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TRAINING GETTING STARTED - RM - DIN

RM Bridge V8i October 2010

RM Bridge Professional Engineering Software for Bridges of all Types

RM Bridge Training Getting Started RM DIN I

Contents 1 General ......................................................................................................................... 1-1 1.1 1.2 The Tutorial ......................................................................................................... 1-2 Strucural System .................................................................................................. 1-2

1.2.1 Support Scheme ............................................................................................... 1-3 1.2.2 Cross Section ................................................................................................... 1-3 1.2.3 Tendon Geometry ............................................................................................ 1-4 1.2.4 Tendon Characteristics .................................................................................... 1-4 1.2.5 Material Properties........................................................................................... 1-5 1.3 Loading ................................................................................................................ 1-6 1.3.1 Permanent Load ............................................................................................... 1-6 1.3.2 Creep and Shrinkage: ....................................................................................... 1-6 1.3.3 Additional Load ............................................................................................... 1-6 1.3.4 Traffic Load ..................................................................................................... 1-6 2 Starting a Calculation .................................................................................................. 2-7 2.1 2.2 2.3 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 4 4.1 4.2 5 5.1 Recalculate ........................................................................................................... 2-7 First Results ......................................................................................................... 2-8 View Options ..................................................................................................... 2-11 Import of Material.............................................................................................. 3-12 Definition of Tendon Geometry ........................................................................ 3-13 Definition of Stressing Sequence ...................................................................... 3-19 Load Management ............................................................................................. 4-23 Loading Case Definition .................................................................................... 4-25 Stage Actions and Activation ............................................................................ 5-31

Material for PT Tendons ............................................................................................ 3-12

Load Definition .......................................................................................................... 4-23

Construction Schedule ............................................................................................... 5-31 5.1.1 Definition of Individual Stages ...................................................................... 5-31 5.1.2 Activation of the New Stages ........................................................................ 5-33 5.1.3 Calculation Actions for Each Stage ............................................................... 5-34

Traffic ........................................................................................................................ 6-38 6.1 6.2 Traffic Load Definition...................................................................................... 6-38 Calculation Actions for Construction Stage ...................................................... 6-44
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RM Bridge Training Getting Started RM DIN 7 II

Load Combinations for Design Code Checks ........................................................... 7-47 7.1 7.2 Combination Table ............................................................................................ 7-47 Calculation Actions for Load Combinations ..................................................... 7-48 Fibre Stress Checks (SLS) ................................................................................. 8-50 Ultimate Load Check (ULS) .............................................................................. 8-52

Design Code Checks .................................................................................................. 8-50 8.1 8.2 8.1.1 Calculation Actions for Fibre Stress Check................................................... 8-50 8.2.1 Calculation Action for Ultimate Load Check ................................................ 8-52

Calculating the Construction Schedule ...................................................................... 9-54 9.1 10.1 Starting the Calculation ..................................................................................... 9-54 Numerical Results ............................................................................................ 10-55 Standard Listings ..................................................................................... 10-55 Interactive Result Viewing ...................................................................... 10-56 RMSets .................................................................................................... 10-57 Diagrams .................................................................................................. 10-59 Listings .................................................................................................... 10-60 RMSet in the Construction Schedule ....................................................... 10-61 Plot ........................................................................................................... 10-62 Plot Profiles in the Construction Schedule .............................................. 10-65 Interactive View of stress, force and displacment: .................................. 10-66

10 Result Presentation Post-Processing ..................................................................... 10-55 10.1.1 10.1.2 10.2 10.2.1 10.2.2 10.2.3 10.2.4 10.3 10.3.1 10.3.2 10.3.3 11.1 11.2

Graphical Results ............................................................................................. 10-57

Graphical Result Presentation.......................................................................... 10-62

11 Exporting and Storing .............................................................................................. 11-68 Project Export .................................................................................................. 11-68 Leaving the Program........................................................................................ 11-70

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RM Bridge Training Getting Started RM DIN

General 1-1

General
The following issues will be tackled in the following session in RM : Schedule: Starting the program Description of interface Importing material properties and variables Definition of material properties Definition of cross sections Definition of structural system Definition of tendon geometry Definition of loading Definition of traffic Definition of one construction stage Fibre stress check Ultimate load check Starting the calculation Post processing

The following description of the necessary program input should be done simultaneously to the program evaluation in RM.

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General 1-2

1.1 The Tutorial


A two span T-beam girder will be prepared and analysed in the following.

The example consists of a straight, 60m long girder with a constant cross section. Each span is 30m long.

1.2 Strucural System


A1
30m 10x3m

A2

30m 10x3m

A3

Axis in plan: Straight line: Axis in elevation: Straight line: System numbering: Node numbers (span wise): Element number (span wise): Support elements:

Station: 0-60 m Station: 0-60 m

101-111-121 101-110,111-120 1100, 1200, 1300

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RM Bridge Training Getting Started RM DIN 1.2.1 Support Scheme


A1 1100 101-110 Z X A2 1200 111-120 A3 1300

General 1-3

1.2.2 Cross Section

0.25 m
3.40 m

8.00 m

2.00 m

0.10 m 3.50 m 1.00 m

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1.65 m

0.10 m
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RM Bridge Training Getting Started RM DIN 1.2.3 Tendon Geometry Span 1 Span 2 101 (9 Tendon) AT=1600mm2, AD=5000mm2 (101-112) 102 (9 Tendon) AT=1600mm2, AD=5000mm2 (109-120)

General 1-4

1.2.4 Tendon Characteristics Friction losses: Wobble factor: Wedge slip: Allowable stresses in tendon:
Stressing fpk fp0.1k Before wedge After wedge 1860000 0,8 0,7 1674000 0,9 0,8 Before wedge After wedge 1488000 1302000 1506600 1339200

