(


.

\
 +
+
=
+
(
(


.

\
 +
=
(12)
As the pipeline is operated, the true axial force gets into
compression due to the thermal expansion (A
s
) and into
tension due to the hoop stress and Possions effect (
h
A
s
) if
not allowed to slide axially (fully restrained). The true force
becomes:
TE A
t
D p
A A p H N
s
i i
s e e
+ =
2
(4)
where H is the (effective) bottom tension.
From the definition of the effective axial force, the following is
deducted:
During operation, denoted index 2, the longitudinal strain
will be, similar to the above:
  TE A A p H
TE A
t
D p
A A p H S
s i i
s
i i
s i i
+ =
2 1
2
(5)
2
2 , 2 , 2 , 2 ,
2 , 2 ,
2 ,
2 2
1
T
p p
t
D p D p
A
A p A p S
E
e i e i i
s
i i e e
l
+
(
(
(


.

\
 +
+
=
(13)
which is the same expression as given in DNVOSF101. Note
that in DNVOSF101, p
i
is replaced by p
i
. This does not
mean the differential pressure between the outer and the
internal pressure, but the change in internal pressure from
installation, accounting for a potential waterfilled installation
with a hydrostatic pressure inside the pipe.
Since the pipe is axially restrained;
l,1
=
l,2
and S can be
solved from (setting Eq. (12) equal to Eq.(13)):
2
2 , 2 , 2 , 2 ,
2 , 2 ,
1
1 , 1 , 1 , 1 ,
1 , 1 ,
2 2
1
2 2
1
T
p p
t
D p D p
A
A p A p S
E
T
p p
t
D p D p
A
A p A p H
E
e i e i i
s
i i e e
e i e i i
s
i i e e
+
(
(
(


.

\
 +
+
= +
(
(
(


.

\
 +
+
(14)
DNVOSF101 EFFECTIVE AXIAL FORCE
An alternative proof of the effective axial force for a fully
restrained pipeline will be given in the following. This is based
on two fundamental expressions; Effective axial force and
Hookes law:
e e i i
A p A p N S + =
(6)
( )   T
E
r h l l
+ + =
1
(7)
Further, the external pressure is the same, i.e. p
e,1
=p
e,2
and
the differential temperature from reference (i.e. T
2
T
1
) can
be denoted as T and the equation can be simplified as:
where
l
is the axial (longitudinal) strain ,
l
,
h
and
r
are the
axial, hoop and radial stresses, is Poissons ratio, is the
thermal expansion coefficient and T is the temperature
difference.
TE
p
t
D p
A
A p S
p
t
D p
A
A p H
i i i
s
i i
i i i
s
i i
+


.

\

+
=


.

\

+
2 2
2 2
2 , 2 , 2 ,
1 , 1 , 1 ,
(15)
Further, the following relationships apply:
s l
A N / =
(8)
t D p D p
e i i h
2 / ) ( =
(9)
2 / ) (
e i r
p p +
(10)
Introducing p
i
as the internal pressure difference from
laying (i.e. p
i,2
p
i,1
) the equation reads:
TE
p
t
D p
A
A p H S
i i i
s
i i
+ 
.

\

+
=
2 2
0
(16)
TE A
t
D A
p A p H S
s
i s
i i i

.

\

+ = 1
4
2
(17)
where A
s
is the steel cross sectional area of the pipe, D and D
i
are the external and internal diameters and t is the nominal
wall thickness.
Let the asinstalled pipeline condition be denoted with an
index 1. The only unknown in this condition is the longitudinal
strain which is given by Hookes law as:
( )  
1 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 ,
1
T
E
r h l l
+ + =
(11)
4 Copyright 2005 by ASME
The external pressure will not affect the effective axial
force in the operational condition.
TE A
t
D
t
D
t
D
A p H
TE A
t
D
t
D D
A p H S
s i i
s
i i
i i
(
(
(
(
(

.

\


.

\


.

\

=
(
(
(
(

.

\


.

\
 +
=
2
2
3 1
2 1
4
1
2
2
(18)
Both Palmer and Baldry (1974) and Hobbs (1984) are
correct and according to the DNV formulae when it comes to
internal pressure.
DNVOSF101 LOCAL BUCKLING
The local buckling criterion in DNV96 for internal over
pressure is based on a pure von Mises calculation, considering
the two dimensional stress stage in the pipe wall. In general
terms this becomes:
(
(
(
(
(
(


.

\



.

\



.

