar, pectin and acid. The main feature of this product is that it contains whole pieces of fruit in gelatinous mass without separating the liquid component [10, 12]. In addition to classic jams which are consisted of 67-70 % dry matter, there has been with 30-50 % dry solids, which are prepared with reduced amount of sucrose or made by partial or complete replacement with another sweetener, while using low-esterified pectin in the presence of calcium ions [7, 10,17, 22, 24, 31]. Taking into account the findings about the importance of fruits for human health and the possibility of processing them into jam by using different sweeteners [4, 18, 25], this paper sets out the quality properties of jams derived from the yields of the Stanly plum variety by the application of different sweeteners.


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Materials and Methods

For obtaining jams, as raw material was used fresh plum fruit of Stanly variety from the region of Malesh, harvest 2011th. Before the processing testing were performed on the pomological properties and on the chemical composition of the fruits. The pomological properties were determined on 50 plum fruits. The weight of the fruits was measured with analytical balance. The height, width and thickness of plum fruits were measured with a vernier scale. Standard analytical methods were used to determined chemical parameters: total dry matter, soluble solids, ash, total acids, pH-value, total sugars, vitamin C and protein by the method of Kjeldahl [28]. Processing is performed at the production plant Vitalia ,Nikola DOO Skopje, where dietary jams are produced in the traditional way. During the processing as sweetening agents were used: sucrose (reduced amount), fructose, sorbitol and Agave syrup. To achieve the desired level of gelatination during the production process has been added lowesterified pectin GENU pectin type LM 115AS from the company CPKelco with the addition of calcium ions in the form of calcium citrate. Citric acid was used to provide the necessary acidity. The technological process includes the following operations: cleaning, inspection, cooking by adding a suitable sweetener at constantly stirring, addition of pectin, calcium citrate and acid, mixing, filling in jars and closing with the lids.The cooking of jams was carried in inox pressure pots that are heated to direct flame (open system). During production makes control the content of dry solids by refractometer. The obtained jams were analyzed for their chemical composition and microbiological safety and also were estimated for their organoleptic characteristics. The chemical composition was estimated by determine these chemical parameters: total dry matter by oven drying at 105 oC, content of total soluble solids by refractometer, content of ash in a muffle furnace at 550 oC by gravimetric method, total acids by titration of a 0.1 M solution of NaOH, pH value with a pH meter, sugars with the HPLC method, vitamin C with an iodometric titration method and proteins with the Kjeldahl method. Sensory analysis were performed with the scoring system, where individual quality criteria (smell, taste, color and consistency) were evaluated with varying numbers of points: 2 for smell, 8 for taste, for color 4 and for consistency 6, and their maximum set is 20 [23, 25, 28].

Microbiological tests were made to determine the microbiological safety of the received jams. Tests were made in the chemical laboratory of the USO Dimirija upovski- Veles, and some in the laboratories of the Institute of Public Health, Skopje.

Results, Discussion
During processing, the fruit as a basic raw material must meet the requirements set by technological aspects, including physical and chemical properties, primarily because the quality of the finished product depends on the quality of the used raw materials [15]. For the research were selected healthy fruits, without significant damage and their quality is determined. The obtained results concerning the weight and dimensions of the fruits of the variety Stanly are displayed in figure 1.

Plum Stanly
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Weight (g) Height (mm) Width (mm) Thickness (mm) 31,8 44,4 32,9


Figure 1. Pomological characteristics of fresh plum from Stanley variety On the basis of the average weight of the tested fruit (31.80 g) it can be concluded that this is a variety with medium-sized fruit (20 g to 40 g) [30], which is consistent with a number of literature data [14, 26, 27] . The average size of the tested fruit plum of Stanly variaty (height 44.40 mm, width 32.90 mm, thickness 30.03 mm) is deviating from the figures for the same variety grown in Montenegro [1] and raised in Bulgaria [16], due to different agro-ecological conditions of cultivation. Table 1 shows the results of the analysis of the chemical characteristics of the fruits of the plum from Stanly variety. The data obtained by the chemical analysis of fruits determine that the average values of the analyzed parameters are within the values given by Mii (1979), for this kind of fruit.


