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Textile History

The term 'Textile' is a Latin word originating from the word 'texere' which means
'to weave' Textile refers to a flexible material comprising of a network of natural or
artificial fibers, known as yarn. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting,
crocheting, knotting and pressing fibers together. Textile Museum is that
specialized category of museum which primarily preserves different types of
textile and textile products

History of Textile The history of textile is almost as old as that of human

civilization and as time moves on the history of textile has further enriched itself.
In the 6th and 7th century BC, the oldest recorded indication of using fiber comes
with the invention of flax and wool fabric at the excavation of Swiss lake
inhabitants.In India the culture of silk was introduced in 400AD, while spinning of
cotton traces back to 3000BC. In China, the discovery and consequent
development of sericulture and spin silk methods got initiated at 2640 BC while in
Egypt the art of spinning linen and weaving developed in 3400 BC.The discovery
of machines and their widespread application in processing natural fibers was a
direct outcome of the industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries.The
discoveries of various synthetic fibers like nylon created a wider market for textile
products and gradually led to the invention of new and improved sources of
natural fiber.The development of transportation and communication facilities
facilitated the path of transaction of localized skills and textile art among various
Textile History of Various Countries :-

Indian textile enjoys a rich heritage and the
origin of textiles in India traces back to the Indus valley Civilization where people
used homespun cotton for weaving their clothes.Rigveda, the earliest of the Veda
contains the literary information about textiles and it refers to weaving.
Ramayana and Mahabharata, the eminent Indian epics depict the existence of
wide variety of fabrics in ancient India. These epics refer both to rich and stylized
garment worn by the aristocrats and ordinary simple clothes worn by the
common people. The contemporary Indian textile not only reflects the splendid
past but also cater to the requirements of the modern times.

In 1869 the capital of Japan was shifted from Kyoto to Tokyo and from this time
onwards the Nishijin weaving tradition seemed threatened with extinction. The
industry again started to grow along with Japan's new capitalist economy by
1890 when the Nishijin weavers embraced and applied modern technology to
their own ancient and original textile art. The textile art of Japan particularly
reached an epitome of excellence by exhibiting a cultural distinction and
remarkable artistic skill in the Edo and succeeding Meiji periods (1868 - 1912).

Chinese textiles enjoy an excellent heritage in
textile sector and occupy a prominent position in the global textile market.
Chinese textiles are world famous and extraordinary for their fine quality and
profound symbolic meanings. Textiles in china often form an integral aspect of its
heritage and symbolically reflect its tradition and culture.In China, textile is often
closely associated with prosperity and involved in the process of elaborate
rituals. Parents' spontaneous love for their children is most visibly reflected
through the excellent clothes they provide on festive occasions to their children.
These clothes are made up of expensive materials and excellent craftsmanship.

In the ancient times the most important aspect of textiles or more precisely cloth
in Africa was that cloth was used as form of money.

The width of cloth strip was usually standardized in each region of Africa and
therefore there used to be a regular number of such standard length cloth strips
required to make a woman's wrapper cloth. This would then be used to serve as
the unit of value. Cloth was a convenient form of money primarily because it was
used by everybody, fairly durable and easily sub dividable.

The weavers, dyers and other textile artists of Africa together makes an active
contribution in creating exquisite and amazing range of textiles. African textiles
usually embody a great variety of styles. Adinkara, kente and bogolan are some
of the some of the African textiles which are becoming increasingly popular while
some others like Yoruba, ase-oke and adire are equally beautiful but less well
Indian Textile Industry

The Indian textile industry is one of the largest and most important sectors in the
economy in terms of output, foreign exchange earnings and employment in India.

The industry has several vast sectors within it, that is, the mill sector, the clothing
or garment sector, the handloom sector and the power loom sector. Each of
these sectors employs lakhs of workers and also contributes significantly to the
national economy.