0.20 0.20 [Deg/m] 6 mm = 0.006 m

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RM Bridge Training Getting Started RM DIN 1.2.5 Material Properties


Material name :C_35/45 E-Modulus longitudinally Poisson`s ratio Shear-Modulus Coeff. of thermal expansion Specific weight Coeff. of consistency Degree of cement hardening Water cement ratio Cement content in concrete Char.compr. cylinder strength of concrete at 28 days Char.compr. cubic strength of concrete at 28 days Mean value of concrete compresive strength Mean value of axial tensile strength of concrete Tension split strenght Material name :BSt500-S(A) E-Modulus longitudinally Poisson`s ratio Shear-Modulus Coeff. of thermal expansion Specific weight Yield strength of reinforcement Design yield strength of reinforcement Relaxation class Material name :Litzen-1570/1770 E-Modulus longitudinally Poisson`s ratio Shear-Modulus Coeff. of thermal expansion Specific weight E-Modulus of prestressing Stressing limit Tensile strength of prestressing steel Design tensile strength of prestressing steel Relaxation class 0.19500E+09 0.30000 0.75000E+08 0.10000E-04 78.50000 0.19500E+09 0.12560E+07 0.17700E+07 0.15391E+07 0 0.20000E+09 0.30000 0.76923E+08 0.10000E-04 78.50000 0.50000E+06 0.43478E+06 0 0.33300E+08 0.20000 0.13875E+08 0.10000E-04 25.00000 2 2 0.40000 3.00000 35000.00000 45000.00000 43000.00000 3200.00000 2240.00000

General 1-5

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General 1-6

1.3 Loading
1.3.1 Permanent Load Self weight concrete: 25,0 kN/m3 Permanent load: 30,0 kN/m

1.3.2 Creep and Shrinkage: Creep and Shrinkage will be considered according to EC2 (Austrian interpretation NORM B4750).

1.3.3 Additional Load Temperature Temperature coefficient: Temperature gradient: Wind Transversal wind: 2.00 kN/m2 1e-5 per C +10C top

1.3.4 Traffic Load To keep the input simple only one load train will be considered (~4*25t truck with uniform load on 12m width).

200 [kN] 15 [kN/m]

200 [kN] 15 [kN/m]

2 [m]

2 [m]

2 [m]

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Starting a Calculation 2-7

Starting a Calculation
After the export from Modeler to Analyzer a lot of relevant definitions such as node coordinates, element, material and cross section assignment are already available. Before defining further input data a check of the current situation is suggested. Use the calculation-function to start a cross-section calculation and structure check. The calculation can check the stability of the system and obtain the relevant cross-section parameters (area, eccentric and moment of inertia).

2.1 Recalculate
The Recalc-button can be found on the top of view-window.

Recalculate

Start calculation

Since there is no other definition than the system data available at the moment it is sufficient to select Cross section calculation and Structure check at this stage. To execute press Recalce

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Starting a Calculation 2-8 During the calculation the status line (see lower edge of RM window) shows the calculation progress. The Calculation stop info shows that the calculation has finished, no errors and warnings appeared.

2.2 First Results


The view of the structural system on the screen can be changed using either the buttons at the left vertical menu line or using the freehand symbols (rotate, zooming in, zooming out,.). Select the freehand symbol info button from the main menu on top of the screen to see the available zooming options. Please use the CTRL key together with the left mouse button when drawing the symbol on the screen. Select

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Stop

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Starting a Calculation 2-9 After the system check the screen view changes with any zooming action. The structural parts can be viewed now, the system line is now shifted to the correct position (at the centre of gravity of all cross sections.

System Visualisation

Other available information now are cross-section properties (areas, inertias, ....). In order to check these values, the following steps are required: Select Properties in the navigation and Cross-Sections in the Sub menu to view all cross-sections used in the project.

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Cross Section

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Starting a Calculation 2-10 All values can be checked here, like Moment of Inertia, cross section area, shear area. Please note that modifications can be done here, but it is recommended to do that in Modeler in order to have a consistent data base.

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Cross Section - Info

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Starting a Calculation 2-11

2.3 View Options


In addition to the possibilities shown above (zoom in, zoom out, move,.) also other view options are available. Pressing the right mouse button whilst the mouse cursor is in the view area the following menu pops up. Select View Options. Several possibilities are given to change the point of view of your construction. For example; tick Draw cross section and Draw element bodies and you get a complete 3Dview, including your defined cross section.

View Options

Views

Cofirm

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Material for PT Tendons 3-12

Material for PT Tendons

3.1 Import of Material


All materials that are defined in Modeler will be imported from the standard material database to the project directory during an export from Modeler to Analyzer. Due to the fact that the tendon definition has to be added in Analyzer the material used for the tendons has to be imported from the available material database manually. Select File in the main menu and Reload Default Properties to open the listing of available standards and codes.

Import of Material

Import of Material

Select the wanted standard/code and double click (name turns red) the wanted material (left column for Default database). Use to apply the selected material to the current directory.

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Material for PT Tendons 3-13

3.2 Definition of Tendon Geometry


The last missing part of the structural system are the tendons. The tendon creation and geometry assignment is done in the following: Select Structure, Tendons to open the corresponding input window.

Tendon Data

Tendon Geometry

All defined tendons together with the properties are shown in the upper listing (empty at the moment). The lower listing will show the element assignment and the geometry definition.

Select Insert after above the upper listing to open the following input window:

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Material for PT Tendons 3-14 The tendon group is defined here.

Tendon - Properties

In this example the tendon 101 will be for the PT in stage 1. 9 tendons will be in this group, please define the area for one tendon, for one duct, Beta (see Manuel) and friction coefficient.

