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SH 167.G6M95 1902
The goldfish and
its

"-'

systematic culture;

3 1924 003 231 473

New York
State College of Agriculture

At Cornell University
Ithaca,

N. Y.

Library

Cornell University Library

The
tine

original of

tiiis

book

is in

Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924003231473

FAN-TAILED NYMPHS.

THE GOLDFISH
AND
ITS SYSTEMATIC
A THOROUGH GUIDE FOR

CULTURE

GOLDFISH KEEPING AND GOLDFISH BREEDING


IN

THE HOUSE AND OUT-OF-DOORS


THE

CONSTRUCTION AND CARE OF THE PARLOR AQUARIUM

AND PONDS FOR BREEDING

HUGO MULERTT
Corresponding Member of the Imperial Russian Society for the Acclimatization of Animals and Plants
Editor and Publisher of

"THE Aquarium"

With Colored Frontispiece, Twelve Plates and

many Text

Illustrations

from Nature

BROOKLYN-NEW YORK

THIRD EDITION

Entered accordingc to act of Congress, in the years

1883, 1896

and

1902.

bv

HUGO MULERTT,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

Right of translation reserved.

Brooklyn Eagle,
Printers and Binders.

Brooklyn, N. Y.

PREFACE.
/T'here
are not

many>

if

any,
fish

homes

in the

country or suburbs
not be indulged
of realizing
in,

of large
as

cities

where

culture could

either

an agreeable pastime or with a view


it.

an

income from

Being accidentally drawn into the culture of ornamental


through a genuine love of Natural History,
ten years, given
it

fish

have, for the past

my

exclusive attention.

The
I

originality of the

method

describe in the following pages

claim as

my

own, and

it

has been giving

my
the

earnest endeavor to speak


full

plainly

and

to

the point,

results

of

my

long

experience, not intentionally withholding any facts or secrets that

would

in

any way have a bearing upon the success of the business.

This method has the decided advantage of applying equally to


the culture of goldfish, no matter upon what scale
it

is

carried on,

whether the establishment


thousands of
fish

is

intended to

produce hundreds of

annually,

or be engaged in with limited means

by the deserving widow or


a restricted income.

invalid

who

wishes to add something to

With

these objects in view, and to promote a


goldfish,
I

more thorough
and should
public,
I

knowledge of the
Natural History,
efforts

as well as to

stimulate the study of

have made every exertion,


intelligent

my
shall

meet with the approval of an


I

consider that

have not labored

in vain.

HUGO MULERTT.
Cincinnati,
O., July, 1883.

PREFACE TO THE NEW EDITION.


Manyfold indeed were the acknowledgments of the
ness of this
little

useful-

volume
and
it

It
is

has been translated abroad in four


to-day used
all

different languages,

over the civilized


it

world and acknowledged authority on the subject upon which


treats.

The

scores of letters which

received from

all

parts of

the world, applauding


it is, is

my

method, are proof that the volume as

a reliable guide.

Only a few important additions, but no corrections, appeared


to be necessary for this

new

edition.

HUGO MULERTT.
Brooklyn, N.
Y.,

March, 1896.

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.


I

wish to thank
of

my

patrons for the kind and frank acknowlof

edgments
new,

the

usefulness

my

little

volume.

May

this

enlarged and improved edition

prove as successful as a

guide and receive as hearty a welcome by the reading public


as did the two preceding editions.

HUGO MULERTT.
Brooklyn-New York,
August, T902.

CONTENTS.
PART
The
I.

Goldfish and its Types.

Chapter
ornamental Plants.
Their influence

I.

The Advantage of Goldfish Culture. Culture

of Pet
'

Animals and
3

Chapter

II.

The History of the


and Japan.
America.

Goldfish.

Its origin.

First introduction into Europe.

Goldfish keeping in China Naturalized Goldfish in


6

Introduction of

new

types
III.

Chapter

The Goldfish and


generated stock

its

Habits.^A product of artificial propagation. Deon Long Island. Cause of degeneration. Scientific
General characteristics of the Genus.
Habitat

name
and

of the

fish.

food.

Growth.

Their Enemies.

mode of reproduction. The coloring process. The memory of Goldfish. Tame Goldfish., g
Chapter IV.

The Types of
types

Goldfish.

Classification
The

of

same.

and

their varieties.

cros:5ing of

species.

Description of the The favorable

influence of food and climate. planation of technical terms

Points for judging a goldfish.

Ex17

Chapter V.
PsEUDO Goldfish and their Varieties. sketches of same

Description

and
iii

historical

29

IV

CONTENTS.

PART
The Aquarium,
its

II.

Construction and Care.

Chapter VI.
Their
ted

Home Within

Ours.

The

Aquarium.

Its

Location,

illustra-

33

Chapter VII.

The Tank. The


for same.

Construction of one, illustrated.


;

The Frame

or Mantle
39

The Stand

Chapter VIII.

The Plants for the Aquarium. The Purpose


tion of the best for the purpose.

of the Plants. DescripCaution against wild plants. 45

Chapter IX.

Arranging the Collection.


ing the aquatic garden.

list

of plants for the collection.

Plant-

Filling the tank.

Stocking the Aquarium.


54

Number

of

Specimens

Chapter X.

General Management. The daily care. Re-arranging the Aquarium


Chapter XI.

59

Sundry Directions. When


rium out-doors.
snails.

is

When and what

an Aquarium most desirable? An aquato feed goldfish. Tadpoles and


Tuffstone
62

Conditions of the water.

PART
The Ponds and
About Fish-ponds

III.

their Construction.

Chapter XII.
General. Distinction of the Name. Reason for the Establishment of Ponds. The Monks as Fish-culturists. Profitableness of Pond-culture. The German Carp. Old Establishments. Largest Fish-ponds on the Globe. Necessity of Pond-culture in the United Consumption of food fishes in this Country. Reason for it. States. Riches of the Rivers in former Days. Pisciculture compared with Agriculture. Culture of Ornamental Fisti 67
in

CONTENTS.

Chapter

XIII.

The Construction
kinds of Ponds.

of Ponds for Goldfish Culture. The Different The Value of a Pond. Location or Site for the Ponds. Arranging the Ponds Advantageously. Ways of Constructing a Pond. Ponds for Different Purposes. The Number of them. Spawning, Rearing, Storage and Winter Ponds. Depth of the Same. The Dams. Their Construction. The Inlet. The Outlet. Its Construction. The 71 Water Supply. The Supply Channel

Chapter XIV.

The Author's Establishment. Illustration.


Chapter XV.

Description

77

The Propagating
Materials.

Economical use of Bed. Construction of the Same. Location of the Bed. Advantages of a False Bottom.
Size of
it.

Ihe Nursery.

The Rearing Pond. The


the Water.

The Water

Level.

Circulation of

The The

Plants for the Pond. Storage Pond. Its Purposes. Winter Pond. Its Construction and Requirements.

Other Winter

Quarters

79

PART

IV.
of the Goldfish.

The Propagation and Care

Chapter XVI.

The Anatomy and Physiology of the

Goldfish. The Scales. The Fins. The Gills. The Heart. The Voice. The Air-bladder. The Stomach. The Eyes. Hearing. The Act of Sleeping. Taste. Smell. ReproducFemale Organs. The Ovary. The Oviduct. The Male. The tion. Spermatic Organs The Spermatazoa. The Egg. The Fecundation of the Egg. The Development of the Embryo. The Perfect Fish. The

Yolk-bag

84

Chapter XVII.

Propagation. Classification of Fish. Artificial Impregnation of the Eggs Natural Impregnation. The Main Points in Goldfish Culture. Selection of Breeders. The Season. The Condition of the Fish. Their Health, Shape, Color,, and Habits. The Distinction of the Sexes. Sterile

Goldfish.

Number for

a Set.

Size.

Age

90

VI

CONTENTS.

Chapter XVIII.
Preparing the Spawning Bed.
Material to Catch the Spawn. Catching Duration of the Spawning Season. LengthRe-mating the Breeders 95

Spawn

in

Open Waters.

ening of the Same.

Chapter XIX.

Care of the Eggs. Advantages of an Early Season. Gathering the Eggs. The Incubating or Hatching Jar. Quota of Eggs to the Jar. Location during Hatching. Time Required for Incubation. Temperature of the Water. The Advantage of Hatching in Jars 97
Chapter XX.
First Care of the Young. Preparing the Nursery. Removal of the Young to the Nursery. Protection against Enemies. Transferring to the Rearing Pond. Manner of Catching and Handling the Fish. Temperature of the Water during the Change. Time Required 99

Chapter XXI.
Setting out the Young Fish. Filling the Pond. Natural Food contained in the Water. Appearance of injurious Insects. Precaution necessary in Setting out the Young. Number of Young to each Pond. Time required for Growth and Coloring. Fish-culture in the Parlor. Hatching in a glass Tumbler. Spawning in an Aquarium loi

Chapter XXII.

Care of the Ponds. Condition of the Water. Time of Supplying the Ponds with Water. The Supply Drain. Grass and Weeds on the Dams. Removing extraneous Matter. Cleaning out the Ponds. Care of the Ponds in the Winter. Changes to be made 103
Chapter XXIII.
Fishing the Ponds. Draining off the Water. ing them. Caution in Handling.

Removing the Fish.

Assort-

Domesticating the Fish. The Fish in the Storage Pond. The Gradual Change of Diet. The Quality of the Food. Domestication Completed. Caution to be observed near the Ponds 105

CONTENTS.

Vll

Chapter XXIV.

Care of Fish in Stores. Manners of Keeping them. The Supply of Oxygen in the Water. Plants ths means of producing it. Location of the Tank. Shape and Construction of the Same. Management of the
Tank.
Precaution against spread of Disease
107

Chapter XXV.
Transportation of Fish.

The Shipping Can. Wooden Jacket Can. Rules of Express Companies. About Shipping. Filling of the Can. Time of Shipment. Delay while in the Hands of Express Companies. Bucket for Shipment. Shipping to great Distances. Transatlantic Shipping Can. Rules for Shipment. Treatment of Fish while en route. The Same when arriving in Bad Condition 109

PART
Enemies and Diseases

V.

of the Goldfish.

Requisites, Tools, etc.

Chapter XXVI.

The Enemies of the


Pond
Its

Snail.

The Water

Destructiveness.

Destroy their own Eggs. The The Water Flea. The Boat-fly. Its Other Varieties. The Yellow-banded Water Beetle.

Goldfish.

Goldfish
Beetle.

Asell.

Larva.

The Black Water

Its

Cocoon.

Its

Grub.

How to
Their Their
113

destroy them. The DragoQ-flies. Libellula. Aeshma. Agrion. Copulation. Mode of Depositing their Eggs. Their Grubs. Destruction and Enemies

Chapter XXVII.

The Enemies of the Goldfish, Continued. The Crawfish. The Frogs. Useful and Destructive structive Habits.
Indirect Injuries
tecting the Toad.
less to

Its

DePro-

Varieties.

from

their Tadpoles.

How

to

Destroy them.

Difference of their Spawn.

The Water

Spider.

Salamanders and Newts. Their Tadpoles Destructive. Adults harmMan. Water-snakes. Safest way to Destroy them. A Snaketrap. Cranes and Herons. Their Mode of Fishing. The Kingfisher. Turtles and Alligators. The Musk-rat. Their Destructiveness. How to set a trap for them. The Raccoon. The Mink. The Duck. The Goose. The Swan. The House-rat. The Cat 122

Vlll

CONTENTS.

Chapter XXVIII.

The

Its Sickly State. Diseases of the Goldfish. Its Healthy State. General Causes of Disease. Asphyxia. Its Cause. Its Cure! Tuberculosis. The Cause of it. Slime or Itch. Bacterise, the Cause. Treatment of the Disease. Dropsy. Treatment of Specimens affected with it. Erysipelas. Improper Feeding the Cause. Its Prevention and Cure. Accidents. Assisting Nature in Healing Wounds. Con-

clusion

izg

Chapter XXIX.
Requisites and Tools.

Dip-nets.

Glass Jars.

Other Necessaries.

137

Chapter XXX.
Profitableness of Goldfish Ponds. Will it pay? Markets. Percentage of Young grown to Perfection. ture as Out-door Recreation

Difference
139

in

Goldfish Cul-

Diagrams of Aquarium

tools

141

Comparative, typical shapes of goldfish

142-3

INDEX TO PLATES.
Colored Frontispiece.
Plate
I.

Fan-tailed

Nymphs.

Copied from an elaborate Chinese inches in diameter, made in province Quang se for Emperor Keen Lung, about 1737. Now in the possession of George E. Saulnier, Esq., of this city. The colors of the fish are deep vermilion on back fading to lighter on sides, and pearly white on the abdomen, eyes light peacock blue in light vermilion setting.
fruit-platter, 26

Fringe-tailed Globe Dragons.

Plate

Fringe-tailed Globe Telescopes. Copied from a plate about II. one hundred years old of the famous W. A. Sale's collection of old Chinese plates. The one nearest the upper left corner is milky the one next to it solid white, the scales being edged with gold deep vermilion, scales edged with gold and on each a golden spot. The eyes of both are light blue. The middle one is jet black, The lower one is deep the eyes included ; it has no dorsal fin. vermilion, its scales are edged and spotted with gold, eyes blue.
;

Plate

III.

Two

Fringe-tailed

and One Hooded Globes.

Copied from a
Colors of
all,

piece of Cloisonne (Shippo)

made
;

recently in Japan.

sides and abdomen delightfully on back (in blotches) These and the preceding are reproeyes green. pearly and pink duced here for comparison sake.

vermilion

Plate IV.

one of the original fringe-tailed Globes brought Ammen in 1878, made at that time. This fish was for a short time on exhibition at the old New York Aquarium as the $5,000 fish; $3,000 were actually offered for it and refused. It is the ancestor of those Mandarin Globes shown on Plate VIII., An aerial leaf and flower-spike of Sag. and of all the Comets. " Frances M," half natural size.
of
to this country

Portrait

by Admiral

Plate V.

Comet

and Large-tailed Nymph.

Section of

an

aquarium

fram>.

PART

I.

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS TYPES.

Chapter
*'

I.

and

have dominion over the

fish of

the

sea and over the fowl of the

air,

and over

every living thing that moveth upon the


earth."

Genesis

I: 28.

THE ADVANTAGE OF GOLDFISH CULTURE.


Why
why has
was the goldfish cultivated
it

in

times immemorial, and

become a household pet with us?


in their culture, for

There must have


rule,

been some advantage

man, as a

does

not do anything without a gain of some kind

in view.

When
upon
it,

the

Great Creator made this world and everything

he selected

man

as its master,

and therefore man

is

acting in accordance with his


his

command when,

without abusing
it

privilege, he
it

is

making everything upon

subservient to

himself, using

to his advantage.

In the course of time, he has


the dog

made

a faithful companion of
;

and a useful servant of the horse

fowl as well as

ornamental birds
or song
;

he cultivates for the sake of their plumage

he cultivates bees for the honey and the wax they


3

Chapter

II.

THE HISTORY OF THE GOLDFISH.


Long
cared
before the principles

upon which

the success of an aqua-

rium are based were understood, goldfish were kept and tenderlyf6r,

merely because they are beautiful, and besides being in a

sense pets,

upon which

to lavish

much

solicitude

and

attention,
it is diffi-

served the purpose of an animated ornament, than which


cult to find a

more

beautiful

and desirable

substitute.

The very

fact

of their being denizens of a different element than that in which


the most familiar domestic animals and pets live, served to surround

them with a halo of

fascination that

prompted

their admirers to
to

expend upon them any amount of time and pains


flourishing condition,

keep them

in a

and ever ready

to

be

displayed before the

chosen guest

in the household.
life,

Their wonderful tenacity of

the gorgeous colors in which

they are clothed, both contributed to

make them adapted

to life in

the aquarium and grace the elaborate structures that were framed
for the express

purpose of displaying them to the best advantage.

The

goldfish,

we

are told, like


is

many

other things, originated in


its

China, though, so far as this

concerned,

history

is

involved in

Plat

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.
it is

much

obscurity.

The

first

mention we find of

in the

" Arabian

Nights' Entertainments," in the story of the Fisherman

and the Genii,


It

a story, which like those accompanying


is,

it,

is

of Persian origin.

however, frequently represented in the old Chinese paintings, and

appears to have been held in great esteem, insomuch as several of


the ancient
as a

and distinguished

families

among

the Chinese carried


or as an

it

component part of the family coat of arms,


their armor.

ornament

upon
upon

In short, the goldfish has always been looked


tribe, the ancients

as a

kind of superior being among the finny


it

even dedicating

to their well-beloved goddess,

Venus.

In China, even at the present day, the goldfish enjoys the admiration of
all,

and may be seen

in almost every house, inhabiting a

richly-decorated China bowl, or disporting itself in lakelets in the

gardens,

made

for its especial care

and enjoyment.

They
his

are alike

admired and beloved from the august Emperor on


State

throne of
in the
said,

down
all

to the

most humble and impoverished peasant


it

realm,

seeing in

an object worthy of care, and,


is

it

might be

of love.

So intense
that
it

the fondness for the goldfish in the land of

Chinamen
amounts

has begotten a study of them and their habits, that


All the resources of the knowledge of them,

to a science.

thus gained, have been exhausted in the production of

new
to

varieties

by the crossing of
In the larger

different species,

and with marked


brought

success.

cities the fish are regularly

market and
flowers

offered for sale, very


plants.

much

as our

florists offer their

and

For that purpose they are separated into

pairs,

and placed

in little vessels

made

of bamboo, and, together with some bit of

water plant, are sold to ready and ever eager purchasers; the prices
ranging according to the variety and perfection of the specimens.

The mandarin,
buying
ivory,

in person,

may sometimes be

seen in the markets

fish for his aquaria,

which, indeed, are often

made

of carved

and

inlaid with gold.

These purchases he makes with the

THE GOLDFISH AND


relish

ITS

CULTURE.

same

and delight that one takes

in

making a new and valuable

addition to his conservatory.

The most
The
that
first

choice and beautiful varieties are obtained from a lake

in the province of

Che-Kyang.
is

introduction of the goldfish into Europe

variously

dated, the years 1611, i6gi and 1728, A. D., each having claims for

honor

it

may be

said also that the variety introduced

was the

poorest and cheapest the Chinese had.

The
famous

first

seen in France, however, were those imported for the

Madame de Pompadour.
as
it

Soon afterwards they became quite


in the waters of South-

common,
small

was found that they throve well

ern Europe, especially in Poi-tugal,


fish,

where they sprang from a few

said to have escaped

from a vessel newly arrived from

China.
table.

In that country they are


It

now

considered a delicacy for the

was not long

until several streams in the


it is

neighborhood
this

oi

Lisbon absolutely swarmed with them, and


all

from

source that

Europe became stocked with them.

From Europe
way

the fish were

brought to America, and quickly


forty years, perhaps, these fish

won

their

into favor.

For the

last

have become wild in the United

States.

Some having

accidentally escaped into

open waters, they soon made

themselves at home, became thoroughly acclimated, and in conse-

quence the goldfish has been quoted by several authors as a native

American
one

fish.

It is true that,

having been born here, they are in

sense native, but are not native in the sense, origin, as having

originated here.

Living thus in a wild

state, the

fish

has greatly
efforts

degenerated from the original standard.


the late

Through
the

the

of

Admiral Dan. Ammen, U.

S. N.,

cultivation of the

goldfish in the United States has received a

new impulse.

This gentleman, but a few years ago, brought from Japan a number of specimens of the choicest varieties which have since been

reproduced with marked success.

Chapter

III.