India has a natural competitive advantage in terms of a strong and large multi-
fibre base, abundant cheap skilled labour and presence across the entire value
chain of the industry ranging from spinning, weaving, and made-ups to
manufacturers of garments. India’s textile industry comprises mostly small-scale,
non-integrated spinning, weaving, and finishing and apparel-making enterprises.
We are equipped with latest world-class machineries. Keeping pace with latest
technology, we have continually upgraded the machines to meet stringent quality
parameters of spun yarn. With extensive automation, we have minimized manual
handling of the product. India has a large pool of skilled low-cost textile workers,
experienced in technology skills. India’s cotton textile industry has a high export
potential. Cost competitiveness is driving the penetration of Indian basic yarns
and grey fabrics in international commodity markets. Small and flexible batches
of apparels can be manufactured in India and can provide a larger variety of
casual wear and leisure garments at significantly lower costs. Besides natural
fibre such as cotton, jute and silk, synthetic raw material products such as
polyester staple fibre, polyester filament yarn, acrylic fibre and viscose fibre are
produced in India.

Where heavy duties are imposed in the overseas countries for importing textiles
on account of anti-dumping, Imports from India s not at all included for levying
such duties.
At present, the textile industry is undergoing a substantial re-orientation towards
other then clothing segments of textile sector, which is commonly called as
technical textiles. It is moving vertically with an average growing rate of nearly
two times of textiles for clothing applications and now account for more than half
of the total textile output. The processes in making technical textiles require
costly machinery and skilled workers.

The application that comes under technical textiles is filtration, bed sheets and
abrasive materials, healthcare upholstery and furniture, blood-absorbing
materials and thermal protection, adhesive tape, seatbelts, and other specialized
application and products

In brief, the textiles sector has its own strengths & a great potential to attain
growth if it uses the opportunities in a right direction.

Strengths :-

1) India enjoys benefit of having plentiful resources of raw materials. It is one of

the largest producers of cotton yarn around the globe, and also there are good
resources of fibre like polyester, silk, viscose etc.

2) There is wide range of cotton fibre available, and has a rapidly developing
synthetic fibre industry.

3) India has great competitiveness in spinning sector and has presence in almost
all processes of the value chain.

4) Availability of highly trained manpower in both, management and technical.

The country has a huge advantage due to lower wage rates. Because of low
labor rates the manufacturing cost in textile automatically comes down to very
reasonable rates. There is an immense scope for textiles industry in India as it is
the second largest employment generator after agriculture.

5) The installed capacity of spindles in India contributes for 24% share of the
world, and it is one of the biggest exporters of yarns in the global market. Having
modern functions and favorable fiscal policies, it accounts about 25% of the
world trade in cotton yarn.

6) The apparel industry is largest foreign exchange earning sector, contributing

12% of the country's total exports.

7) The garment industry is very diverse in size, manufacturing facility, type of

apparel produced, quantity and quality of output, cost, requirement for fabric etc.
It comprises suppliers of ready-made garments for both, domestic or exports

Opportunities :-

1) The industry has the potential of doubling the export earnings by the year
2010. The regulatory polices is helping out to enhance infrastructures of apparel
parks, Specialized textile parks, EPZs and EOUs.

2) The Indian manufacturers and suppliers are improving design skills, which
include different fabrics according to different markets. Indian fashion industry
and fashion designers are marking their name at international platform.

3) The industry is anticipated to generate new jobs in various sectors until 2010,
with the doubling of GDP & increase in exports.

The textile industries collaborate with a whole host of professionals, all

expert from fashion to and fibers. Does expert play a pivotal role in textile and
fashion interrelationship: they guide the textile companies, de signers and
technologies , advising them about future range and predicting why or how there
ranges will appeal to the consumer. Part of the mechanizes the relation between
fashion and textile is rooted in trends and those influence the preliminary stages
of fibre production. Trends in fibres and fabrics develop from information gather
from professionals in fashion, textile mills, and other industries expert. From the
primary level , colour and fabric trend information is then disseminate throw out
the fashion and textile industries. Then initial judgments and choices in textiles
focus on colour. At this early stage views and consider opinions are drawn from
industries expert such as international colour authority (ICA). And the color
association of the U.S. the friber and fabrics industries also resoles issues of
texture, production and construction, which are typically informed by demand
with in fashion. The textile industries is steered by fabrication requirements that
to the fashion designer stitulates.

The fashion designer’s relationship with fabric can be intensely personal.

