DOI 10.1007/s10851-007-0013-x
Computing the Discrete Fourier Transform
on a Hexagonal Lattice
Andrew Vince Xiqiang Zheng
Published online: 20 June 2007
Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007
Abstract The computation of the Discrete Fourier Trans-
form for a general lattice in R
d
can be reduced to the
computation of the standard 1-dimensional Discrete Fourier
Transform. We provide a mathematically rigorous but sim-
ple treatment of this procedure and apply it to the DFT on
the hexagonal lattice.
Keywords Discrete Fourier transform Hexagonal lattice
1 Introduction
Traditional image processing algorithms are usually carried
out on rectangular arrays, but there is a growing research
literature on image processing using other sampling grids
[1, 4, 10, 12, 13]. Of particular interest is sampling on a
hexagonal grid. Hexagonal grids provide for higher pack-
ing density, give a more accurate approximation of circu-
lar regions, and exhibit symmetric neighbor adjacency (i.e.
the distance from the center of any hexagon to the center
of any adjacent hexagon is the same). An extensive list of
references can be found in [11]. One of the fundamental
tools in image processing is the discrete Fourier transform
(DFT) [14]. It is the intention of this paper to present a
The authors would like to thank the PYXIS INNOVATION Inc for
nancial support, and Professors D. Wilson and G. Ritter for
stimulating conversations on the Fourier transform.
A. Vince () X. Zheng
Department of Mathematics, Little Hall, PO Box 118105,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-8105, USA
e-mail: vince@math.u.edu
X. Zheng
e-mail: xzheng@math.u.edu
straightforward approach to the DFT for a general lattice L
in R
d
, an approach perhaps more direct than previous treat-
ments. The spatial domain of the DFT in this context is a
set of coset representatives of the quotient of L by a sub-
lattice of L. The computation of the DFT, even in this gen-
eral case, can efciently and easily be reduced to the com-
putation of the standard 1-dimensional DFT. This result is
then applied to hexagonal arrays, in particular to multires-
olution arrays that allow for fast zooming in to view ne
image detail or zooming out to view global image fea-
tures.
Previous approaches to the DFT on a hexagonal grid in-
clude [3, 7], in which the DFT is converted to a square grid,
and [15] in which the GBT (generalized balanced ternary)
system for indexing a hexagonal grid is used. Our approach
to the DFT uses the Smith normal form of a square inte-
ger matrix. As pointed out by one of the referees, the use
of this normalized form appeared previously in Problem 20,
Chap. 2, of [1] and in [6]. This paper contributes a mathe-
matically rigorous yet simple approach before applying it to
the hexagonal lattice.
This introductory section contains general background on
the DFT. Section 2 concerns the spatial and frequency do-
mains of the DFT for a general lattice. The result on reduc-
ing the computation of the lattice DFT to the standard DFT
appears in Sect. 3. Section 4 applies the results to the hexag-
onal grid.
In dimension 1, grid cells are unit intervals centered say,
at the points 0, 1, 2, . . . . An image can be thought of as
a complex valued function dened on a nite subset, say
{0, 1, 2, . . . , N1}, of these points. Let C
[N]
denote the vec-
tor space of all such functions. The discrete Fourier trans-
form is the linear transformation F : C
[N]
C
[N]
dened
by
126 J Math Imaging Vis (2007) 28: 125133
(Fa)(k) =
N1
j=0
a(j)e
2i
jk
N
.
The general mathematical setting for the DFT is a -
nite Abelian group G of order, say N. The group opera-
tion will be denoted +. Let
G denote the character group
Hom(G, T
N
) of G, i.e., the group of all homomorphisms of
G into the multiplicative group T
N
of all Nth roots of unity.
The addition on
G is dened by ( + )(g) = (g)(g)
for all , Hom(G, T
N
). In signal processing terminol-
ogy, G is the spatial domain and
G the frequency domain.
Any signal can be fully described in either of these domains.
