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Let f (x) be a function that is defined on an open interval X containing x = a. (The value f (a) need not be defined.) The number L is called the limit of function f (x) as if and only if, for every there exists such that

whenever

There's also the Heine definition of the limit of a function, which states that a function f (x) has a limit L at x = a, if for every sequence , which has a limit at a, the sequence

One-Sided Limits

has a limit L. The Heine and Cauchy definitions of limit of a function are equivalent.

Let denote the limit as x goes toward a by taking on values of x such that x < a. The corresponding limit the left-hand limit of f (x) at the point x = a.

is called

Similarly, let denote the limit as x goes toward a by taking on values of x such that x > a. The corresponding limit called the right-hand limit of f (x) at x = a.

exists only if both one-sided limits exist and are equal to each other, i.e.

Example 1

Using the

Solution.

Let

. We see that if

then

Example 2

Using the

Solution.

Let

As a result, the inequalities in the definition of limit will be satisfied. Therefore, the given limit is proved.

Example 3

Using the

definition of limit, find the number that corresponds to the given with the following limit:

Solution.

Example 4

Prove that

Solution.

will be satisfied if

Fig.1

Example 5

Fig.2

Prove that

Solution.

. . Find a number N such that for any x > N the following inequality is valid:

Assume that

Since

, then

By setting

Notation of Limit The limit of a function is designated as or using the limit notation: .

Below we assume that the limits of functions Sum Rule This rule states that the limit of the sum of two functions is equal to the sum of their limits:

exist.

Constant Multiple Rule The limit of a constant times a function is equal to the product of the constant and the limit of the function:

Product Rule This rule says that the limit of the product of two functions is the product of their limits (if they exist):

Quotient Rule The limit of quotient of two functions is the quotient of their limits, provided that the limit in the denominator function is not zero:

Power Rule

If f ( x ) = x, then

where the base a > 0. The Squeeze Theorem Suppose that for all x close to a, except perhaps for x = a. If

then

The idea here is that the function f (x) is squeezed between two other functions having the same limit L. Example 1 Find the limit Solution. .

Example 2

Solution. Using the properties of limits (the sum rule, the power rule, and the quotient rule), we get

Example 3

and

Example 4

We know that

(Since we consider large and positive x, and, hence, 2x 7 > 0, we do not switch the inequality signs.) Then

Example 5

(We do not switch the inequality signs, since Calculate the left and right limits:

is positive as

.)

We see that the left and right limits are equal to each other. Then by the Squeeze Theorem,

Using this limit, one can get the series of other trigonometric limits:

Since

we can write:

Example 2

This yields

Example 3

Then we obtain

Example 4

Example 5

Obviously,

Then

Example 6

. When

, then

Hence,

Example 7

Since

, we have

Here

Hence,

Here

when

, therefore,

Example 8

. When

, then

. As a result, we have

Example 9

We used here the fact that the limit remains the same when replacing Example 10

to

, we get

is 1 and

as

, so we have

The number e is a transcendental number which is approximately equal to 2,718281828... The substitution

where

Here we meet with power expressions, in which the base and power approach to a certain number a (or to infinity). In many cases such of limits can be calculated by taking logarithm of the function. Example 1

Example 2

Example 3

Substituting

, so that x = 6y and

as

, we obtain

Example 4

Example 5

. As

and, hence,

Example 6

Let

. Then

Example 7

Here

as

Example 8

as

. Then

Example 9

as

Since Thus .

, we get

Example 10

We see that

Logarithms with base e, where e is an irrational number whose value is 2,718281828..., are called natural logarithms. We denote the natural logarithm of x by ln x. Natural logarithms are widely used in mathematics, physics and engineering. Relationship between natural logarithm of a number and logarithm of the number to base a Let a be the base of logarithm (a > 0, a 1), and let This yields By taking the natural logarithm of both sides, we have

The last formula expresses logarithm of a number x to base a through natural logarithm of this number. By setting x = e, we have

If a = 10, we obtain:

Fig.1 Example 1

Fig.2

Calculate Solution.

Solution.

Example 3 Sketch the graph of the function Solution. The graph of the function and one unit down (see Figure 2). Example 4 .

is that of y = ln x shifted one unit to the left (we obtain the graph of the functiony = ln (x

The graph of the function (Figure 3) can be built in the result of the following transformations. The portion of the graph of , at x 1, is identical to the graph of y = ln x, while the portion y < 0 (at 0 < x < 1), is reflected aboutthe x-axis into the upper half-plane.

Fig.3 Example 5 Sketch the graph of the function Solution. First we get the graph of .

Fig.4

, as described in the previous example. Then we reflect the graph of the function aboutthe y-axis to (Figure 4).

Indeterminate Forms Let f (x) and g (x) be two functions such that

hasthe

at this point, we must factor the numerator and denominator and then reduce the terms that approach zero.

