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Cauchy and Heine Definitions of Limit

Let f (x) be a function that is defined on an open interval X containing x = a. (The value f (a) need not be defined.) The number L is called the limit of function f (x) as if and only if, for every there exists such that

whenever

This definition is known as

or Cauchy definition for limit.

There's also the Heine definition of the limit of a function, which states that a function f (x) has a limit L at x = a, if for every sequence , which has a limit at a, the sequence
One-Sided Limits

has a limit L. The Heine and Cauchy definitions of limit of a function are equivalent.

Let denote the limit as x goes toward a by taking on values of x such that x < a. The corresponding limit the left-hand limit of f (x) at the point x = a.

is called

Similarly, let denote the limit as x goes toward a by taking on values of x such that x > a. The corresponding limit called the right-hand limit of f (x) at x = a.

Note that the 2-sided limit In this case,

exists only if both one-sided limits exist and are equal to each other, i.e.

Example 1

Using the
Solution.

definition of limit, show that

Let

be an arbitrary positive number. Choose

. We see that if

then

Thus, by Cauchy definition, the limit is proved.


Example 2

Using the
Solution.

definition of limit, show that , i.e.

For convenience, we will suppose that

Let

be an arbitrary number. Then we can write the following inequality:

Since the maximum value of x is 3 (as we supposed above), we obtain

Then for any

we can choose the number such that

As a result, the inequalities in the definition of limit will be satisfied. Therefore, the given limit is proved.
Example 3

Using the

definition of limit, find the number that corresponds to the given with the following limit:

Solution.

According to the definition of limit,

Substituting f (x) and , we get

Square all three parts of the inequality.

which is equivalent to the inequality

Thus, we can choose the number


Example 4

to satisfy the original inequality for .

Prove that
Solution.

. . Assume . We must have

We can apply the similar techniques to limits at

We can choose a number N, depending on , such that

. Then the inequality

will be satisfied if

This means that at large N (as

The graph of the function is sketched in Figure 1.

Fig.1
Example 5

Fig.2

Prove that
Solution.

. . Find a number N such that for any x > N the following inequality is valid:

Assume that

Transform this inequality to get

Since

, then

, so we can simply write

By setting

(or N = 0 if this difference is negative), we obtain

This means that (see Figure 2)

Notation of Limit The limit of a function is designated as or using the limit notation: .

Below we assume that the limits of functions Sum Rule This rule states that the limit of the sum of two functions is equal to the sum of their limits:

exist.

Extended Sum Rule

Constant Function Rule The limit of a constant function is the constant:

Constant Multiple Rule The limit of a constant times a function is equal to the product of the constant and the limit of the function:

Product Rule This rule says that the limit of the product of two functions is the product of their limits (if they exist):

Extended Product Rule

Quotient Rule The limit of quotient of two functions is the quotient of their limits, provided that the limit in the denominator function is not zero:

Power Rule

where the power p can be any real number. In particular,

If f ( x ) = x, then

This is a special case of the previous property. Limit of an Exponential Function

where the base a > 0.

Limit of a Logarithm of a Function

where the base a > 0. The Squeeze Theorem Suppose that for all x close to a, except perhaps for x = a. If

then

The idea here is that the function f (x) is squeezed between two other functions having the same limit L. Example 1 Find the limit Solution. .

Example 2

Find the limit

Solution. Using the properties of limits (the sum rule, the power rule, and the quotient rule), we get

Example 3

Suppose that Solution.

and

. Calculate the limit

Example 4

Calculate the limit Solution.

We know that

for all x. Then

Dividing by 2x 7 > 0, we obtain

(Since we consider large and positive x, and, hence, 2x 7 > 0, we do not switch the inequality signs.) Then

Calculate the left and right limits:

It follows from the Squeeze Theorem that

Example 5

Find the limit Solution. We know that

for all x. Then

Subtract 5x from all terms of the inequality. Dividing by , we get

(We do not switch the inequality signs, since Calculate the left and right limits:

is positive as

.)

We see that the left and right limits are equal to each other. Then by the Squeeze Theorem,

The basic trigonometric limit is

Using this limit, one can get the series of other trigonometric limits:

Further we assume that angles are measured in radians. Example 1

Find the limit Solution.

Since

we can write:

Example 2

Calculate the limit Solution. We factor the numerator:

This yields

Example 3

Find the limit

Solution. We use the following trigonometric identity:

Then we obtain

Since cos 4x is a continuous function at x = 0, then

Example 4

Calculate the limit Solution. Using the identity

we transform the limit in the following way:

Here sin (a) is a constant that does not depend on x. Therefore,

Example 5

Calculate the limit Solution.