The Fourier transform is the tool that allows us to go back
and forth between the two. Depending on what we want to
do with the signal, one domain tends to be more useful, or
mathematically simpler, than the other. It is a standard re-
sult that
G
= G, so the spatial and frequency domains are
algebraically the same. In particular N = |G| = |
G|. In the
context of this paper, as developed in Sect. 2, the situation is
more concrete. Both the spatial domain G and the frequency
domain
G will consist of a nite set of cells of some grid in
Euclidean space R
n
.
Let C
G
and C
G
denote the vector spaces of complex-
valued functions on G and
G, respectively. From an image
processing point of view, a function in C
G
is merely an im-
age. Both C
G
and C
G
are inner product spaces, the inner
product on C
G
being
a, b =
gG
a(g)b(g),
and associated norm
a =
_
a, a =
_
gG
|a(g)|
2
_
1/2
.
The inner product and norm on C
G
are similarly dened.
The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is the linear trans-
formation
F: C
G
C
G
a a
dened by
a() =
1
gG
a(g)(g) (1)
for all
G. Moreover, F is an isometry, that is, F(a) =
a for all a C
G
. The inverse Fourier transform
F
1
: C
G
C
G
a a
is dened by
a(g) =
1
G
a()(g) (2)
for all g G, the basic result being that F
1
F =
F F
1
=id.
2 Spatial and Frequency Domains for a Lattice
Practical considerations dictate that the cells of a sampling
grid should be translates of a single cell to the points of a
lattice L in R
d
. In dimension 2, the most commonly utilized
lattices are the square lattice and the hexagonal lattice. A d-
dimensional lattice is an integer linear combination of d lin-
early independent vectors in R
d
. These d vectors are called
a set of generators of the lattice. The matrix whose rows are
the generators of L is called the generator matrix of L. Let
L
0
< L denote that L
0
is a d-dimensional sublattice of d-
dimensional lattice L. In this case the quotient L/L
0
of the
Abelian groups L and L
0
is a nite Abelian group.
An image is a function dened on a nite subset D of L.
In order to be amenable to the DFT, the set D should have
a natural Abelian group structure, natural in the sense that
the group operation be compatible with the vector addition
on L. This is the case when there exists a sublattice L
0
of
L such that D is a set of coset representative of the quo-
tient L/L
0
. Given L and D there is an efcient algorithm
[8] for deciding whether or not there is such a sublattice L
0
for which D is a set of coset representatives of L/L
0
and,
if so, for nding generators for the lattice L
0
. In all that fol-
lows we will assume that our domain D is such a set. The
group L/L
0
will serve as the spatial domain of the DFT.
Note that, in the 1-dimensional case, L = Z and L
0
=
{Ni : i Z} for some integer N. The group L/L
0
is the
group of integers modulo N, and its character group
L/L
0
consists of the homomorphisms
j e
2i
jk
N
for k = 0, 1, . . . , N 1. So the DFT in this case is just the
standard DFT.
Given a d-dimensional lattice L and sublattice L
0
, call a
set {v
1
, v
2
, . . . , v
d
} of generators of L an elementary set of
generators for L with respect to sublattice L
0
if, for some
integers N
1
, N
2
, . . . , N
d
,
S ={j
1
v
1
+j
2
v
2
+ +j
d
v
d
: 0 j
i
<N
i
, 0 i d} (3)
is a set of coset representatives of L/L
0
. In this case call the
integers N
1
, N
2
, . . . , N
d
divisors of L/L
0
.
Lemma 1 If L
0
< L, then L has an elementary set of gen-
erators with respect to L
0
.
J Math Imaging Vis (2007) 28: 125133 127
The proof of Lemma 1 is subsumed in the Algorithm be-
low, whose output is an elementary set of generators for L
with respect to L
0
and the corresponding set of divisors of
L/L
0
. It is well known [2] that any square matrix A with
integer entries can be put in diagonal form (Smith Normal
Form) using a sequence of the following row and column
operations.
Interchange two rows (columns)
Multiply a row (column) by 1
Add an integer multiple of one row (column) to another
row (column)
There is a standard algorithm, which we omit, for accom-
plishing this. Any such row operation is given by left multi-
plication of A by an elementary matrix U on the left and any
column operation by multiplication of A by an elementary
matrix on the right.