THE GOLDFISH AND


The
tor
sis),
is,

ITS HABITS.

goldfish

is

a product of

artificial

cultivation; its ances-

in the author's opinion, the

Crucian carp {carassius sinen-

native
of

of

China,
is

of

which the

Karausche

(Carassius

vulgaris)

Germany

the

European representative.

The

Chinese and other oriental people have cultivated

this fish for

many

centuries as an ornament.
peculiarities
",

By

selecting specimens having

accidental

in

their anatomical

structure or color,

so-called " sports

as breeders,

and assisted by the influence of

climatic changes and different diet, they have gradually pro-

duced many, more or


fish.

less fixed, beautiful or

odd types

of gold-

It is a fact, that if

any of ths types now under cultivation


in

are

left

to

themselves

open waters unprotected, they invatheir


brilliant

riably

and quite soon lose

colors and

peculiar

shapes and assume the form and modest olivaceous coloring of


the Crucian carp.

Some twelve
Long

years ago

found
in

in a lot of

about one thou-

sand of such carp, caught

an old out-of-the-way pool on

Island, seventeen specimens, about six inches in length,


eyes.

with telescopic
shaped, but

Most

of

them had but one eye thus

in five

both eyes were telescopic and as large and


to
I

perfectly developed

be a point of excellence to any


the attention of

tele-

scope

fish.

When

called

my

regular fisherfish,

man, a person who could neither read nor write, to these


9

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

he informed he used
to

me
fish

that as long as thirty-five or forty years ago


in this

pool for wild goldfish, and frequently


(" bullfrog

caught one with such protruding eyes


called them) and
fins

eyes

",

he

spherical

body, some with remarkably large


tails all

("swollen and hunchbacked, with their

mixed up,"
in the pool

his words).

He

looked upon such specimens as being deformed

by disease, and to prevent an infection of the others


he used to throw them ashore to
in that pool It
die.

He

finally

stopped fishing
it.

because of there being no more "goldfish " in

appears that some retired China-trader had, in the


of
last

first

half

century, brought

some

of

the

choicest types of
in this
little

goldfish with

him from China


of the way,

to enjoy

them

lake

or pool on his country-seat.

After his death this home, being


fish

somewhat out
until the pool

was neglected and the

forgotten

was accidentally discovered by


one case, to which
I

my

informer.

Now
be
above.

this

could

add others, should

sufficient

to

substantiate
in

the author's opinion as recorded

This man,

his

ignorance, was destroying as fast as

he could a product of science, the result of centuries of care

and ingenuity.
In open waters, not fished

by man, the bright colored

or

slow-moving types
in the water.

fall

a prey to fish-eating birds or to enemies


is

In both cases the result

the same, a return to

the primitive stock, the reproduction of the


their colors
life,

more modest

types,

and shapes being more protective for a natural wild

is

encouraged to the detriment of the bright colors and


of others.

odd shapes

The

goldfish belongs anatomically to the carp family {Cypri-

nidae), a large

family of fresh-water fishes distributed


it

all

over

the globe, of which


scientific

forms a distinct genus (Carassius).


true
goldfish
is

The

name

of

the

" Carassius auratus."

'

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.
to

The popular name "goldfish" was given


because the
first

the entire

genus

that were brought to Europe were of a golden


of a crimson, yellow, pink,

color and lustre, and

blue or

we now speak black goldfish with as much


"

propriety as
a

we

specify the

color of the rose.


said a girl

My

cousin

drives

rose-colored horse,"
that girl

the
its

horse was a white one.


characteristics
of

Was

wrong?
all

The general
types and

the

genus,
:

which

the

varieties

have

in unison, are

Body covered with


"nudies" which are
gill-

uniformly-sized, firmly attached scales (the


scaleless are an exception)
;

head small and including the


;

covers not covered with scales


out barbies
dorsal
fin,
;

lips well

developed and with;

mouth toothless

with one spine

one long abdomen rounded and many soft rays, extending from
;

the middle of the back to a point opposite of the end of the anal
fin.

The

lateral line

is

prominent, running
of

in a graceful

curve in accordance with the shape


entire

the

specimen.

The
which
being

body being covered with a coat of slime. The size of the goldfish varies according to the locality
them
to attain a length of eighteen inches

in
it

they are raised, and the circumstances surrounding them,


possible for

and a height

of six inches.
old, but this

Goldfish

It is said that they may live to be a hundred years may be an exaggeration. enjoy a warm temperature, in bodies of water without

a current; just such water as ponds afford suit

them

best,

though

they will
ingly.

make themselves
fatal

at

home

in streams

and multiply exceed-

They

are very hardy, and thrive well under circumstances


to
life

that

would be

many
in

other

fish,

this

quality particularly

adapting them for

the aquarium, specimens having been

successfully kept in this way, in


to sixteen years.

good condition and


is

health,

from ten

So

far as

food

concerned, the goldfish will feed


etc.,

upon almost

all

kinds of vegetable matter, insects, worms,

even

12

THE GOLDFISH AND


fish,

ITS

CULTURE.
its

preying upon small

and devouring

The food

is

taken in by a sucking motion of the


all

own spawn and young. the mouth lips


;

being toothless, as in

carps, the mastication


in the throat.

is

accomplished by a

few bony tubercles situated


In the spring or
hatched, goldfish

summer

following the one in which they were

attain

their maturity.

The

size of the fish

has
fish

nothing whatever to do with the ability to spawn, though a large


will deposit

more eggs than a small one.


months
old,

As an

instance, goldfish

one inch

in length, nine

spawned

in an

aquarium kept
In the

in a parlor; all the eggs

hatched and the young grew up.

spring of that year,

when

the temperature of the water rises above


all

60 F., they become lively and vivacious, losing


precaution, so that they easily
fall

timidity

and

a prey to their

many

enemies.

Two, three

or

more male

fish follow
is

a female, chasing her to

some shallow place where there

an abundance of water-plants.

They

lash the water in a lively way, twisting the posterior portion of

their bodies energetically

and shooting through the water near

its

surface with short tremulous

movements of
the female

the

fins.

At places they

gather together in a compact mass, one tumbling over the other.

This

is

the

moment when
is

drops her eggs, which are

immediately impregnated by the males.


This process
repeated throughout the summer, with intervals
/

of rest during the hottest period.

The eggs

are of the size of a pin-

head, and

may be

either semi-transparent, yellow.sh,

or brilliant

yellow in color.

Whether

this difference in the color of the


fish will

eggs
it is

has anything to do with the coloring the

acquire after

hatched
the case

still

remains an open question.


for the culturist
it

With the eggs of the trout

is

different,

can predict the color of the


is

flesh of the fish

when grown up;

possible that this

may

also

apply to the goldfish.


substance,

The. eggs are covered with

some adhesive
happen
to

mucus probably, and adhere

to anything they

THE GOLDFISH AND


touch.

ITS

CULTURE.

I3

The
fish

water-plants in

the immediate vicinity of the place


will,

where the

have been rolling about

upon examination, be

found covered very profusely with them.

The young
the

are hatched out in from two to six days, the period of

incubation being determined by the temperature of the water and


condition of the weather. Direct sunlight has the effect of

hastening the process.

During the

first

few days the young

fish

are not able to

move

about much ; they hang or lay about among the water-plants, obtaining subsistence from their yolk-bag, but as soon as this
is

absorbed

they swim around on the search of something to

eat.

The

color of the skin of

young goldfish

is

at first silvery gray,

but

at an age of six

weeks

this color begins to

change, becoming darker

and assuming a cloudy appearance,


color.

finally taking

on the permanent
in

The whole
in

process
it

is
is

sometimes completed

two days,

though

some instances

deferred until the following spring.

The

perfection

and rapidity of the coloring process depend upon


foremost

several causes,

among which

is

the proper selection of

specimens from which to breed.


This
is

a very important consideration, in truth, the prime factor


the result.

upon which hinges the character of

When
tion

hatched, the young

fish are further

subjected to modificaits

by

their surroundings, the temperature of the water,

depth,

quality, etc., all exercising

more

or less influence.
is

The complete

result of the breeding, so far as the coloring

concerned, can not be seen until the change has taken place, when

any errors that have been made are

at

once apparent.

Those

fish

that have failed to receive any coloring are then called silver- fish; should they have turned milky- or pearly-white, they are known

as pearl-fish.

The young, when kept

in

warm ponds

this

means that the

14

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

ponds are so located that the sun can warm them thoroughly

may

grow

six inches long in four

months.
is

As a general

thing,

however,

the length reached in that time


inches.

from two and a half to three

In connection with this


the

may be mentioned
at
fail

that

all

the

young of

same spawning do not grow

an equal
to reach
in

rate,
it.

some few doubling

the average size, while others

The

latter are

then

known

as

dwarf

goldfish,

and are

much

demand

for small aquaria.

Deformities occur oftener in this family of fishes than in any


other.

Specimens minus a dorsal, anal, or even caudal

fin,

are

frequent; rarer are those destitute of scales or minus


a lob-sided mouth.

aneye

or with

From

the habit of the goldfish to seek


in

its

nourishment on the

bottom of the pond


caused by
its

which

it

lives,

and

to its careless slvi^ gisbuess.

voracious
falls

appetite,

the goldfish,

especially

in

its

younger days,
In
its

the victim of innumerable enemies.


is it

fact, so

easy

to destroy them, that anything else living in


sufficient strength to

company
set

in the as its

pond and of
enemy.
at

master

it,

may

be

down

When
renders
is
it

arrived

maturity

its

peculiar

mode

of reproduction
It
all

a welcome prey to enemies that do not live in water.

likewise subjected to diseases of various kinds,


it

and considering

that,

may be

said that

it is

a mere accident

when

goldfish multiply

to

any considerable extent without the protection of man, or that

the circumstances under which they increased


favorable.

were exceptionally
soon learn to
time.

Goldfish have a good


their master,

memory; they
their

will

remember

feeding- place and

know They

can be trained to good manners, as they are easily influenced

by their surroundings, and good qualities of individuals can be


perpetuated
in their offspring.

'

THE GOLDFISH AND


I

ITS

CULTURE.
in a

15

have been told of pet goldfish kept


gentleman
in

lake

on the

estate of a Chinese

China that would follow the


lake,

rowboat of

this

gentleman when he was boating on the


it

come
tame.

to the side of

in

order to be taken from

their

element

and caressed by
I

his hands.

In an aquarium they become very

had one specimen, a comet, that had formed friend-

ship with

my

dog, a

little

spaniel

the two would play togeth-

er, for half

an hour some days, through the glass sides of the

tank as well as from the surface of the water.


friendship up for several
years, being
in

They kept

this

ended by the death of

the

fish.

have had

fish

an aquarium so tame that they

would, without coaxing or force, swim into the hollow of

my
to

hand when held

in the water,

allowing themselves to be
visitors.
bell.

lifted

from the water and shown to


call for their

Others

had trained
purpose a

food by ringing a

For

this

little

silver bell with a lever

had been placed on top of the aqua-

rium frame, and the end of a string, attached to the lever, was
allowed to hang
to
in the water.

At

first

a
to

little

food was stuck


it

the

string-end

as

an

inducement
bell,

take

into

their

mouths and thus ring the

which action would be answered

by me with a limited supply


was lowered
in the

of food.
it

They soon learned the

advantage of a "pull" and used

so frequently that the string

water only at proper meal times.


wild state
fault, if

Even

in

their

goldfish
it

are

harmless creatures.

They have but one

be one, and this they have in

common

with

all

our pets

they
us,

do not

live

for

ever.

But
per-

even here, at the sad end" of their existence, a


plexing fact
for
is

new and

revealed

to

and perhaps
to
their

is

in their favor,

although

we attended

carefully
to their

wants

day and

night,
lation

became accustomed

company

for

years, our re-

towards one another never exceeded that of a formal

l6

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.
its

friendship.
its

fii,h

lacks affection for

master, and therefore


;

departure touches no tender spot within us


its

we

feel
it,

sorrow

for

loss,

but

we

are not

moved

to

tears over

as

would

be the case with some of us at the death of our pet dog or


even our pet cagebird.
Is this
life,

because the
or because the
it

fish

stands so far

below man
ent

in the scale of

lives in a differ-

element?

And might

not

proverb,

"As

cold

as

fish,"

be traced to this

fact.?

Plate

II.

Chapter

IV.

THE TYPES OF GOLDFISH.

In

describing the different types of goldfish,

have used
for

a classification that a daily contact with the


years and careful study
faction
of

fish

many
satis-

them

has

jjroved

to

my

best
in

suited

for

American

and

European
call

purposes.

"What's
other

name?

That which we
having
so,

rose,

by any

name would
is

smell as sweet," the

late

William ShakeI

speare, Esq.,
for

charged with
is

said.

Well,

presume
I

poetical

purposes this

but for practical use


is

have

found that the correct name of a thing


ance
in

of great

import-

many

cases.

For instance,
of

in

rose
its

culture
typical

one must
characterit.

know

the correct

name

rose and

istics in

order to secure the desired effect before planting


of the goldfish

Each

types has certain virtues of


is

its

own,

one being better suited for a certain purpose than

another.

They
this

are

all

beautiful

to say which

is

most so

is

impossible,

depending much on the purpose they are

to serve.

THE COMMON GOLDFISH.


I

have chosen

this type as the standard


its

by which to measis

nre the variations of the others;

description

for that rea-

son very minute.


17

I8

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.
;

The body is elongated, compressed upon the sides the abdomen is rounded and the entire body covered with uniformlysized scales.

Beginning at the head, the body increases


its

in

depth

and width, reaching

maximum

depth, which

is

one-third of

the length of the body in adults and one-fifth in yearlings, at


the beginning of the dorsal and ventral fins
;

its

widest part

is

at the shoulders, just behind the gill-covers near the back.

From

here

it

tapers off gently to the end of the dorsal and anal fins

where

it

forms the butt; this

is

twice as long as deep, termi-

nating in a slightly forked, equally


extremes, strongly supported vertical
tail.

divided and, on
fin

the

two

which

is

known

as the

This

is

very muscular,

its

spread less than the depth of


fin
is

the
fin,

body and as long as the dorsal


which
is

high.

The
fin

dorsal

supported by a serrated spine, begins on the mid;

dle of the back, ending opposite the end ol the anal

when
anal

expanded

it

forms a graceful curve, and at


it

its

greatest height,

at the spine,
fin is

measures half of that of

its

length.

The

short, stout

and also supported by a strong serrated spine;


the head
small, pointed in an even

the pectoral and ventral fins are small and rounded, about the
size of

the gill-covers

is

angle

and

naked
;

lips

well developed

but

without

barbies

mouth
of the

toothless

the

eyes small, in diameter as large as the


;

distance between eye and snout

golden

in color.

The

color
to-

body

is

deep orange on the back, fading to lighter

wards the abdomen, with a bright golden gloss on the

sides,

and covered with a coat


permanent.

of slime

lateral line prominent.

Fre-

quently specimens are marked


black
is

very prettily with black, but this


attains a length of

not

It

about

fifteen

inches by a depth of four and a half to five inches, specimens

grown

in

bodies of

water with a current being

comparatively

longer in body than those raised in small ponds or pools.

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

Ig

The Boar This


bling in

is

variety of the
is

where the head joins the shoulder

former. The part much concaved, resem-

appearance the head of a wild boar.

THE SUPERB.
Body elongated very
being much broader;
the back
is

similar to the preceding, but the back

fins

and

tail

are

normal; the color on

either

old-gold and the individual scales edged

with black, or deep vermilion and the scales edged with gold.

These colors are


eyes golden.
is

solid

over the entire back, never


is

in

spots

or blotches, and the

abdomen
it

in

either case pearly white;

It attains a

length of about fifteen inches, and


is

very desirable
a fountain

where

seen from above, for instance,

in

basin.
like

The Small Blue ^This,


pale rose.
azure,

the preceding,
is

is

also silvery

on the abdomen, but which, however,

delicately flushed with

The whole

of the

sides

and back are of a rich


lustre.
is

which shines with a metallic

The Moore Is another distinct The back and sides are very nearly
let

variety and

a large

fish.

black, which

becomes

vio-

underneath.

All of the scales are

edged with a red-toned

bronze.

THE DOLPHIN.
Body elongated, shorter than
in

the

common
line

goldfish; the

forepart of the back (head and shoulder) strongly arched;

the

abdomen forming an almost


rounded
;

straight
a

fins

small

and
of

tail

normal,

frequently

dolphin-tail.

Color

body, deep vermilion and milky white, either,


solid,

each of these

or in blotches one on the other, in such a

manner that
vermilion,

the entire head

may be

either all

white or

all

or

20

THE GOLDFISH AND


all

ITS

CULTURE.

the entire fish white, while

the

fins,

including the

tail,

are

vermilion; or a vermilion-colored fish has but one large irregular

shaped white spot somewhere on

its

body or reversed.

Solid white specimens are faintly tinted pink, purple or lemon-

yellow, and are very beautiful.


size

The eyes
in

are very variable in twice


for.

as

well

as

in

color,

and

specimens with eyes of


color,

their

normal

size,

blue or pink

may be looked

THE COMET.
Body
slender,
as

longer than

in

the
fins

common
very
large

goldfish

butt

three times

long as
pointed;
of

deep;
tail

and

flexible;

abdominal
the body;
color or

fins

deeply divided

and as long as
variable.

color
lustre

the

body and eyes very


in

Any
in

met

with

the

other types

may be seen

a comet.

noble type!
of this type I
in the

The
this

first

produced by a lucky crossing, and


of 1881
I

occurred

summer

was illuminating the heavens.


tail

when named it

a long-tailed comet
"Comet,'' the large

and
its

its

elongated structure being the prominent feature

in

appearance.

THE NYMPH.
Body
as
short,

much compressed upon


third

the sides,

and

stout,

more than one


long
as

as

deep as long, almond


larger

shaped;

butt

deep;
tail

fins'

than

in

the

common

goldfish

and pointed;

deeply divided.

Colors:

white, deep

orange

with a lustre of burnished gold, deep or light vermilion, some-

times milky white with irregular oddly located


a

spots (like on

fox

terrier) of

deep vermilion and shining golden blotches

on the throat and abdomen.

Very beautiful!

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

The Fan-tailed Nymph

As

above,
the

with

the

difference
in

that the fins are as large again and

tail

present

plural,

both of the latter being grown together

at their

upper edges,

forming a prominent "

fan-tail."

The Large-or Gorgeous-tailed Nymph


are

Above

descrip-

tion applies also to this, with the exception of the

fins,

which

much

larger, but

not as silky in texture and less pointed


;

than those of the Comet


as long as the body.

the

tail

is

deeply divided and twice


!

A handsome fish The Fringe-tailed Nymph When


is

the

tail

is

doubly pres-

ent in a large-tailed

nymph, and these two

tails

are not

grown

together, the specimen

termed a fringe-tailed nymph.

THE PUMPKIN
Body much compressed upon the
the ventral and anal
to the
fins
fins

SEED.
sides

and

short, deepest

.between the middle of the dorsal and a point midways between


;

the shape of the body corresponding

above name.

Butt short, deeper than long; abdominal


;

small and

rounded

tail

small and deeply divided


spots.
;

color

deep orange, or white with irregular vermilion


This
fish is

very active and quick motioned

it

occurs frein

quently as

fan-tail.

Such specimens attract much attention

an aquarium, especially by young children.

THE

DISC

OR TUMBLER.

Body very short, almost round and much compressed, in head small and young specimens as flat as a silver dollar
;

pointed
with

upward, appearing dented-in


lips;

on

top

snout
fins

pointed,

well -developed
off
;

butt

very

short;

short

and

squared
liar

tail
its

short and bent upwards.