Obviously,

Then

Example 6

Find the limit Solution. Using the identity

transform the limit:

Change the variable:

. When

, then

Hence,

Example 7

Find the limit Solution. Apply the following transformations:

Since

, we have

Here

Hence,

Here

when

, therefore,

Example 8

Find the limit Solution. We make the substitution:

. When

, then

. As a result, we have

Example 9

Find the limit Solution. Use the trigonometric formula:

Then the limit can be written in the form

We used here the fact that the limit remains the same when replacing Example 10

to

Calculate the limit Solution.

Using the identity

, we get

Obviously, the limit

is 1 and

as

, so we have

The number e is defined by:

The number e is a transcendental number which is approximately equal to 2,718281828... The substitution

where

, leads to another definition for e:

Here we meet with power expressions, in which the base and power approach to a certain number a (or to infinity). In many cases such of limits can be calculated by taking logarithm of the function. Example 1

Calculate the limit Solution.

Example 2

Find the limit

Solution. By the product rule for limits, we obtain

Example 3

Calculate the limit Solution.

Substituting

, so that x = 6y and

as

, we obtain

Example 4

Find the limit Solution.

Example 5

Find the limit

Solution. We first transform the base of the function:

Introduce the new variable:

. As

and, hence,

Substituting this into the function gives

Example 6

Calculate the limit Solution. First we transform the base:

Let

. Then

Now we can find the limit:

Example 7

Evaluate the limit

Solution. We can transform this limit as follows:

Replace the variable:

Here

as

. Then the limit is

Example 8

Find the limit Solution. Let

. It is easy to see that

as

. Then

Make one more change of variable:

Hence, the limit becomes

Example 9

Calculate the limit

Solution. The limit can be represented in the following form:

After taking logarithm, we have

We notice that with the equivalent limit

. Besides that, . This yields

as

, thefore, we can replace the transition

in the second lim

Since Thus .

, we get

Example 10

Fins the limit Solution. We write this limit as follows:

After taking the natural logarithm of each side:

We see that

. Then the second limit is equal to e, so we get

The final answer is

Logarithms with base e, where e is an irrational number whose value is 2,718281828..., are called natural logarithms. We denote the natural logarithm of x by ln x. Natural logarithms are widely used in mathematics, physics and engineering. Relationship between natural logarithm of a number and logarithm of the number to base a Let a be the base of logarithm (a > 0, a 1), and let This yields By taking the natural logarithm of both sides, we have

The last formula expresses logarithm of a number x to base a through natural logarithm of this number. By setting x = e, we have

If a = 10, we obtain:

The inverse relationship is

Graphs of the functions y = ln x and y = lg x are shown in Figure 1.

Fig.1 Example 1

Fig.2

Calculate Solution.

Example 2 Write as one logarithm:

Solution.

Example 3 Sketch the graph of the function Solution. The graph of the function and one unit down (see Figure 2). Example 4 .

is that of y = ln x shifted one unit to the left (we obtain the graph of the functiony = ln (x

Sketch the graph of the function Solution.

The graph of the function (Figure 3) can be built in the result of the following transformations. The portion of the graph of , at x 1, is identical to the graph of y = ln x, while the portion y < 0 (at 0 < x < 1), is reflected aboutthe x-axis into the upper half-plane.

Fig.3 Example 5 Sketch the graph of the function Solution. First we get the graph of .

Fig.4

, as described in the previous example. Then we reflect the graph of the function aboutthe y-axis to (Figure 4).

left half-plane to obtain the graph of the function

Indeterminate Forms Let f (x) and g (x) be two functions such that

Then the function indeterminate form

has the indeterminate form

at x = a. To find the limit at x = a when the function

hasthe

at this point, we must factor the numerator and denominator and then reduce the terms that approach zero.

Note: In this chapter, we do not apply L'Hopital's rule.

Indeterminate Forms Let f (x) and g (x) be two functions such that

where a where a is a real number, or + or . It is said that the function limit, we must divide the numerator and denominator by x of highest degree. Indeterminate Forms

has the indeterminate form

at this point. To fin

Indeterminate forms of these types can usually be treated by putting them into one of the forms Example 1

or

Find the limit Solution.