Algorithm Input: lattices L
0
<L and any generator matrix
M of L.
Output: a matrix M
L
whose rows comprise an elementary
set of generators of L with respect to L
0
, and a diagonal
matrix E whose diagonal entries are a corresponding set of
divisors of L/L
0
.
Since generators of L
0
are integer linear combinations
of the generators of L, there is an easily computed integer
matrix A such that AM is a generator matrix of L
0
.
Let V
1
, V
2
, . . . , V
s
and U
1
, U
2
, . . . , U
t
be elementary ma-
trices (from the Smith Normal form) used to diagonalize A.
Thus the following matrix E is diagonal:
E =V
s
V
2
V
1
AU
1
U
2
U
t
.
Let
M
L
=(U
1
U
2
U
t
)
1
M.
Proof (of the validity of the Algorithm) Let U=U
1
U
2
U
t
and V = V
s
V
2
V
1
. Since the rows of AM are the gener-
ators of L
0
and since V is unimodular, the rows of M
L
0
=
V(AM) are again a set of generators of L
0
. (By a unimodu-
lar matrix, we mean a square matrix with integer entries and
determinant +1 or 1.) Likewise the rows of M
L
=U
1
M
are a set of generators of L. Therefore
EM
L
=(VAU)(U
1
M) =V(AM) =M
L
0
, (4)
which says that the rows of M
L
comprise an elementary set
of generators of L with respect to L
0
with corresponding
divisors on the diagonal of E.
It follows immediately fromLemma 1 and the Algorithm,
in particular the formula for matrix E, that, if M is a gener-
ator matrix of L and AM a generator matrix of L
0
, then
|L/L
0
| =N
1
N
2
N
d
=|det A|. (5)
Note also that the divisors N
1
, N
2
, . . . , N
d
are not neces-
sarily unique, but according to the theory of nite Abelian
groups, can be made unique up to order under the additional
divisibility condition N
1
|N
2
| |N
d
. In this case the divisors
are called elementary divisors.
Example As a simple example, let L be the square lattice in
R
2
generated by (1, 0) and (0, 1), and let L
0
be the sublattice
generated by (2, 4) and (6, 16). Then
A=
_
2 4
6 16
_
,
E =
_
1 0
3 1
_
A
_
1 2
0 1
_
=
_
2 0
0 4
_
,
M
L
=
_
1 2
0 1
_
1
_
1 0
0 1
_
=
_
1 2
0 1
_
.
Then an elementary set of generators for L with respect to
L
0
is {(1, 2), (0, 1)} with corresponding set {2, 4} of divi-
sors. Therefore
{(0, 0), (0, 1), (0, 2), (0, 3), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5)}
is a set of coset representatives of L/L
0
.
For a lattice L, the geometric dual (or reciprocal lattice)
of L is dened by
L
={y R
d
: x, y is an integer for all x L},
where x, y is the standard Euclidean inner product. If L
0
is a sublattice of L, then the rst two of the following prop-
erties are well known, and the third is easy to check. Here
=
denotes group isomorphism and M
T
the transpose of the
inverse of M.
1. L
<L
0
2.
L/L
0
=L
0
/L
0
/L
= Z, L
0
= (
1
N
)Z, and {0,
1
N
,
2
N
, . . . ,
N1
N
} is a set
of coset representatives of L
0
/L
, M
L
0
:=M
T
L
0
is a generator matrix of L
0
, and,
taking the inverse transpose of each side of equation (4),
EM
L
0
=M
L
.
This implies that the rows of M
L
0
comprise an elementary
set of generators for L
0
with respect to L
. Moreover, the
corresponding divisors are the same as for L with respect
to L
0
.