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Table 1. Chemical characteristics examined in fresh fruits of plum of Stanly variety Stanly Plum 19.90 18.37 0.32 0.65 2.91 14.50 9.85 0.68

Table 2. Chemical characteristics obtained from plum jam with different sweeteners
Sample Plum jam from Stanly variety Sucrose 49.44 48.27 0.27 3.17 0.66 12.27 27.80 12.30 7.41 / 1.46 Fructose 47,53 46,69 0.33 3.03 0.67 11.84 4.60 6.90 38.20 / 2.03 Sorbitol 47.12 45.90 0.37 3.17 0.60 12.30 3.30 7.80 5.70 15.32 1.32 Agave syrup 47.29 46.07 0.30 3.07 0.59 11.99 3.70 15.20 20.30 / 2.13

Analyzed parameters Total dry matters (%) Soluble solids (Brix) Ash (%) Total acids (%) pH Vitamin C (mg/100 g) Total invert (%) Proteins (%)

Sweetner Total dry matters (%) Soluble solids (Brix) Ash (%) pH-values Total acids (%) Vitamin C (mg/100 g) Sucrose (%) Glucose (%) Fructose (%) Sorbitol (%) Proteins (%)

The data obtained are partially identical with literature data on the chemical composition of the fruits of plum from Stanly variety [1, 13, 14, 27]. The difference in the calculated values is expected, taking into account that the chemical composition of the fruits is specific and depends on climatic conditions, technical measures, the level of maturity and etc. [1, 15]. According to the values of the tested parameters, this fruit correspond to requirements in the Regulation for quality of fruit, vegetables and mushrooms [19]. The results of the analysis of the chemical properties of the jams obtained by using different sweeteners are given in Table 2. The obtained values for total dry matters and soluble solids are in accordance with literary data which refer to the percentage of dry matters in jams with low calorie value [10, 15, 17, 25]. The biggest value of the total dry matters was determined in jam with sucrose (49.44 %) and the smallest in jam with sorbitol (47.12 %.), which reflectes on the obtained values of soluble solids (48.27 Brix in jam with sucrose and 45.90 Brix in jam with fructose). With chemical analysis of the jams it was also determined the quantity of sugar. In comparison between the jams it has been noticed a difference in the values obtained for these parameters. The highest amount of sucrose is stated in the jam with sucrose (27.80 %), due to the use of sucrose as a sweetener. In other jams where were used fructose, sorbitol and Agave syrup as sweetners, the quantity of sucrose is much smaller, and the amount of other sugars (glucose and fructose) is greater due to the inversion performed during heat treatment [2, 7, 10] .

Regarding the values of total acids it can be concluded to be within the range of 0.6 % to 0.67 % and the pH values from 3.03 to 3.17 and are within the permitted [7, 14]. The literature data indicate high instability of vitamin C, especially in the presence of oxygen the fruit is thermally treated at a higher temperature, quickly oxidizing most of the vitamin C found in the product [8]. The determined lower values for the content of vitamin C from 11.84 mg/100 g to 12.30 mg/100 g were in the jams compared with values determined in fresh fruits confirm the foregoing. According Dauthy (1995) about 30 % of vitamin C present in the fresh fruit is lost during the production of jam, but this content will remain in the finished product stable during storage. The prepared jams contain 0.27 % to 0.37 % ash and 1.32 % to 2.13 % protein. According to the values of the examined parameters, jams meet the conditions prescribed by the Regulation for specific security requirements of fruit jams, jellies, marmalades and sweetened chestnut pure [21]. Table 3 presents the results of sensory analysis of plum jams produced with various sweeteners.