The intensity is very apparent and haute couture level, more so than at any other
level and so largely due to the fact that indulgence and personal expression can
be afloat at this level. Desires can develop designs idea by draping with a fashion
fabric, they real material rather then toiling with substitute like calico. In the late
1940 and early 1950. Jacques fath, Parisian couterier to royalty and movies stars
would create designs by moldings fabric directly on to a model responding to the
fabric as he worked, rather then sketching first. Contemporary example of
designer eternally searching for the right fabric and communicating there
personal philosophies.
Textile Sector In India

An Overview :-

The textile industry is the single largest foreign exchange earner for India.
Currently it accounts for about 8 % of GDP, 20 % of the industrial production and
over 30 % of export earnings of India and it has only 2-3 % import intensity.
About 38 million people are gainfully employed with the industry making it the
second largest employment providing sector after agriculture.

The textile policy of 1985 and the economic policy of 1991 accelerated the
economic growth during 1990s. Textile sector growth has been led by the
spinning and the manmade fibre industry. The number of cotton/ manmade fibre
textile mills rose from 1035 in 87-88 to 1741 by December, 1997. The number of
spinning mills number rose to 1461 in December 1997 from 752 in 87-88.
Liberalization led to the installation of open end rotors and setting up of Export
Oriented Units (EOU).

Currently India has the second highest spindle age in the world after China.
Aggregate production of cloth during 1996-97 was 34,265 million sq. meters, an
increase of nine percent over 1995-96. India's contribution in world production of
cotton textiles was about 12 % a decade back, while currently it contributes about
15 % of world cotton textiles. The production of silk has increased from 9498
tones in 1987-88 to 14,093 tones in 1996-97. For wool, which is another major
raw material , India depends on imports, especially from New Zealand, to meet
its requirements.

Growth rate in exports of textiles/ clothing during 1996-97 was 11%. Introduction
of a soft loan scheme during the 7th plan called Textile Modernization Fund
Scheme (TMFS) facilitated the process of modernizing textile industry
significantly. Indian textile industry has performed remarkably well during the last
one decade, but it still needs to carve a competitive edge through quality output
and high value addition especially when today India is on the fast track of
Swot analysis of Indian textile industry


1. Indian Textile Industry is an Independent & Self-Reliant industry.

2. Abundant Raw Material availability that helps industry to control costs and
reduces the lead-time across the operation.
3. Availability of Low Cost and Skilled Manpower provides competitive advantage
to industry.
4. Availability of large varieties of cotton fiber and has a fast growing synthetic
fiber industry.
5. India has great advantage in Spinning Sector and has a presence in all
process of operation and value chain.
6. India is one of the largest exporters of Yarn in international market and
contributes around 25% share of the global trade in Cotton Yarn.
7. The Apparel Industry is one of largest foreign revenue contributor and holds
12% of the country’s total export.
8. Industry has large and diversified segments that provide wide variety of
9. Growing Economy and Potential Domestic and International Market.
10. Industry has Manufacturing Flexibility that helps to increase the productivity.


1. Indian Textile Industry is highly Fragmented Industry.

2. Industry is highly dependent on Cotton.
3. Lower Productivity in various segments.
4. There is Declining in Mill Segment.
5. Lack of Technological Development that affect the productivity and other
activities in whole value chain.
6. Infrastructural Bottlenecks and Efficiency such as, Transaction Time at Ports
and transportation Time.
7. Unfavorable labor Laws.
8. Lack of Trade Membership, which restrict to tap other potential market.
10. Higher Indirect Taxes, Power and Interest Rates.


1. Growth rate of Domestic Textile Industry is 6-8% per annum.

2. Large, Potential Domestic and International Market.
3. Product development and Diversification to cater global needs.
4. Elimination of Quota Restriction leads to greater Market Development.
5. Market is gradually shifting towards Branded Readymade Garment.
6. Increased Disposable Income and Purchasing Power of Indian Customer
opens New Market Development.
7. Emerging Retail Industry and Malls provide huge opportunities for the Apparel,
Handicraft and other segments of the industry.
8. Greater Investment and FDI opportunities are available.