Example This is a continuation of the example that appears
earlier in this section in which L is the square lattice. In this
case L
0
:= M
T
L
0
=(EM
L
)
T
=
__
2 0
0 4
__
1 2
0 1
__
T
=
_
1
2
0
1
2
1
4
_
Then an elementary set of generators for L
0
with respect
to L
is {(
1
2
, 0), (
1
2
,
1
4
)} with corresponding set {2, 4} of
divisors. Therefore
_
(0, 0),
_
1
2
,
1
4
_
,
_
1,
1
2
_
,
_
3
2
,
3
4
_
,
_
1
2
, 0
_
,
_
0,
1
4
_
,
_
1
2
,
1
2
_
,
_
1,
3
4
__
is a set of coset representatives of L/L
0
.
3 The DFT on a Lattice
Given L
0
< L and g L, let g denote the coset of g in
L/L
0
, and likewise given h L
0
, let h denote the coset of
h in L
0
/L
. The isomorphism
: L
0
/L
L/L
0
h
h
in property (2) in Sect. 2 is given by
h
(g) =e
2ig,h
for g L/L
0
, the right hand side in the equation being in-
dependent of the choice of the particular coset representa-
tives g and h. In light of this and the DFT formula (1),
the DFT with spatial domain G=L/L
0
, frequency domain
G
=L
0
/L
given by
(Fa)(h) =
1
gG
a(g)e
2ig,h
(6)
for all a C
G
and all h G
)( g ) =
1
hG
(h)e
2ig,h
(7)
for all a
C
G
j=0
a(j)e
2i
jk
M
.
The precise form of the DFT is given in (9) and (10) below.
Using a fast Fourier transform on each 1-dimensional DFT,
the above result provides a run time of
O
_
N
d
i=1
logN
i
N
1
N
2
N
i1
_
.
Proof We prove the result for the DFT; a similar proof holds
for the inverse DFT. Since the sum on the right hand side of
(6) is independent of the particular set of representatives,
we take a set S of representatives of the form (3) associated
with an elementary set {v
1
, v
2
, . . . , v
d
} of generators for L
with respect to L
0
. If these vectors form the rows of gen-
erator matrix M, then by property (3) in Sect. 2, the rows
{v
1
, v
2
, . . . , v
d
} of (EM)
T
comprise an elementary set of
generators for L
0
with respect to L
k
) =(EM)
T
M
T
=E
1
.
Hence
v
j
, v
k
=
_
1
N
j
, if j =k,
0, otherwise.
So
_
d
i=1
j
i
v
i
,
d
i=1
k
i
v
i
_
=
d
i=1
1
N
i
j
i
k
i
. (8)
J Math Imaging Vis (2007) 28: 125133 129
For ease of notation use J = (j
1
, j
2
, . . . , j
d
) for j
1
v
1
+
j
2
v
2
+ +j
d
v
d
and K =(k
1
, k
2
, . . . , k
d
) for k
1
v
1
+k
2
v
2
+
+k
d
v
d
. Then using formula (8) the DFT in formula (6)
becomes
(Fa)(K)
=
1
a(J)e
2i
j
1
k
1
N
1
e
2i
j
2
k
2
N
2
e
2i
j
d
k
d
N
d
=
1
N
N
d
1
j
d
=0
e
2i
j
d
k
d
N
d
_
_
N
2
1
j
2
=0
e
2i
j
2
k
2
N
2
_
N
1
1
j
1
=0
a(J)e
2i
j
1
k
1
N
1
___
, (9)
where the summation in the rst line is 0 j
1
<N
1
, . . . , 0
j
d
<N
d
. Thus the DFT can be reduced to computing the fol-
lowing 1-dimensional DFTs, the rst done N/N
1
times, the
second N/(N
1
N
2
) times, . . . , the last computed just once.
b
1
(k
1
, j
2
, . . . , j
d
) =
N
1
1
j
1
=0
a(j
1
, j
2
, . . . , j
d
)e
2i
j
1
k
1
N
1
,
b
2
(k
1
, k
2
, j
3
, . . . , j
d
) =
N
2
1
j
2
=0
b
1
(k
1
, j
2
, . . . , j
d
)e
2i
j
2
k
2
N
2
,
(Fa)(K) =b
d
(k
1
, k
2
, . . . , k
d
)
=
N
d
1
j
d
=0
b
d1
(k
1
, k
2
, . . . , k
d1
, j
d
)e
2i
j
d
k
d
N
d
.
