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1. Introduction

Training is a very commonly used word, that is when discussing about training, the main focus is more on the development of skills, techniques, abilities and knowledge. It is important for an organization to develop employee to perform well, become great at what they do and all the positive impact that may come later. From my point of view, I ensure that objective of training and development is to approach an employee to create learning organizations which add value than effectively perform their jobs, build good attitudes such as self confidence, seek self growth and gain competitive advantage. On top of that, the training development strategic plan is used by companies to train employees on various methods used in their respective departments. Participation in this training will get a motivation, then involved in the implementation process, methods of coaching and mentoring also getting an assessment with certificate of completion. Besides that, the training and development strategic plan should move forward with the mission and vision of the organization itself. Before employers start any training program, they need to study and understand what skills are essential for executing their business strategy. In addition, if the strategy of the organization is to target various market segments with company current product or services, it may consider to developing multiple training programs. That will influence the performance of productivity with the expert person to manage their part. For example, the company wants to sell a car that target normal people and may also sold to disable people, it will offer two different training programs; one to help employees become familiar with the technology demands of normal buyers and the other to show employees how to deal with communication issues disable peoples face in terms of teaching them to use that car. This will influence the employees' ability to adapt the real situation by each market segment.


2. Literature Review 2.1 Training and Development Nowadays, most of the organization is practicing the training and development strategy. They believe that training and development will give a lot of benefits to employers and employees. In order to establish as the successful company, the current and future problem that may arrive would be settled and prevent with that program because right people is assigned at the right position. Some people had a mistake in their thinking when they said that training is considered only for the new employees. In an organization, training for current employees is held because will helps them adjust to rapidly changing the job requirement. For the example, my previous company of Pharmaniaga Manufacturing Sdn Bhd offer seminars and workshops for those who are interested in improving the business operation. I attend the seminar of 5s to develop my skills in operational issues such as customer retention because my position require me to deal with the supplier and customer of the short expiry product in the warehouse. (Peteraf, 1993) support this example by written that a comprehensive training and development program helps in deliberating on the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to achieve organizational goals and also to create competitive advantage.

2.2 The Process of Training and Development Abdus Sattar Niazi as an author of his case study of Training and Development Strategy and Its Role in Organizational Performance established at MS Scholar, Iqra University Islamabad Campus, Pakistan (2011) has written extensively on this subject and point out that to become Learning Organizations and stay ahead between competitors is by bringing innovation and reinvention in training and development strategy while emphasizing on planning, designing, implementing and evaluating the training programs. To meet current and future business demands, training and development process has assumed its strategic


role and in this regard few studies by Stavrou et al.s (2004) and Apospori, Nikandrou, Brewster and Papalexandriss (2008), have attained much

importance as these highlight the T&D practices in cross-national contexts. Apospori et al. (2008) had deduced that there is a considerable impact of training on organizational performance. Differences from these studies, Cunha, Morgado and Brewster (2003) were the only ones who could not determine the impact of training on organizational performance, and suggested that another study on analysis of this relationship was needed.

New Employees Training And Development Programs

Motivated and Committed Employees

Current Employees Or Unskilled Employees

Skilled Employees

Competent Managers Potential Managers




Figure 1: The process of training and development

Figure 1 shows the process of training and development involve the stage of input, process and output. Its involve three steps of stages. Firstly the participant among the new employees, current employees or unskilled employees and potential managers that will get the responsibility in handling organization in near future. Secondly is about the process that the participants must complete in order to further to the next stage of output. On output stage, the participants normally felt a new spirit of work, become more committed in their work, motivated, skilled and be a competent manager.


2.3 The Approaches to Training and Development

When conducting training program, system approach has determined to ensure a comprehensive focus on the need of the mission and vision of an organization. Training approaches for employers and employees include first, On-the-job training which is for managers because these trainings include coaching and counseling; transitory experiences and transfers and rotation. In addition, its learning the skills through experience at work. Second, Off-the-job training that for the employee because involve the discussion, programmed instruction and computer assisted technologies including virtual reality, multimedia-based training, distance learning and interactive video training. While, this training is learning through attending the courses. Moreover, in training development program have the phases that we must follow to get the efficient and effective result of skills, experience and attribute to become more successful leaders and employees in their organization. Firstly, the organizations needs to identify and list down the training goals which, when the trainer understand that goals, they will equip the knowledge and skills to meet the organization targets, goals and needs. Secondly, the question on how to do to meet the learning goals. Normally, the trainers in this program will ask that question then they can implement the sequence of lesson, course content, what necessary funding to reach the targets. Thirdly, develop the new technologies and environments that the changes make organization become more successful. However, the development should planned by the management that requires the systematic diagnosis. Fourthly, that program of training must have two way communication that delivers the feedback from the trainers, have to take administering tests to ensure the participants really get the benefits from this training program. Usually, this phase includes activities that related to the administrative work such as scheduling facilities, copying, taking attendance data and much more. The last stage of training has evaluated the program since before the participant involve with the training program, during the training program and after the implementation of the training development program.