Owing
its

to the pecu-

shape of

body, this

fish

often

loses

balance while

22

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

searching for food or nosing round in the aquarium, and the


caprioles
it

then
it

produces
the

in

order to regain

its

equilibrium

have earned for

names "Tumbler" or "Clown."


In additints of

Very

beautiful colors are represented in this type.

tion to vermilion, orange purple, pink,

and white, with the various

and lemon-yellow on
is

solid white or pearly bodies,

rich blue, tinted with orange,

to be found.
fan-tail,
it

When

this specie

is

bred as a
tail

loses its character

as a tumbler, the larger

equalizing the balance of the body.

THE GLOBE.
Body egg-shaped, more or
in

less elongated.

pear, pressed
will

upon two

sides, the

stem-end being the head,

give us
is

the

shape of the body of this type.

The lower abdomen


it

very much bulged out, extending behind

the butt, being in

good specimens
ture.
lips

so globose as to
is

make

the characteristic featop;


in
fin

The head
and
nostrils

prominent, expressive and arched on

are well

developed

height; abdominal fins short or


single, double, or

dorsal fin medium medium and rounded; anal


;

wanting

tail

present

in

plural

as

a wellin rare

shaped large fan-tail or a

still

larger

fringe-tail,

which

cases consists even of three perfect

tails.

Such specimens are

known

as

The Fan-Tailed Globe and The Fringe-Tailed Globe.


Specimens that have
dominal
fins, in

a large

dorsal

fin

and long wavy ab-

addition to the fringe-tail, are termed:

Mandarin Globes.

The Hooded Globe


In the third year of
its

is

a variety of this type from

Corea.

age, a large spongy hood, resembling

THE GOLDFISH AND


a

ITS

CULTURE.
size of a hazel-nut,

23

lump

of coagulated blood,
its

and the

forms

on the top of
tailed
;

head. These fish

may be

either fan- or fringe-

they are very rare.


tail,

Specimens without any


a large
tail,

or with only the upper lobe of

will

occur

these

make very odd


a man's
fist;

speci^iens and
to raise

high prices are paid for them, but they are

difficult

The Globe
the

attains the size

of

short

bodies are

most choice.
In the coloring of the

body and

fins

this fish

is

not

sur-

passed

by any other, making one of


objects for the aquarium.

the

most

valuable and

desirable

There are specimens the


;

back and sides of which are deep vermilion


throat and eyes of rich gold, while
all

the abdomen,

the fins are milky white.

Others again

will

be found presenting a rich vermilion on the


dorsal,

body forward of the


of

including the
there are
;

fins,

while

all all

back
white
ir-

that

is

pure white.

Some

with body

and the

fins

red or vice versa

others pearly, dotted with


fins

regular-shaped pink spots over body,

and

tail

the eyes

being forget-me-not blue;

again,

the fish will

be white, the
Fan-tailed

only touch of color being the deep red of the eyes.

specimens entirely white,


also the fins

the folds

and corners of the body,

and

tails,

tinted with lemon-yellow

and the eyes


was

light blue, are extremely beautiful.

Strange as

it

may seem,

this

beautiful

species of

fish

nearly lost to this country through the caprice of private individuals

who happened,

or rather were lucky enough, to possess


others should enjoy

perfect specimens and were unwilling that

the possession of the

like.

But, fortunately, the late Mrs. Larz

Anderson, of Cincinnati,
ative, rather

O., a lady

both generous and appreci-

than that the stock should die out, loaned to the


fine

author for the purpose of repv'oduction several

specimens

24

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

she had recently obtained.


sidered

The pure stock may now be conIn

secure

for

the
it

future.

evidence of the extreme

beauty of the species,


for

may be

stated that private parties paid


fish in gold.

specimens twenty times the weight of the

When
actly like

the the

young " globes

" are first hatched, they appear ex-

common

goldfish.

They

rest

upon the waterof

plants or other supports for a couple of

days, at the end

which time the yolk-bag


for existence.

is

absorbed
tail

then begins the struggle


is

The double

which

even then large enough

to be "distinguished, hinders the tiny creatures (but one-quarter

of an inch in length) in their

movements

in the water.

Should

they find sufficient food to

make
in

a bountiful meal, matters beall

come

still

worse, they lose their balance and can not go at


is

until digestion

completed,

the

meanwhile

falling an easy

and welcome prey to numerous enemies.

THE DRAGON
large-sized
eyes,
set
in

EYES.
Fish with

This class contains the "curios" of the genus.

abnormal fashion, are certainly odd,


is

whether
beauty,
the face
tions
of

they are

beautiful
Is

matter

of

taste.

What

is

anyway?
of a

there

anything beautiful
in the

to

be

seen in

bull

or

pug dog, or
?

shape and proporthere


is.

a
is

dachshund
once

Still

their

masters think

Beautiful

what affords pleasure


preached a sermon, wherein he said that
perfect.

A
back,

minister
the

everything

Lord had made was


his

little

hunch-

who was among


bit.

audience, did
to

not approve of that

assertion a

He
sir,

concluded

approach the minister on

that subject.

After service he stepped up to him, asking him:


that the Lord

"Do you
upon
the

think,

made me
over,

perfect?"
replied:

Where-

minister

looked

him

and

"As

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

25

hunchback, most excellent

!"

The hunchback was convinced.

One must

take the same view with the dragon eyes to appre-

ciate them.

There are four

distinct styles of
:

these eyes, each of them

with some variations

THE OWL-EYE
is

a very large eye of ordinary form and setting, having about

four times the size of an ordinary goldfish-eye.

Fish with such

eyes are called " Owls."

THE DRAGON-EYE.
This
jecting
is

smaller in diameter than the preceding, but


its

is

pro-

from
the

socket,

appearing

like

a
like

little

ball

glued
" Dra-

against

head.

Specimens with

eyes

this

are

gons."

THE TELESCOPE-EYE.
This eye projects very much from
its

socket, the ball being

held in position by a more or less conical-shaped stem, point-

ing sideward

or

forward

like

an opera glass
for fish that

or " telescope,"

the latter being the

name used

have them.

THE CELESTIAL-EYE.
In this case, the eye
is
it

very large, set in a very prominent


is

globose stem.

As a

rule,

directed upward

"to

the stars."

Specimens with these eyes are certainly very curious objects,

and they show what ingenuity and patience


plish.

is

able to accom-

The

direction

of

the

eyes
in

is

artificially

produced by

straining them when young

the desired angle in dark sur-

roundings with a ray of light from

one direction only.


this " trick "
its

The

Chinese culturists

may have

learned

from the

flounder which changes the position of one of

eyes towards

26

THE GOLDFISH AND


light

ITS

CULTURE.
this
fish
still

the

while

yet

young.

To make

more
fin

unique, the culturists select specimens minus the dorsal


that

for

purpose.

Fish

with

skyward-directed

eyes

are

called

"Stargazers" or "Celestials."

The production
culture.

of the dragon-eyed goldfish the Chinese


in

and
fish

Japanese consider the highest achievement

ornamental

The

eyes being the distinctive feature are denominative of


if

other types, and


for example, a

bred to them the specimen

is

thus called,
telescope, a

dolphin -ow!, a fan -tailed

nymph-

mandarin-stargazer, etc.

ing

More or less interesting specimens may be raised by crosssome of the species heretofore described, and it may be
if

stated in connection that,


size of the fish to

there

is

a difference in the age or

be mated, the characteristics of the older of

the pair will be most predominant in the offspring.

The American climate

influences
it

unfavorably the form of

the short bodied types, making

longer in the offspring of


it

imported stock, but on the other hand


with
fins.

has, in connection

our food, a favorable effect on the development of the


I

have raised specimens of the globe-type that in this


far

particular

surpassed any that were brought alive or preI

served from foreign countries, or that


in pictures of

have seen represented


I

Chinese or Japanese origin.


S.

was quite pleased

when Gen. U.

Grant, after his return from his trip around

the world, declared some Mandarin globes of

my

raising finer

than any shown to him


Japan.

in the imperial

gardens

in

China and

In judging a goldfish,

the

following

points will

prove of

value

THE GOLDFISH AND


Classification

ITS CULTURE.

27

Carp

is

the family;

the

goldfish
(for

represents
is

a genus or group of
of
its

this.

The nymph
the

example)

one
is

species

representing a type;
this

fan-tailed

nymph

a variety of

specie^ or type.

In order to be perfect, a specimen must possess the char-'


acteristics
of
its

type well developed and uninjured; the

fins
tail,

must be
vidual.

of equal size on both sides, also the lobes of the


in

and they must be carried


In addition to
is

a graceful
it

manner by the
to

indi-

this,

is

to

be considered whether

the specimen

acclimated,

domesticated and bred

good

manners.

Young specimens
than adults,

of

any type are more slender


of a

in

body

and although the characteristics

type

may

be easily detected by an experienced eye at any time, these


are

not fully developed until

in

their

third

year.
still

fish

may
its

not have
Its

all

the points of his type and

be beautiful.
necessitate

shortcomings as a thoroughbred
it

does

not

being cast aside as a pet, for


typical, that
will

may

possess
speci-

some

points, not

make

it

a desirable

men

for

the aquarium.
in

Dividing the characteristics of a type


relative

loo points their

value

is

as

follows:

Any Type.

Value of Colors.

Milky-white or pearl....
Pink, lemon-yellow, purple
Solid orange

20
10

Solid vermilion Solid black

20 10
15

Two

colors

Three colors

20

100

S8

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

Explanation

of

technical

terms used:
scales,

Nudies

Are

specimens without
to

quite

beautiful,

in

some cases almost transparent


result
of

the

bones.

They

are

the

"in-breeding."

Faniail

When
tail

two

tails

are

grown together
middle lobe
pigeon.

at their
is

upper

edges, constituting one, and

the

pointing up-

ward as the
Fringetail
together,

of a

fantailed

Two Two

or

more
its

long,

drooping

tails

not

grown

each having

own motion.
grown together, spreading
hori-

Dolphintail
zontally.

short tails

Fan
anal
fin

or fringetailed fish
in

must not necessarily have a double


but,
all

order to be perfect,

other

points

being

equal, the
It

double anal

fin

is

the

more valuable.

may be mentioned
fish,

here, as an advantage of the double-

tailed

that they are


is

unable to jump out of the water.


to

This

fact

undoubtedly one

be

appreciated

by those

keeping an aquarium.

Plate

Chapter V.

PSEUDO-GOLDFISH.

Although not goldfish


following
fish

in

the correct sense of the term, the

being of a golden color are often classed as such.

They

are also

members

of

the carp family, closely related to

the carassius, and their habits are very similar.

For completein

ness sake,

have given them due

consideration

this little

volume.

THE GOLDEN
The shape
fins

CARP.
and

(Cyprinus auratus.)
of the body, the location, shape
size of the

and

tail
is

are

exactly like

those in
lips

the

common

goldfish.

The head
upper one

more pointed, the

more developed, and the


light

is

supplied with four small barbies, two at each cor-

ner of the mouth.

The

color of

the body
the

is

orange on
white.
It

back and

sides, with a

golden
ten

lustre,

abdomen
is

attains a length

of

about

inches

and

an
is

ornamental

variety of the food carp of China and Japan, as

the following:

THE PURPLE
Shape

CARP.
like

(Cyprinus purpurea )

and everything
is

else

is

the

preceding,

except
light

the color, which

violet-purple
lustre

on the back fading to

purple with a metallic


the abdomen.

on the sides and a

lilac tint

on

handsome

fish.

29

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.
in

The carp
Japanese see

is

a fish of

much importance
little

Japan; in

it

the

all

the manly virtues represented.


gifts

When

a boy-

baby

is

born to a family,

representing a carp, or
left

articles bearing the picture of one, are

by friends for the


pattern
after the
it,

baby, expressing the wish that the boy


carp, " be able to

may

swim against the current


cunningly and
of

as well as with

overcome

obstaclfes

bear

misfortunes without
is

complaining."

One day

the year, the "fish day,"

cele-

brated, and on every house that had been blessed during the

year by
carp,

the birth of a

boy-baby a

little

flag

in

shape of a
is

and evenings a paper lantern

of

same form,

displayed.

THE GOLDEN TENCH.


(Tinea aureus.)

Body elongated, compressed on


are covered

the sides (cylindrical in

young

specimens), and covered with very small scales; these in turn

with

an

unusually

thick

coat of

slime.

Head

pointed

lips well

developed, the upper one with two barbies

situated at the corners of the

mouth

eyes dark brown, almost

black

dorsal

fin

short and rounded with one spine and eight


;

or nine soft rays situated in the middle of the back


inal fins small

abdomshort

and rounded, of
forked.

delicate

structure
is

tail

and but

little

The

color of the fish

reddish-orange
the

(the color of red lead)

or rich golden-yellow, deepest on

back, fading to white on the abdomen.

The

entire body, in-

cluding the head and the

fins, is

speckled with small intensely


very fine aquarium
fish,

black spots of irregular shape.


graceful motions of

with

slow growth, attaining a length of about

ten inches.
It

soon becomes accustomed to


its

its

master and then prefers


hands.

to

take

meals

from

her

or

his

This

sign of

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

31

confidence especially has a wonderful soothing effect upon most


people.

This

fish

originated centuries ago

in

the

moat

of a

castle in Silesia,

Germany.

THE GREEN TENCH.


(Tinea vulgaris.)

This

is

the ancestor of

the

preceding.
is

It

differs only in
is

the coloring of the body, which

bottle-green (tench-green

the

name

for a

shade of green

in

Germany), with a greenish-

golden lustre but without spots, darkest on the back, shading


off to

a golden yellow on the


in
fish

abdomen, and that of the eyes


monks, called the
fish

which are deep crimson


In

color.
culturists,

olden

times the

the

tench the "fish doctor."

It

was believed that any


search
its

injured

on their exterior by accident would

for a tench

and

when found rub


them with
this

its

injured parts against

body

to re-cover

slime,

the tench being very liberally supplied with


I

protective coating.

am

inclined to believe that fish in

open waters use

this cure to-day.


in
its

The green tench


is

is

an

es-

teemed table

fish

country and

also well liked as

an

inmate of an aquarium.

THE GOLDEN ORPHE, GOLDORFE OR GOLDEN IDE


(Orphus auratus, or idus melanotus auraius of others.)

This

fish

is

referred to by English writers as "golden ide."


naturalists, sacred
it

Owing
for
its
it

to a

custom among

by time,

prefer

the

name by which

has been

known

for centuries in

native country, Southern Germany.

Besides, this has an adis

vantage of a practical nature, for a "golden-eyed fish"


necessarily a "golden ide fish."

not

The body

of

this

fish

is

slender and

much compressed on

;;

32

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

the sides, and covered with uniformly-sized scales; color, orange

on back, with a few intensely black


the
sides,

spots, fading

to lighter

on

and white on the abdomen, very glossy or shining,


;

but without metallic lustre

head

small

lips

not
;

prominent
dorsal
fins
fin

and no barbies

eyes
;

large

and of a golden hue


;

short and far back


all fins,

tail

deeply forked

abdominal

small

including the

tail,

rounded at the ends, pinkish at the

roots and tinted vermilion in centre.


ble, the color

Young specimens resemIt attains

excepted, our American shiner.

a length

of 24 inches.

The orphe
kept
in

is

a very quick-motioned, restless fish,


this

and when
it
v/ill

an aquarium
It will

must be covered, otherwise


this

leap out.

not, for

reason, answer for a collection


it

that

is

to

produce a quiet, restful picture, while

is

just the

fish for
its

children or

young people.

It is
fish,

very voracious, seeking


tadpoles,
insects

food,

which consists of small

and
it is

small water-plants, in mid-water or near the surface, and


for that reason a desirable fish for a small

lake or a fountain

basin.

It

is

always

visible,
in

and

it

does not

muddy

the water

by rooting up the bottom

search for food, as does the carp.

The young, when

first

hatched, are creamy-yellow in color,


;

with the tops of their heads black


the surface of the water like

they swim
do.

in

schools near

minnows

During the middle ages the golden orphe was cultivated


the moats that surrounded the castles. junct
to

in

They served

as an adfish,

the

guards
alert,

because

they are a very knowing

always on the

and by

their actions give

warning of ap-

proaching danger.
sel,

They were considered an


to

aristocratic
of

mor-

and were exclusively served


fish."

the

lady

the

castle

hence their surname "Lady

PART

II.

THE AQUARIUM,

ITS

CONSTRUCTION

AND CARE.

Chapter

VI.
man
his
is

" Every

who, by

a valuable member of society, observations, researches, and

experiments, procures knowledge for men,"

Smithson.

THEIR HOME WITHIN OURS.


Considering the numerous advantages goldfish keeping
fords,
af-

and

last

but not least


fault,
it

the
is

fact that
easily
of
.all

the goldfish has

not

one objectionable
is

understood why the

goldfish

now the most favored


order to secure
all

household pets.
it

But
sary
to

in

these advantages,

is

neces-

house the fish properly.

Only of specimens
surroundings, can
in

health, that feel at


to

home
With

in their

good we expect
in

be

benefited.

this

end

view,

we

secure
of

condiwater-

tions
tight

and surroundings within the limited space


vessel

that are congenial

to

the wants of the goldfishlake, systematically

Such an
aged,
is

artificial

home

or miniature

man-

termed an aquarium.
33

34

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

AQUARIUM WITH AN EXPOSURE TO THE NORTH.

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

35

THE LOCATION.
When
site

one has concluded to keep some goldfish


is

in

one's

home, the main point one has to consider


for the

the location or

aquarium that

is

to

be their home.

The

success

of

such depends upon the proper action of the aquatic plants,


require, in order to act properly, their share of light to

and these

and warmth
in

the

same degree as ordinary house plants do


If

order to flourish.

one can supply these wants, the exin excellent


is

pense of keeping goldfish


indeed..-:

condition

is

very

little

The temperature

of

less

importance, as

long as

this

is

above the freezing point.

An aquarium
the
light

should therethere

fore

be always near a window, as

can

be

increased or reduced by regulating the shades accordingly.

The
one
the
the

best exposure

is

that

toward the north;


six

by such an

aquarium should stand about

inches away from


east
;

window.
in

Next best
such
a

is

one toward
is

the

the

best
the

distance

case
is

about

twelve

inches from
or west
;

window.
set the

Next best

window facing south


even

here

aquarium about eighteen inches toward the room, and

when the windows are high


between.

more

space

may be

left

When an aquarium
it

is

to
in

be located between two windows,


the

should be far enough


;

room
with

to receive the light

from

both
the

and

in

a corner

room,

windows

at

both angles,

aquarium should be
will

set diagonally so that the light

from

each window

enter the aquarium from each

end.

But although we want plenty of light for the plants, we


should avoid as
all

much

as

possible
get,

the sun.

In winter allow the spring, from


rays.

the

sunshine

you can

but toward
its

February on, shelter the tank from


In
the accompanying

direct

sketches the various

positions

that

36

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

AQUARIUM WITH AN EXPOSURE TO THE

EAST.

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

37

may be chosen
it

for

an aquarium
is

are

shown.
to

In

each
in

case
the

will

be seen that justice


to

done

the

plants

aquarium as well as
or two in

the person wishing to enjoy an

hour

"a glimpse beneath the water."


it

Where
server.
plies

can be done, the tank should be so placed that


it

the light enters

from above

over
for

the shoulder of the obto

Such a

position does justice


light

the

plants and sup-

the most favorable

the contents.

The

lights

and shades are


ground

of vital importance to

any picture, that of an

animated sub-marine landscape not excepted.


is

When
of

a baok-

formed

by covering

the

rear

glass

the
is

tank

with bottle-green colored cloth or wall paper, the view


still

made

more

attractive.