(10)
Since a fast Fourier transform running time on a 1-dimen-
sional DFT of size N
i
is O(N
i
logN
i
), the total running time
is as given in the statement of the theorem.
Example This is a continuation of the example that appears
twice in the previous section, where L is the square lattice
in R
2
generated by (1, 0) and (0, 1) and L
0
is the sublattice
generated by (2, 4) and (6, 16). Let a be a function dened
on L/L
0
. As an example we compute a((
1
2
,
1
2
)). Note that
(
1
2
,
1
2
) and (
1
2
,
1
2
) =(
1
2
, 0) +2(
1
2
,
1
4
) represent the same
coset in L
0
/L
j
2
=0
b(k
1
, j
2
)e
ij
2
,
where
b(k
1
, 0) =a(0, 0) a(1, 0),
b(k
1
, 1) =a(0, 1) a(1, 1),
b(k
1
, 2) =a(0, 2) a(1, 2),
b(k
1
, 3) =a(0, 3) a(1, 3).
In terms of actual coordinates in R
2
,
a
_
1
2
,
1
2
_
= a(0, 0) +a(1, 3) +a(0, 2) +a(1, 5)
a(1, 2) a(0, 1) a(1, 4) a(0, 3).
4 Hexagonal Grids
The standard hexagonal lattice H is the lattice in R
2
with
generators
v
1
=(1, 0), v
2
=
_
1
2
,
3
2
_
.
Any scaled and/or rotated copy of H is also called hexago-
nal. The dual lattice H
1
=
_
1,
1
3
,
_
, v
2
=
_
0,
2
3
_
.
4.1 Hexagonal Domains
A particularly nice sampling method is to take a hexagonal
shaped spatial domain D. Figure 1 shows representatives of
two (of the many) such families. In general, it is not hard
to show that there exists such a hexagonal shaped set D of
coset representatives of H/H
0
in the case that H
0
is also a
hexagonal lattice. Call H/H
0
a hexagonal domain if both H
and H
0
are hexagonal lattices. If M is the generator matrix
of H with v
1
, v
2
as the rows, then it is easy to show that a
matrix is the generator matrix of a hexagonal sublattice of
H if and only if it has the form AM, where
A=
_
r s
s r s
_
for some integers r, s. This is because, if (r, s)M is an arbi-
trary point of H, then (s, r s)M is just (r, s)M rotated
2/3. Let H
r,s
be the sublattice of H with generator matrix
AM. According to formula (5) the order N of H/H
r,s
is
N =|H/H
r,s
| =|det A| =|r
2
rs +s
2
|.
Fig. 1 Hexagonal domains
130 J Math Imaging Vis (2007) 28: 125133
Since H and H
r,s
are both hexagonal, so are H
and H
r,s
.
Hence both the spatial domain G
r,s
= H/H
r,s
and fre-
quency domain G
r,s
= H
r,s
/H
r,s
N
N1
j=0
a(j)e
2i
jk
N
.
Moreover, v
1
=(1, 0) is a generator of the cycle group G
r,s
that corresponds to the generator 1 Z/NZ under the iso-
morphism G
r,s
=Z/NZ.
Proof It is rst shown, for some w H, that {v
1
, w} is an
elementary generating set for H with respect to H
r,s
, with
corresponding elementary divisors N and 1. The order of
the group G
r,s
is N = |r
2
rs + s
2
|. Therefore Nv
1
H
r,s
. Since r and s are relatively prime, there exist integers
x, y such that sx + (r s)y = 1. Let c = rx sy. Then
cv
1
+v
2
=(c, 1)M =(x, y)AM H
r,s
. With w =cv
1
+v
2
,
clearly {v
1
, w} generates H. In fact, this is an elementary
generating set with corresponding elementary divisors N
and 1 because, rst, |S| = |{jv
1
+ w: 0 j < N}| = N =
|G
r,s
| and, second, both Nv
1
H
r,s
and w H
r,s
. We have
thus shown that G
r,s
is a cycle group of order N with gen-
erator v
1
.
