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CONSIDERATIONS

1. The crater must be long enough to tie into other obstacles. 2. Must be covered by fire to be effective. 3. Employ where the terrain will assist. 4. Crater will be more effective if angled across the road. 5. Integrate or supplement craters with: a. Mines b. Wire c. Water
12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04 Slide # 1

IDEAL LOCATIONS
1. Dense woods 2. Swamps 3. Cuts and fills 4. Side hill cuts 5. Hill crest 6. Built up areas

12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04

Slide # 2

IDEAL LOCATIONS (cont.)


7. Inside tunnels 8. Airstrips, runways, helipads 9. Bridges & approaches 10. Fords and ferry landings 11. Causeways 12. Sharp curves
12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04 Slide # 3

METHODS FOR BOREHOLES

MANUAL MECHANICAL EXPLOSIVES

12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04

Slide # 4

15LBS 40LBS
12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04 Slide # 5

Shaped Demolition Charges

Charge Demolition Shaped 40 pounds M3A1

15 1/2

Charge Demolition Shaped M2A4

14 15/16

6 standoff
7

15 standoff

M2A4, 15 pound shaped demolition charge 0.11-LB booster, composition A3 11.5-LB main charge, composition B

M3A1, 40 pound shaped demolition charge

0.11-LB booster, composition A3 29.5 LB main charge, composition B


12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04 Slide # 6

Characteristics of shaped demolition charges


Type
Charge, Demolition: Shaped 15-lb M2A3

Explosive
Pentolite or composition B, with 50/50 pentolite booster

Weight
15lb

Size(in.)
14 15/16 x 7" w/ fiberboard standoff

Packing & total weight


1. 2per wooden box. wt. 58lbs 2. 3per wooden box. wt. 65lbs

Charge, Demolition: Shaped 15-lb M2A4

Composition B w/ comp. B3 booster

15lb

14 15/16 x 7" w/ fiberboard standoff

3per wooden box. wt. 65lbs 1per wooden box. wt. 65lbs

Charge, Demolition: Shaped 40-lb M2A4

Composition B, with 50/50 pentolite booster

40lb

15 1/2 x 9" less standoff

Charge, Demolition: Shaped 40-lb M3A1

Composition B, with composition B booster

40lb

15 1/2 x 9" less standoff

1per wooden box. wt. 65lbs

12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04

Slide # 7

Characteristics of boreholes made by shaped charges


Material Specifications M2A4 Shaped Charge (15-pound)
12.00 in 1.50 in 36.00 in 30.00 in 2.75 in 42.00 in 44.00 in 91.00 in 1.75 in 42.00 in 38.00 in 90.00 in 3.75 in 7.00 ft 3.50 in 7.00 ft 7.00 in 7.00 ft 7.00 in -

M3A1 Shaped Charge (40-pound)


At least 20.00 in 2.50 in 60.00 in 60.00 in 3.50 in 60.00 in 71.00 in 109.00 in 6.75 in 12.00 ft 6.00 in 7.00 ft 14.50 in 9.00 ft 7.00 in

Penetration Average hole diameter Reinforced Maximum wall thickness concrete Penetration depth in thick walls Average hole diameter Concrete pavement Optimum standoff (10-in with 21-in Minimum penetration depth rock base course) Maximum penetration depth Minimum hole diameter Concrete pavement Optimum standoff (10-in with 21-in Minimum penetration depth rock base course) Maximum penetration depth Minimum hole diameter Ice Hole depth (42-inch standoff) Hole diameter (42-inch standoff) Soil Hole depth (30-inch standoff) Hole depth (48-inch standoff) Hole diameter (30-inch standoff) Hole diameter (48-inch standoff) Gravel roads Hole depth (30-inch standoff) Hole depth (48-inch standoff) Hole diameter (30-inch standoff) Hole diameter (48-inch standoff)

Armor plate

* A dash in the M2A4 Shaped Charge column indicates that a M3A1 shaped charge is required. ** A dash in the M3A1 Shaped Charge column indicates that a M2A4 shaped charge is sufficient.
12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04 Slide # 8

CRATERING CHARGES
DETONATING CORD TUNNEL CLEAT

ATER ING E CR CHA RG

NSN

BS EXP LOS IVES 00-00 0-000 0-000 0

40 L

CAP WELL LOWERING RING

12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04

Slide # 9

BREACHING HARD-SURFACE PAVEMENT

Tamping

Pavement 6" Thick A. One pound of explosive for each 2" of pavement thickness B. Tamping is twice as thick as pavement EXAMPLE . 2" = 3 x 1lb = 3 lbs explosive per charge 1. 6" . 2. 6" x 2 = 12" tamping per charge
12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04 Slide # 10

TYPES OF ROAD CRATERS

HASTY DELIBERATE RELIEVED FACE


12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04 Slide # 11

12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04

Slide # 12

RULES: ("Rule of Thumb")


1. Holes spaced 5 feet apart. 2. Depth: Minimum 5 feet (all same depth). 3. Use 10 lbs explosive per foot of hole (Minimum of 3 holes). 4. Number of holes = N = L - 16 5 +1

12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04

Slide # 13

PLACEMENT FOR HASTY ROAD CRATER


8 ap p rox

20
5 5 5 5

ap pro x

5 (min)

12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04

50-lb charges

Slide # 14

PROBLEM

Calculate the amount of TNT for a hasty road crater 100 feet long. The holes are to be 6 feet deep. Show all work in the six step problem solving format.