1. Competition from other developing countries, especially China.

2. Continuous Quality Improvement is need of the hour as there are different
demand patterns all over the world.
3. Elimination of Quota system will lead to fluctuations in Export Demand.
4. Threat for Traditional Market for Powerloom and Handloom Products and
forcing them for product diversification.
5. Geographical Disadvantages.
6. International labor and Environmental Laws.
7. To balance the demand and supply.
8. To make balance between price and quality.
Textile Industry Policies

Indian Textile Industry plays a vital role in Indian economy. For the proper
functioning and operation of industry it is very essential to have some policies
and regulation in place. In India, the Ministry of Textile is responsible for the
formulation of policy, planning, execution, development, export promotion and
regulation of the Textile Industry and related sectors. There are several other
bodies and organizations which help to formulate and execute these policies. All
policies should be implemented for the greater development of the whole industry
so that it can help to strengthen the economy.

Industry Policy :-

There are no restrictions regarding location for establishing manufacturing units.

All producers of Clothing and Accessories are exempt from obtaining Industrial
License to manufacture. The declicensed undertakings, however, are required to
file an Industrial Entrepreneur Memoranda (IEM) in Part 'A' with the Secretariat of
Industrial Assistance (SIA), and obtain an acknowledgement. No further approval
is required.

After commencement of commercial production, Part B of the IEM has to be filled

in. Certain items of clothing are reserved for small-scale industries.
Policies Related To Textile Industry :-

01 Trade Policies
02 Non-Trade Policies
03 Investment & FDI Policies
04 National Textiles Policy 2000

01. Trade Policies

Tariff policy;

India & US have reached on an Agreement for reciprocal market access

commitments for Textiles and Apparel with the negotiation of the WTO Agreement
on Textile & Clothing. It provides elimination of Quota system of Textiles &
Apparel from 1st January 2005.

Under Indo-US Agreement of 1st January 1995, India agreed to reduce tariffs on
Textile & apparel and remove all the restrictions on these products.
From 1st April 2000, Govt. Of India reduced tariffs on: . Manmade Fibers &
Filament Yarns from 35% to 20% · Cotton Yarn from 25% to 20% · Spun,
Blended, and Woolen Yarn from 40% to 20 %

Grey Fabrics and certain Cotton Yarns are exempt from basic Excise Duty.
Customs duty on Polyester Filament Yarns is reduced from 10% to 7.5%. Duty on
other Filament yarns will be remain at 10%.
Customs duty on Polyester Staple fibers is reduced from 10% to 7.5%. Duty on
other Man Made Staple fibers will be remain at 10%.
Customs duty on Raw Materials such as DMT, PTA and MEG reduced from 10%
to 7.5%.
For Small Scale Industries there is Full Exemption Limit being increased from
Rs.1 crore to Rs.1.50 crores.
Most of the products fall under HS code 61 and 62 carry an import duty of
56.83% which includes 30% basic duty, 16% additional duty and 4 per cent
special additional duty.
Excise duty on Nylon Chips has been reduced from 16% to 12%.
Optional excise duty on Nylon Fish Net Fabrics is increased from 8% to 12%.
Excise Duty Exemption on specified Textile Machinery Items is withdrawn and
8% Excise Duty is imposed.
CST rate reduced from 4% to 3% with effect from April 1, 2007.
Removal of surcharge on income tax on all firms and companies with a taxable
income of Rs.1 crore or less.

Import Liscening;

India has liberalized its Import regime for Textiles and apparel, but some of the
part is still limited for market access. Currently, there is no import restriction for
yarns & fabrics items. Apparel & Made-up textiles goods require a Special Import
License (SIL). Govt. revised Exim Policy on 31st March 1999 by eliminating
Import Licensing Requirements for 894 consumer goods, agriculture products
and textiles. On 28th December 1999 India and Us signed an Agreement for the
elimination of import restrictions of 1,429 agriculture, textiles, consumer goods
and apparel. India removed restrictions on 715 tariff items as of 1st April 2000.

Custom Procedures;

Marking, Labeling, and Packaging Requirements: Marking, Labeling, and

Packaging Requirements for Textile products are technically complex and difficult
to implement.
EXIM Policies;

Duty Entitlement Passbook Scheme: DEPS is available for Indian Export

Companies and Traders on a Pre-Export and Post-Export basis. Pre-Export
credit requires the beneficiary firm has exported during the preceding 3-year
period. The Post-Export credit is a transferable credit that exporters of finished
goods can use to pay or offset custom duties on imports of any unrestricted

Export Promotion Capital Goods Scheme: This scheme is available to export

companies and traders who provide the GOI with information about which type of
goods and what value of Capital Goods they will import. And they also inform
what will be the outcome of export they expect to produce from those imports.
Depending upon the export commitment GOI provides them a license to import
capital goods duty-free or preferential rates of duty.