\

= =
2
2
2
4
3
1
2
1
2
4
3
1
SMYS
SMYS t D SMYS
N
Cos
SMYS
t D SMYS f M M
h
h
h
M p c
(21)
To this point, the only simplification is that the radial stress
is assumed constant across the wall thickness.
However, the above equation can be approximated with:
  TE A A p H S
s i i
2 1 (19)
The order of error introduced (of the pressure contribution)
by this simplification is:

.

\


.

\


.

\

=
2 1
2
3 1
2 1
2
t
D
t
D
t
D
e
(20)
Concentrating on the bracket in the nominator of the
Cosine term, this has been split up into functional and
environmental loads in DNV96 as:
SMYS t D SMYS
N N
h F E E F F
+
2
1
(22)
and it is plotted in fig 5. The error of the simplification is less
than 1% for D/t larger than 15!. Note that the error is valid for
the internal pressure term only and is really negligible. It is also
worth to mention that in most HTHP cases, it is the thermal
expansion term that dominates the effective axial force.
This can be rewritten by including the definition of the
effective force, defined as:
e e i i
A p A p N S + =
(23)
Split into functional and environmental parts this becomes
e e i i F F
A p A p N S + =
E E
N S =
(24)
New
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
1.1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 7
D/t
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
e
r
r
o
r
0
Including these definitions into the inner bracket of the
cosine term, it becomes:
( )
SMYS t D SMYS
S A p A p S
h F E E e e i i F F
+ +
2
1
(25)
Assuming thin walled pipe this can be rewritten as
( )
=
+
+
SMYS t D SMYS
A p p
t D SMYS
S S
h F e e i F E E F F
2
1
( )
=
+ =
SMYS D t D SMYS
D A p p
h F e e i F
2
1
2
2
.....
( )
=
+ =
SMYS D D SMYS
D
t
D p p
h F e i F
2
1
2
4
2
...
2
t D SMYS
S S
SMYS SMYS
E E F F
h F
h F
+
=
=
+ =
2
1
2
1
...
(26)
Figure 5  Estimate of error due to simplification of axially
restrained pipe stress formula
The conclusions from this deduction are:
The given formula, Eq. 5.4 in DNVOSF101 is
correct if the pipe can be considered as a thin walled
pipe the error due to this simplification can be seen in
Figure 5.
Hence, the bracket in the nominator can be simplified by
using the effective force. This local buckling formulation has
5 Copyright 2005 by ASME
been further developed by Taylor expansion, including strain
hardening and other minor adjustments to fit with FE analyses
in DNVOSF101 based on the same principles as explained
above.
By considering equilibrium of lateral forces and the
bending moment acting on the beam section shown in fig. 6, the
dynamic equation of motion for the beam section exposed to an
axial tensile force, P, and a distributed lateral force, q, reads: Hence, the local buckling formula has been derived at by
use of the true pipe wall force. However, the result turns out
to be simpler if converted to effective force.
) , (
2
2
2
2
4
4
t x q
t
v
m
x
v
P
x
v
EI =
(27)
The following comments apply:
The new format is simpler to use and understand. It
is well suited for performing design checks (g(x)<1) in
connection with global analyses.
where v is the lateral displacement, x the axial coordinate, t is
time and EI and m the bending stiffness and dynamic mass per
unit length, respectively.
Compared to the original formulation, the utilisation is
unaltered for bending dominant cases.
The classical solution to this differential equation without
any lateral force (free vibrations) gives the following
fundamental vibration frequency:
The limit state is now applicable also in case of axial
force and pressure only. The format and axial force
utilisation is consistent with traditional stressbased
von Mises criteria.


.

\

=
cr
P
P
mL
EI
C f 1
4
1 0
(28)
Note that the pressure terms are not factorised.
Extreme pressure cases are handled in the (system)
burst check.
where L is the span length and P
cr
is the critical buckling axial
force where the span buckles. Note that P and P
cr
are positive in
tension, and that P
cr
and that the constant C
1
depends on the
boundary conditions of the span, for more specific guidance see
DNVRPF105 or Fyrileiv and Mrk (2002).
DNVRPF105 FREE SPAN RESPONSE
The most important parameter when it comes to structural
response of free spans is the natural frequency. This parameter
enters the reduced velocity and thereby governs whether vortex
induced vibrations will occur or not, given the pipe outer
diameter and the flow velocity normal to the span. By changing
the natural frequency, e.g. by introducing additional span
supports or reducing the span length, the VIV response may be
mitigated.
The P
cr
term may be replaced by the Euler buckling force
for a pinnedpinned span, P
E
=
2
EI/L
2
(positive in
compression) and a second boundary condition constant, C
2
:


.