38

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

AQUARIUM WITH AN EXPOSURE TO THE SOUTH OR WEST.

PLATE.i*r

Chapter VII.

THE TANK.
When we
step
is

have chosen a place for the aquarium, the next


This may be any water-tight vessel,

to secure a tank.

the material of which will not alter the qualities of the water

by impregnating
health of the

it

with anything that would stain

it

or give

it

an offensive odor, either of which would be detrimental to the


fish.

The shape
not, therefore,

of

such a vessel
it

is

usually determined

by the

requirements of the duty

is

expected to perform, and should

be wider at the top than at the bottom, for then


;

the fish would leap out

neither should

it

be too narrow at the


air
fish

upper part, for this would exclude the atmospheric


duction of the water surface.

by a
globe

reis

The old-fashioned
for a
will

about the worst vessel that can be selected for the keeping of
goldfish

as

pets
fish,
it

it

will

do well enough
it

temporary

dis-

play of the

but for permanent use


is
;

not answer.

However,

not at

all

necessary to
it

buy an expensive
so

tank of a dealer

on the contrary,

affords

pleasure and satisfaction

when one has made


for an
all

his

much more own tank.


I find

Of the

different

shapes used

aquarium tank

the rectangular

shape the best for

around purposes.

Its

advantages over the round, the triangular and the hexagonal


shape are so apparent that any of the latter should only be
constructed for special purposes.
39

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

The
tank
is

first

thing to be considered

when about
it

to construct a

the space or location which

is

to occupy.

amateurs make their tanks too


portionately stocked,
its size

large.

large tank,
;

As a when

rule,

pro-

makes
it

a grand

effect

this

admit, but

and weight make

inconvenient at certain seasons of

the year, and the cleaning and refilling involves a great deal of
labor and time which everybody has not at his disposal at the

required
sized or

time.

advise

always the building of one medium


;

two small tanks

in

the

latter

case one can have

more

variety.

The medium-sized
lor,

tank, which

find best suited for a par-

sitting-

or

dining-room, has a capacity of about eighteen


inside

gallons.

The

dimensions,

from

glass
is

to

glass

(the

proper way to measure an aquarium tank),

twenty-four by

twelve inches (24x12), by fifteen (15) inches in height.

This

tank sets on a stand, the top of which


window-sill.

is

on a

level with the

To make such
to correspond with

a tank, get an

iron-worker to

make you

simple iron frame out of one-inch angle iron (see illustration)

above dimensions, and at perfect right an-

gles at the corners.


of

The

top and bottom frames are each

made
af-

one piece.

At the proper distances triangular pieces are


cut out (Fig.
a),

and

terwards they are


to

bent
angle

form a right

(Fig. b).

The uprights
flush

are cut off at right angles,

set

between

top and
(Fig.
c),

bottom frames and held


secured
with
four small
all

in

place

by corner plates

screws to the angle iron.


parts of the frame " face

Care should be taken that

the

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

4I
glass.

even "

in

order to

have a smooth
also

bed for the

The

upright pieces

may

be fastened to the
In
this

top and bottom


the uprights go

frames without corner plates.


inside of the upper and lower

case

frames, being

held

in

position

by two small screws or


proof cement used

rivets at

each junction.

(The water-

to set the lower


in

ends of the glass must be

mixed rather
ance.)

stiff

this case, in order to increase its resist-

This frame
is

is

painted with one coat of red lead.


straight
as

After this
inch
thick
is

perfectly dry, a

piece
is

of

one -quarter

rough plate
to
fit

glass, such

used for large skylights,

cut
all

loosely,
in

leaving

about one-eighth of an inch


This glass
is

play
to

round,

the lower part of the frame.


It

be the

bottom of the tank.


great care
is

forms, so to speak, the foundation, and


it

therefore to be exercised in placing


the
entire

properly.
lib-

To
is

this effect all of

lower angles are covered

erally with rather stiff

aquarium cement (my water-proof cement


especially particular that the
it.

made

for the

purpose), being

corners are well

supplied with

Now

take a dry rag and


it

wipe the corners of the glass plate perfectly clean and lay
gently and evenly on
the

cement bed.
level,
;

If

the frame stands


glass
is
it

where
will

it

should, on
it it

perfect

the weight of the

tend to sink

into position
will
;

if,

however, the cement

not very pliable,

be
in

necessary to assist by pressing


this

down with
plus

the hands

case

the

pressure

should be

gentle, uniform,

and only

cement

is

The surnow removed, both below and above, with a


in the
If

middle of the plate.

putty knife, followed by a dry rag.


the cement
left to

examination shows that


it is

has taken hold of the glass at every point,


quiet for at least twenty-four
hours.

stand

The two
by

lights

(technical

terms

for

plates

of

glass),

twenty-four

42
fifteen, that

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

are to form the front and rear are

now

prepared.

These are best of one - quarter inch new plate

glass, or

they

maybe
broken
should

cut out of second hand polished plate glass (pieces of

show-windows), or where
be of extra heavy double
twenty
-

this

cannot

be

had,

they

thick

French or so - called
every case the lights

English

six

ounce

glass.

In

should be as straight and clear as they can be had.

Should

one or the other be slightly bent, the bent (convex side) should

go towards the outside of the tank.


tom, should
fit

These

also, like the botif

loosely into the frame, and

one of the long


in

edges should be rough or ragged, this should go up


to have the lower edge
fit

order

snugly against the bottom.

(Fig. d).

The The

lights are

now cleaned with water and wiped


filled

perfectly dry.

angles on the bottom and those at the uprights, but not

the upper horizontal ones, are next

with cement, as was

done when

the

bottom glass was


gentle

placed, and the lights are"

then set in place, using

force to

make

a uniform

fit.

Two wooden
is

sticks (braces) are

then placed across from one

to the other to hold

them
to

in position.

Now

the surplus cement

removed and the glass again wiped

clean.

Our next move


two
lights

is

measure

the

distance

between
fit

the

just

set,

as the two end lights

should

snugly,

but without any strain, against


glass
is

them.
the

Double thick French


will

best

suited

for

these

edges that

meet the
to
set

other

glass

should be clean cut.

We

then

proceed

them as described above for the others.


It
is

unnecessary to use waterproof cement on the upper


glass, as these,

ends of the
water,

not coming in

contact with the


putty will

need not be watertight.


it

Common
it

answer

here
at

if

is

desirable, for appearance sake, to

imbed the glass


not necessary to

these points.

For practical purposes

is

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

43
in-

do
side

SO.

frequently

notice on aquarium

tanks that the

corners,

where the glass meets, are plastered up pretty


;

heavily with cement

this,

too,

is

waste of material.
or the

After two or more days, according to the season


weather,
the cement has sufficiently hardened
filled

and

the

tank

may be

with water.
I

For the small tanks above mentioned,

find fifteen

by seven
(all

and one-half inches


side
this

(15x7!^)

by eleven (11) inches high


size.

in-

measure),
case be

the

most desirable
a

The frame can

in

made by

tinner out of galvanized sheet iron,

bent into right angles (similar to angle iron) and soldered at


the corners.

The bottom

in

this

size
all

is

made

of

double

thick Pittsburg glass, set, as well as

the other glass, which


in

should be double thick French, on the same principle as


the
larger tank

described above.

Do
in

not attempt to

make an aquarium tank out


the
tanks.

of

wood;

nine cases out of ten they are failures.

Neither take out-

side
tell

advice regarding the size of

Someone

will

you that "If you make

it

such and such a size the glass

will cut

to better advantage, etc."

But an inch or two out of

the
in

way, one way or the other, makes a very big difference


the appearance and also in the welfare
of a
collection.

These are the


of the

details

to

be observed
;

in

the construction
outside
hull,

inner hull or the tank proper


part, is easily

the

or

ornamental

put on afterward.
it

This can be a

simple coat of paint and varnish, or

may
or a

consist of a rustic
stylish

decoration of tree-bark or tuff-stone,

mantel of

woodwork.
ercise
his

No

rules

are

set for this part,

and one may exin

individual

taste.

However,

it

should be kept

mind that such a mantel takes the place


your animate picture, and we
all

of a frame around

know how an

inappropriate

44

THE GOLDFISH AND


kill

ITS

CULTURE.

frame may
a
well

the

effect
will

of

the

choicest painting
to

and

how

chosen one

direct our attention


for the

great

merits

of another, which, but

frame, would

have passed unsets


off

noticed.

dull

black (Flemish black) of the frame


best advantage.
for the aquarium,
I

any collection

to

Regarding the stand


pedestal

find that a closed

for

instance, a little cabinet


it

is

most appropriate

for

the larger tank;

imparts a feeling of safety to the observer


to the collection.

and gives more prominence

Chapter
*"
of

VIII.
the term applied to a plant

Weed'
no use

is

when

to
it

man, but as soon as


possesses a merit,
it

it is

discov-

ered that
a weed."

ceases to be

THE PLANTS FOR THE AQUARIUM.


Animal
any locality can only then exist when a conis

life in

tinuous and liberal supply of oxygen

present.

The

oxy-

gen inhaled by animals has the function to purify their blood


an insufficient
finally death.

supply of
In

it

will

therefore
is

cause

disease and

nature,

oxygen

supplied in various ways.

Trees,

shrubs

and

house-plants, as

every one knows, purify

the air in their immediate surroundings.


fication is

This process of puri-

performed as follows
it

plant

under proper con-

ditions grows, and as


air of its

grows

it

absorbs or inhales from the

surroundings a gas known by the scientists as car-

bonic acid gas, a limited

amount

of

this

gas being required


turn, the

by plants to make a healthy growth.


hales through
its

In

plant ex-

leaves a gas

known

as oxygen.

The presence
life

of the former in

the

air is as injurious to
it.

animal

as that

of the latter

is

necessary to sustain
is

Where no vegetation
cannot penetrate,
inates

at

work on

land, the current in the


air
;

atmosphere, the wind and the sun purify the

where these

in caves, vaults, shafts, etc., foul air

predom-

and

life is

impossible.
45

46

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.
trees, etc.,

The work
formed
in the

that

is

performed by

on land

is

per-

water by aquatic plants. Aquatic animals require

oxygen for the same purpose as do land animals.


aquatic plants are
wat;er

Where no

at

work

to absorb the

impurities from the

and replace the oxygen consumed by the animals, the


in

current
fall,

the water, the

waves caused by some

force, or a

relieve the water of the foul air and,


it

by the marked faculty

of the water to absorb,

is

recharged with the life-giving gas

from the atmosphere.

As we have no
aquarium, we
plants to

current, no waves, nor a waterfall


entirely

in

our

depend

on

the action of

the aquatic

It is true

originally

make our aquarium tenable for its inmates. most aquarium plants now under cultivation were collected by some one in their natural haunts as
does this
not

" weeds,'' but

apply to
?

the plants

the

florist

grows for our window garden as well


plants as " water- weeds " could, with the
in
is,

To speak
precious

of

aquarium

to say the least, incorrect,


call

and one

same propriety,
beds
that

the

gems, used

jewelry " gravel," because they were


-

simply picked up as
children.

pebbles in creek

by Indian women and


all

One

must not forget

these

plants

had to be acclimated

and carefully cultivated


standard.

to

bring them to their present high


beautiful
it

No

matter

how

and costly our tank may


be a burden to us instead

be, without their co-operation

will

of a source of pleasure.

In

addition,

their decorative

character

makes them very


of

precious to a collection.
in

With a judicious arrangement

them
lights

connection with the rock-work, and due attention of


in

and shades
effects

the

planting of our aquatic

garden, landscape

can

be

produced that any master would be delighted

to reproduce

on a canvas.

The

foliage being so manifold

and

THE GOLDFISH AND


the tints and colors
so varied

ITS

CULTURE.

47

that

endless

combinations

in

their grouping are possible.

Nearly
uous

all

of our native water-plants are annuals or decid-

in character.

Their growth being restricted to the sumrely

mer season, we
tropical

therefore
species,

principally

on

the

cultivated

and sub-tropical

and more

especially so during

the winter.
I

describe

here

only those

species

that

by

their

merits

recommend themselves most

for our special purpose.

THE COMMON HORN OR WAXWORT.


(Ceratophyllum demersum
)

The

general appearance

of

this

plant

is

like a

branch of

spruce under water.

The dark
;

green, needle-like leaflets are

horny or waxy to the touch


in

whorls around the stem

i to f inch long, and arranged the new shoots are, when they first
effective

appear, bright green

and very

when

the old

growth

forms the background.


Altogether
it

is

a very attractive plant, but, being a native

of the northern section of this country

and Europe,

it

is

dor-

mant during winter and only

of decorative value at that period.


>

THE ROSY HORNWORT.


(C.

roseum

The
ceding
;

leaves of this species are longer than those of the pre-

they are dark chestnut brown and the young shoots

of a brilliant rosy color.

This

is

a very desirable, sub-tropical,

evergreen plant which

introduced from Florida in 1880.

48

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

THE VIVID FANWORT.


(

Cabomba

viridifolia. )

The
into

leaves of this beautiful plant are very regularly divided


;

narrow shreds and resemble a palmleaf fan

they are two

inches in diameter

and are borne opposite each other on a


brittle stem.

round and rather

Their color
is

is

a brilliant light
lus-

green above, while the underside


tre.

covered with a silvery

Just before going to bloom, in

the spring, small arrow-

shaped leaves appear, to shaped


flowers.
is

float the little silvery white,

trumpetat 3 p.m.

These open at

9 a.m.

and close again

The

plant

a native of Brazil and evergreen, of

my

introduc-

tion (1878).

THE ROSY FANWORT.


(C. rosaefolia.)

This specie
are

is

smaller and

the shreds that

form the leaves

narrower and
It

not so regularly arranged as those of the


the
flowers
is

preceding.
are like

has the same creeping habit, also


of

those

the

former

the

color

of

the
;

foliage

brownish green above and deep purple underneath

during the

warm season
of carmine
;

the stems and the

leaves turn to the different tints

new

leaves are,

when they

first

appear, salmon,

deepening as they become stronger to a


a dark carmine, and
color.

brilliant pink,

then to

when

oldest they are brownish violet in


!

This
in

is

a grand plant under favorable conditions


in a

When

grown
their

company with the preceding

shallow basin, with

branches intermingled and seen from above, then one imfull

agines seeing a huge submerged bouquet of

blown green

and pink
It

roses.

should

be

grown

in

sandy peat
position.

in

glass

pots

(salve

jars)

and

in

a partly shaded

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

49

As an interesting point
fanworts sleep after dark.
leaves and lay
I

it

might be stated here that the


this

In

condition

they fold their

them

in

an upright position close to the stems.

introduced this beautiful sub-tropical plant twenty years ago

from Florida,

THE COMMON FANWORT.


{C.

Caroliniana.)

This
it

is

also a very beautiful


its

and useful aquarium


in

plant, but

has no peculiarity of

own, being
It

color the ordinary


S.

green observed on any plant.

was introduced by the U.

Fish Commission fifteen years ago, for carp-ponds, from South


Carolina.
It is

evergreen

in

the aquarium like the preceding

grows very easily from cuttings, especially when forked joints


are selected for the purpose.

MULERTT'S LUDWIGIA.
{Ludwigia Mulertiii
)

The

leaves of this plant resemble in shape and size that of


;

a rose-leaflet

they are borne opposite on a round stem


parts
of

the

color differs on different

the plant.

Old leaves are

dark green above and violet crimson underneath; young leaves


are sometimes a brilliant
pink.
light
I

green, at other times a bright

In

several
all

instances

saw the entire

plant,

stems

in-

cluded, in

the tints of crimson, from the most delicate hues

to the deepest shades.

The

individual leaves and the habit of


is

the plant
leaf

is

very graceful; there

no

stiffness
in

about

it,

each

being

shaped, curved
is

and turned

a different manner.
of the dark

Especially striking

the effect

when some

green

leaves are partly turned over and display


of
their

some

of the crimson

under

side.

Being of tropical origin (Valley of the

50

THE GOLDFISH AND


this,

ITS

CULTURE.
leaf
all

Amazon),

my

seedling,
it

is

in

the

year round.

During the summer


green, strong, glossy

grows above the water, producing dark


foliage,

and

in

the

axils

of

the

leaves

small yellow flowers.


I

feel that I

should state here, that not

I,

but

my

kind cus-

tomers named this plant for me.

THE CUT-LEAVED MERMAID-WEED.


{Proserpinaca pesltnacea.)

The

finely cut, hair-like, soft


five,

leaves

grow

in

close-jointed

whorls of

alternately or spirally arranged


;

on thin reddish

but tenacious stems in deep water

it

resembles green chenille,


color of this plant

one inch

in diameter.
its

The brownish green


growth makes
It
is
it

and the density of


for others
in

an excellent background

the collection.

a native of

Alabama, ever-

green, and a good oxygenator.

This

plant,

where
their
its

native,
feet

is

dreaded
in
its

by bathers
stems and

often

swimmers get
wife of Pluto,
to
pull

entangled

drown.

This fact led to

name.

The Roman goddess,

Proserpina,

who them down

reigns in the
to

lower region, was supposed

have playmates.

THE WATER
This
is

MILL-FOIL.

(Myriophyllutn spicaium.)

a close relation

to

the

preceding.

The whorls

of

leaves are larger in diameter and arranged in an exact circle

around the stem, the color being very dark green.


preceding
aquarium.
it

Like the
in the

grows easily from cuttings, and


a native
in'

is

evergreen

It is

the northern section of this country


its

and Europe. The name has relation to

thousands of leaves.

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

51

THE SPRING OR WILLOW


(Fontinalis antiperytica. )

MOSS.

This
in
in

little

plant

is

an evergreen native.

It

may be found

shaded brooks growing attached to stones or other objects


the water, or near springs.

The small leaves are borne alterThe nately on very thin and much branched wiry stems. plant is very dark green in color, especially when at rest in winter the young sprouts are of a cheerful bright green when
;

they

first

appear
is

in early spring,

forming a refreshing contrast.

The
that

plant
it

a good water purifier, -and the ancients believed


;

killed the fever-germs in the water

hence

its

scientific

name.
If possible, this plant

should be obtained with the object on


;

which

it

grows, and so introduced into the collection

when

in-

troduced as cuttings, these should be planted against the rockwork, to which they
will

soon cling, covering the same like an

ivy does a stone wall.

THE FLO.\TING ARROWHEAD.


( Sagitiaria naians.)

This

tropical

specie 3 originated

in

my

greenhouse

in

the

Spring of 1879, when two minute sprigs sprung up accidentally


in a little soil

attached to the root -stock of a water

lily

sent

to

me from South
aquariums

America.

From

these two plants, which I


all

carefully nursed

and propagated, came


in

the stock

now growIt
is

ing in

every part of the civilized world.

evergreen.

During the winter the narrow blades, one-fourth


its

of

an inch wide and six to eighteen inches long, that form

leaves,

grow below the surface

of the water, forming a brilliant green

thicket; as spring approaches, the characteristic lance -shaped

52

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

leaves appear in addition and float on the surface of the water,


to be soon followed by a delicate flower stalk that also floats,

bearing as

many
not

as twenty-one pretty little white flowers one(In

half inch in diameter.

some
until

localities

these characteristic

leaves

are

produced

late

in

the

summer, but the

plant flowers just as freely.)


It requires a light

location but no direct


it

sunlight to

grow

to perfection.

In a suitable locality

will

be

in

bloom from

February until November, and the

tips

of the

sharp -pointed
while jet-black
It

blades will assume a beautiful carmine color,


irregular
to

spots

will

appear on the floating leaves.

grows

perfection in the sharp sand

recommended

for the
soil.

bottom
It

of the aquarium requiring no special mixture of


tiplies fast

mul-

in

the aquarium by runners from the root-stock.


floating

From
chosen

the

habit of

its

leaves and flowers,


all

have

its

name.