Confirm

Assignment

First the element for tendon 101 will be defined. Select Assignment.

Select the Insert after button above the lower listing to open the input window. Tendon 101 will be defined for the elements 101 to 112, this corresponds to the activation of the first stage.

Assignment

Confirm

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Geometry

Change to Geometry definition in the lower listing.

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Material for PT Tendons 3-15

The numeric input can be combined with an immediate graphic check. Select the Info button above the lower listing to get both, the numeric and graphic input window. The selected elements (101 to 112) are shown in the graphic field together with the cross sections.

Tendon geometry

Graphic

The input can be controlled by toggling between cross-section and general view.

Select the Insert after button above the listing at the bottom. The frame shown at the left allows the definition of:

Tendoon Geometry

position of tendon inside the elements tangent of tendon at location.

x/l is the position inside the element, the eccentricities ey and ez define the offset.

Confirm Select the Insert after button above the listing at the bottom to add a second line.

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Material for PT Tendons 3-16 Please see the input at the left to define the second input line. We use the defined stress point SP-B as reference for the second geometry point.

Tendoon Geometry

Confirm

Continue to select the Insert after button above the listing at the bottom to add all other geometry points for the tendon geometry.
Tendon Number: Type: Type: Ref. Elem.: CS Pnt: x/l: eY [m]: eZ [m]: Relative to: Alpha1: Value: Alpha2: Value: Relative to: Normal 101 0 0.00 0.00 Elem Frei Frei Elem Normal 104 SP_B 0 0.25 0.00 CS Pnt. Value 0.00 Value 0.00 Elem 101 Normal 107 SP_B 1 0.20 0.00 CS Pnt. Value 0.00 Value 0.00 Elem Normal 110 1 0.00 0.00 Elem Value 0.00 Value 0.00 Elem Normal 112 1 0.00 0.00 Elem Free Free Elem

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Input Table

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Material for PT Tendons 3-17 The second tendon group (with number 102) will be for the second stage. Again the necessary properties are defined.

Tendon - Properties

Confirm

Assignment

Switch to Assignment to define the element for tendon 102.

Select the insert after button above the lower listing the following input window comes up:

Tendon Assignment

The tendon 102 will be assigned to the elements 109 to 120.

Confirm Change to Geometry for the geometry definition.

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Geometry

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Material for PT Tendons 3-18

Continue to use the Insert after button to add all necessary input lines in the right o rder.
Tendon No.: Type Type Ref. Elem.: C Pkt: x/l: eY [m]: eZ [m]: Relative to: Alpha1: Value: Alpha2: Value: Relative to: Normal 109 0 0.00 0.00 Elem Frei Frei Elem Normal 110 1 0.00 0.00 Elem Value 0.00 Value 0.00 Elem 102 Normal 113 ST_B 1 0.20 0.00 CS Pnt Value 0.00 Value 0.00 Elem Normal 117 ST_B 1 0.25 0.00 CS Pnt Value 0.00 Value 0.00 Elem Normal 120 1 0.00 0.00 Elem Free Free Elem

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Input Table

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Material for PT Tendons 3-19

3.3 Definition of Stressing Sequence


Once the tendon geometry is defined for all 3 tendon groups the stressing sequence will follow (initial stressing, wedge slip,.). All actions on the tendons are done in this table, please consider the right order! Define the following actions: 1. Stress tendon group 101 with factor 1.06 (6% short term overstress) at one (left) end. 2. Losses due to wedge slip at the same (left) end of 6 mm. 3. Stress the tendon group 101 at the right end again with a factor of 1.06. 4. Losses due to wedge slip at the same (right) end of again 6 mm. Select Schedule from the navigation tree and Stages in the sub menu.

Construction schedule

Tendon

Select Tendon to open the input window for tendon actions.

Select Insert after to define the first stressing action.

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Material for PT Tendons 3-20 As described above the tendon 101 is stressed, see input at the left.

Tendon Action

The corresponding impact on the structure will be made available in the Stress label CS1.

Confirm

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Material for PT Tendons 3-21

The next two actions refer to the right end of the tendon 101. The actions are similar to the first ones. Select Insert after to define the new stressing action. Please define the data as shown in the table below:
Stress/Release: Stress/Release: Force/Factor: Wedge slip: Tendon: Fact of SIGmax: Wedge slip: Stress label: Description:

PREL Factor 101 1.06 CS1

WEDL 101 0.006 CS1 -

PRER Factor 101 1 CS1

WEDR 101 1 0.006 CS1 -

Table

Select Insert after button to define the stressing sequence for tendon 102.
Stress/Release: Stress/Release: Force/Factor: Wedge slip: Kabel: Fact of SIGmax: Wedge slip: Stress label: Description:

PRER Factor 102 1 CS2

WEDR 102 1 0.006 CS2 -

Table

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Stressing Actions

The screen shot at the left shows all necessary stressing actions on both tendons (101 and 102).

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Material for PT Tendons 3-22

A graphical control is available when using the Info button on top. Select the wanted line in the input table and hit the button to see the corresponding graphic. The graphic shows the normal force in the tendon together with all losses due to friction, wobble and geometry. The initial stressing as well as the losses due to wedge slip can be viewed.

Tendon Action

Tendon Action

Furthermore it is possible to see the influences on the tendon force due to further actions on the structure (creep, other PT, other loads,...). Not available at this stage of our example.

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Load Definition 4-23

Load Definition
Each load is defined in an individual loading case. An automatic accumulation of all loading case results is available using the Load manager facilities. The loading results can be combined to create needed load combinations. These created combinations can be combined with other combinations to create total envelopes. Multiplication (safety) factors can be assigned to any result combination easily using a combination table.