\

+ =
E
P
P
C
mL
EI
C f
2
4
1 0
1
(29)
From textbooks like Clough and Penzien (1975), it is
obvious how the axial force influence on the dynamics and
frequencies of a free spanning pipeline. However, there have
been a lot of mistakes when it comes to the effect of the internal
pressure in various papers and reports. The latest example is the
paper by Galgoul et al. (2004) where it is claimed that the
internal pressure will increase the frequency.
What happens when the beam or pipe is put in water and
subjected to external and internal pressures in addition to the
axial force?
Looking at the governing differential equation it is obvious
that most of the terms remain the same; the effects of the
bending and axial force do not change. Note that the axial
force, P, is strictly speaking the socalled true axial force, N,
given in DNVOSF101 and DNVRPF105. This force is the
integrated axial stresses over the steel crosssection and
contains terms from residual lay tension, temperature expansion
effects, Poisson effects from hoop stresses and any axial
expansion/sliding effects.
Since the discussion is about how the pressure effects
influence on the frequencies or more precisely if the internal
pressure tends to increase or decrease the frequencies, it is of
outmost importance to get the signs right, considering the
governing equations of dynamics for the beam.
R For this case with the pipe in water and exposed to internal
and external pressures, the vibrating mass will also involve the
mass of the pipe content and the hydrodynamic added mass (the
effect of moving the pipe through water and creating pressure
effects around the circumference).
v
q
M+dM
M
P
) , (
2
2
2
2
4
4
t x q
t
v
m
x
v
N
x
v
EI
eff
=
(30)
Q+dQ
P
Q
As mentioned, the external and internal pressure will have
an indirect effect on this equation through the hoop stress and
the Poisson effect on the true axial force.
However, as shown by Galgoul et al. (2004), the effect of
the internal pressure can be seen as a lateral force, q. Consider
the infinitesimal length of the pipe as shown in fig. 6 which is
deformed with a radius R =
2
v/x
2
. Due to the deformation,
the pipe fibres at the compression side become shorter than the
x
dx
Figure 6 Forces acting on an infinitesimal length of a
beam.
6 Copyright 2005 by ASME
ones at the tensile side. The relative shortening becomes (R
rsin)/R where is defined in fig. 7.
Figure 7 Deformed pipe cross section with internal
pressure and with a bending radius R.
The net effect of the internal pressure will be similar to a
distributed load, q. The integrated effect becomes:
2
2
2
0
/ sin
sin
x
v
A p R A p d r
R
r R
p q
i i i i i
i
i
= =
(31)
where r
i
denotes the internal pipe radius. The governing
equation of motion now becomes:
0 ) (
2
2
2
2
4
4
=
t
v
m
x
v
A p N
x
v
EI
eff i i
(32)
(32)
and the fundamental frequency:


.