Direct substitution of x = 1 yields the indeterminate form

at the point x = 1. Therefore, we factor the numerator to get

Example 2

Calculate Solution. This is of the form

at y = 2. We factor the numerator and the denominator:

(Here we used the formula: ax2 + bx + c = a (x x1)(x x2), where x1 and x2 are the solutions of the quadratic equation.) Similarly,

Thus, the limit is

(by the quotient and product rules for limits). Example 3

Calculate Solution. Substituting Thus, we obtain

shows that this is of the form

. Divide the numerator and denominator by x3 (the highest degree in this expres

Example 4

Calculate the limit

Solution. We write the denominator in the form

and factor it as difference of cubes:

As a result we have

Example 5

Find the limit Solution. Change the variable:

. Then

. We have

Transform the last expression using the reduction formula

. As a result we find the limit of the function:

Example 6

Calculate Solution. If , then

Thus, we deal here with an indeterminate form of type corresponding conjugate expression.

. Multiply this expression (both the numerator andthe denominator) by th

By using the product and the sum rules for limits, we obtain

Example 7

Find the limit

Solution. To calculate this limit we rationalize the numerator and denominator multiplying them by the corresponding conjugate expressions:

Example 8

Find the limit

Solution. We divide both the numerator and denominator by x30 (the highest power of the fraction):

Example 9

Calculate the limit Solution. Using the formulas

we transform this expression as follows:

Example 10

Find the limit Solution. Let

. Then

as

. Hence,

Example 11

Find the limit Solution.

This function is defined only for t 0. Multiply and divide it by the conjugate expression

. So, we obtain

Both the numerator and denominator now approach as of t in the denominator. Then

. Hence, we divide numerator and denominator by

,the highest po

Example 12

Calculate the limit Solution.

Using the identity

, we can write the limit as follows

The first limit in the last expression, obviously, is equal to 1. In the second limit, the cosine function is bounded between 1 and 1, and denominator approaches as . Hence, the complete answer is

The function (x) is called infinitely small or an infinitesimal as Let (x) and (x) be two infinitely small functions as

if

If

, then we say that the function (x) is an infinitesimal of higher order than (x);

If order;

(A is a number different from zero), then the functions (x) and (x) are called infinitesimals of the s

If

, then the function (x) is called an infinitesimal of order n compared with the function (x);

If

, then the functions (x) and (x) are said to be equivalent as

In particular, the following functions are equivalent:

When calculating the limit of a ratio of two infinitesimals, we can replace the terms of the ratio by their equivalent values. Example 1

Find the limit

Solution. We use the formulas:

Then

Example 2

Find the limit Solution. Since

, the limit can be written as

Example 3

Find the limit Solution.

We know that

and

as

. Hence,

Example 4

Calculate the limit

Solution. Replacing the square root with the equivalent infinitely small function, we have

Example 5

Calculate the limit Solution. Apply the formula

as

. This yields:

Example 6

Calculate the limit

Solution. Change the variable: x = y. Here y 0 as x . Hence,

Using the reduction formula

, we obtain

Finally, replacing the cosine with the equivalent infinitesimal

, we find the limit:

Example 7

Calculate the limit Solution.

Using the equivalent expression for logarithm:

as

, we have

Example 8

Calculate the limit Solution. Let

. Then

as

, so that the limit becomes

Now we use the algebraic identity

to find the limit:

Example 9

Calculate the limit

Solution. We use the following equivalent representations:

Then

Replacing

, we get the final answer:

Example 10

Calculate the limit Solution. Change the variable:

Then the limit can be written through the new variable y as

Replace the functions of cosine and sine with their equivalent infinitely small functions:

Then the limit becomes

We can consider only first-order infinitesimals and neglect second-order infinitesimals

. As a result, we obtain the final answer

L'Hopital's Rule provides a method for evaluating indeterminate forms of type Let a be either a finite number or infinity.

or

If

and

, then

If

and

, then

This rule appeared in 1696 (!) in the first book on differential calculus published by French mathematician Guillaume de l'Hopital(16611704).

We can apply L'Hopital's rule to indeterminate forms of type forms forms can be reduced to the forms can be reduced to the form and

as well. The first two indeterminate using algebraic transformations. The indeterminate

with the help of identity

L'Hopital's rule also holds for one-sided limits. Example 1

Find the limit

Solution. Differentiating the numerator and denominator separately, we get

Example 2

Find the limit Solution.

Because direct substitution leads to an indeterminate form

, we can use L'Hopital's rule:

Example 3

Calculate the limit

Solution. Here we deal with an inderminate form of type

. After simple transformations, we have

Example 4

Find the limit

Solution. Using L'Hopital's rule, we can write

Example 5

Calculate the limit Solution.