4.1 Load Management


Select Schedule in the navigation tree and Load Definition in the sub menu to open the relevant input window.

Constr. Sched.

LManage

Select LManage in the sub menu to see the input table for the Load Management.

select

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RM Bridge Training Getting Started RM DIN Select the Insert after button to define the first load type group. (G1).

Load Definition 4-24

LManage G1

All loading cases identified with the LoadInfo G1 will be accumulated in the summation loading case G1 and DL-SUM (DL-Sum contains all permanent load, G1 will contain the summation of self weight only).

Confirm

Select the Insert after button above the upper table to define the first input (G1).
Load Manag.: Load Manag.: Load Case 1: Type: Load Case 2: Type: Load Case 3: Type:

G1 G1 Total DL-SUM Total Total


G2 G2 Total DL-SUM Total Total

PT PT Total DL-SUM Total Total

CS CS Total DL-SUM Total Total

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Table

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Load Definition 4-25

4.2 Loading Case Definition


Select Schedule in the main menu and Load Definition in the submenu to open the load input. Select Load Case Definition in the lower table to see the relevant tables for load input.

Constr. Sched.

Select the Insert after button above the upper listing to open the first loading case (G1101). Loading Case G1-101 will be used now for the self weight definition of the main girder at the first construction stage. Note, if Load only elements, activated in current stage is chosen, no consideration for element loading needs to be done.(Is automatically done by activation of the elements.) Use to switch the Duration Type (Permanent or Non-Permanent).

LCase G1
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Select the pull down arrow at the right of the Load Manag. input field to open the fo llowing input.

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Load Definition 4-26 Assign the new loading case to one of the existing groups of the Load Management. (G1, G2, ..). This information is used to add the Lcase results to the result accumulation. Confirm

LManage - Listing

The Loading Case is added in the upper listing.

LCase Listing

The actually load is defined in the lower listing.

Select the Insert after button above the lower listing to the define the loading for the first loading case (G1-101). Select Uniform load and Self weight-just as load to define the necessary load.

Load data

Confirm
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Load Definition 4-27

Define the elements to be considered for the self weight load. The direction vector is supposed to point in the negative vertical global direction. Note, all elements are chosen because Load only elements, activated in current stage is chosen in the upper table. Confirm

Self Weight

All other loadings are defined in the same way, please see the following tables. Select Insert after above the upper listing to define one more Loading Case. Note, tick Load only elements, activated in current stage!

Table

Name: Name: Duration-Type: Loadmanag.: Description:

G1-101 P G1 Self weight for stage1

G1-102 P G1 Self weight for stage2

Select Insert after above the upper listing to define one more Loading Case.
Name: Name: Duration-Type: Loadmanag.: Description:

Table

G2-299 P G2 Additional permanent load

Select Insert after above the upper listing to define two more Loading Cases.
Name: Name: Duration-Type: Loadmanag.: Description:

Table

PT-501 P PT Pre-stressing for stage1

PT-502 P PT Pre-stressing for stage2

Select Insert after above the upper listing to define three more Loading Cases.

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Name: CS-601 P CS Creep and Shrinkage stage1 CS-602 P CS Creep and Shrinkage stage2 CS-699 P CS Creep and Shrinkage for t=oo

Load Definition 4-28

Table

Name: Duration-Type: Loadmanag.: Description:

Select Insert after above the upper listing to define two more Loading Cases..
Name:

Table

Name: Duration-Type: Loadmanag.: Description:

LC-TG NP Temperaturegradient (+10C)

LC-W NP Wind

Definition of the actual loading for the created loading cases. Select the relevant loading case in the upper listing and use the Insert after button above the lower listing to define the loading. See the following table for the load input. Select the Insert after button above the lower listing to define the following loading.
Loading Case: Loading Case: Insert: Actual loading: Loading type: Confirm: From: To: Step: Rx: Ry: Rz: Type: Confirm: G1-102 Lower Listing Uniform load Self Weight OK

G1-101

LC Self Weight

Lower Listing Uniform load Self Weight OK

101 120 1 -1 Real length OK

101 120 1 -1 Real length OK

All elements are selected because of Load only elements, activated in current stage is activated. (see page 4-25). It is also possible to only define the elements from 101 to 112 for the loadcase G1-101.

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Load Definition 4-29

Chose a loading case in the upper listing and select the Insert after for the lower listing to define the other loading.
Loading case: Loading case: Insert: Actual load: Loading type: Confirm: From: To: Step: Qx: Qy: Qz: Type1: Type2: Type3: Confirm: G2-299 Lower Listing Uniform load Concentric load OK 101 120 1 -30.0 Global Real length Load/Length unit OK

LC permanent load

Choose a loading case in the upper listing and select the Insert after for the lower listing to define the other loading.

LC Pre-stressing

Loading case: Loading case: Insert: Actual load: Loading type: Confirm: From: To: Step: Type: Confirm:

PT-501 Lower Listing Prestressing Stress tendon OK 101 101 1 Increment Force OK

PT-502 Lower Listing Prestressing Stress tendon OK 102 102 1 Increment Force OK

Chose a loading case in the upper listing and select the Insert after for the lower listing to define the other loading.