It is

recognized

over the world as the

most

useful,

decorative and reliable aquarium plant under cul-

tivation.

THE "NEW ERA" ARROWHEAD.


This
is

a seedling of

the preceding, secured by high cultiIt is

vation and cross-fertilization.


its

more robust

in

growth than

parent.

SAGITTARIA "FRANCES
This
is

M."

the result of a cross between


a

S. "

lanciolata,

specie^from
in

Louisiana,

also

New Era " and S. of my own raising


The
plant
is

and named

memory
winter

of

my

late
is

companion.
of

evergreen; the

foliage

like that
in

"New

Era "but
in

much

larger, the blades

measuring

some cases one inch

width and twenty-four inches

in length,

while the aerial leaves

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS Cl'LTURE.

53

born
in

in

summer,

in addition to the others, talce after the

mother
;

shape and upright tendency, with a more delicate texture

the flowers are borne on an upright stem and have the size of a silver quarter-dollar.
in It is a

very free bloomer and delights

sharp sand, being in bloom from

May

until

November.

One

plant,

growing

in

an ordinary parlor aquarium with an eastern

exposure, produced seventeen perfect spikes of flowers in succession in one season.


plant.
It

Such a record

is

hard to beat by any

should be grown

in glass pots (salve jars) for easier


its

handling and better protection of

large root system.

Many

other aquatic plants exist, but not every one can be


in

grown with success


ditions that
its faults

an aquarium.
supply, or
its

Its

nature requires conis

we cannot

growth

so rank that

outweigh

its virtues.

In either case

it is

not excluded

that

we may introduce such


just

a plant for an agreeable

change

as a short visitor; often


sions,

such plants are at certain occais

when

a certain
in

effect

aimed

for,

invaluable.

But

all

plants collected

open waters should not be introduced into

a collection until
sel for

they have been quarantined in a special ves-

at

least a week, as

they

may

bring

disease

or other

trouble into your collection.

Chapter

IX.

ARRANGING THE COLLECTION.

When

the tank

is

secured

it

is

properly cleaned with clean


filled

water and a sponge, but without the aid of soap, and

up

to the top with water to test the resistance of the glass

and to

detect any leaks.

In

making

this test the

tank should be in a

perfectly level position, and of course not in a carpeted parlor.

Having stood the


being taken that
it

test,

it

is

now placed

in

position,

care

sets perfectly level.

Now

get the washed

rocks or tuff-stone intended for the rockery ready, and put a


sufficient quantity of

well-washed sharp sand on the bottom of


to the height of
in a chair

the tank to cover

it

about one or two inches.

This done, seat yourself


the aquarium, look
at
it,

some distance away from


effects regarding
;

and study the best


Don't be
is

the arranging of the rocks.

in

too great a hurry


for at least

re-

member
making
sible.

that this arrangement

to

be

one season,

and don't forget that you must make allowance


as little shade for these in placing the

for the plants,

rockwork as pos-

The arrangement
is

of the rocks being completed, the next

move

the planting of the plants.

Since

we know

that these

are the prime factors for the maintenance of the aquarium, this

should be done with great care.

The
in

plants

may be

well-rooted

specimens or mere cutting^

either

case

handle them

gently,

do not bruise or break


54

jui-juuuuugT
'

PLATE V.

THE GOLDFISH AND


them,
tlant

ITS

CULTURE.

55

them

in

the

sand with the same care as you


in

would a tender seedling plant


different

your garden, arranging the


in

groups according to the picture you had made


in the chair

your mind when you sat


ery.

thinking about the rocka charming


little

An

aquatic garden can be

made

sub-

marine landscape, prettier than any picture.

Be not "close"
;

when you make your selection of plants for the aquarium it would be "penny wisdom," as everything depends on them. They need not necessarily be expensive plants, some of the commoner species being excellent oxygenators; but since plants,
outside of their purifying faculties, add
greatly to the attracis

tions of an aquarium, liberality in this direction

well placed.

The

following

list

of plants

is

a desirable assortment for


:

one of the larger tanks described above


5 3
I
1

sprigs of Fanwort.

"
"

" " "

Millfoil or

Mermaid-weed.

Hornwort.
Springmoss.

"

plants of Ludwigia.
" "
"

S
I

Arrowhead.
Sag. Frances M.

"

Whilst you are planting, sprinkle the plants every few minutes with water, so they

may

not suffer from the dry


is

air.

All

being planted^ the next

thing to do

to

place

some small

stones or large pebbles in


the

an

apparently careless manner on

bottom, some

in

the immediate vicinity of the plants to

steady the roots of them, while others are placed in groups of


threes or fours
together, leaving small crevices between each
in

stone to catch the refuse matter that will collect

time.

56

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

FILLING THE TANK.


The aquarium
live in a city that
is

now ready
clear
if

to receive the water.

If

you

has water-works, use water from the hydrant,


is
;

provided that

it

you cannot have

that, take

clear
fit

cistern or spring water, but the water

must be

clear

and

for

anybody
yourself

to drink.
is

Any water
for

that you would not like to drink


!

not

fit

an aquarium

Muddy
to

water

is

as detriIf

mental to aquatic plants as dust


water
is

is

garden plants.

the
as

less than 60 F.

some warm water should be added,


to

otherwise the plants would get chilled.


the

Pour the water into

tan slowly and carefully, in order not


it

wash out the

roots of the plants, filling


top.
If the

up to within two inches from the


is

tank be a small one, this

accomplished by pour-

ing the water from a pitcher into the hollow of your left hand,

held for the purpose just above the bottom.

Now
of

take a small stick, and by

its

aid carefully arrange the

branches or blades of the plants to

suit,

then sprinkle a pinch

common
is

table

salt

on the surface of the water, and your

aquarium

started.

STOCKING THE AQUARIUM.


If

you wish
if

to

do

so,
is

you can place the


no particular hurry
to

fish
it

in the

water

at once, but

there

is

advisable -to
settle

wait a day or two in

order

have the water

and

to

give the plants a chance to get established.


that period you will see most of

After a lapse oi

the plants covered with mi-

nute silvery
consider

bubbles;

these are oxygen bubbles and you

may

your tank

charged with same and


life.

in

perfect condi-

tion to support

animal
of

Now
of

take
the

the wiper and slowly

wipe the inside

the

glass

aquarium, making

the

THE GOLDFISH AND

IIS

CULTURE.

57

motion up and down


scratch the glass
if it

avoid touching the sand, as this would


will

The aquarium
all.

now appear

as clear as
fish

contained no water at

Now
it

introduce the

gently,

one at a time, getting them gradually used to the temperature


of the water by slowly mixing

with the water in which they

were, then add to

your collection two or more frog tadpoles


the rams horn type to

and a few pond

snails of

consume the

refuse and otherwise decaying matter that will

be about.

NUMBER OF
certain size,
to
:

SPECIMENS.

The question how many fish can live in an aquarium of a is equal to how much money must a person have be rich ? The answer is substantially the same. The shape
tank and the location
of
fish

of the

in

which

it

is

placed determine
in
it.

the

number

that
as

can

comfortably
light,

live

Should

the location

be bad
the

regards
will

the

amount
if

of

oxygen
is

generated in
highly

tank
in

be small, while

the situation
the

favorable

every respect, the


its

evolution of

life-

giving gas will reach

maximum
by

degree.

The quantity
is

of water required for a given

number

of fish

furthermore

regulated

their size

and the nature of the

treatment they have received before they came into your possession.
If,

for instance, they


in a large

were kept
pond, they
if

in

running water, or

were newly caught


a

will naturally require

much

larger quantity of water than


to

they had already been


fish

accustomed

life

of

captivity.

Some

need a great
lit-

amount
tle.

of oxygen, while others get along with remarkably


will

An aquarium
The only way

stand as

many

fish as

the

plants can

supply with oxygen.


to

ascertain

the ability of a tank

is

by be-

ginning with a few specimens, adding from time to time until

58

THE GOLDFISH AND


fish

ITS

CULTURE.

you see by the actions of the


limit.

that you have arrived at the

Fish, in order to be objects of

study or enjoyment, should


;

above

all

things feel comfortable and happy


it

they must feel

"at home," and

is

much

the better plan to keep only a few

choice specimens of a noble type and good habits, and


real

make

pets

of

these,

than to crowd

the

tank with

indifferent

stock.

For an aquarium holding from

five

to

twenty gallons of

water, and kept for ornamental purposes, two

handsome
effect.
is

specisimi-

mens
lar

of fringe-tailed
effect
fish
is

good

make a striking obtained when such a tank


goldfish

A
of

stocked with

about

five

of different

types or varieties.

Tanks

the

author were seen by millions of people at the various industrial

expositions

during the

last

twenty -five years or more,


I

where he had them displayed, and

had good opportunities to

notice which arrangement was the most admired.

Such a tank

as mentioned above brings the arrangement of the rockery and

the
in a

plants to full notice.

The

fish

appear like so

many

cattle

pasture with the edge of a piece of forest as a background.


is

The whole
charming.

a living picture continually changing, but always


perfect silence rests our nerves and imparts a

Its

peaceful feeling.
If the

aquarium
for

is

to be a source of information to children

or pastime

invalids, a different

course

is

to

be taken and
fish,

the collection
that the

should comprise various types of


forms, habits and
structures

in

order

different

may be com-

pared and studied.

Chapter

If

X.

GENERAL MANAGEMENT.
There now remain a few remarks
the general
to be said in regard to
I

management
itself;
all

of an aquarium.

say a few remarks,


it

because

if

the aquarium has been properly started


that
is

almost
the
fish

takes care of

necessary

is

to

feed

regularly every day.


this,

One person only should have charge


fish
its

of

and the
period.
fish

fish

should be fed as nearly as possible at the

same

Allow for each


food,

mouthful of
time.

my

con-

densed

"IXL," each feeding

Should any un-

consumed food remain


will

at the bottom, the tadpoles

and

snails

devour

it.

The

light for

the aquarium
collection

should be under

full

control,

for although

the

requires a
it

good

light,

the direct

rays of the

sun are injurious to

and should therefore not

reach

it.

newspaper placed over the side facing the sun,


is

when

it

shines,

often

sufficient

protection.
of the glass should

Once
cleaned

or twice a

week the
thus

inside

be
it

with

the

wiper,

preventing
is

algae a
flat

covering

and
thick

obstructing
piece
of

the view.
felt

This wiper
fastened

sponge or

securely

to

an

appropriately

shaped metal plate on the end of a

stick, or

on the flattened

and wider end


lost

of the stick itself

At the same time the water


replaced.
is

by evaporation

should

be

scum that may


sliding pieces
59

be present on top of the water

removed by

6o

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.
will adhere.

of

newspaper over the water to which the scum

Once

week
a

the

sediment

that

has

collected

between

the pebbles,

introduced for this purpose, should be removed


glass

by the aid of
that

dip-tube or
fish,

rubber

syphon.

Sand
of

has been displaced by the


bare,
is
is

laying the root

the

plants

returned to
scoop-like

its

proper place with the dredge.


metal,

This
right

little

instrument of

fastened at

angles to a long handle.


it

Sometimes
sand by the
should be
with
at

happens that a plant


or accidentally

is

pulled
;

out of

the

fish,

by a

visitor

such a plant
hole
to
in

re-planted
the

without

delay.

Make

the
it

sand

dredge,

and

use
are

the

dip tube

hold

down
bles

the

roots while

these

being covered with peb-

and sand.
useful

Especially

are

these

aquarium
is

tools

during

the
it

winter

months, when
to

the

water

chilly,

as

they

make

unnecessary

put

the

hands

in

the

water at

all.

(See

illustrations) p 141.

RE-ARRANGING THE AQUARIUM.


When
the water
six

the

aquarium

is

to

be thoroughly cleaned and reonce


or

arranged, which
is

should be done
off

twice every year,

drawn

with a rubber syphon to within about

inches from

the

bottom.

(This water,
is

if

practicable,

is

saved and used again when the tank


the

re-filled,

the

older

water the better;

water
all

improves
the
plants,

by
also

age.)

Next take
larger
fish,

out the rockwork, then


bles,

the
the

pebetc.,

and

now

carefully

catch
tin

and

remove

placing them in a clean


suitable temperature.

vessel

with plenty of water of

Take out
do

the balance of the water

now
its

and

also

the

sand, but

not

move

the

tank

from

THE GOLDFISH AND


position.

ITS

CULTURE.

6l

After washing the sand particles off the inside of

the glass to
the

prevent

scratching,
it

clean

the

entire
salt,

inside

of

tank

by rubbing
of

with

ordinary table

using

the

fingers instead

a brush.
the

All the brownish or green matter


is

being taken
water, and

off,
is

tank

once

more washed with clean


various waters
the tank.

then ready, again to receive the collection.


well
is

The sand should be


perfectly

washed
put back

in

until

clean before
easily

it

into
is

Where

sand

is

obtained a new supply


or
in

preferable.
it,

The rock-work,
and then washed

the
salt

rock used for

should be scalded

water with a rough sponge or small


in

scrubbing brush before replacing

position.

The
ones
refilled,

plants

are

then looked over and the most desirable


planted

selected

and

again

without

delay,

the

tank

and
or

fish,

etc.,

returned as soon as possible.


labor once or twice in
a

Two

three

hours of

year

what a wealth of pleasure, information and pastime


bring to a home, school-room or hospital
I
?

will these

cannot leave this chapter without

calling

attention
all, is

to

Emerson's

words:

"What

is

worth

doing

at

worth

doing well."

Chapter XI.

SUNDRY DIRECTIONS.
At what season of the
able?

year

is

an aquarium most
it

desir-

The aquarium has no


it it

winter,

is

in this respect

much

like a conservatory,

is is

cheerful during a prolonged season of


better than

rough weather, but


its

conservatory, because

cooling, refreshing
in

effect

cheers us equally well during a


just

dry, hot spell

summer, when

the contrary
is fully

is

the

case

with the conservatory.

This advantage

appreciated by

many who, through


in

circumstances, have to spend the


to

summer
in

the city.

In

addition
us

the

summer scenery
winter time
of

with which

the

aquarium delights
it

during

when

our

home,
that
it

benefits

the

sanitary conditions
its

the

apartments
the atmos-

adorns through

purifying influence on

phere.
air

The great
breathe,
of the

faculty of the

water to absorb purifies the

we
air

and the evaporation from the tank relieves


uncomfortable dryness caused by our modern

the

heating apparatus.
Parties

who

close their house during the

summer may keep


aquarium,
lake.

their goldfish in

a basin of larger surface than the

sunk
basin
ilar

in

the

garden, here forming a miniature


constructed of

Such a

may be

cemented masonry or wood, sim-

to one described for a store-tank, but twelve inches deep.

Its

location should
it

be partly sunny, morning sun preferable,


62

and

should be furnished with sand, rocks and plants, the

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

63

same

as

an indoor aquarium.
off

It

must be supplied with an

overflow to carry
its

the surplus water during a storm, and

top covered with a strong wire screen to keep the cats

out.

Any
tin-pail

vessel

used

in

connection with
is

an aquarium should
to

be absolutely clean.
exclusively

It

best, therefore,
use.

have a special

for

aquarium

Fish should be handled as

little

as possible, and then with

great care.
nel-shaped,
also

The

dip-net used for goldfish should not

be funscales,
it

as this

would injure their

fins,

tails

and

scrapes off too


is

much
is

slime

from the body of the

fish.

This slime

a protective

coat for the body, the same as a


a protection
to

coat of paint or varnish


slime
is

woodwork.

This

of

greater importance than most people


it

think, parts

deprived of
skin

are subject to the attacks of fungus and other

diseases.

dip-net

for

our purpose should be of soft

material
it,

and shallow (see


the head
lift

illustration

page

141).

When
fish

using
net
it

aim
;

to get

and lower part of the


the fish
it

in the

first

now

slowly
left

from

the

water,

covering
it

with your

hand to keep

motionless and prevent

from

leaping out of the net.

Next
life
is

of importance to the supply of

oxygen

for all animal

the supply of

food.

Animal beauty depends largely


Improper food
ill-humored.
is

upon the health of the animal.


best
of

will

them
to

sick,
if

or

at

least

make the The contrary


palatable and
to
this
rule.

being the case

the food consists of what

wholesome
After

them.

Fish

make no exception
I
it

many

years of experimenting,
all

have succeeded
is

in pre-

paring a food that meets

wants
clean,

palatable and wholefor

some

to the fish
it
;

is

in

handy form

the person
in price.

handling

of

good keeping quality and reasonable

64

THE GOLDFISH AND


in

ITS

CULTURE.
fish

Without wishing

the

least

to belittle

foods manufactI

ured by other parties in this or other countries,

recommend

my
fish
its

"

IXL
for

" fish-food, which

have been using exclusively for

my

over twenty-five years, as absolutely appropriate for


If

purpose.
it

you cannot

obtain

it

from your dealer send

for

direct,

The excrements
greenish
feeding.
or

of the fish should be dark, either brownish,


;

black
this

if

it

is

white or yellow
of
salt

it

indicates over-

In

case

add a pinch

to

the

water of

the aquarium and stop feeding altogether for two days, reduc-

ing their daily allowance after that.


Fish newly obtained should be quarantined
for
to

at

least a
col-

week and
lection
of

carefully observed before adding

them

one's

choice specimens.

In severely cold weather, goldfish have no appetite, the contrary being the
therefore, be

case during hot weather.

Their meals should,

regulated accordingly.
snails

Tadpoles and

are

the

scavengers, the

Health Comlittle

missioners of the aquarium.

You can
fish

get along for a

while without snails, but an aquarium should never be without

tadpoles

one
The

for

every two absorbent

in

the aquarium.

Water, being
spoiled.

in

the

highest

degree,
less
in

is

easily

purest
for

water

will

be
if

more or
it

injured and

made doubtful
soluble

our purpose

comes

contact with
lead and

matter.
are

Copper, iron, galvanized


injurious
to

iron, zinc,

new wood
not

water.

These should, therefore,


in

come

in contact with the

water

which aquatic animals


should,
for

or plants are kept.

Mineral specimens (ore)

the

same reason, be kept out of a collection.


good tinware and
silver

Well tinned copper,


If

are

not injurious.

the
it

water of
filled.

the aquarium turns opaque a

day or two after

was

THE GOLDFISH AND


this is

ITS

CULTURE.
is

65
its

no cause for alarm.

The water
it

then undergoing

natural metamorphosis,
as brilliant as crystal.

and

will, in a day or two more, be

When
fish

water loses
near
the

its

brilliancy, turn-

ing milky,

and
air,

the fish

remain

surface breathing

atmospheric
food,

the

may be
in the

overfed,
is

and

the

surplus

or something else
it.

tank,

decaying.

Find the

cause and remove

Add

a good pinch of table salt to the


it

water and aerate


ing
for
it

it

by dipping

up with a cup and splash-

from a height of about i8 inches back again.

Do
it

this

five

or ten minutes and the fish will feel relieved.

Stop
has
it

feeding for two days also.


too

When

water turns greenish


blue

much

light.

Shade the

tank with

paper
that.

until

clears,

and regulate the window shades better after


is

Clear

water turning flaky

sign

of an

approching storm. up to the top


?

