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open market place in center of the city-state

Alexander the Great

Son of Phillip II, at age 20 became king of Macedonia and created largest empire in the world. Wanted to spread his love of Greek culture to his conquered lands. Kept control by -allowing conquered people to continue to practice their own religions and naming himself a god. -He used Greek cities as a model for new cities in his empire complete with an agora, theater, temple etc. -Most famous of his cities was Alexandria, Egypt -Encouraged his soldiers to marry Persian women -Forced all government officials and soldiers to speak Greek -He became ill,died and empire fell apart as Generals fought for control.

Ancient Egypt dividedq

Upper and Lower Kingdom

Ancient Egyptian form of recreation

hunting hippos


god of embalming


Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities


dug out mummies from tombs


Rich social class in Greek city states that advised and provided supplies to the king (monarch). May overthrow him and take power to form Oligarchy


The law making group within a Greek city-state made up of all male citizens


Imperial title given to Octavian from the Senate marking the founding of the Empire of Rome.

Battle of Marathon - Greek victory

Persian King Darius wanted to punish the Athenians for helping the Ionians during their rebellion. Greeks, led by Miltiades, used the "natural geography" against the Persians: 1)Battle took place between two mountains. 2)Persians couldn't use cavalry (couldn't get horses on marshy land). Persians were drawn into the Greek's purposely weakened center allowing Greek forces to surround them.

Battle of Salamis - Greek victory

Greek naval leader, Themistocles, used "natural geography " to force the larger Persian fleet, led by Xerxes, to advance a fewer number of their ships into battle with the smaller Greek fleet.
Greeks, led by Leonidas, used the "natural geography"- a narrow pass, against the Persians. Once again Persians, led by King Xerxes, could not use their cavalry. Leonidas and his Spartans held off the Persians so other Greek soldiers could return home to unite and defend the Greeks against Xerxes' forces.

Battle of Thermopylae - Persians won BUT many Greeks considered it a victory


ran schools often located in cathedrals(large churches) in charge of all churches in a certain area


A title used by all Roman emperors. When a New Testament writer mentions "Caesar," he means the emperor who was ruling at the time.


Only ruled for four years, mentally unstable. He had an affair with his sister and named them both as Gods. He also named his horse a consul.

capital of Ancient Egypt


Church of England

Henry V III broke away from the popes authority and set up his own church (Anglican)


An intelligent and scholarly man who conquered Britain. It is believed that his wife, Agrippina, poisoned him with tainted mushrooms


last queen of Egypt - had relationship with Julius Ceasar and Marc Antony

colonization reasons and process

Greeks needed to establish colonies to get things they needed (ex. food and timber.) They would consult an oracle, gather food and supplies, travel by sea and then choose a good location for a colony with a good harbor and weak natives.


Ancient Roman arena known for its tremendous architecture and bloody entertainment


Marcus Aurelius' weak spoiled son who was named successor


Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity

Corinthian column

Youngest type, extremely decorative capitals detailed with acanthus leaves--had a base. Romans used this style more than the Greeks.


a set of two King-like officials of Rome who commanded the army and government. Elected by the Roman Assembly, only ruled for one year, and could overrule/veto the other Council.

craft guild

made up of people of the same craft (tailor, hatter, smiths, etc)


were "wars for the cross" to free the holy land from muslim control,


Persian King and leader of the Persians at the Battle of Marathon. Held the largest Persian empire in history.
Form of government where the majority rules. Advantages accountability;social responsibilty. Disadvantages - possibly wrong choices made;slow process for decision making.



red, dry land


A political leader given absolute power to make laws and command the army for a limited time during a state of emergency.


Emperor of Rome (284-305) who divided the empire into east and west (286) in an attempt to rule the territory more effectively. His desire to revive the old religion of Rome led to the last major persecution of the Christians (303).

direction of flow of the Nile River

south to north

Doric column

Oldest style which had a simple capital and no base


located in Africa

Egyptian calendar

3 seasons - flooding, planting, harvesting


process of making a mummy (preserving a dead body)


Beginning in the 700s BCE, first rulers of Roman Republic and Empire; Laid the foundation for Rome and Roman civilization.