LC C&S

Loading case: Loading case: Insert:

CS-601 Lower Listing not necessary

CS-602 Lower Listing not necessary

CS-699 Lower Listing not necessary

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Load Definition 4-30

Chose a loading case in the upper listing and select the Insert after for the lower listing to define the other loading.
Loading case: Loading case: Insert: Actual Load: Load Type: Confirm: From: To: Step: Alpha (1/C): DT-G (C): DT-Y (C): H-Y (m): DT-Z (C): H-Z (m): Confirm: LC-TG Lower Listing Initial Stress/Strain Temperature load OK 101 120 1 1e-005 10.0 Global OK Loading case: Insert: Actual Load: Load Type: Confirm: From: To: Step: Qx: Qy: Qz: Typ1: Typ2: Typ3: Confirm: LC-W Lower Listing

Additional Permanent Load

Uniform Load

Concentric load OK 101 120 1 2.00 Global Real Length Qz multiply Load with Cs height OK

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Construction Schedule 5-31

Construction Schedule
Everything that is needed for a erection sequence simulation is grouped in this menu. Existing elements are activated according to the defined schedule. The upper listing shows all available construction stages, the correct order is important! The lower listing shows all elements activated in this construction stage. Previously and not yet activated elements are not shown. Furthermore the activation age of the new elements is shown.

5.1 Stage Actions and Activation


5.1.1 Definition of Individual Stages Select Schedule and Stages to define a new stage.

Constr. Stages
Select Insert after above the upper listing to create a new construction stage. Select a number or a short name for the new stage (Stage1).

Constr. Stage

confirm

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Construction Schedule 5-32

Select Insert after above the upper listing to create all other new construction stages.
Name: Name: List: Duration: Description:

Table

Stage1 Stage 1

Stage2 Stage 2

Stage99 Stage 3

AddLoads Add. Loads

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RM Bridge Training Getting Started RM DIN 5.1.2 Activation of the New Stages

Construction Schedule 5-33

Constr. Stage

For each new stage the corresponding elements for activation will be defined now (lower listing). Select stage 1 in the upper listing.

Activation

Select Insert after above the lower listing to activate the elements for stage 1. For stage 1 the elements 101 to 112 will be activated. Not to forget the support elements 1100 and 1200!

Activation

Confirm Select Insert after above the lower listing to activate the elements for stage 2, select stage 2 in the upper listing first!
Constr. Stage: Constr. Stage: Insert: Type: From: To: Step: Age: ts: Confirm: Stage1 Lower Listing Active 101 112 1 14 OK Stage1 Lower Listing Active 1100 1200 100 14 OK

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Activation

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Constr. Stage: Constr. Stage: Insert: Type: From: To: Step: Age: ts: Confirm: Stage2 Lower Listing Active 113 120 1 14 OK Stage2 Lower Listing Active 1300 1300 100 14 OK

Construction Schedule 5-34

Activation

5.1.3 Calculation Actions for Each Stage Change from Activation to Schedule Action.

Action
Select Insert after in the lower listing to define the first action for stage 1 (select stage 1 in upper listing first!).
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Construction Schedule 5-35 Several groups for actions are available. Each one contains the available action for the specific group. You remember the Load manager? The loading cases defined there need to be initialised (set results in this sum loading cases to 0) first. Do this as a first step at the begin of the calculation. Select the group LC/Envelope actions and the function LcInit.

Actions

Confirm The input field Output1 is used to define the loading case G1.

Actions

Confirm Select Insert after above the lower listing to define all other actions for this first stage.

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Constr. Stage: Constr. Stage: Insert: Action: Type: Confirm: Input 1: Input 2: Input 3: Output 1: Output 2: Delta-T: Description: Confirm: Stage1 Untere Liste

Construction Schedule 5-36


Stage1 Untere Liste LC/ Envelope Actions LcInit OK G2 OK Stage1 Untere Liste LC/ Envelope Actions LcInit OK PT OK Stage1 Untere Liste LC/ Envelope Actions LcInit OK CS OK Stage1 Untere Liste LC/ Envelope Actions LcInit OK DL-SUM OK

Actions Stage1

LC/Envel ope Actions LcInit OK G1 OK

Constr. Stage: Stage1 Stage1 Stage1 Stage1 Stage1 Constr. Stage: Insert: Lower Listing Lower Listing Lower Listing Lower Listing Lower Listing Calcula Calcula Calcula Calcula CalculaAction: tion (Static) tion (Static) tion (Static) tion (Static) tion (Static) Type: Calc Stress Calc Grout Creep Confirm: OK OK OK OK OK Input 1: G1-101 PT-501 101 1 Input 2: CS1 Input 3: Output 1: CS-601 Output 2: * * * Delta-T: 28 Description: Confirm: OK OK OK OK OK

Actions Stage1 Actions Stage2

Select Insert after to define further actions for the stages.


Constr. Stage: Stage2 Stage2 Stage2 Stage2 Stage2 Constr. Stage: Insert: Lower Listing Lower Listing Lower Listing Lower Listing Lower Listing Calcula Calcula Calcula Calcula CalculaAction: tion (Static) tion (Static) tion (Static) tion (Static) tion (Static) Type: Calc Stress Calc Grout Creep Confirm: OK OK OK OK OK Input 1: G1-102 PT-502 102 1 Input 2: CS2 Input 3: Output 1: CS-602 Output 2: * * * Delta-T: 28 Description: Confirm: OK OK OK OK OK

Select Insert after to define further actions for the stages.

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Constr. Stage: Stage99 Stage99 Constr. Stage: Insert: Lower Listing Lower Listing Calcula CalculaAction: tion (Static) tion (Static) Type: Calc Creep Confirm: OK OK Input 1: G2-299 1 Input 2: Input 3: Output 1: CS-699 Output 2: * * Delta-T: 10000 Description: Confirm: OK OK

Construction Schedule 5-37

Actions Stage99 Actions AddLoads

Select Insert after to define further actions for the stages.


Constr. Stage: AddLoads AddLoads AddLoads AddLoads Constr. Stage: Insert: Lower Listing Lower Listing Lower Listing Lower Listing LC/ en Calcula Calcula LC/envel Action: velope action (Static) tion (Static) ope actions tions Type: Calc Calc SupInit SupAndXLc Confirm: OK OK OK OK Input 1: LC-TG LC-W Wind.sup Input 2: LC-W Input 3: Output 1: Wind.sup Output 2: * * * Delta-T: Description: Confirm: OK OK OK OK

All kind of graphics will be explained in chapter 12.