Now {0, v
1
, 2v
1
, . . . , (N 1)v
1
} is a set of coset repre-
sentatives of G
r,s
. According to the discussion at the end of
Sect. 2, there is an elementary set {v
, w
} of generators of
G
r,s
with respect to G
, so that Nv
, w
, and hence
{0, v
, 2v
, . . . , (N 1)v
r,s
. Hence G
r,s
is also a cycle group of order N. More-
over, by formula (9) we have
(Fa)(k) =
1
N
N1
j=0
a(j)e
2i
jk
N
.
= H
2n+1,n+1
and suppose that d, d
D
n
represent the same coset, i.e.
d d
D
2n
. Hence
d d
D
2n
. The six closest points to the origin in H
is
3N. Therefore H
D
2n
={0}, which implies
that d d
=0 and d =d
.
Concerning the bijection , let (jv
1
+ kv
2
) = c
Z/NZ. Since (v
1
) = 1 by Theorem 3, in the notation of
Sect. 2, (j, k)M (c, 0)M H
1
=
n
N
v
1
+
n +1
N
v
2
,
u
2
=
n +1
N
v
1
+
2n +1
N
v
2
generate the dual lattice H
2n+1,n+1
and
D
n
={ju
1
+ku
2
: |j| n, |k| n, |j +k| n}
is a set of coset representatives of (H/H
2n+1,n+1
)
. More-
over, the isomorphism : D
n
Z/NZ of Theorem 3 is
given by
(ju
1
+ku
2
) j +k(3n +2) (mod N).
Example Consider the simple case n =1 where N =7. The
isomorphisms of D
1
and D
1
with Z/7Z are shown in Fig. 2.
Note that the scale in the gure is not accurate; the distance
between neighboring points in the left diagram is 1 whereas
in the right diagram it is 2/
=
(3/7, 1/7
1
of Fig. 2.
According to Theorems 3 and 4
(Fa)(h
) =(Fa)(4) =
1
7
6
j=0
a(j)e
8ij/7
.
We note that the 1-dimensional DFT for the family of
hexagonal domains discussed in this section is not necessar-
ily amenable to a Cooley-Tukey type fast Fourier transform
because N = 3n
2
+ 3n + 1 does not necessarily factor into
small primes. In fact, 263 of the rst 1000 integers of this
form are themselves prime.
Fig. 2 Coset representatives of H/H
3,2
and of (H/H
3,2
)
3
2
i. Then
the hexagonal lattice H is generated by 1 and . Note that
1 + +
2
=0.
The 2-dimensional GBT (generalized balanced ternary)
hexagonal sublattices are dened by
H
n
=
n
H ={
n
x: x H}, where =2 .
The standard set D of coset representatives of H/H
1
con-
sists of the origin and its six neighboring points in the hexag-
onal lattice H:
D ={
0
+
1
+
2
2
:
i
=0 or 1}.
Fig. 3 GBT aggregates
132 J Math Imaging Vis (2007) 28: 125133
It is more common in the literature to see the elements of
D denoted {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. The correspondence is
0
+
1
+
2
0
+
1
2 +
2
2
2
(the rationale being that
2 (mod )). For example, 3 and 1+ denote the same lattice
point. The standard set of coset representatives of H/H
n
,
n 1, is
D
n
=
_
n1
k=0
d
k
k
: d
k
D
_
.
The order N of the group GBT
n
=H/H
n
is
N =|GBT
n
| =7
n
.
The following theorem reduces the computation of the DFT
for the GBT at any resolution n to a single 1-dimensional
DFT. Since N is a power of 7, the DFT is highly amenable
to a fast Fourier transform via the Cooley-Tukey algorithm.
Corollary 5 There are isomorphisms GBT
n
= Z/NZ and
GBT
N
N1
j=0
a(j)e
2i
jk
N
.