In this example we deal with an indeterminate form of type

. Let

. After taking logarithms of both sides, we have

Now we apply L'Hopital's rule:

Then

Example 6

Find the limit

Solution.

We have an indeterminate form of type

. Let

. Then

Using L'Hopital's rule, we obtain

Hence,

Example 7 Calculate the limit Solution. Let . Take logarithms of both sides: .

Find the limit ln y.

Hence,

Example 8

Calculate the limit Solution.

We have an indeterminate form of type

. Let

. Then after taking logarithms we have

Apply L'Hopital's rule twice to get

Thus,

Example 9

Find the limit Solution.

Direct substitution leads to the indeterminate form of type

. Let

. Take logarithms of both sides.

Apply L'Hopital's rule:

Then the final answer is

Example 10

Calculate the limit Solution.

The function has an indeterminate form of type

. Apply L'Hopital's rule n times:

Example 11

Find the limit

Solution. According to L'Hopital's rule, we differentiate both the numerator and denominator a few times until the indeterminate form disappears

Example 12

Calculate the limit Solution.

Here we deal with an indeterminate form of type

. Let

. Then

Then the limit becomes

As can be seen, we still have an indeterminate form, so we differentiate the numerator and denominator one more time:

Hence,

Heine Definition of Continuity A real function f (x) is said to be continuous at ( is the set of real numbers), if for any sequence such that

it holds that

In practice, it is convenient to use the following three conditions of continuity of a function f (x) at point x = a: 1. Function f (x) is defined at x = a;

2. 3.

Limit It holds that

exists; .

Cauchy Definition of Continuity ( - Definition) Consider a function f (x) that maps a set of real numbers to another set B of real numbers. The function f (x) is said to becontinuous at if for any number there exists some number such that for all with the value of f (x) satisfies:

Definition of Continuity in Terms of Differences of Independent Variable and Function We can also define continuity using differences of independent variable and function. The function f (x) is said to becontinuous at the p = a if the following is valid:

where

All the definitions of continuity given above are equivalent on the set of real numbers. A function f (x) is continuous on a given interval, if it is continuous at every point of the interval. Continuity Theorems Theorem 1. Let the function f (x) be continuous at x = a and let C be a constant. Then the function f (x) is also continuous at x = a. Theorem 2. Let the functions f (x) and g (x) be continuous at x = a. Then the sum of the functions f (x) + g (x) is also continuous atx = a. Theorem 3. Let the functions f (x) and g (x) be continuous at x = a. Then the product of the functions f (x) g (x) is also continuous atx = a.

Theorem 4.

Let the functions f (x) and g (x) be continuous at x = a. Then the quotient of the functions that .

is also continuous at x = aassuming

Theorem 5. Let f (x) be differentiable at the point x = a. Then the function f (x) is continuous at that point. Remark: The converse of the theorem is not true, that is, a function that is continuous at a point is not necessarily differentiable at that p Theorem 6 (Extreme Value Theorem). If f (x) is continuous on the closed, bounded interval [a, b], then it is bounded above and below in that interval. That is, there exist numbers m and M such that for every x in [a, b] (see Figure 1).

Fig.1 Fig.2 Theorem 7 (Intermediate Value Theorem). Let f (x) be continuous on the closed, bounded interval [a, b]. Then if c is any number between f (a) and f (b), there isa number x0 such The intermediate value theorem is illustrated in Figure 2. Continuity of Elementary Functions All elementary functions are continuous at any point where they are defined. An elementary function is a function built from a finite number of compositions and combinations using the four operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) over basic elementary functions. The set of basic elementary functionsincludes:

1.

Algebraical polynomials

2.

Rational fractions

3.

Power functions

4.

Exponential functions

5.

Logarithmic functions

6.

Trigonometric functions

7.

Inverse trigonometric functions

8.

Hyperbolic functions

9.

Inverse hyperbolic functions

Example 1 Using the Heine definition, prove that the function is continuous at any point x = a.

Solution. Using the Heine definition we can write the condition of continuity as follows:

where x and y are small numbers shown in Figure 3. At any point x = a:

So that,

Calculate the limit:

Thus, the function is continuous at any point x = a.

Fig.3 Example 2 Using the Heine definition, show that the function Solution. The secant function

Fig.4

is continuous for any x in its domain.

has domain all real numbers x except those of the form

where cosine is zero. Let x be a differential of independent variable x. Find the corresponding differential of function y.