Feudal village

a typical village help between 50500 peasants, had huts, a church, blacksmiths shed, and a mill for grinding grain and farm and animal fields


Is a system of government, a way of life and a distinctive kind of society. Set up as a system of protection against barbarian tribes after the fall of Rome. All nobles and knights were trained warriors who fought on horse back with swords and lances during the middle ages. A vassal or less powerful noble gave its service and loyalty to a lord. In return the lord granted land called fiefs to the vassal.


owned or rented land from the lord and had few obligations to the lord

geography & effect on Greek settlement and life

Mountainous land made travel difficult and led to isolated, independent city-states. Not enough farm land to feed growing population. Easy access to sea for trade/travel. Time of peace between the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars when Athenian leaders, especially Pericles, focused on cultural achievements wanting to make Athens a center for art and learning. an association of people in the same business or trade, members of a guild had to follow the same standards, use the same materials, and sell goods for same price

Golden Age of Athens



"Romanized"and organized the empire- built bridges, roads, and aqueducts, ruled during the height of the Pax Romana, Built Hadrians Wall across Britain, strengthened borders Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.



first female pharaoh


organ responsible for memory, intelligence and thought


The waterway/strait that connected the Black Sea to the Aegean (major trade route). Also the site of the siege of Troy during the Trojan War. Also where Xerxes crossed using a bridge of boats during the Persian Wars.


Spartan slaves; given more rights in Sparta compared to most Greek city-states


"Father of History" --first to write accurate accounts of events BUT accounts were biased (favored the Greeks)!


"Father of Medicine" --he began to base his practices on observations of patients instead of "magic."


Ancient Greek writer of epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey were first stories written after the Greek Dark Ages.


god of sun and sky

Ionic column

Middle child, slightly more decorative than Doric. The capital was shaped like scroll (called a volute) and had a base.

irrigation system

canals linked to fields through ditches

jobs of pharaoh

supreme ruler, issued laws, ran army, managed economy

John Calvin

wanted to discard any church practice not based on the bible although similar to Martin Luther, his followers made their own religion called Calvinists A successful Roman general and famous speaker, was governer of Gaul, used army to expand control of Roman Republic, eventually becoming a "dictator for life".

Julius Caesar


rich, black soil of the Nile

King John

king of England in the 13th Century, forced nobles to pay higher taxes

King Tut

found treasures buried with him


A military unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback.

Leonardo Da Vinci

during the Renaissance he was a great painter, inventor canons, covered chariot, helicopter and submarine-Mona Lisa & The Last Supper


Spartan king led Greek forces against Xerxes at Thermopylae where Greeks were outnumbered 50-1.

life on a manor

economy based on agriculture,

Magna Carta

equals latin meaning "Great Charter" Set forth rules that the king and his officials had to follow, limited the powers of the english king, people were granted a trial by jury, root of rights and liberties basis for the 20th century democracy


large farm or estate on a fief

Marcus Aurelias

Brought the empire to the height of economic prosperity and defeated invaders, also wrote philosophy

Martin Luther

questioned the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church and didn't believe the authority of the pope, thought christians should only follow what was actually written in the bible and had the bible translated to german and was excommunicated by the church and his followers became known as Lutherans and Protestants

Medieval Times

is a period of time of European history between ancient and modern times approximately betweem AD 500-1500

Menes (Narmer)

united Upper and Lower Egypt

merchant guild

people who bought and sold goods but didn't make them

Michael Angelo

painter of the ceiling in the Sistine Chapel, sculptor of Pieta and David and poet


Greek leader--During the Battle of Marathon used "natural geography of the land" to create the strategy that defeated the Persians despite the Greeks being outnumbered 3-1.


Government ruled by one person; ease of transition of power from father to son. Lawful claim to be king. Advantagesstability;decisions made quickly. Disadvantages- only one family rules; rash decisions made. religious men who lived in a monastery and worked together for long hours in the fields and grew their own food, went to church to pray and sing. also had a quiet time for reading and studying, copied books by hand to keep education and history alive



limited freedom by the control of the production of goods by one group


Great Beauty - encouraged belief in 1 god


Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68)


smaller territories within Ancient Egypt


religious women who lived in convents, lived lives full of prayer and work, gave up everything they owned and never married


a tall, four-sided pillar that is pointed on top

Octavian Augustus

Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC.


Rule by a few (from wealthy ruling class or aristocrats) Advantages checks and balances and stablity. Disadvantages - the rich get richer while poor get poorer because of the decisions of the Oligarchs.


the wealthy class in Roman society; large landowners.

Pax Romana

A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.


farm workers/all peasants were free men or serfs


Famous military and political leader of Athens during the Golden Age. Responsible for the rebuilding of the Parthenon and refining the Athenian democractic system.