Pre and Post Shipment Financing: The Reserve Bank of India provides Indian
Exporters Pre-Shipment Financing through commercial banks for purchasing raw
materials and packaging materials by presenting Letter of Credit. RBI also0
provides Post-Shipment Financing through commercial banks at preferential
rates by presenting export documents.

Export and Special Economic Zones: Govt. of India has established Export
Processing Zones (EPZs) and Special Economic Zones (SEZs). In EPZs units
can import goods free of custom duty. There is 5-year tax holiday to any industrial
unit in EPZs. Govt. has allowed 100% Fore3ign ownership of units under EPZs
and SEZs. The Govt. considers SEZs as foreign territory for trade and tariff
purpose. Units under SEZs may engage in Manufacturing, Trading and Services.
Units are exempt from routine checking of exports by customs, and they can sell
in the domestic market on payment of duty as applicable to imported goods.
Duty Drawback Scheme: The basic objective of this scheme is to reduce the
indirect taxes on exports. Exporters can get refund of the excise and import duty.
Through this scheme they can be more competitive and have more potential

02 Textile Non Trade Policies

Technology Up gradation Fund;

As there is huge competition in international Textile Industry therefore the Indian

Textile Industry has to be technologically well versed. Industry has been facing
problem with high capital cost to improve the technology and modernization of
Textile and Apparel Industry. Under the TUF scheme, Textile and Apparel
Manufacturing Units can take Loan from IDBI Bank, SIDBI, and The Industrial
Finance Corporation Of India at interest rate of 5 % points lower than normal
rates. This scheme also helps for IT Development, Product Development,
Diversification and Research & Development through funding. In 2006-07 Rs.535
crores were allotted for the scheme and, Rs.911 crores have been allocated for
the same for 2007-08.

Cotton Technology Mission;

To improve the performance of Cotton sector, there is need for improvement in

Research & Development, quality and productivity of products. The Marketing
Infrastructure also needs improvement. The Govt. of India is aimed to increase
production of cotton by 50% with improved quality and productivity.

Quota Entitlement Policy;

Textile and Apparel Industry in India was running under the terms of Multifiber
Arrangements (MFA) over the many years. Under MFA, USA, European Union
(EU), Canada, and Norway did negotiation for bilateral agreements with India
and other textile exporting countries that had limits or quota on their specific
textile exports.

Construction of Apparel International Mart;

Apparel Export Promotion Council has constructed an Apparel International Mart

(AIM) at Gurgaon. This will provide showrooms on lease and license basis to the
established exporters to showcase their products.

03 Textiles FDI policies

After the economic reforms Indian Govt. has taken many initiatives for investment
in Textile Industry. The Govt. has liberalized its investment policies for the Textile
Industry. Lot of investment has been made for the growth and development of
various sectors of Textile Industry. For this purpose Govt. of India has launched
many schemes and plans.

The RBI provides approval within 2 weeks to all proposals that involve foreign
equity up to 51 % in the manufacturing of textile products.
Investment is increased from Rs.7349.00 crores in 2004-05 to Rs 15,032.00
crores in 2005-06.
During 2003-06 the total investment in Textile and Clothing was around Rs.
42,978.00 crores.
For Technology Upgradation Funds Scheme, Rs 916 billion has been issued for
technology upgradation.

Around 26 Apparel Parks are opened in eight states in India, with a total
investment of Rs 134 billion.
Industrial Entrepreneurship Memorandum is implemented from 1992 with the
investment of 263 billion.
Around a total of US$ 6.67 billion in investment is expected by 2008.
During year 1991-06 Textile Industry, the Foreign Direct Investments inflows
worth US$ 910 million have been received. Industry contributes around 1.29% of
total FDI inflows in the country.

04 India Textile Policy 2000

For the growth and development of Indian Textile Industry and to make it more
vibrant, Govt. of India passed National Textile Policy in 2000.