\

+ =
E
i i
e
P
A p N
C
L m
EI
C f
) (
1
2
4
1 0
(33)
In the same way the effect of the external pressure can be
incorporated. It is seen that by using the definition of the
effective axial force:
e e i i
A p A p N S + =
(34)
both the governing differential equation and the expression for
the frequency are simplified.
Of course the same expressions would have been deducted
if the concept of effective axial forces has been applied in stead
of the axial force, P, from the beginning. Then the cumbersome
integration of doublecurves surfaces would have been avoided.
Let us consider eq. without the dynamic term (inertia
term). Having no external distributed load but including
external and internal pressures will lead to an equation similar
to eq. but without the inertia term:
(27)
R=1/d
2
v/dx
2
0 ) (
2
2
4
4
=
x
v
A p A p N
x
v
EI
e e i i
(35)
Solving this equation gives the following critical load,
buckling load, for a pinnedpinned boundary condition:
q
2
2
L
EI
A p A p N S
e e i i cr cr
= + =
(36)
(36)
This shows that there is a clear relationship between how
the internal (and external) pressure affects both global buckling
and the natural frequencies of a span.
It is also quite obvious that the natural frequency will
decrease as the internal pressure increases. Finally, as the
effective axial force approaches the critical buckling load, the
frequency approaches zero, 0. However, this occurs for the
theoretical case with pinnedpinned support conditions. In
reality, a pipeline span will experience a gradual deflection or
sagging that will give raise to nonlinear effects not accounted
for in the expressions above. By this reason, the natural
frequency of free spans should be estimated by use of other
tools, e.g. nonlinear FE analysis, when the effective axial force
reaches a certain value and nonlinear effects become
significant, as recommended in the DNVRPF105.
p
i
Another comment to be given to eq. is that this
expression gives the critical buckling force for a pinnedpinned
span. For more realistic boundary conditions, DNVRPF105
gives some advice for a single span supported on soil (flexible
span shoulders). In this case, a C
2
coefficient equal to 0.25 is
used in combination with an effective length of the span longer
than the appearing span length. However, the intention of the
expressions for the structural response given in the DNVRP
F105 is to support calculation of VIV and fatigue and not to
give exact guidance on span buckling.
For most real spans, the span deflection will gradually
increase as the effective axial force tends towards the critical
buckling value as correctly stated by Palmer and Kaye (1991)
and Galgoul et al (2004). This deflection will release some of
the axial force and may also cause the span to vanish as the
span height is limited. Anyway, as the effective axial force
increases in compression and approaches the theoretical
buckling limit, the pipeline response becomes complicated and
highly nonlinear. Therefore, expressions based on linear beam
theory can not be applied and must be replaced by for example
nonlinear FE analysis.
Due to this, the range of applicability for the expressions
based on beam theory in DNV RPF105 is limited to short and
moderate span lengths L/D < 140, moderate deflections /D <
2.5 and moderate geometrical stiffness effects C
2
S
eff
/P
E
< 0.5
This is explained in more detail in the paper by Fyrileiv and
Mrk, 2002.
7 Copyright 2005 by ASME
CONCLUSIVE SUMMARY
The following comments can be used to summarise the
discussion within this paper:
Effective axial force is a very simple and efficient concept
to account for pressure effects.
The expression for the effective axial force in the DNV
code is correct although some simplifications have been
made.
The local buckling is influenced by the true steel wall force
and the hoop stress.
The DNVOSF101 local buckling criterion is based on the
effective axial force. In this way the criterion is simplified
compared to the alternative using the true axial force.
The natural frequency will drop as the internal pressure
increases.
The pressure effect on the frequency of a span is accounted
for by the effective axial force concept.
REFERENCES
Carr, M., Bruton, D. and Leslie, D.., Lateral Buckling and
Pipeline Walking, a Challenge for Hot Pipelines,
OPT2003, Offshore Pipeline Technology conference,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2003.
Bruschi, R., Spinazze, M., Vitali, L. And Verley, R., Lateral
Snaking of Hot Pressurized Pipelines Mitigation for
Troll Oil Pipeline, Proceedings of OMAE1996, 1996.
DNV76, Rules for the Design, Construction and Inspection of
Submarine Pipelines and Pipeline Risers, Det Norske
Veritas January 1976.
DNV96, Rules for Submarine Pipelines systems, Det Norske
Veritas, December 1996.
DNVOSF101, DNV Offshore Standard Submarine Pipeline
Systems, Det Norske Veritas, January 2003.
DNVRPF105, DNV Recommended Practice, Free Spanning
Pipelines, Det Norske Veritas, March 2002.
Fyrileiv, O. and Mrk, K., Structural Response of Pipeline
Free Spans based on Beam Theory, Proceedings of
OMAE2002, Oslo, Norway, 2002.
Galgoul, N.S., de Barros, J.C.P. and Ferreira, R.P., The
Interaction of Free Span and Lateral Buckling Problems,
Proceedings of IPC 2004, Calgary, Canada, 2004.
Galgoul, N.S., Massa, A.L.L. and Claro, C.A., A Discussion
on How Internal Pressure is Treated in Offshore Pipeline
Design, Proceedings of IPC 2004, Calgary, Canada,
2004.
Hobbs, R.E.., InService Buckling of Heated Pipelines,
Journal of Transportation Engineering, vol. 110, No 2,
March 1984.
Palmer, A.C. and Baldry, J.A.S., InService Buckling of
Heated Pipelines, Journal of Petroleum Technology, pp.
12831284, November 1974.
Palmer, A.C. and Kaye, D., Rational Assessment Criteria for
Pipeline Spans, OPT, Offshore Pipeline Technology
conference, 1991.
Sparks, C.P., The Influence of Tension, Pressure and Weight
on Pipe and Riser Deformations and Stresses,
Proceedings of OMAE, 1983.
Sparks, C.P., The Influence of Tension, Pressure and Weight
on Pipe and Riser Deformations and Stresses, ASME
transaction vol 106, pp. 4654, 1984.
8 Copyright 2005 by ASME
Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.
Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbitpenerbit terkemuka.
Batalkan kapan saja.