12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04

Slide # 15

SOLUTION
Step 1. Holes..6' deep, Crater..100', use TNT, Hasty crater Step 2. 6 feet deep holes at 10 lbs per foot = 60 lbs per hole Step 3. N/A Step 4. Round up to whole pound size = 60 1lb blocks of TNT
(Already in whole packages however, if a combination of cratering charges and TNT....20 lbs TNT and ONE 40 lb cratering charge per hole)
12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04 Slide # 16

SOLUTION
Step 5. Determine number of holes N = L - 16 +1 = 5 100 - 16 +1 = 17.8 Holes 5

17.8 Holes 18 Holes 18 Holes = 18 Charges Step 6. 18 holes= 12 x 60 lbs per hole = 1080 1lb blocks of TNT
12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04 Slide # 17

12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04

Slide # 18

DELIBERATE ROAD CRATER


RULES: 1. Holes spaced 5 feet apart. 2. Must be a 7 foot hole on each end. 3. Alternate 5 and 7 foot holes. 4. There can't be two 5 foot holes adjacent to each other. 5. Explosives per hole: 5' hole = 40 lbs per hole 7' hole = 80 lbs per hole

6. Number of holes: N = L -16 5


12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04

+1
Slide # 19

8' ap pr ox .

PLACEMENT for DELIBERATE ROAD CRATER


25'

5' 5'
7' 80 lb 5' 40 lb 80 lb 80 lb
Crater is approximately 8' deep.

5'
7'

5' 5'
7' 5' 40 lb 80 lb 7'
8' ap pro x.

12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04

Slide # 20

PROBLEM
Calculate the amount of explosives required to construct a deliberate crater 76 feet long. Use: Cratering charges and TNT Show all work to include sketch of placement

12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04

Slide # 21

SOLUTION
Step 1. Crater..76', use cratering charges & TNT, Deliberate Step 2. 7 foot holes at 80 lbs 5 foot holes at 40 lbs Step 3. N/A Step 4. Round up to whole pound size:
80 lb = 2 cratering charges 40 lb = 1 cratering charge and 1 1lb block of TNT
12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04 Slide # 22

SOLUTION
Step 5. Determine number of holes N = L - 16 76 - 16 + 1 =13 holes + 1= 5 5 7 5 7 5 7
5 7 5 7 5 7 5 7

Holes Step 6. 13 Holes = 7 at 7 foot 6 at 5 foot Therefore: 7 holes x 2 cratering charges = 14 cc 6 holes x 1 cratering charge = 6 cc 6 holes x 1 1lb block TNT = 6 1lb block TNT Total: 20 cratering charges 6, 1lb block of TNT
12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04 Slide # 23

PLACEMENT SOLUTION
76'

80 lbs

40 lbs

NOTES: 1. 5' spacing 2. Alternate 5' and 7' holes 3. Dual priming - 40 lb cratering charge
12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04 Slide # 24

RELIEVED FACE ROAD CRATER


Enemy side Friendly side

25 minimum slope

40 maximum slope

12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04

Slide # 25

RELIEVED FACE CRATER


Rules
1. Enemy row = 4' deep and 30 lbs explosives per hole 2. Friendly row = 5' deep and 40 lbs explosives per hole 3. Holes: 7' apart within row 4. Rows: 8' apart and offset (12' on hard surface) 5. Initiate enemy row .5 to 1.5 seconds before friendly : NF = L - 10 +1 6. Number of holes on friendly row:
7

7. Number of holes in enemy row is one less than in the friendly row
12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04 Slide # 26

DUAL PRIMING

Enemy Row 3 1/2 '

8'

Friendly Row
12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04 Slide # 27

RELIEVED FACE PLACEMENT


Enemy side
30 lb 4' 40 lb 8'

Friendly side
5'

25 minimum slope

40 maximum slope

12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04

Slide # 28

PROBLEM
Relieved Face

How many cratering charges and how many 1lb blocks of TNT are needed to create a relieved face road crater 110 feet long?

12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04

Slide # 29

SOLUTION
Step 1. Relieved face, CC and TNT, 110 ft crater Step 2. 4 ft holes at 30 lbs per hole 5 ft holes at 40 lbs per hole Step 3. N/A Step 4. 4 ft holes = 30 1lb blocks of TNT per hole 5 ft holes = 1 cc & 1 pkg TNT per hole Step 5. NF = L - 10 7 110 - 10 + 1 = 15.28 16 7 Friendly side = 16 holes Enemy side = 15 holes Step 6. Friendly = 16 x 1cc = 16cc 16 x 1 1lb block of TNT = 16 1lb blocks of TNT Enemy = 15 x 30 1lb block of TNT = 450 1lb block of TNT
+ 1=

TOTAL: 16cc and 466 1lb block of TNT


12B30 / 12C30 / CET - B04 Slide # 30