Indeterminate Forms Let f (x) and g (x) be two functions such that

where a where a is a real number, or + or . It is said that the function limit, we must divide the numerator and denominator by x of highest degree. Indeterminate Forms

Indeterminate forms of these types can usually be treated by putting them into one of the forms Example 1

or

Example 2

(Here we used the formula: ax2 + bx + c = a (x x1)(x x2), where x1 and x2 are the solutions of the quadratic equation.) Similarly,

. Divide the numerator and denominator by x3 (the highest degree in this expres

Example 4

As a result we have

Example 5

. Then

. We have

Example 6

Thus, we deal here with an indeterminate form of type corresponding conjugate expression.

By using the product and the sum rules for limits, we obtain

Example 7

Solution. To calculate this limit we rationalize the numerator and denominator multiplying them by the corresponding conjugate expressions:

Example 8

Solution. We divide both the numerator and denominator by x30 (the highest power of the fraction):

Example 9

Example 10

. Then

as

. Hence,

Example 11

This function is defined only for t 0. Multiply and divide it by the conjugate expression

. So, we obtain

Both the numerator and denominator now approach as of t in the denominator. Then

,the highest po

Example 12

The first limit in the last expression, obviously, is equal to 1. In the second limit, the cosine function is bounded between 1 and 1, and denominator approaches as . Hence, the complete answer is

The function (x) is called infinitely small or an infinitesimal as Let (x) and (x) be two infinitely small functions as

if

If

, then we say that the function (x) is an infinitesimal of higher order than (x);

If order;

(A is a number different from zero), then the functions (x) and (x) are called infinitesimals of the s

If

, then the function (x) is called an infinitesimal of order n compared with the function (x);

If

When calculating the limit of a ratio of two infinitesimals, we can replace the terms of the ratio by their equivalent values. Example 1

Then

Example 2

Example 3

We know that

and

as

. Hence,

Example 4

Solution. Replacing the square root with the equivalent infinitely small function, we have

Example 5

as

. This yields:

Example 6

, we obtain

Example 7

as

, we have

Example 8

. Then

as

Example 9

Then

Replacing

Example 10

Replace the functions of cosine and sine with their equivalent infinitely small functions:

L'Hopital's Rule provides a method for evaluating indeterminate forms of type Let a be either a finite number or infinity.

or

If

and

, then

If

and

, then

This rule appeared in 1696 (!) in the first book on differential calculus published by French mathematician Guillaume de l'Hopital(16611704).

We can apply L'Hopital's rule to indeterminate forms of type forms forms can be reduced to the forms can be reduced to the form and

as well. The first two indeterminate using algebraic transformations. The indeterminate

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

Example 5

. Let

Then

Example 6

Solution.

. Let

. Then

Hence,

Example 7 Calculate the limit Solution. Let . Take logarithms of both sides: .

Hence,

Example 8

. Let

Thus,

Example 9

. Let

Example 10

Example 11

Solution. According to L'Hopital's rule, we differentiate both the numerator and denominator a few times until the indeterminate form disappears

Example 12

. Let

. Then

As can be seen, we still have an indeterminate form, so we differentiate the numerator and denominator one more time:

Hence,

Heine Definition of Continuity A real function f (x) is said to be continuous at ( is the set of real numbers), if for any sequence such that

it holds that

In practice, it is convenient to use the following three conditions of continuity of a function f (x) at point x = a: 1. Function f (x) is defined at x = a;

2. 3.

exists; .

Cauchy Definition of Continuity ( - Definition) Consider a function f (x) that maps a set of real numbers to another set B of real numbers. The function f (x) is said to becontinuous at if for any number there exists some number such that for all with the value of f (x) satisfies:

Definition of Continuity in Terms of Differences of Independent Variable and Function We can also define continuity using differences of independent variable and function. The function f (x) is said to becontinuous at the p = a if the following is valid:

where

All the definitions of continuity given above are equivalent on the set of real numbers. A function f (x) is continuous on a given interval, if it is continuous at every point of the interval. Continuity Theorems Theorem 1. Let the function f (x) be continuous at x = a and let C be a constant. Then the function f (x) is also continuous at x = a. Theorem 2. Let the functions f (x) and g (x) be continuous at x = a. Then the sum of the functions f (x) + g (x) is also continuous atx = a. Theorem 3. Let the functions f (x) and g (x) be continuous at x = a. Then the product of the functions f (x) g (x) is also continuous atx = a.

Theorem 4.

Let the functions f (x) and g (x) be continuous at x = a. Then the quotient of the functions that .

Theorem 5. Let f (x) be differentiable at the point x = a. Then the function f (x) is continuous at that point. Remark: The converse of the theorem is not true, that is, a function that is continuous at a point is not necessarily differentiable at that p Theorem 6 (Extreme Value Theorem). If f (x) is continuous on the closed, bounded interval [a, b], then it is bounded above and below in that interval. That is, there exist numbers m and M such that for every x in [a, b] (see Figure 1).