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Traffic 6-38

Traffic

6.1 Traffic Load Definition


The traffic load in this example does not correspond with any specific design code, we are explaining the principles here. Select Schedule in the navigation tree and Load Definition in the sub menu. Select Traffic Lanes in the menu at the bottom to see the listing of traffic lanes (empty). Select

Constr. Schedule - Lane

Select Insert after above the upper listing to define the first lane. Select Number 1 for the first lane.

Lane 1

Confirm

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RM Bridge Training Getting Started RM DIN Select Insert after above the lower listing to define the position of lane 1.

Traffic 6-39

MACROs are available for input of lanes for element series. The listing at the left shows all these Macros (unit loads for the influence line calculation are established according to the vehicle positions). Select Macro2 for Lanes that are eccentric to the main girder. Confirm The empty listing for Macro 2 appears. Click Insert after to define the element series.

Lane 1

Lane 1

Insert Define the values as shown at the left. This input shows an eccentricity of -2m for the lane 1 along the elements 101 to 120.

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Lane 1

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RM Bridge Training Getting Started RM DIN Confirm Confirm the input <OK> Close the input window <cancel>.

Traffic 6-40

The new lane is shown in the upper listing. The corresponding unit load positions are shown in the lower listing.

Lane 1

Confirm

The second lane is nearly the same, except the offset is +2m. Define the values as shown at the left. This input shows an eccentricity of +2m for the lane 1 along the elements 101 to 120.

Lane 2

Confirm Confirm input with <OK>. Close input with <cancel>.

The lane definitions are now complete.


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RM Bridge Training Getting Started RM DIN Next Step will be the load train definition.

Traffic 6-41

Select Load trains to open the input window.

LTrain

Select

All load train are shown in the upper listing. The lower listing shows the details for each load train. Select Insert after above the upper listing to define the first load train. Default proposal is ok 1. Note: some codes have different factors for minimum and maximum traffic load evaluation.

LTrain

Confirm

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200 [kN] 15 [kN/m] 200 [kN] 15 [kN/m]

Traffic 6-42 In our example the traffic load consist of uniform load of 15kN/m and two concentrated loads of 200kN each. Two meters before and 2m after the conc. Loads no uniform load will be applied. See load scheme at the left.

LTrain

2 [m]

Input 1

2 [m]

2 [m]

Input 2 Input 3 Input 4 Input 5

Select Insert after above the lower listing to define the load train as discussed. First define the uniform load (-15.0 kN/m). The actual load will be applied according to the influence line.

LTrain

Confirm

Select Insert after above the lower listing to define all other loads for this load train.

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Traffic 6-43

Load train: 1 1 1 1 1 Load train: Insert: Lower Listing Lower Listing Lower Listing Lower Listing Lower Listing Q [kN/m]: -15.0 -15.0 F [kN]: -200.0 -200.0 Input 1: Free Free Input 2: Length Length L-from: 2 2 2 L-to: 2 2 2 L-step: 2 2 2 Confirm: OK OK OK OK OK

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Traffic 6-44

6.2 Calculation Actions for Construction Stage


Select Schedule and Stages and Activations to define a new construction stage for the traffic load calculation.

Constr. Schedule
Select Insert to define a new stage.
Name: Name: List: Duration.: Description:

Table

TRAFFIC Traffic load

No activation necessary (everything is already active). Select Schedule Action to define the necessary input

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Action

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Traffic 6-45

Select Insert after above the lower listing to define the needed actions for traffic load calculation.
Constr. stage: TRAFFIC TRAFFIC Constr. stage: Insert: Lower Listing Lower Listing LC/Envel LC/Envel Action: ope action ope action Type: SupInit SupInit Confirm: OK OK Input 1: Input 2: Input 3: Output 1: Lane1.sup Lane2.sup Output 2: Delta-T: Description: Confirm: OK OK TRAFFIC

v LC/Envel ope action SupInit OK Traffic.sup OK

Table Table

Select Insert after above the lower listing to define the needed actions for traffic load calculation.
Constr. stage: TRAFFIC TRAFFIC TRAFFIC TRAFFIC Constr. stage: Insert: Lower Listing Lower Listing Lower Listing Lower Listing Calcula Calcula Calcula CalculaAction: tion (Static) tion (Static) tion (Static) tion (Static) Type: Infl Infl LivelL LivelL Confirm: OK OK OK OK Input 1: 1 2 1 2 Input 2: 1 1 Input 3: Output 1: lane0001.inf lane0002.inf Lane1.sup Lane2.sup Output 2: * * Delta-T: Description: Confirm: OK OK OK OK Constr. stage: Constr. stage: Insert: Action: Type: Confirm: Input 1: Input 2: Input 3: Output 1: Output 2: Delta-T: Description: Confirm: BAVERK Lower List LC/Envel ope action SupAddSup OK Traffic.sup Lane1.sup * OK

BAVERK Lower List LC/Envel ope action SupAddSup OK Traffic.sup Lane2.sup * OK

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Traffic 6-46

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Load Combinations for Design Code Checks 7-47

Load Combinations for Design Code Checks

7.1 Combination Table


Select Schedule and Load Definition to open the load input definitions. Select Load Combination to see the combination table.

Constr. Sched.- Comb.


Select Insert after to define iput tin the combination table.

Select Load Case and the corresponding load group (G1 Self weight).

Combinations

Using the combination law SupAddLc result from the selected loading cases will added to create a load combination.

Confirm

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Load Combinations for Design Code Checks 7-48

Select Insert after to define the following combination table input.