Objectives of Policy

To produce and provide good quality cloth in affordable price to fulfill different
needs of customers.
To increase the share of India in Global Textile Market.
To increase the contribution for employment and economic growth of country.
Facilitate the Textile Industry to attain and sustain a pre-eminent global standing
in the manufacture and export of clothing.
Liberalization of controls and regulations for the market development of different
Textile Segments and to make them stronger to perform in competitive
Encourage FDI and R&D to improve the manufacturing capabilities and
infrastructure under the environmental standards.
Facilitating financial support and arrangement to sector.

Highlights of Policy
Achieving the target of Textile and Apparel Exports from US $ 11 billion to US $
50 billion by 2010. The share of garments is targeted US $ 25 billion.
Increasing contribution of private sector through set up environment-friendly and
technologically advance textile units and complexes.
To De-reserve the Garment Industry from Small Scale Industry.
To improve the availability, productivity and quality of Raw Materials.
Improvement in quality of fiber/Yarn and its availability.
To increase the Cotton productivity by at east 50 % and quality to match the
international standard by implementing Technology Mission on Cotton.
To make Silk and Sericulture sector strong, Govt. is aimed to improve R & D,
Productivity of non-mulberry verities of silk.
Encourage Private Sector to increase productivity, and to market the Wool
products. Establishing Pre-Loom & Post-Loom facility.
Developing high yielding seeds, to make farmers more technological efficient,
creating potential market link, and diversified jute products are main concern for
Jute Sector.
Modernization and liberalization of Spinning Sector.
Technological Up-gradation, Strategic Alliance with international textile majors,
Improved Quality, and Productive HR environment are the concern for Organized
Mill Industry.
For Powerloom Sector steps such as, Technological Up-gradation, Increased
Productivity and Modernization of the sector are going to be implemented.
To Increase Productivity, Enhanced Marketing and Distribution, Technological Up-
gradation and increased Research Development in Handloom Sector.
To Improve Export, Promotion, Technological Support, Infrastructure, Marketing &
Distribution and R & D for the growth of Handicraft Sector.
To increase Exports to 50 billion US $ by 2010, Increase FDI & Investment, and
to Increase Infrastructure Support to export oriented areas.

Textiles Major Companies


• Madura Garments (Indian Rayon)

• Arvind Mills Ltd
• Raymond Ltd
• Alok Industries Ltd
• Welspun India Ltd
• Bombay Dyeing Abhishek Industries Ltd.
• Sangam India Ltd
• Provogue India Ltd
• Wills Lifestyle (ITC)
• Gokaldas Exports Ltd
• Indo Rama Synthetics (India) Ltd
• Vardhman Textiles Ltd
• Bombay Rayon Fashions Ltd
• S Kumars Nationwide Ltd
• Suryalakshmi Cotton Mills Ltd
• Century Enka Ltd
• Krishna Knitwear Technology Ltd
• RSWM Ltd
• SRF Ltd
• GHCL Ltd

• Aditya Birla Group

• Mauritius textile industries
• Applegate directly ldt
• Hebei Textiles import and export co. Ltd.
• Delta woodside Idustries, Inc, America.
• Johnston Industries N.V.-New-Hampshije
• Velcro Industries N.V.
• Millken and company
• Shaw Industris, Inc.
• Reeves Brothers. Inc
Textile Trade & Export

Indian Textile industry is one of the major industries that plays vital role for
exports and foreign revenue.
The share of Textile Industry to country’s total exports is 16.63%.
India’s contribution in global textiles and apparel market is 3.9% and 3 %
The major sectors for exports are: Readymade Garments, Cotton Textiles,
Textiles made from Man-Made fiber, Wool & Woolen Goods, Silk, Handicrafts,
Coir & Jute.
Exports in 2004-05: US $ 14 billion
Exports in 2005-06: US $ 17 billion and registered 22% growth.
Textile exports is increased by 11.43 % in rupee terms.

After the expiry of Multi Fiber Agreement in 1st January 2005, The share of
Indian Textiles exports in imports of USA is increased from 4% to 5%.
The share of Indian Textiles exports in imports of EU is increased from 6% to 7%.
During 2005-06, India’s total apparel exports were 8.63 billion US $.