Calculate the limit as

This result is valid for for all x except the roots of the cosine function:

Hence, the range of continuity and the domain of the function Example 3

fully coincide.

Using Cauchy definition, prove that Solution. Let . We must find some number

so that for all x with

the following inequality is valid:

We can write the last expression as

Hence, Notice that our function takes only non-negative values. Therefore the -neighborhood at the given point must satisfy the condition this case the left side 2 4 of the inequality will be negative. It follows from here that

Thus, if we take 4 2, then for all x with

, we will have

. For example, if = 0.1, then the value

of must be 4 2 = 0.4 0.01 = 0.39. This means, by Cauchy definition, that

Example 4 Show that the cubic equation Solution. Let . Calculate the values of the function at x = 2 and x = 3. has a solution in the interval (2,3).

Hence, we have f (2) < 0 and f (3) > 0, or

By the intermediate value theorem, this means that there exists a number c in the interval (2,3) such that Thus, the equation has a solution in the interval (2,3). Example 5 Show that the equation Solution. Since the function is a polynomial, it is continuous. We notice that has a root.

Therefore such that Example 6 Let

. Then we can conclude by the intermediate value theorem, that there exists a number c inthe interval (0, . Thus, the equation has a solution in the interval (0,1).

Determine a and b so that the function f (x) is continuous everywhere. Solution. The left-side limit at x = 0 is

Then the value of ax + b at x = 0 must be 2.

Similarly, the right-side limit at x = 1 is

As seen, the value of ax + 2 at x = 1 must be 4.

For given values of a and b, the function f (x) is continuous. The graph of the function is sketched in Figure 4. Example 7 If the function

is continuous, what is the value of a? Solution. We calculate the left-hand and right-hand limits at x = 1.

The function will be continuous at x = 1, if

Hence,

Discontinuous Functions If f (x) is not continuous at x = a, then f (x) is said to be discontinuous at this point. Figure 1 shows the graphs of four functions, two of which are continuous at x = a and two are not.

Continuous at x = a.

Discontinuous at x = a.

Continuous at x = a.
Figure 1. Classification of Discontinuity Points All discontinuity points are divided into discontinuities of the first and second kind. The function f (x) has a discontinuity of the first kind at x = a if

Discontinuous at x = a.

There exist left-hand limit These one-sided limits are finite.

and right-hand limit

Further there may be the following two options: The right-hand limit and the left-hand limit are equal to each other:

Such a point is called a removable discontinuity. The right-hand limit and the left-hand limit are unequal:

In this case the function f (x) has a jump discontinuity. The function f (x) is said to have a discontinuity of the second kind (or a nonremovable or essential discontinuity) atx = a, if at least one the one-sided limits either does not exist or is infinite. Example 1

Investigate continuity of the function

Solution. The given function is not defined at x = 1 and x = 1. Hence, this function has discontinuities at x = 1. To determinethe type of the discontinuities, we find the one-sided limits:

Since the left-side limit at x = 1 is infinity, we have an essential discontinuity at this point.

Similarly, the right-side limit at x = 1 is infinity. Hence, here we also have an essential discontinuity. Example 2

Show that the function Solution.

has a removable discontinuity at x = 0.

Obviously, the function is not defined at x = 0. Since sin x is continuous at every x, then the initial function continuous for all x except the point x = 0.

is also

Since

, the function has a removable discontinuity at this point. We can construct the new function

which is continuous at every real x.

Example 3

Find the points of discontinuity of the function

if they exist.

Solution. The function exists for all x, however it is defined by two different functions and, therefore, is not elementary. We investigate "behavio the function near to the point x = 0 where its analytic expression changes. Calculate one-sided limits at x = 0.

Thus, the function has a discontinuity of the first kind at x = 0. The finite jump at this point is

The function is continuous for all other x, because both the functions defined from the left and from the right of the point x = 0are elementary functions without any discontinuities. Example 4

Find the points of discontinuity of the function

if they exist.

Solution. This elementary function is defined for all x except x = 0, where it has a discontinuity. Find one-sided limits at

As can be seen, the function has a discontinuity point of the first kind at x = 0 (Figure 2).

Fig.2 Example 5

Fig.3

Find the points of discontinuity of the function

if they exist.

Solution. The function is defined and continuous for all x except , where it has a discontinuity. Investigate this discontinuity point:

Since the values of the one-sided limits are finite, then there's a discontinuity of the first kind at the point function is sketched on Figure 3.

. The graph of the