Comb. Table: Comb. Table: Result Type: Name: Comb. Law: favourable I: unfavourable I: favourable II: unfavourable II: favourable III: unfavourable III: Confirm: Comb. Table: Comb. Table: Result Type: Name: Comb. Law: favourable I: unfavourable I: favourable II: unfavourable II: favourable III: unfavourable III: Confirm:

LCase G1 SupAddLc 1 1 1.35 1.35 OK

LCase G2 SupAddLc 1 1 1.35 1.35 OK

LCase PT SupAddLc 1 1 1 1 OK

LCase CS SupAddLc 1 1 1 1 OK

Table

LCase

LC-TG SupAddLc 1 1 0.8 0.8 OK

superposition Wind.sup SupAddSup 1 1 0.8 0.8 OK

superposition Traffic.sup SupAddSup 1 1 1.5 1.5 OK

7.2 Calculation Actions for Load Combinations

Table

Constr. Sched.

Select Schedule and Stages to open the listing of stages.

Select Insert after above the upper listing to define a new stage where the load comb inations will be defined.

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Load Combinations for Design Code Checks 7-49


Comb Load Combination

Table

Name: Name: List file: Duration.: Description:

Select Schedule Actions to open to start the action input for load combination.

Action

Select

Select Insert after above the lower listing to open the input window.
Constr. Stage: Constr. Stage: Insert: Action: Type: Confirm: Input 1: Input 2: Input 3: Output 1: Output 2: Delta-T: Description: Confirm:

Comb Lower List LC/envel ope action SupComb OK 1 Comb1.sup OK


Comb Lower List LC/envel ope action SupComb OK 2 Comb2.sup OK

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Design Code Checks 8-50

Design Code Checks

8.1 Fibre Stress Checks (SLS)


8.1.1 Calculation Actions for Fibre Stress Check Select Schedule and Stages to define a new stage for the fibre stress checks.

Constr. Sched.

Select Insert after above the upper listing to define a new stage.
Name: Name: List file: Duration.: Description:

Table

SLS Fibre stress check

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Action

Select Schedule Action to define the necessary actions.

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Design Code Checks 8-51 Select

Select Insert after above the lower listing to define the necessary actions.
Constr. Stage: SLS Constr. Stage: Insert: Lower Listing Check Action: Actions (UE) Type: FibSup Confirm: OK Input 1: Comb1.sup Input 2: 1 Input 3: Output 1: Output 2: * Delta-T: Description: Confirm: OK

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Design Code Checks 8-52

8.2 Ultimate Load Check (ULS)


8.2.1 Calculation Action for Ultimate Load Check Select Schedule and Stages to define a new stage for this part.

Constr. Stage
Select Insert after above the upper listing to define a new stage for the ultimate load check.

Table

Name: Name: List file: Duration.: Description:

ULS Ultimate load check

Select Schedule Actions to open the input window. Select

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Action

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Design Code Checks 8-53

Select Insert after above the lower listing to define the necessary actions.
Constr. Stage: ULS ULS ULS ULS Constr. Stage: Insert: Lower Listing Lower Listing Lower Listing Lower Listing LC/Envel Checking Checking Checking Action: pe action action (Sup) action (Sup) action (Sup) Type: SupInit ReiIni UltSup UltSup Confirm: OK OK OK OK Input 1: Comb2.sup Comb2.sup Input 2: Rein UltMz Input 3: UltUltOutput 1: Comb2.sup Comb2.sup Output 2: * * Delta-T: Description: Confirm: OK OK OK OK

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Calculating the Construction Schedule 9-54

Calculating the Construction Schedule


After the definition of all necessary construction stages the calculation can be started. Such a calculation can be done at any time, all available data will be considered. All actions in the construction schedule will be calculated.

9.1 Starting the Calculation


Klick the Recalc-button on the top of view window to open the calculation-options.

System Calculation

Before the calculation can actually be started, the definitions for SumLC for the summation loading case DL-SUM needs to be defined. Start the calculation by clicking <Recalc>.

Recalc

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Result Presentation Post-Processing 10-55

10 Result Presentation Post-Processing


Any kind of result (forces, displacement, stresses,..) can be displayed numerically or graphically. In case graphics should be created during the stages the corresponding actions need to be added in the appropriate stage as calculation action.

10.1 Numerical Results

10.1.1 Standard Listings Several list files are generated automatically during the run of the calculation. The results of the loading cases (and others) can be viewed using the editor. All these listing contain displacements and internal forces for nodes, elements and tendons. Additionally list files containing information about structural data, material, cross section and stressing action + tendon geometry are available. (struct.lst, material.lst, cross.lst, stress.lst, ..). Select TextPad to load one of the files (top of screen). Select the sub directory for (Default Schedule) and the wanted file.

RMSet - New

Open

The textpad editor opens and allows to view the results files.

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RM Bridge Training Getting Started RM DIN 10.1.2 Interactive Result Viewing

Result Presentation Post-Processing 10-56

All results can be viewed interactively as well. The following procedure shows how to do this. Select Results and Loading Cases to open the spread sheet for results.

Results

LCase Results

The shown listing shows the local internal forces for loading case G1. Please feel free to change LCase and all other buttons on the screen.

Minimum and Maximum results can be searched, too. The results from Pre-Stressing and Creep&Shrinkage loading cases are available in three ways: Primary: P*e state for PT and distribution forces for C&S. Secondary: Secondary effects for PT and C&S. Total: Primary + Secondary = Total. Selecting Diagram (bottom right) the wanted result component can be displayed graph ically in an easy way. Select Results and Envelopes to view the results of superposition files in the same way.