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Table 3.Sensory analysis of the plum jam with different sweeteners



Characteristic Taste Colour Consistency

Total points

Plum jam Sucrose Plum jam Fructose Plum jam Sorbitol Plum jam Agave syrup

1.53 1.70 1.48

7.28 7.53 6.88

3.90 3.53 3.48

5.68 5.75 5.50

18.39 18.51 17.34

replacement for sucrose in the jam production with a reduced amount of dry matter (30-50 %). The production of such processed fruits will help people who consume a limited amount of sugar. The use of various natural sweeteners will make it possible to choose the best sweetener, which will yield the desired sweetness without any consequences for human health.

[1] Boovi D., Jaimovi V., Pomoloko-tehnoloke osobine sorte ljive u severnoj Crnoj Gori, Journal of Pomology, 2011, Vol. 45, No. 175-176, pp. 117-122. [2] Coultate T., Food: The Chemistry of its Components (5th Edition), RSC Publishing, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2009, Prevod na deloto: Ars Lamina, 2011, Skopje. [3] Dauthy E.M., Fruit and vegetable processing, Chapter 8: Fruit specific preservation technologies, FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin No. 119, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome , 1995. [4] Galkowska D., Fortuna T., Prochwicz-Zagrsks W., Physicochemical quality of selected strawberry jams with fructose, Potravinrstvo, 2010, Vol. 4, Issue: 2. [5] [6] [7] Hui H. Y., Handbook of fruits and fruit processing, Blackwell Publishing, 2006. [8] Jai M., Tehnologija voa i povra, I dio, TuzlaSarajevo-Banja Luka, 2007. [9] Kristl J., Tojnko S., Unuk T., Antioxidant activity of selected plum cultivars, 46th Croatian and 6th International Symposium od Agriculture, Opatija, Croatia, 2011, pp. 1023-1026. [10] Malev E. Mollov P., (, ., , .), - - . . , , 2008. [11] Mateljan G. The World's Healthiest Foods: Essential Guide for the Healthiest Way of Eating, 2007, Prevod na deloto: Profil kniga, 2012, Veles. [12] Mii D. P. ljiva. Nolit, Beograd, 1979. [13] Mitovi O., Zlatkovi B., Kandi M., GavrilovDamnjanov, Popovi B., Milinkovi V., Tehnoloke karakteistike ploda nekih novih sorti ljive za susenje, Journal of pomology, 2009, Vol. 43, No. 167-168, pp. 101-106. [14] Nenadovi-Mratini E., Milatovi D., urovi D., Bioloke osobine sorti ljive kombinovanih svojstava, Journal of pomology, 2007, Vol. 41, No. 157-158, pp. 3135. [15] Niketi- Aleksi G., Tehnologija voa i povra, III izdanje, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Beograd, 1994. [16] Pashova S., Morphological characteristic of some plum from fruits Prunus domestica L., Food science,engineering and technologies 2007, Scientific






Plum jam with fructose is rated highest with 1.70 for smell, taste 7.53 and consistency 5.75, and with the highest score for color was rated the jam with sucrose (3.9). It can be noted that fructose jam with a total number of points by 18.51 has better sensory characteristics compared with the other tested jams, where other sweeteners were used. With the performed microbiological analysis of the jams, it was estimated that the number of present microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp, Enterobacteriaceae, aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and molds, were within the acceptable limits according to the Regulation on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs [20]. Conclusion The performed analysis and the obtained results showed that plum from Stanly variety can successfully be processed into jam and there by as sweeteners beside sucrose can be used other sweeteners (fructose, sorbitol and Agave syrup). The used plums from this variety in preparation of jams had pomological and chemical characteristics that meet the prescribed standards. From the results of the chemical and microbiological analysis of the jams obtained from Stanly plum variety with different sweeteners it can be conclude that they meet the prescribed requirements for quality and food safety. According tthe sensory evaluation of jam, the plum jam variety Stanly with fructose is rated as the best (18.51 total points), with the highest 1.70 for smell, taste 7.53 and consistency 5.75. Generally, all jams had good sensory properties, but based on the total assessment can be concluded that fructose compared with other used sweeteners is the best


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