Proof If M is the usual generator matrix for H, then B
n
M
is the generator matrix of H
n
, where
B =
_
2 1
1 3
_
.
Let
B
n
=
_
p
n
q
n
q
n
p
n
q
n
_
.
By Theorem 3 it sufces to show that p
n
and q
n
are rela-
tively prime. This is proved by induction. It is clearly true
for n = 1. Assume that p
n
and q
n
are relatively prime, and
by way of contradiction that p
n+1
and q
n+1
have a common
prime factor d =1. The pair (p
n
, q
n
) satises the recurrence
(p
n+1
, q
n+1
) =(p
n
, q
n
)
_
2 1
1 3
_
.
Solving the above linear system for p
n
and q
n
we obtain
7p
n
=3p
n+1
q
n+1
,
7q
n
=p
n+1
+2q
n+1
.
Thus both 7p
n
and 7q
n
are divisible by d, which shows that
either both p
n
and q
n
are divisible by d, contradicting that
they are relatively prime, or d = 7. But for no n does 7
divide both p
n
and q
n
for the following reason. From the
Cayley-Hamilton Theorem, B
2
= 5B 7 5B (mod 7),
from which it readily follows that B
7
= B (mod 7). Now
we merely check that for the matrices B, B
2
, B
3
, B
4
, B
5
,
B
6
the entries in the rst row are not both congruent to 0
modulo 7.
Again, to make practical use of Corollary 5, it is helpful
to have the bijection : D
n
Z/7
n
Z between the standard
set D
n
of coset representatives for GBT
n
and Z/7
n
Z. With
respect to complex addition and multiplication, GBT
n
is a
ring. Corollary 5 shows that GBT
n
is an (additive) cyclic
group of order 7
n
generated by 1. So there is a group iso-
morphism which readily extends to a ring isomorphism
: GBT
n
Z/7
n
Z
induced by taking 1 GBT
n
to 1 Z/7
n
Z. This pro-
vides the required bijection. To apply to an arbitrary
d =
n1
k=0
d
k
k
D
n
use the ring isomorphism:
(d) =
n1
k=0
(d
k
)()
k
=
n1
k=0
[
0k
+
1k
+
2k
()
2
](2 )
k
,
where d
k
=
0k
+
1k
+
2k
2
. So is completely deter-
mined by .
The number can be computed recursively with re-
spect to n using only the identities 2 (mod ) and
1 ++
2
=0. Computing for n =1, 2, 3 should make
the general method clear. Since 2 (mod ) we have
2 (mod 7). Therefore
=2 if n =1.
(Note that the isomorphism in this case is exactly the same
as given in Fig. 2.) Proceeding to the case n = 2, the above
implies that 2+7x (mod 7
2
) for some integer x. Since
1 + +
2
= 0 we have 1 + + ()
2
0 (mod 7
2
).
Therefore
0 1 +(2 +7x) +(2 +7x)
2
7 +35x (mod 7
2
),
which implies that 1 + 5x 0 (mod 7) or x 4 (mod 7).
Therefore
=2 +7 4 =30 if n =2.
Proceeding to the case n = 3, since 30 (mod 7
2
) we
have 30 + 7
2
x (mod 7
3
) for some integer x. Since
1 + +
2
= 0 we have 1 + + ()
2
0 (mod 7
3
).
J Math Imaging Vis (2007) 28: 125133 133
Therefore
0 1 +(30 +7
2
x) +(30 +7
2
x)
2
931 +61 7
2
x (mod 7
3
),
which implies that 19 +61x 0 (mod 7) or x 6 (mod 7).
Therefore
=30 +7
2
6 =324 if n =3.
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Andrew Vince is on the faculty of the Mathematics Department at the
University of Florida and has held visiting positions at Massey Univer-
sity in New Zealand, Dokuz Eylul University in Turkey, Makerere Uni-
versity in Uganda, Chancellor College in Malawi, and Kaiserslautern
University in Germany.
Xiqiang Zheng is completing his doctorate at the University of
Florida.