Should an aquarium tank be

filled

This

depends on the style of the casing or frame of the tank.


ordinary plain-framed or all-glass tank should not be
the top.
will
It

An

filled to

does not look right and endangers the


leap
out.

fish,

which
is
it

accidentally
it

When
(see

the

style

of

the

frame

such that
should be

may form
to

guard above the waterline, then


plate V.).

filled

the

top

Tuffstone
grass

is

calcarious
old.

deposit

over

groups

of

reed,
disleft.

and moss, ages

The vegetable matter having


is

appeared, nothing but the picturesquely-formed deposit


It
is

found a few feet below the surface of the earth, near

the river Rhine and in Thuringia (Germany), not far from


birthplace, and also
varies,
in

my

the northern part of Ohio.


-

The
rust

color
color,

running from a light grayish

brown

to

according to the locality where

mens

for

it was found. The best specicome from Thuringia, our purpose being of good

66

THE GOLDFISH AND


bizarre
I

ITS CULTURE.

color,

in

shape,

no

two

pieces

alike,

and
it

light

in

weight.
for
first,

introduced tuffstone for the purpose


1874.

is

now used

in

To cement broken
It

pieces or to form rock-

work

for

an aquarium, use equal parts of best Portland cement


sand.
is

and sharp
before
it

should be soaked

in

water

over night

placed in an aquarium.

PART

III.

THE PONDS AND THEIR CONSTRUCTION.


Chapter
XII,
"Withholding
facts
is

robbery."

Orville Dewey.

ABOUT FISH-PONDS
A
basin of water in the open
air,

IN GENERAL.

so arranged or constructed that


is

the water

may be drawn

off at

any desired time,

called a pond.

A
is

body of water not under


usually

control, in the full sense of the word,

known

as a pool or a lake.

The dimension
few

of such

body

of

water does not necessarily regulate the name applied to


instance, a

it,

as for

pond may

either be but a

feet in length

and breadth,

or

it

may

cover an estate of hundreds of acres in extent, just as the

requirements of the case

may

be.

In countries
source

far

removed from
fish

the sea-shore, or any other natural

from which

may be

obtained in large quantities, the

necessity arises for supplying the

want by some means or


scale,

other.

This can only be done by cultivating them on a large


quantities sufficient to

and

in

meet the demands of a steady market.

The

cultivation of fish for the purpose of food has been carried on for

many generations, and


attention

so far

back as the Middle Ages considerable


to

was given by the monks

pond

culture, in order that they


to procure fish

might have a reliable source from which

during

lent.

From

those days virtually dates the systematic culture of fish in


67

waters that are thoroughly under control.

68

THE GOLDFISH AND


At
that time

ITS CULTURE.

means of transportation were meager and very


was a prime

slow,

so that the cultivation of fish in the interior

necessity,

yet notwithstanding the rapid transit on the railroad of the present


time, putting inland places in close connection with the ocean

and

other natural fish reservoirs,

pond

culture

with both success and

profit.

Though

the

may be and is carried on railroad has made the salt-

water

fish a great

rival of that

cultivated in fresh water, the latter

nevertheless has the advantage of always being marketable and close


at

hand.

To

so successful a degree has


is

pond

culture arrived at the present

day, that one

enabled to propagate the scaly tribe in quantities

without

limit.
fish that

The
in

was

principally,

if

not to say exclusively, cultivated

ponds in former days, was the famous German carp; the estabstill

lishments founded three and even four centuries ago being


successful operation,

in

and may

at

any time be seen

in various parts of

Austria and Germany.


that
it

So thoroughly has the industry been studied

might almost be dignified with the name of a science. from


if
it

The

profits arising

are enormous,

and

it

may be

that interest has


it is

had something,

not very much, to do with the pond culture as

now carried on. To give the reader an


number
fish

idea of

its

extent in those countries,

it

may

be said that the carp ponds belonging to the


250,

manor of Wittengau

and cover an area of 22,000


is

acres, the annual yield of

from which

one-half million of

pounds.
in

Similar establish-

ments are found on the manor Konigswartha,

Upper

Silesia,

with

205 ponds, covering 9,000 acres; the manor Peitz-Cottbus (Branden-

burgh) with 72 ponds, covering 5,600 acres.

These and many other


ponds scattered
is

large establishments, to say nothing of thousands of


all

over Central Europe, give ample evidence that the industry

one

of magnitude and importance.

THE GOLDFISH AND


In
land,
this

ITS CULTURE.

69

country the cutting

down

of timber, the draining of the

and the establishment of new industries have no doubt greatly


soil,

increased the value of the

but have also influenced the decline

in the productiveness of the water.

This

is

a matter of serious importance, and one which

is

already

claiming the attention of intelligent journalists


of fighting the evil ere the remedy
fish
is

who

see the necessity

beyond our reach.

In

fact,

the

industry of the country

is

one of national interest,

and was, not

many

years ago, the cause of diplomatic difficulty between England


States, putting the latter to the

and the United

expense of millions of
In view of these
fish for

money before
facts
it

the matter

was

satisfactorily adjusted.

will not

be long before the necessity of cultivating


itself felt, just as it is in

the

market

will

make

Europe

to-day.

The consumption
the supply

of

food-fish,

of

course,

increases

with

the

increase of population, while on the other hand, for reasons given,


is

rapidly decreasing in quantity and quality.

Besides the

creeks and
ings

rivers are

now becoming

the sewers into which the wash-

and

dirt of the nation are

poured, and the gradual destruction

of our

fish is

consequently taking place right under our eyes.


fish is

In the author's opinion, the decrease of our

not so
it is

much
to the

due

to the use of small

mesh

seines, as

many

pretend, as

increased

demand

for fish as food.


is

The

destruction caused by a few


turtle-hunters

careless fishermen

more than counter-balanced by


the one

and

snake-killing boys,
it

making

it

a business,

the other

engaging in
kill

for sake of the sport,

who between them


fish,

catch and

a multitude of these voracious enemies of the


all

which, in
fish.

the water

the time,

manage

to destroy untold

numbers of

The

oft-repeated remark, "in former years this river used to be


is

alive with fish,"


it

very well

in' its

way, and

is,

moreover, true; but

must not be forgotten

that in former years there

were not so many

people requiring them for food.

70

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

bit of forest in

which grow a few chestnut-trees was, by the

then few village boys said to be "full of chestnuts," but now,


the village has are not looked

when
in

become a

large

town or

city, the

few chestnut-trees

upon with the same admiration because, though

equally good condition, they do not furnish chestnuts enough to

go 'round.

A
have
land,

piece of land of given size supplies in plenty, vegetables for


if

one family, but


to
it

the family increases in numbers,


to the

and additions

be made

house

at

the

expense of the piece of

can no longer furnish the original quantity of food.


js

New

land then
ing
is

added

to the field, or, if that

is

impossible, that remain-

forced to increased production by the use of manures.


then,

Now
culture,

why

not apply to pisciculture the rules guiding agriin this light ?


its

when viewed

The fish-consuming
is

family has

inordinately increased,

^iwelling

enlarged at the expense of the


to serve other purposes.

fish-producing rivers which are

now made

New

additions are consequently

necessary and

possible

by the

proper use of water-courses that are


Pond-culture
there being
is

now going

to waste.

not solely confined to the production of food-fish,


large
fish.

many

establishments devoted to the

exclusive

culture of ornamental

The

largest of these are also in Europe,

one in Oldenburgh cov-

ering twelve acres, yielding anually 300,000 goldfish, and affording

employment

to

many

people.

still

larger establishment

is

that in

Austria, belonging to Baron de Washington.

There are besides many smaller establishments scattered about


all

over Europe, and generally near the large


the immediate neighborhood of our

cities, just as
cities.

we

find

florists in

own

Chapter XIII.

THE CONSTRUCTION OF PONDS.


The
fish-culturist recognizes

three kinds gf

ponds,

which are

designated by the source from which they receive their supply.


First,

the creek and river ponds ; these are fed from the source

that gives
in the

them

their

names, and which

immediate neighborhood.

may be, in fact, usually The water may be conveyed


and the most
to

is,

to

the ponds either

by the action of a pump or by means of a


no further attention than

drain,
relia-

the latter undoubtedly being the least expensive,


ble, besides requiring

turn on or off

when

so desired.
it

Second, spring-ponds, those fed by a spring, and


favor of such ponds that the supply of water
is

may be

said in

steady and of uni-

form quality and temperature, besides being


Third
falls,

free

from mud.
from the rain that

sky-ponds, those that receive their supply


is

and which

drained

off or

runs from the surface of adjoining

fields.

The value of a pond


the floor of the pond.

is

based upon the

reliability of its

water

supply, the quality of the same, as also that of the soil that forms

Last but not

least,

is

the location of the

pond.

The

locality

ought to be such that without any special

expenditure of time, the pond can always be under supervision, thus

guarding against pilfering upon the part of mischievous boys, the


71

72

THE GOLDFISH AND


herons,

ITS

CULTURE.
etc.

depredations of muskrats,
supplies the ponds
in the

cranes,

The water
this

that

would better come from a spring or be gathered


for the sky-pond, as

manner described

by

way one

will

avoid the annoyance and destruction caused by snakes, muskrats,


frogs,
etc.,

that are always found in small rivers

and creeks, and


causing

which are
trouble,

sure

to

find

their

way

to

the

pond,

much
they

to say

nothing of the
this,

money value

of that which

destroy.

Besides
the

the

ponds should have some natural protecThis


is

tion -against

high winds of spring time.


trees close by, but

very well
if

afforded by a
is

clump of

much

better
hills.

the

pond

situated in a hollow between

two or three small

These not

only shelter the ponds, but tend to keep them

warmth of
needed.
will

the sun in the spring, just at a

warm by retaining the time when it is most


fish

In a

warm and

protected location of this kind, the

spawn several weeks before the ordinary beginning of the

season, the young, of course, being ready for sale that

much

sooner,

and the ponds are vacated


and more
liberal return
it is

for a

second crop, thus bringing a quicker

on the investment.
use to locate ponds in a neighborhood
for the product, unless, indeed, the

Lastly,

of but

little

that does not afford a

market

amateur should be in correspondence with such parties as would be


likely to find
it

to their interest to handle his stock.

The foregoing remarks on ponds and those which follow made with an especial view to the culture of goldfish, so that
novice as well as the amateur

are the

may

get a distinct idea of the proper


for

method of

locating

and constructing them,

upon
it is

this

depends
in for

the success of the enterprise, and


the purpose of yielding an income.

more

so

when

engaged

We

come now
see

to a consideration of the

immediate and practical

points concerning the subject

upon which we are engaged and which


After having determined to

we wish

to

in

running order.

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

73

devote his spare time to the cultivation of goldfish, the amateur will

know where know how to do it.


hardly

to

commence

or what to do

first,

neither will he

That want the author thoroughly appreciates,


supply
it

and
in

it is

his

aim

to

in these pages, at the

same time bearing

mind

that the great majority will probably

have but a small capital

with which to

commence

business,

and must necessarily confine


start.

themselves to such things as are most needed when making a

After a beginning has been successfully accomplished, other and


useful accessories

may be added from

time to time that will undoubt-

edly greatly reduce labor and enhance the enjoyment of the pursuit,
for if

one does not take any interest


it

in

what he

is

engaged he can

not hope to derive from

-either pleasure or profit.

The

first

thing then

is

to

determine on a favorable

site

for the

location of the ponds.

This, as previously stated, should be one

protected from cold winds and fully exposed to the sun, not forgetting that the soil to form the floor of the ponds should be as rich
as possible.
It

must

also be

borne in mind

for

it is

a very essential

requisite, that every

pond must be drawn

off at times,

and independ-

ently of

all

others.

When

this

can not be accomplished by turning

to account the natural declivity or resources of the site, the series

must be so arranged that

this

may be accomplished
at will. to

in sections, or, in

other words, the ponds so situated that two or three or more, as the
case

may

be, can

be emptied
in

The manner
case
is,

which ponds are

be constructed in any given

as a matter of necessity, to be

governed by the circumstances

as they exist, anything favorable for

them

to be taken

advantage of

and turned

to

good account.

natural valley or hollow

may

be

dammed up

at the

lower end, thus enabling the culturist to place his


to speak, or they

ponds on top of the ground, so

may be made by

digging out the soil to the required size and depth to receive the

frames hereafter to be decribed.

74

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

As before
goldfish,

stated, there are


all

many enemies which prey upon


to live

the

and

of which are to be guarded against in the construcin

tion of the

ponds

which they are expected

and

increase.

If left alone

and without the protection of man, the circumstances

must be exceptionally favorable under which they can thrive and


multiply.

For the systematic raising of goldfish, therefore, a


is

series

of ponds
to

indispensable, each of which

is

constructed and arranged

meet the requirements of the

specific

purpose

for

which

it

is

intended.

All of them, however, are based

upon the same fundaand


outlets, other-

mental principle and must have adjustable

inlets

wise they can not be under complete control, the reason for which
a
little

experience will soon explain.

The number

of ponds needed
in their order

for the culture of goldfish does not exceed four,

and

are the spawning-pond, rearing-pond, storage-pond,

and winter-pond.

The spawning-ponds
fish are

or

"beds"

are those ponds in which the parent

placed when the breeding time arives, and are to be kept

there throughout the duration of that season,

and

solely for the

purpose of depositing the eggs.

The

rearing-ponds

are those

in

which the young

fry

is

placed or "planted" and to keep them until


size.

they are of a marketable

The

storage-ponds are for the

purpose

of keeping saleable stock until wanted, and in a situation readily


accessible at a
in

moment's
fish,

notice.

The

last in

order

is

the winter-pond,

which the parent

and those of the younger

that are intended

for the

same purpose, are carried through the inclemencies of the

winter.

The
at that

greatest depth of all the ponds, the winter-pond excepted,

should not be made to exceed twenty-four (24) inches, and this to be

end where the outlet

is

placed.

From

twenty-four inches at
until the water

one end the depth should gradually decrease


at the

depth

head

is

not greater than six


of the

(6) inches.

(See illustration.)

The upper edges

dams

of the ponds should not be less

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

75

than six inches above the highest water capacity, thus avoiding overflow during heavy rain-storms;
neither should they be less than

eighteen (i8) in width.

It is also

necessary that the dams be

made

very carefully, so that when soaked with water they cave in with their
to build

will not sink or

own

weight.

most excellent material of which

them

consists simply of sod cut into suitable pieces


just as a stone-mason lays
laid

and

laid

one upon another,


other, the

one stone upon the


solid

whole when thus

becomes very

and compact,
will

and capable of

resisting considerable pressure,

and

withstand

the wear and tear of the weather and the weight of the

body when
from a

walking over them.

Where

there

is

danger

prevailing

Longitudinal Section of Goldfish Pond.

sudden freshet

in

an adjoining creek,

it is

a wise precaution to build,

in addition, a strong

dam on
expected.

the outside and in the direction from

which the danger

is

For greater safety

this

dam may be
washing

in its turn protected with boards, so as to prevent gradual

away.
its

Each

inlet,

/.

e.

the point at which the water supply


to

makes

way

into the pond,

is

be guarded with galvanized iron netting

of a tolerably coarse mesh, about eight to the inch, as a small mesh


clogs very readily, and only adds the additional care of keeping
clean.
it

The

outlet

is

formed of two gutters of which one

fits

in an

upright position tightly on the end of the other, which leads through
the bottom of the dam, forming a right angle.
(See illustration.)
all

The one leading through


sides,

the

dam

is

closed tightly on
is

four

but on the upright one the side facing the pond

closed
of

with adjustable sections cut from flooring boards.

By means

76

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

these movable parts the level of the

water in the pond can be

regulated as occasion
the water
sized
is

may
is

require.

The

overflow, that

is,

where

running out,

guarded by a wire screen of the same

mesh

as before mentioned,

and adjustable

in the

same manner

as the other boards protecting the opening.

When

it

is

desirable to drain the pond, one


is

section or board

removed

at a time,

always

taking care to place the wire screen upon


the top by
letting
it

slide

down

into

the

grooves.
Outlet for Pond.
insisted

(See illustration.)

most important point, and one to be


is

upon
it

in the construction of ponds,

to so arrange the water

supply that
is

will at all times be UTider complete control.


its

Each pond

to receive
also,

supply independently of
be, be cut off

all

the rest, and the water


inter-

must

when need

from the pond without

fering with the supply of others.

The supply channel must


it

likewise

have an independent "run," so that the water

contains

when not

wanted

for use in the ponds,


is

may

find

its

way out

of the establish-

ment. This point

one of great importance, especially during heavy

rain-storms, as the large increase in the

volume of water would cause

the ponds to overflow and probably do great damage.

Plate VMS

Chapter XIV.

THE AUTHOR'S ESTABLISHMENT.


The accompanying diagram
raising of goldfish.
It will

will serve as a reliable

guide for the

construction and arrangement of a complete establishment for the

be observed that the ponds are arranged in a semi-circle,

not because the

"horseshoe"
little

is

all

the rage,

but simply for the


is

reason that the


small but steep

valley in which they are located

encircled by
stated,

hills

running in that direction.

As previously

the disposition of the ponds must of necessity be in accordance with

the topography or "lay of the land" in the locality determined upon,

and

the amateur will have to follow accordingly, though there are

changes and modifications that he can make, and in many instances


with great advantage.

DESCRIPTION OF PLAN.

Spawning or propagating beds. B. Rearing ponds. C. Storage ponds and nursery. D. Winter pond. E. Isolated pond for special purposes.
A.
F.

Lodge, where the eggs are hatched. Wind-brake and guard Creek, passing the establishment. Siar Location of springs. Arrow. Direction of water Dotted Supply drain.
G. H.
I.

Catch-basin for stray

fish.

again.-it freshets.

flow.

lines.

bracket. 0\MsX.%.
77

78

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

1^

a-

t^

Chapter XV.

THE PROPAGATING
Having now had a general view of
attention
is

BED.
the

ponds, the reader's

directed to a detailed study of them, each one separately,


their construction,
for,

the

method of

and the reason why they

differ

from one another;

being

made each with

a specific purpose to

serve, they of course

must be
or

built with that object in view.


is

The spawning-pond,

"propagating bed,"
its

situated at that
It is

end of the rearing-pond where the water makes

entrance.

division consisting of a board frame eighteen (i8) inches in depth

and four
like the
to

(4) feet

wide by eight (8)

feet long, fashioned very

much
is

frame of a gardener's hot-bed.


soil

This frame, when ready,

be sunk about two inches into the

composing the bottom of the


not taken,

pond, and very accurately

at that; for if this precaution is

the fish are very apt to escape from the


that

pond through any aperture

may be

left.

The upper edge

of the frame should be not less

than six inches above the usual level of the water, thus preventing
the danger of overflow.

In the side facing the supply drain, about


level,

two inches above the water

and

in

the other forming the

division of the rearing-pond, about one inch below this level, small

openings for the entrance and exit of the water are cut and carefully

covered with galvanized iron-wire gauze, of about eight meshes


79

to the inch.

8o

THE GOLDFISH AND


This box, the bottom of which
is

ITS CULTURE.
floor of the

formed by the

pond,

is

to

be covered with a

well-fitting frame,

mounted upon hinges and


one mesh to the

also covered with galvanized iron-wire netting of

inch.

This wire screen serves to prevent the approach of numerous


if

enemies that would otherwise greatly interfere with the spawners,


not destroy them altogether.

By

following the above given direc-

tions for the construction of the frame the greatest

economy

possible

can be had,

for the

lumber

in the

board as obtained from the dealers,


feet in length,

measures twelve (12) and sixteen (16)


measurements, eight by four
essary waste of lumber.
feet,

so that the

can always be had without unnecthis,

Besides

the wire netting

is

obtained in
is

any length, and

also four (4) feet in width, so that here too

saving of material, and consequently of expense.


Inside of this frame,
or box, as
it

may be

called
is

when placed
stretched,
is

into position, another frame


to

upon which wire netting

be sunk.