Fig.1 Fig.2 Theorem 7 (Intermediate Value Theorem). Let f (x) be continuous on the closed, bounded interval [a, b]. Then if c is any number between f (a) and f (b), there isa number x0 such The intermediate value theorem is illustrated in Figure 2. Continuity of Elementary Functions All elementary functions are continuous at any point where they are defined. An elementary function is a function built from a finite number of compositions and combinations using the four operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) over basic elementary functions. The set of basic elementary functionsincludes:

1.

Algebraical polynomials

2.

Rational fractions

3.

Power functions

4.

Exponential functions

5.

Logarithmic functions

6.

Trigonometric functions

7.

8.

Hyperbolic functions

9.

Example 1 Using the Heine definition, prove that the function is continuous at any point x = a.

Solution. Using the Heine definition we can write the condition of continuity as follows:

So that,

Fig.3 Example 2 Using the Heine definition, show that the function Solution. The secant function

Fig.4

where cosine is zero. Let x be a differential of independent variable x. Find the corresponding differential of function y.

This result is valid for for all x except the roots of the cosine function:

Hence, the range of continuity and the domain of the function Example 3

fully coincide.

Using Cauchy definition, prove that Solution. Let . We must find some number

Hence, Notice that our function takes only non-negative values. Therefore the -neighborhood at the given point must satisfy the condition this case the left side 2 4 of the inequality will be negative. It follows from here that

, we will have

Example 4 Show that the cubic equation Solution. Let . Calculate the values of the function at x = 2 and x = 3. has a solution in the interval (2,3).

By the intermediate value theorem, this means that there exists a number c in the interval (2,3) such that Thus, the equation has a solution in the interval (2,3). Example 5 Show that the equation Solution. Since the function is a polynomial, it is continuous. We notice that has a root.

. Then we can conclude by the intermediate value theorem, that there exists a number c inthe interval (0, . Thus, the equation has a solution in the interval (0,1).

Determine a and b so that the function f (x) is continuous everywhere. Solution. The left-side limit at x = 0 is

For given values of a and b, the function f (x) is continuous. The graph of the function is sketched in Figure 4. Example 7 If the function

is continuous, what is the value of a? Solution. We calculate the left-hand and right-hand limits at x = 1.

Hence,

Discontinuous Functions If f (x) is not continuous at x = a, then f (x) is said to be discontinuous at this point. Figure 1 shows the graphs of four functions, two of which are continuous at x = a and two are not.

Continuous at x = a.

Discontinuous at x = a.

Continuous at x = a.

Figure 1. Classification of Discontinuity Points All discontinuity points are divided into discontinuities of the first and second kind. The function f (x) has a discontinuity of the first kind at x = a if

Discontinuous at x = a.

Further there may be the following two options: The right-hand limit and the left-hand limit are equal to each other:

Such a point is called a removable discontinuity. The right-hand limit and the left-hand limit are unequal:

In this case the function f (x) has a jump discontinuity. The function f (x) is said to have a discontinuity of the second kind (or a nonremovable or essential discontinuity) atx = a, if at least one the one-sided limits either does not exist or is infinite. Example 1

Solution. The given function is not defined at x = 1 and x = 1. Hence, this function has discontinuities at x = 1. To determinethe type of the discontinuities, we find the one-sided limits:

Since the left-side limit at x = 1 is infinity, we have an essential discontinuity at this point.

Similarly, the right-side limit at x = 1 is infinity. Hence, here we also have an essential discontinuity. Example 2

Obviously, the function is not defined at x = 0. Since sin x is continuous at every x, then the initial function continuous for all x except the point x = 0.

is also

Since

, the function has a removable discontinuity at this point. We can construct the new function

Example 3

if they exist.

Solution. The function exists for all x, however it is defined by two different functions and, therefore, is not elementary. We investigate "behavio the function near to the point x = 0 where its analytic expression changes. Calculate one-sided limits at x = 0.

Thus, the function has a discontinuity of the first kind at x = 0. The finite jump at this point is

The function is continuous for all other x, because both the functions defined from the left and from the right of the point x = 0are elementary functions without any discontinuities. Example 4

if they exist.

Solution. This elementary function is defined for all x except x = 0, where it has a discontinuity. Find one-sided limits at

As can be seen, the function has a discontinuity point of the first kind at x = 0 (Figure 2).

Fig.2 Example 5

Fig.3

if they exist.

Solution. The function is defined and continuous for all x except , where it has a discontinuity. Investigate this discontinuity point:

Since the values of the one-sided limits are finite, then there's a discontinuity of the first kind at the point function is sketched on Figure 3.

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