3. Research Design Proposed

Learning Organization and Its Strategic T&D alignment

Proactive Approach to T&D Strategy

Training Need Analysis and Line Manager Active Involvement in Training Need Analysis

Employee Performance brings positive relationship between T&D & organizational performance having levers: Jos Satisfaction

Organizational Performance

Training Formalization including Implementation and Its Evaluation

Competitive Advantage Measurable Performance

Independent Variables

Mediating Variables

Dependent Variables

Figure 2: The method of training and development strategy

Generally, from figure 2, we can capture the general idea that this method are shown the dependent variable are affected by independent variable and mediating variable. Further research of study must be done for this training and development (T&D) to ensure that all the goals, mission, vision, needs of the organization are accomplished. Independent variable illustrate the learning organization and its strategy of T&D alignment. Line manager that active must conduct the involvement in training need analysis. This step includes the implementation and evaluation phase. Mediating variable is the positive relationship between T&D and organizational performance of the employee. Include its three levers which are having job satisfaction, competitive advantage and measurable performance. Then, dependent variable must focus on organizational performance in order to achieve our organizational goals. As a result, the good impact will carry out from that training program.


4. Conclusion

It is clear, therefore, that not only do employees have to be trained for working in a good condition but the employers also must have the right skills to do with their job effectively. Nowadays, many organizations realized that training and development really important in terms of gaining experience in the other side will change the attitudes of the participants become more productive in their work. Furthermore, from the quotes by Elizabeth II, the queen of Great Britain said that Its all to do with the training, you can do a lot if youre properly trained. Thats mean if we are trying to improve ourselves by involve in the such training program, that will contribute the significantly to the organization. If we make an effort to increase the personal performance, the performance of the productivity also will affect to increase because activities of the organizations. As we know, training activities have a positive relationship with the organizational which is if develop more training activities, the organization will affected by increasing their productivity related to the increasing of the skills and abilities of the employers and employees. As discussed in detail before, the structured approach to training and developing organizations existing and new employees provide a strong foundation for company continuing growth. All the phases must follow up to ensure a committed and flexible employees are delivering the highest standards of service to meet the goals and needs of the organization. From my literature review, I had mentioned about training and development process and approaches to come up with the proposed of the research design. For sure, that will give the good impact if a further study on this issue of training development is handled. My last review on this topic is I had learned about the most effective way to develop people is instead to enable learning and encourage the personal development will do with all this effective ways is implied. T&D cannot be disconnected from the business


5. Reference 1. Abdus Sattar Niazri (2011), Training and Development Strategy and Its Role in Organizational Performance, Vol. 1, No.2, August 2011, MS Scholar, Iqra University Islamadab Campus, Pakistan, Journal of Public Administration and Governance, ISSN 2161-7104 2. Carter McNamara (1999), Systemic Approaches to Training and Development 3. John M. Ivancevich and Robert Konopaske, Human Resource Management , Twelve Edition, 2013 4. Blanchard, N.P and Thacker, J.W. (1999), Effective Training System, Strategies and Practices, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall 5. Fombrun, Tichy, N.M and Devanna, M.A. (1984), Strategic Human Resources Management, New York: John Wiley 6. Youndt, M.A., Snell, S.A., Dean, J.W. Jr, and Lepak, D.P. (1996), Human Resource Management, Manufacturing Strategy, and Firm Performance, The Academy of Management Journal, 39, 836841 7. Rookie (2004), Training and Development. Retrieved from Indias leading MBA community portal: a87a8&t=6265

8. Rob Moss and Susan Humfryes (2013), senior organizational development consultant, Caterpillar, The state of leadership today: improving leaders to boost the bottom line (webinar) . Retrieved from Personnel Today : webinar.htm#.UZkiWqLfCpc


9. Alan Coetzer, Janice Redmond, Jalleh Sharafizad, (2012) "Decision making regarding access to training and development in medium-sized enterprises: An exploratory study using the Critical Incident Technique", European Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 36 Iss: 4, pp.426 447 10. Zane Berge, Marie de Verneil, Nancy Berge, Linda Davis, Donna Smith, (2002) "The increasing scope of training and development competency", Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 9 Iss: 1, pp.43 61 11. Eugene Donnelly, (1987) "The Training Model: Time for a Change?", Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 19 Iss: 3, pp.3 6 12. Roger Poulet, (1986) "Training Process Effectiveness", Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 18 Iss: 1, pp.10 - 13