Persian Wars

Reason for conflict: Ionian colonists rebelled against Persian taxation and were assisted by Athens. Persian King Darius wanted revenge. Three battles followed: Marathon, Thermopylae and Salamis.


military strategy/battle formation used by ancient Greeks characterized by overlapping shields and long spears

pharaoh's beard

symbolized pharaohs' connection to the gods




Socrate's most famous student continued Socrates' methods and founded world famous school


Members of the lower class of Ancient Rome including small farmers, merchants, artisans and traders.


belief in many gods


Roman city near Naples, Italy, which was buried during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79.
1095 called upon knights and nobles to fight for the holy land (part of the middle east where Jesus had lived) Pope told the knights it was a religious duty there were great riches to be won

Pope Urban II


held services in the village church, baptized babies, performed marriages, conducted burial services for the dead, and taught children their religious duties

printing press

machine that used moveable metal type copy documents faster, easier and cheaper invented by Johann Guttenberg in 1450 more people could by books and become educated, fueled renaissance and reformation

Punic Wars

a series of three wars between Rome and Carthage, resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance in the western Mediterranean.

pyramid of power (order)

pharaoh, priests, viziers, overseers, nomarchs, scribes, craftspeople, farmers




"Father of Numbers" famous for his Pythagorean Theorem which is still used today to measure the unknown distance between the two sides of a right triangle.

Ramses II

'The Great' - built many temples, statues,obelisks, defeated Hittites


artist, painter of Keeper of Remains of Rome

Red Pyramid

best preserved classic pyramid


Religious movement to reform the Roman Catholic Church.


french meaning-REBIRTH period of time starting at the end of middle ages, increased interest of roman and greek cultures started in Italy and spread through most of Europe


a form of government in which citizens elect representatives to speak or act for them.

Richard the Lionhearted

led the third crusade in 1189

Roman Catholic Church

most western europeans were members during the middle ages the church had a lot of power due to the influence it had over rulers and people set rules and standards for personal conduct and behavior

Romulus and Remus

Traditional story of how Rome began. Twins abandoned and rescued by a wolf, raised by a shepherd. Grew to build Rome.


writers and record keepers


A powerful, ruling body of 300 Roman patricians who served a life-term.


owns labor to the lord, not free to leave the manor


tool used for irrigation - heavy stone balances a water bucket


Famous Greek philosopher who taught students to question the facts and point out the weaknesses/strengths of the government and society's values; his teaching method (the Socratic method) is still used today.

Step Pyramid

a pyramid whose sides rise in a series of giant steps

steps to become a master craftsman

apprentice-young person taking up a trade, working without pay working with a master craftsmen-given food shelter and clothing journeymen-traveled around and paid for each days work and worked for number of years trying to create a master piece master-able to make a product that passes the very highest guild standards


money paid to a ruler or government in return for government services

taxes in Egypt

paid in goods (crops) and services

The Peloponnesian War

Cause: Sparta grew jealous over Athens prosperity and declared war. Result: Sparta wins BUT city-states are divided and weakened by the war. Philip II of Macedonia sees this as the opportunity to take over Greece.

The Sacred Lake

pool of water next to the temple

The Trojan War

A ten year seige of Troy by united Greek citystates. Homer wrote about this war in the Iliad and said it was caused by the capture of Helen of Sparta. Many believe the real cause was control of trading port of Troy on the Hellespont-- the only connection between the Black and Aegean Seas.


" Father of Scientific History" -wrote non-biased factual accounts of events.


Son-in-law of Augustus who became a suspicious tyrannical Emperor of Rome after a brilliant military career (42 BC to AD 37)
centers for living with walls and gates for protection from bandits and armies. houses and shops were crowded close together within the walls, townspeople didn't have to labor for a lord but pay taxes instead, serfs who lived in a town for a year and a day became free



Adopted by Nerva (previous emperor); One of the "Good Emperors"; Professional soldier from Spain; 1st non-Italian emperor; Brought Rome to it's height in size (about size of US)


an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights.


government of ancient Rome ruled equally by three people.

Twelve Tables

The earliest written collection of Roman laws, drawn up by patricians about 450 B.C. that became the foundation of Roman law.
One ruler who gains power by force, unlawful claim to be in charge. Advantages - stability, quick decisions. Disadvantages - one decision maker; control people by fear. Emperor of Rome and founder of the Flavian dynasty who consolidated Roman rule in Germany and Britain and reformed the army and brought prosperity to the empire



viziers and overseers

high ranking officials who helped the pharaoh


Son of King Darius, led Persians at Thermopylae and Salamis.