The

size of the

mesh

is

to be such as

is

best adapted to
It is

the size of the fish that are to be placed in the pond.


to see that this false

very easy

bottom subserves a very useful purpose, and

often saves time that at the


for

moment

is

otherwise valuable.

When,
the only

one reason or another,


is

it is

desirable to

remove the
it

fish,

requirement
water,
ease.

simply to raise the frame to get

into shallow
at

when

the whole contents of the

pond can be examined

A
is

spawning-pond, such as the one described, can be, and with

propriety too, constructed separately and wholly isolated.

But
is

if it

made

a division of the rearing-pond, a good advantage


it

secured,

namely, the stream of water that passes through


rearing-pond such of the young
fish as

will carry into the

were hatched from undiscov-

ered eggs.

They

will thus

escape being devoured by the parent, and

besides will get into the place intended for them, and where the

chances for their growing up are vastly in their favor.

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

8l

THE NURSERY.
This
is

merely an

apartment
the

temporarily

established in

the

storage-pond, which

serves

purpose' of protecting the

young

during their earliest infancy.

THE REARING POND.


This pond
begin with,
differs

from the preceding in several respects.

To

it is

five times as large, the size eight (8) feet

by twenty

(20) being in

many ways
this,

the most convenient, as experience has

abundantly proven.
In constructing
necessary that
the
as well as the others,
it

is

not absolutely
inlet,

outlet

should be directly opposite the

though such an arrangement insures the most complete changing of


the contents (the water)
other.

by the current passing from one end and


inlet

to the

The

location of the outlet

must be determined by

the judgment of the builder


can,

when seeking

to get the best results

he
in

from the circumstances and surroundings of the


his ponds.
It is

locality

which he places

necessary, however, that the inlet


level, so that the fish

should be one or two inches above the water


will

be prevented from getting into the supply drain, should there


In constructing the pond, the

happen, to be a defect in the guard.

remarks applying

to

ponds

in

general are to be respected.


level,

The
be as
inches

dams must reach

six inches

above the water

and the
six

floor
(6)

uniform as possible, with a regular incline of from

depth at one end

to twenty-four

(24) inches at the other.

The

deepest part to be at the outlet, insuring a perfect and even drawing


off,

whenever

that

may be

needed.

One
fish in

or two plants, such as

Nymphaea

only, should be planted in

the soil of the bottom, as their floating leaves afford shelter to the

very hot weather.

Besides

it

offers greater

convenience for

the fish to reach deep water upon the approach of danger, as in such

82

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

cases fish always dart to the bottom,


the

and being

there, they get out of


it is

way much

sooner.

If placed near the outlet,

also easier to
is

gather the flowers

when

the plants are in blossom; this

probably a

small point, but one that will be appreciated


plants not be available, one or

upon

trial.

Should the

two pieces of board


If
it is

left floating

on

the water will answer the purpose.

impossible to isolate the


at
all

rearing-ponds from

each other,

the

consequences are not

serious, but things should

be so arranged that the very large

fish are

not mixed up with the small ones, as the latter would then be

deprived of their share of the natural food the pond

itself supplies.

THE STORAGE POND.


This pond
is

for the sole

purpose of keeping the saleable

fish

where they can


variety, color
It is to

easily

be secured when desired, assorted according to

and

size,

and kept
it

in

good condition

till

wanted.
off

be so located that

will

not interfere with the draining

of the other ponds.


Its

construction

does not
it

differ

in anywise

from that of the


if

rearing-pond, as indeed

can be used for rearing,

not wanted for

nursery purposes (of which


for
its

we

will treat further on), until

wanted

destined purpose.

It is best,

however, to divide

it

with boards into different parts of


fit

equal

size,

so as to secure a general

of wire covers.

THE WINTER POND.


This
is

best located close

by a

spring, so that the constant flowing


will

in of a stream of water of

even temperature

prevent the surface

of the pond from freezing over entirely, in which case the fish would
die.

The depth
its

of the

pond ought not

to

be

less

than three

feet,

and

sides closely lined with boards or masonry, thus affording

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.
in.

83

protection from enemies and preventing caving

The

flow of

water
leave

is

to enter at

one end, traverse the length of the pond, and

at

the

opposite extremity.

The dimensions of

the winter

quarters need not be very large, as during the winter season, fish in

a natural

state,

pass that time in a semi-torpid condition, eat no food,

and

are not revived until they get the

warmth

of the sun in early

spring.

compartment of four

(4) feet

by eight

(8),

and of the above

depth, will carry about


safely through the winter.

fifty

fish

of eight to ten inches in length

Where
house
tion,

it

can be done, the

fish

may be

wintered over in a green

cistern, or in aquaria

where they may be under close observaIf in the

and
air,

at the

same time be of some ornamental value.


is,

open

the winter-pond

of

course, to be covered with wire

netting to keep out the various birds and animals that would prey

upon them;

it is

also well to protect the greater part of the top with

boards, keeping out as

much snow

as possible.

PART

IV.

The Propagation and Care of the Goldfish

Chapter XVI.
" Nature

my

school, the water

my

field/

THE ANATOMY OF THE GOLDFISH.


Before we enter into the details of the propagation of the
it

fish,-

is

necessary to learn something about

its
is

anatomy.
merely diagramatic)

study of the accompanying cut (which

will greatly assist the

reader in getting a clear understanding of


it

the internal arrangement of the several parts with which

is

most necessary to be

familiar.

ANATUMICAL SKETCH OF GOLDFISH.

We will consider first the scaies, as they are almost the first thing
to strike the eye. of the

These scales are so arranged upon the surface


just in the

body that they overlap each other


84

manner

that a

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

85

carpenter lays shingles on a roof, being disposed in such a


that the friction incident

way

water
older

is

upon the movement of the reduced to the smallest proportion. As the

fish fish

in the

grows
of the

and larger the scales increase in size. Near the middle of the body and running along each side
there
is

fish,

a line or row of scales that possess peculiarities distin-

guishing them from other scales.

These

scales are pierced with a tubular aperture,


exit are quite distinct,

and the tubes of


so-called

which they are the

and form the

"lateral line."

Through these

tubes a slimy substance or mu.

cous

is

exuded, which covers the

entire

body,

seemingly for the


fish

purpose of making the

water-

proof and of further reducing the


friction

in

the

water.

These

tubes always point from the mascALE PROM LATERAL LINE.


{Enlarged.)

trix,

or root of the scale, towards

the

tail

of the

fish.

It is scales

of this description that naturalists

refer to

when seeking

to learn the species to

which the

fish

belongs,
(See

because the
illustration.)

peculiarities of their structure differ in them.

The next

thing most noticeable are the /im, these being


fish

named

according to their location upon the body of the


various purposes.

and subserve

The pectoral

fins (fig. a.) are

those situated in the

place corresponding with the fore-legs of animals, the ventral fins


(fig.

b.)

being placed where the hind-legs of animals are found.


(fig.

The
That

dorsal fin

c.) is

that

one found upon the back of the


its

fish.

fin situated

behind the anus receives

name from

that part,
is

and

is

known

as the anal fin (fig d.), while the tail of a fish


fin,
(fig.

prop-

erly called the caudal

e.)

86

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

The

tvater in

which the

fish lives is

very nearly as heavy as the


little

fish itself,

the latter then requiring comparatively

strength to

move
power

about.
is

The motion

necessitating the greatest expenditure of

that of propulsion forward,

and

is

accomplished by the

action of the caudal fin.

The

pectoral fins are used to change the


gills,

water in

the

neighborhood of the

thus

serving as adjunct

respiratory organs.

The
to

ventral fins are mainly useful as a brake


to a

when

the fish wishes

come
;

sudden stop when


fins

in motion, or for a

backward move-

ment the dorsal and anal

serve the purpose of balancing the body.


respiration, are situated
gill-covers.)

The
The

gills,

which are organs of

on each
(fig.

side of the head, protected


gills

by "opercles" or

f)

themselves consist of bony arches which are covered with

a tissue containing a large

number of

blood-vessels.

As

a rule there
life-giving

are four of these arches on ach side of the head.


principle that supports animal
life is

The

a gas called oxygen, and as this


is

exists in the water, the function of the gills

to extract

it.

When
by the
in con-

the water passes through them, as

it

does

when taken
gills, it

in

mouth of the

fish,

and

is

pressed through the

comes

tact with the blood-vessels, the

oxygen being absorbed into the blood

for the

nourishment of that
be seen that

fluid
it is

and the body generally.


not the water that the
it,

It will thus

fish breathes,

as

many

suppose, but the air contained in

as can be

proved by

placing fish in water from which the air has been taken, by pro-

longed boiling or otherwise.


Fish that are kept in a vessel will
the air can be
vessel has

come up

to the surface

where

mixed with the water when


It

that in the water of the


fact that as

become exhausted.
where

would seem from the


it

the fish breathes only the air and not the water, that

could just as
is

well live in the open

air,

it

could get plenty.

Such

not the

case however, for the

gills

are so constituted by nature that they

THE GOLDFISH AND


need something
to

ITS CULTURE. their surfaces

87

keep them apart, so that

may be
would

exposed and perform

their functions properly, otherwise they

close together, the blood-vessels

would cease

to

absorb the oxygen,


necessary, then,
as
it

resulting, of course, in the death of the fish.

It is

that a stream of water should constantly flow through them,

does, the absorption of oxygen then going on as nature intended.

The

heart of the fish lies just behind the head and between the
It is

gills (fig. g.).

a muscular organ consisting of three parts, an

auricle, a ventricle,
is

and an

arterial bulb.

The venous
it

or stale blood

pumped

into the gills by the heart,

where

receives a fresh supply

of oxygen.

From
all

the

gills it is

sent to an arterial trunk, lying along


(fig.

the under side of the vertebral column,


distributed

h.)

from which

it

is

over the body of the

fish.

As
can be

fish

have no lungs, they can not possess a


is

voice.
i.

The

goldfish
filled

supplied with a divided air-bladder {hg,

i.)

which

or emptied at will.
is

This bladder

is

a sac formed of a

tough membrane, and


stomach,
It
(fig.

situated

between the spinal column and the

k.)
is

appears that the air-bladder

either for the purpose of increasit

ing the weight of the fish

when empty, and decreasing

when

full,

thus exercising a modifying influence upon the weight of the

fish

when compared with


The
is

that of the water.

eyes

of the goldfish are well developed, but so far as hearing


differ,

concerned, opinions be stated that

and the question


all, it is

is

still

disputed.

It

may

if fish

hear at

with great
fish are

difficulty.

It is the

custom

in

some places where

kept to

call

them
it

to their feeding place


is

by the

tolling of a bell,

and they come, but

a question whether they come because they hear the sound, or


they see the motion of the person ringing the
itself; this, then,

that

bell,

or that of

the bell

can not be cited in proof of the theory

that they hear.

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.
affect

Music or the report of firearms does not


the flash from the discharged

them

at

all,

but

gun

will scare

them. *

Do

fish sleep ?

Yes.

In the act of sleeping they do not close the eyelids, for the very

good reason that they have none; neither do they


for the purpose.

select the night

Goldfish have been seen asleep. in the broad sun-

light of the forenoon,

and the same

varieties

have also been found

sleeping at midnight.
at stated periods, fish
still,

Their time for resting then, does not occur

but whenever the desire comes upon them.

The

may very
fins,

easily

be observed in slumber, remaining perfectly

the only motion being that of the breathing apparatus the action being very slow but regular.

and the

pectoral

All the other

iins are at rest,

and the pupils of the eyes appear

to

be drawn back.

The

other senses taste and smell are very well developed.

We

come now

to the consideration of the process of reproduction.

The organs
the male

for this

purpose are distributed between two individuals

and the female.


below

The female
the
spinal

organs consist of two sacs

located immediately
the
air

column on each
posterior

side

of

bladder,

uniting towards

the

end in a
(fig 1.).

single

oviduct which discharges outside, behind the anus

These
the

contain the eggs by thousands and which increase in size

when

spawning season arrives, greatly distending the ovarian sacs.


ripe egg

The

when

it

separates from the ovary, passes through a tube

(the oviduct~)

(fig.

m,) the

opening of which, as before stated,


(fig.

is

outside, immediately behind the anus.

n.)

In the male

fish

the spermatic organs which are located the same

as the sacs in the female, secrete a thick

white fluid which contains


in a
start

innumerable small organic bodies, which when discharged and


fresh condition,

move

about, enter the egg, impregnate

it

and

the development of the embryo.

These bodies which are called

spermatazoa, consist of an anterior thicker part, the so-called head,


* It has been definitely settled that fishes do not hear. caused by certain sounds. (Third Edition.)

They

feel the vibrations

THE GOLDFISH AND


and the more attenuated part or
and placed
tail.

ITS CULTURE.

89
little

In the water these

organ-

isms can live but one or two minutes, but


in a bottle

when taken from

the fish

kept at a proper temperature, they

may be

preserved alive for six days.


fishculturist in 1856

This discovery was made by a Russian


very important to the
artificial

and

is

propagation

of

fish

as

it

enables the crossing of different species.

The

eggs

when

first

spent in the water have the shape of a slightly


pressed in rubber
ball,

and

as soon as they

come
suck

in contact
it

with liquid, they expand and

in

through a microscopically small

e
Fertilization of Fish Egg,

hole.

(See illustration.) male being present in

The spermatic germs


this liquid are thus

of

the

introduced

and fertilize the


Corpuscle.
Yolk.

egg.

ASpermatic

B Germinative

Disk.

C Nutritive

Tlie fecundation of the egg consists in the entry of the spermatic

corpuscles and the subsequent production of a subdivision of the

germinative disc, which phenomenon

is

called the process of "seg-

mentation

" or

" furrowing." This


final result

is
is

followed by a series of successive


the embryo, which, subsisting or
fish.

changes, of which the

being nourished by the yolk, gradually develops into the perfect

The young
t.'hQ

fish

when

first
it

hatched
its

is

supplied with a sac called

yolk-bag,
its

from which

derives

nourishment during the early

period of
it

independent existence.

When

this

has been exhausted


it

is

then ready to seek other food and this

finds

in

various

microscopic organisms that exist in profuse abundance in the water.

As

the fish grows larger and gains strength, other and coarser food

is

sought and devoured.

Chapter XVII.

PROPAGATION.
Among
into
fish culturists it is

the universal custom to divide fishes


the season in which they
fish.

two

classes according to

spawn; we

thus have
further

summer spawning and winter spawning


as they differ in the

They

are

more distinguished
some are
laid

mode

of depositing

the eggs, as

on or

in receptacles usually called

" nests,"

especially prepared

by the

fish for that

purpose, and others again are

dropped loosely into the water without any precautions having been
taken for their protection. being either
In the
latter

case they again differ in


in the

"adhesive" or "non-adhesive,"

one instance
until

adhering to anything they

may happen

to touch

and remaining

hatched, in the other sinking to the bottom or floating about at

random on The
nest and

the surface.

goldfish belongs to the


its

summer spawning
full

class,

builds no

eggs are adhesive in the

sense of the word.

In those

fish depositing

non-adhesive eggs, the extrusion of them by hand,

and

their artificial

impregnation

is

profitable, but with the carp-like


is

fishes,
is

a higher percentage of young


its

obtained when the spawning


Besides, their eggs not

allowed to proceed in
all

natural manner.
time,
affair,

being mature

at the

same

would make the operation of


and which, furthermore, would

extrusion an oft-to-be repeated


greatly endanger the
attention.
life

of the fish and require

much

time and

go

THE GOLDFISH AND


Goldfish raising
I.

ITS CULTURE.

91

is

therefore confined to
to the

Guiding Nature with regard


Assisting Nature

"survival of the

fittest,

"

and with

it

of course the pure strain.


II.

by securing

suitable

spawning

resorts.

III.

Regulating Ihe spawning season, and

IV. Protecting their spawn and young.

SELECTION OF BREEDERS.
As soon
affect the
rise

as the spring weather sets in with sufficient sunshine to


fish in their

temperature of the water, the

winter quarters
is

near the surface and become lively again.

This

the time to

get the spawning beds ready for action.


that
viz.,

Whatever month or date

may

be,

is

determined by the respective locality of the ponds,


a northern or southern climate, and there,

their situation in

whether they are exposed or protected.


with water to the proper
are attended to, so that
all is
it

The beds

are then filled

level,

and

all

details

concerning the pond

will

be in complete running order.


it is

When

ready, the fish from which

intended to breed are selected,

and

right here reside the fundamental conditions

upon which depend

the production of a

good and

saleable crop of

fish.

The

fish

used to

breed from should be healthy in every respect, of good shape and


color,
will
it is

and of

gentle, fully domesticated habits.


their

All these qualities


fish,

be inherited by

young.

In regard to the color of the


at

of great importance to
fish

know

what age

this

was acquired, as

such

that colored at an age of six to eight


to their

weeks transmit the


In contrast

same tendency
with
year,
first

young on an average of gS%.

this,

those fish whose coloring was delayed until the second


bred, produce but

when

5%

of

young

that will color in the

year, while the remainder

do not assume their red, yellow, or

white coloring until the second year, a great

many never

changing,

always remaining "silver"

fish.

92

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

The
white,

coloring attained by the fish generally remains so, though

there are instances in which the red markings

may become milky

and what was previously white changes


if

to red, or black spots

may

appear, or

present, be lost.

This
this

may

occur either wholly or

in part.

satisfactory

reason for

phenomenon can not be


how-

given.

The
ever,
is

selection of faultless beauties for breeding purposes,

not absolutely necessary, such specimens are best kept for

exposition purposes.
in

Any

fish

whose

fins

may have become


fit

injured

any way, by accident or otherwise, but have grown again in some


for the

crooked or objectionable shape, are nevertheless perfectly

spawning bed,

if

they are otherwise in perfect condition, though for


little

ornamental purpose they would be of


It

account.

may be remarked

in this connection,

and with propriety, that


/.

certain peculiarities in the shape of foreign fish,

e.,

those newly
into the

introduced, are in the course of time,

lost,

when imported
etc.,

United

States, the

change of climate,

locality, food,

producing

gradual changes in their typical forms, assuming or acquiring, so to


speak, an American
type.

In view of

this,

the

culturist

should

never neglect to infuse new blood into

his stock

whenever a favorit

able opportunity offers, for by so doing he can keep


the original standard as
it

up as near

to

is

possible to

do under the change of

circumstances.

At the breeding season


to

the sexual differences are plainly revealed

the practiced eye of the patient observer

not
gills,

before.

Upon

close inspection the

bony

plates that cover the

the gill-covers,

or operdes,

will

be found covered with small white prominences,


Those fish bearing
this distinguishing fish

usually denominated tubercles.

mark are male


is

fish.

These tubercles appear on the


reproduction,

in

condition

for

and

disappear

when it when that


of longer

function ceases to be in an active state.

This period

may be

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.
it

93

or shorter duration in different individuals, and


that the

will also

be seen

number

of the tubercles will vary in the different specimens

"="

upon which they


tration.)

are observed.

(See

illus-

The

usual

method of

distinguish-

ing ing
is

the

male from
of
in

the female

by

not-

the presence

a
fact,

short
it

dorsal fin

not

reliable;

is

not only

misleading, but

false,

as

such short, or

more
dorsal

properly
fin,
is

speaking,
just

"deformed"
as

found
fishes.

frequently

upon female

The

tubercles are

^
Head
of

sharp, very similar to the projections

upon a

Male

Goldfish.

^^^p^

^^^ ^^^^
its

^^ j^^^^ f^^ ^j^^;^ function

the assisting of the female to pass

eggs through the canal.

This

theory

is

apparently substantiated by the fact that the male uses

them

in

such a manner by pressing against the belly of the female


is

that one

irresistibly led to the

conclusion that they can exist for

no other purpose.