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Result Presentation Post-Processing 10-57

10.2 Graphical Results


10.2.1 RMSets For a quick and easy to use graphical viewing of internal forces, displacements, stresses and reinforcement there exists the possibility to define so called RMSets. With some few commands such a plot can be defined, viewed and also incorporated in the Construction schedule. Select Properties and RMSets to define one or several groups for graphic (and numeric) result presentation.

RMSets

The upper listing shows the names for the relevant RMSets (empty at the moment). All RMSets can be used in the run of the construction stages as well. Feel free to add the according action at any time in the stage definitions. The RMSets will produce graphics and listings.

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RMSets

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Result Presentation Post-Processing 10-58

Select Insert after above the upper listing to define a new RMSet. This new RMSet is supposed to show the ending moment MZ at the end of the first construction stage. (Stage1-Mz).

RMSet - New

Confirm Select the Info button to open the interactive input pad.

Select Elements and Nodes to define the elements to be plotted.

Select Element of a group: MG.

Element Liste

After all elements are defined, confirm input with insert before.

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Result Presentation Post-Processing 10-59 Select Load Case DLSUM. Select the wanted result component - Mz. Select insert before Save all RMSet definitions using Save.

Select Load Cases to define the wanted Loading Case.

Element Listing
10.2.2 Diagrams

For the defined configuration a name for the resulting graphic file can be chosen.

RMSet Plotting

Define Mz.pl

Dgm-CS1-

To see the result of your settings press plot diagram file

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Result Presentation Post-Processing 10-60

10.2.3 Listings For the defined configuration a name for the resulting list file can be chosen.

RMSet Printing

Define Mz.lst

Rep-CS1-

To see the result of your settings press write to report file

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Result Presentation Post-Processing 10-61

10.2.4 RMSet in the Construction Schedule RMSets can be incorporated in the construction schedule. When ever the a result during the calculation should be stored graphically or numerically a corresponding action can be inserted. The action DgmSet is used to use an RMSet for a diagram plot. The action DoRep is used to use an RMSet for a result listing.

Element Listing

Confirm

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Result Presentation Post-Processing 10-62

10.3 Graphical Result Presentation


Select Results, Plot and Directory to show all existing graphics.

Plotting
10.3.1 Plot Plot contains following types: Directory: All Rm-Sets are listed here as a plot. Plot Container: RMSet: PLSYS: C&S: One or several Plots with RM Plot-Definitions. (see below) All RM-Sets are listed A listing of ASCII *.rm files that might exist from earlier RM versions. Kreep and Shrinkage Select Plot Container and open a new Plot-Container. Select a new name or accept the one proposed by the program.

Plot Container

Confirm

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Result Presentation Post-Processing 10-63 Press Insert After

Plot Profil

Plot Profil

Select a new name or accept the one proposed by the program.

Confirm Similarly prepared standard plots of structure and results can be created using several Macros.

Macro

Select Macro to create a standard plot.

Select

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Result Presentation Post-Processing 10-64

Macro

Select Loading case result to show results from a loading case. The input field for Plot Profile is used to save the created input. Press: Run Macro

Select the elements to be shown (Group: MG). Select the results to be shown together with the elements (Displacments and Force)

Macro
Dependent on the Plot-Container type the plot editor opens when hitting the Info button. Modifications or additional definitions can be done in here. Select the Info button to open the plot content (= plot editor). The plot editor allows the definition or modification of graphics and plot profiles. The result will be a plot file. These plot files contain paper size (page) and one or several views. The views it selves contain one or several objects. Three levels can be defined or modified. The most important modify, copy and delete functions can be selected in the upper menu line or via the right mouse button.
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Result Presentation Post-Processing 10-65

10.3.2 Plot Profiles in the Construction Schedule Plot Profiles can also be inserted in the construction stages at anytime at any position. The action DoPlot is used to define an existing plot container and an existing plot profile in order to create a plot file.

Plotting

Use the arrow next to the input field to select a plot container and a plot profile. Use input1 and iput2 to define eventually existing variables in the plot profile.

Plotting

Confirm

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Result Presentation Post-Processing 10-66

10.3.3 Interactive View of stress, force and displacment: Right click with your mouse in the middle of the window gives you the following menu, as shown in the right figure. Select View Options

Plotting

Tick Draw cross sections and Draw CS mesh Tick Draw element bodies and Draw detailed bodies

Plotting

Tick Result and press Choose

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Result Presentation Post-Processing 10-67 Set Load Case as DL-SUM. Tick Stresses and finally press OK

Plotting

The figure on the left side shows the stressdistribution in the elements (red colour means high- green colour low stresses).

Plotting

It can be easily switched to a force- or displacement distribution (see picture below).

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Exporting and Storing 11-68

11 Exporting and Storing


11.1 Project Export
All data (cross sections, material, system, schedules,.) can written into an ASCII file with a special (and very powerful) format. RM uses TCL, a special script programming language to work on existing ASCII files. Select File and Export TCL Project Data to create the ASCII file. No results, only input data is stored.

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Export

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Exporting and Storing 11-69 Define a new file name which will contain all data after the export. Additional selections can be ticked as you can see at the left (to export certain parts of the data only). After confirmation the ASCII file can be opened using the editor button in the main menu. View it, and if something is modified, re-import it into RM (Recalc must be run then to update the results).

Export

Confirm

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Exporting and Storing 11-70

11.2 Leaving the Program


Feel free to add any data at any place and using other available descriptions (training examples, manuals,).

Finish RM

If no additional data is defined the session can be closed and RM can be finished. Select File and Exit RM.

After clicking Exit RM the session will be closed automatically. All data that have been input before are automatically stored in the database. To store all necessary information that have been defined up to this state there exists also the possibility to export the data to a TCL file which can be imported at any time into any directory later on.

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