The
when

females to be selected must show an expanded belly, which


it

evidences the maturity of the eggs, as

has been stated before, that


it is

arrived at that period, they increase in size, and

by

this

appearance only that the culturist can decide that the time
female to spawn has arrived.
It is

for the

worse than useless

to place in the

spawning bed

fish that are

not in perfect condition to perform the functions, as some goldfish


are sterile, and will only disturb the arrangements that have been so
carefully

made
As
good

for that purpose.

Whether these

particular fish will

remain

sterile for

a season or for as long as they live can not be


it is

decided.

a rule,

best to select three

femaks and four males

when

of

size, or six

females and four males,

when

the former

are small yearlings, for each spawning bed.

It is also

important to

94

THE GOLDFISH AND


sizes of the fish
;

ITS CULTURE.

match the

should this not be possible, in case the

females are larger than the males,


required to mate with the females.

two or three males may be


best age for spawners
is

The

that

between two and four

years.

The

selection having

been made,

all

those tish not wanted for

present use are returned to the winter pond.

Chapter XVIII.

PREPARING THE SPAWNING BED.


As
water, the goldfish deposits
it is

its

spawn upon

plants that live in the

necessary that the natural condition of things be closely

imitated in preparing the bed in which the fish are expected to

spawn.
or

These plants can be obtained from any neighboring creek


(that with a gravel

marsh

bottom preferred).

Those marsh plants

possessing fibrous roots are either pulled or dug up with their roots
entire;

they are then washed thoroughly to cleanse them of the

adhering mud, and closely examined to see that there are no eggs of
other fish or insect larvae

upon them.

Having secured enough of good clumps


for

these for the present, say half a dozen

each bed,

they are then placed loosely in the water of the bed, along that side

where the sun shines upon them


females will deposit their eggs
plants have

in the

morning.

On

these roots the

Later in the season,


these roots can be

when

aquatic

commenced

to grow,

removed and
{Ceratophyllum

replaced with such aquatics as the


demersuni),

Horn

or

Waxworth

and the Canal Pest (^Anacharis

canadensis).

These plants
the
fish.

are especially good to catch the eggs

when dropped by

The water supply


water should remain.
If the

is

now

shut off from the bed, only an occa-

sional supply being let in to preserve the proper height at

which the

goldfish are kept in places

where

it

is

impossible to get

them

out,

and

their

spawn

is

wanted, large bunches of the fibrous


95

96

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

roots can be tied to a string fastened to the shore,


float

and allowed to

about upon the water.

When

containing spawn, they can be


string,

brought Out merely by pulling the

when

the eggs can be

removed and taken care of by the one

in charge.

When
house
in

the fish are wintered over in sheltered localities, as a green-

for instance, the

spawning season

will

commence

a great deal

advance of that outside.

In such a location, spawn

may be

expected from the middle of February, while that event seldom takes
place in the open air earlier than the litter part of April or the begin-

ning of May.

When

the spawning has begun,

it is

continued until

the setting in of frost, with


or two.

now and

then an interval of a week

In northern climes, where the season

is

short,

it

may be

length-

ened by placing over the spawning bed and nursery frames covered
with glass, the principle being the same as that of the gardener's
hot-bed.
If this
is

done,

it

must not be forgotten that

in fair weather
is

an abundance of

air

should be admitted, and also that the bed

to

be protected from great and sudden changes of temperature, as


either

would be

fatal

in fact, the breeder

is

to exercise his intelli-

gence

in the matter, for

he certainly must

know

that as he

is

keeping
it

up a kind of

artificial climate,

he must not forget to preserve


(if

as

evenly as possible, otherwise one cold night would


not been replaced after airing the bed) destroy
toil.
If, is

the frame

had

many days

of patient

in

between spawning periods, the

fish

should rest longer than

desired by the breeder, the males are to be changed from one bed

into the other,

and the water


it

in the latter well aerated

by

letting a
will

stream flow through

for a

whole day, when the spawning

soon

be

in full

process again.

Chapter XIX.

CARE OF THE EGGS.


"In
of the

the morning

sow thy

seed, " says

Solomon:
to

This advice
affairs

Sage of the East has many applications


life,

the
well

of

every day

and amongst other things


its

it

may
is

apply to
but in the

the subject under consideration, not in


spirit

literal sense,

of the admonition.
is

As

the early morning

the best time to


to

sow
fish,

seed, so

the

morning of the season the best time

spawn the
and

as they are then in their best condition for that process,

besides the

young

will

have a much better opportunity to grow with-

out molestation, their most inveterate enemies not appearing until


after the season is further

advanced.

Thus

it

is

that a greater per-

centage survives, which, becoming marketable before the main crop


arrives, bring higher prices

and give the

culturist

encouragement by

a quick return upon his labor and capital.

Again our quotation


taken from the bed
leaving
it

hits the

mark, for the

earlier the

spawn

is

the greater will be the reduction of losses, as by


it.

exposed, the spawners themselves devour

The
though

early
it is

morning

is

the favorite time for the goldfish to spawn,


until

sometimes kept up

noon.

The

fish are

seen chas-

ing each other and rolling over the material thrown into the water
for that purpose.

Upon

inspection of the loosely floating clumps of

roots,

we

discover that they have adhering to them a great

many

small round watery-white, creamy or yellow colored balls about the


size of

a pinhead; these are the eggs of the goldfish.

The bunches

of roots are then carefully

removed from

the water,

and the individ-

ual rootlets bearing the eggs are either cut off with a knife or pair of
97

gS
scissors,

THE GOLDFISH AND


or they

ITS CULTURE.

may be detached

v/ith the thumb-nail.

Great care
in

must be taken not

to disturb the eggs or injure

them

any way

while detaching the rootlets.

They

are then placed in a one-gallon

candy

jar, filled

with clear water of the same temperature as that of


jar is best not over-crowded,

the bed.

Such a

about one hundred

eggs being as

many

as that capacity

can safely and conveniently


fish,

carry, the object being to give the

young

when hatched

out,

plenty of room, both to


for respiration.

move about and

obtain sufficient fresh water

When

the jars have received their quota of eggs,

they are taken into the house or put into some other convenient
place selected for the purpose, but in such a situation that they will
constantly be under close supervision.
It
is

best to set
to

them near a window, within the reach of the


remain untouched
until the eggs are hatched.

morning sun, there

The time required


days,
it

for the hatching varies

from two (2) to six (6)

taking place most rapidly in

warm

weather.
is

The temperature
between 60
F.,

of the water, most advantageous for the hatching

and 90

F.,

more

or less

is

dangerous.

This method of caring for the eggs secures to them a more


effective

guard against enemies, as well as muddy water, heavy

rains,

and

hail storms, all of

which would militate against them

if

hatched

in the

open

air

and

in the ponds.

The candy-jar system furthermore


this,

recommends
process
is

itself for

the hatching of the eggs in


offers

that the

whole

under complete control and


all

every

facility for close

inspection at

times.

The

jars

can be obtained anywhere, are

cheap, and are very convenient to handle, in short, just the thing for
the

purpose.

For convenience of study,

the

marking of
it is

dates,

names of

varieties, etc., together with

any notes that

desired to
jar,

make, a piece of paper can be pasted upon the outside of the


it

will

always be there, and the record kept upon

it

can ahvays be

seen at a glance.

Chapter XX.

PIRST CARE OF THE YOUNG.


About the second
eggs, they

or third day after


to

the

young have

left

the

become strong enough

swim

freely about in the water,

and can then be transferred


in

to the nursery, temporarily established


is

some

part of the storage pond, which

generally not in use at


until

this

season.

Here they are

carefully

guarded

they become
is

about half an inch in length.


filled

For

this

purpose the storage pond

with water to a height of six inches at the deepest part;

all

living creatures, especially insects

and

their larvae, are to

be removed

with the aid of a fine dip-net.


ery, as
it is

No

plants should be placed in the nurs-

important that

it

always be under the control of the eye.

Each morning the young


that

are carefully inspected,

and any enemies

may happen

to

have made their appearance must instantly be

removed and

killed.

During the remainder of the time, a cover

is

kept over the frame in order to prevent the dragon-flies from depositing their eggs in the water, as these,
tive to the

when hatched,

are very destruc-

young

fish.

As

the different lots of eggs are


to

hatched in the

jars,

and the
in the

young become strong enough


four hundred (400) to
is

swim about, they are placed


by four
(4

"nursery until a division of four


five

by

4) feet contains

from

hundred (500)

fish.

The next

division

then prepared and stocked in the manner described, and so on

until all the

spawn has been so

treated.
99

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.
first

At the expiration of about a week from the time the


were placed
ing manner:
in the nursery, the strongest are

young

taken out in the follow-

candy

jar

is filled half-full

of water from the nursery,


of

and
it.

set right in the center of the

bed and resting upon the bottom

The

largest fish

are

now

slowly and gently caught with a

small dip-net, one at a time, and immediately in the same careful

manner placed
is

in the jar, counting

them
fifty

as they are transferred.

It

not advisable to place more than

of these

little fish
it

in the jar
is

while removing them, neither should they remain in

longer than

necessary to transfer them into the rearing ponds, the whole time

consumed

in the operation
is

should not exceed a few minutes.

The morning
most uniform.
the day,
it

the proper time of day to perform this operation,

as the temperature of the water in the various


If the

ponds

is

at that time

manipulation

is

done

at

any other period of

becomes necessary

to gradually equalize the temperature,


fatal to the

as a difference of a

few degrees only would prove

tender

young

if

suddenly removed from one water to another.

Chapter XXI.

SETTING OUT THE YOUNG FISH.


The day The reason
before the fish are transplanted from the nursery into the
is let

rearing pond, the water


for this
is,

into the latter, but not sooner than this.


if

that the water,

allowed to stand longer,


it,

would produce an over abundance of food, and with


host of dangerous insects.
If the

of course, a

young

fish

were put in the pond,


chase and

while in this condition, the insects would at once give

devour them.

The

little
is

food these tiny

fish require,

during their

first

days of

existence,

found in

sufficient quantities in the

new

water.

By

the

time their enemies


insect kind, the fish

make

their

appearance, especially those of the


for

have grown too strong

them, and are very

well able to look out for themselves.

In transferring the young from the

jar, to

the rearing pond,

it is

much
will.

better to sink the jar

and allow the

fish to

make

their escape at

This precaution enables them to gradually become accustomed

to the change, thus avoiding a


jar.

shock by the sudden emptying of the

In this manner the yoimg are "planted" in the rearing ponds,


at the rate of

250 to each pond, of 8x20 feet in


they have acquired their coloring,

size.

Here they

remain
large

until

and have grown

enough

to

be saleable.
variously from six weeks to four months, according

This

may be

to circumstances,

and the care expended upon them.

102

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

FISH
Though

CULTURE
open
air,

IN

THE PARLOR.
them the same thing
and with limited

the instructions detailed above were given with reference yet by following

to cultivation in the

can be done in the parlor, but on a small


resources.

scale,

The

writer has often delighted his customers

by

furnish-

ing them with sprigs of water plants, upon which eggs were adherent.

These they hatched

in a glass tumbler, placed

upon the window

sill,

gradually increasing the size of the vessel, and consequently

the

quantity of water as the young grew up, until they were finally ready
for

permanent residence

in

the aquarium.
their

Such specimens are


owners because they

generally looked
are home-bred

upon with great pride by

and grew up

in the midst of the household,


bit

where

all

could watch them and learn a

of natural history without an

effort.

The spawn
well

for this

purpose can frequently be obtained from any


if

managed aquarium,

the habits of the goldfish are understood.

Chapter XXII.

CARE OF THE PONDS.


It

being the intention to raise goldfish for aquarium purposes,

this final

end must never be


all

lost sight of, for

with that end in view


in

we

direct

our

efforts

to

make

the

net result

every

way

satisfactory.

To

that

effect the water in

which they are grown

should have no current, neither must there be a continuous supply of


fresh water from the outside.
is

The

natural habitation of the goldfish

standing water, and

if

they are cultivated in like conditions, they

will the better


*

be

fitted for the life of

confinement

in the

aquarium.
then,
in

It is

only necessary to add water to the ponds


the

now and
in

just as the fluctuations of

season

may

dictate,

and only
the

quantities

sufficient

to

preserve
is

a uniform height
it

ponds.

When

additional water

required,

should be turned on from the


it

supply drain, in the day time only, as one can then watch

better

and keep out any extraneous matter


drain.

that

may happen
to

to

be in the

Under no circumstances should


time, in case a storm should

it

be allowed

run in during the


turn
it

night, nor in the absence of a reliable person

who could
possible

off in

come

up.

Any

damage

to the

ponds can be prevented by keeping out the accumulated water


during a heavy
fall

of rain.

The supply
examined

drain should always be kept free from obstructions of


is

any kind, and especially when a storm


to see

approaching,

it

ought to be

that

it

will quickly carry off the

rainwater without

interruption.
103

I04

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE,
to

The

grass

and weeds that grow along the edges of the dams are
for, if

be kept closely cut,

permitted to remain, they not only detract

from the appearance of the establishment, but they afford excellent


shelter for the

numerous enemies that constantly threaten the


require a daily examination,

fish.

The ponds themselves


found in them that
is

and anything
Bits of

not wanted can be removed.

cut

grassor leaves from neighboring trees do not harm anything particularly,

but they are liable to clog the outlet and cause the water

(should a storm of rain arise) to rise to an undue height. Besides these, there will often be found insects, larvae,
etc.,

which

can be removed with a dip net, while other and larger enemies

may

appear that will require the services of a trap or the exterminating


influence of fire-arms.

When
(which
is

the fish have been taken out of the

ponds in the

fall

done by draining off the water, to be described elsewhere),

the soft

mud

is

removed from them with a hoe.

This mud, when


for flower

frozen thoroughly, will


the following spring.

make a The

first-class

compost

beds in

wire guards from the inlets and outlets,

together with the adjustable sections from the drain pipe, are taken
into the house for safe keeping during the winter, the
left in

ponds being

a dry state until again needed the succeeding spring.


kill

The
no
the

frosts

of winter will

any remaining vermin, purify and


absence of water
will

fertilize

the

soil

of the bottom while the


to muskrats,

offer

inducement
dams.

whose advent would greatly damage

Any

projected changes,

alterations,

improvements, or the conin

struction of "new

ponds should be completed

the

fall,

so that

everything will be in readiness for the spring; then a late season that

crowds spring-work

in the fields
is

and garden

will

be of

little

consefirst

quence, as the culturist

prepared to take advantage of the

coming of warmer weather.

Chapter XXIII.

FISHING THE PONDS.


For the purpose of taking the
the latter
is

fish

from the ponds, the water

in

drained

off.

But before

this is

done two or more

large-

sized clean tin vessels are to


will

be provided

tin

buckets or wash-boilers

answer very

well.

Also two dip-nets must be obtained, the one

with a handle about seven feet in length, the other a smaller hand^
net.

The
of the

storage ponds are then prepared for their final purpose,


this is all correctly

and when
let

done, the movable sections at the outfish

pond containing the


is

are

removed one

at a time.

When
and
at

the water

sufficiently low, the fish are carefully


tin vessels,

taken out

once put into the

which have previously been

partly filled with clear water, assorting the fish according to size,
color, etc.
,

at the

same

time.

When

this is

completed, the

fish are
little

put into their respective quarters in the storage pond with as


delay as possible.
It is also at this

time that the breeder makes his

selection of those fish he wishes to breed from; these ought at once


to

be put into the winter pond.

During

this fishing
so, to

process

it

is

impossible to avoid making the


fish,

water muddy;
drain
is

prevent the weakening of the

the supply
flow-

opened, allowing a constant stream of fresh water to


105

through the pond.

I06

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

Again the writer admonishes caution; do the work gently and


neatly,
as every

broken

fin

or lost scale reduces the value of the

fish so injured,

DOMESTICATING THE
When
in their respective ponds,
it

FISH.

is

not necessary to feed the


the food required for their

goldfish, as nature provides

them with

all

proper growth and nourishment; but when removed to the storage


ponds, additional food in small quantities

may be

given to them.
in

This

may

consist of stale (but not


air,

moldy) white bread, dried

an

oven or the open


meal.

and crushed to resemble fine hominy or corn


is

Either of these, or both, in small quantities


it

strewn on the
little

water; the fish being unaccustomed to


neither will they snap at
it

will eat

but

at

first,

immediately.

Gradually, however, they

take kindly to

it,

and the quantity may be increased, keeping pace


it,

with the appetite they evince for

giving

it

to

them

at a regular

hour each day.


This feeding
is

not intended for the purpose of making them

grow, but rather to prepare them for the change of diet that will

ensue

when

transferred to their future homes.

When

the fish take such food and thrive

upon

it,

they

may be
an

considered domesticated, and can be disposed of as pets, they then

being in condition to take readily to the more confined

life in

aquarium.

When
ling

performing work of any kind on or near the ponds,

or other receptacle where fish are kept, or in feeding or hand-

them, a patient and gentle manner


fish

is

advisable, as

it

tends to
if

tame the

by giving them confidence.

On

the other hand,

they are frequently scared, they

become of a

wild, restless nature,

and

will dart

away on

the slightest provocation.

Chapter XXIV.

CARE OF FISH
When
fish are

IN STORES.

kept in tanks as merchandise by dealers, the loca-

tion of such receptacle should be well lighted, airy,

and not perthe oxygen

mitted to freeze.

As was

stated in another chapter,


fish breathes,

it is

contained in the water that the


essary to consider what

and
to

it is

therefore nec-

means can be employed

keep up a contin-

uous supply of

it.

One way,
is

the most in use, although the worst for

the retail customers,

to

keep a stream of water constantly flowing


this is

through the tank.


in standing water,
trary,

Now,

wrong.

Goldfish are intended to live


to the con-

and should not be made accustomed

as the reversing again


fatal to

of the character of the water often

proves

them.
to

The proper way

keep
is

fish is in

pure standing water, to which

the necessary oxygen

supplied by the action of aquatic plants;


is

these every dealer in fancy fish

compelled

to

keep on hand,
is

if

he

understands the principles upon which the aquarium


if

managed, and

he wants to make the handling of

fish

a financial success.
light,

Aquatic plants, when

in

a healthy condition, exposed to the


carbonic acid gas which
is

consume the carbon

in the

produced by
is

the fish as refuse matter, and give off the oxygen, which in turn

appropriated by the
fish

fish.

This answers the question as


it

to

how many

can be kept in a certain tank, for

is

easy to understand that a


will

locality favorable for the

growth of plants
Large

produce the greatest

amount of oxygen

in the water.

fish

consume more oxygen


must not be
Besides
107
all

than small ones, so the proportion of

fish

to the tank

greater than the supply of oxygen the tank can produce,

Io8
this,

THE GOLDFISH AND


a light location
is

ITS

CULTURE.

more

beneficial to the color of the fish,

and

also affords a better control of the contents.

Such a store-tank may


it

consist of a large

aquarium with

glass sides, or

may
to

be a wooden

trough thirty (30) inches in width, ten (10) or twelve (12) inches in
depth, and of any convenient length.

The frame

form the sides


the bottom

and ends

is

made

of one

and one-half (i^) inch


fitted

stuff,

being formed of flooring boards, as they are


groove.

with tongue and

To make

a tight job, pieces of flag leaves, such as are used

by coopers, are

laid

upon the edge of the frame, and the

strips of

flooring board nailed


in

down

securely,

one

at a time.

The groove
ground
it,

each piece

is

thickly painted with pure white lead

in oil,

the tongue of the next then being tightly fitted into

and so on,

piece after piece, until the bottom has been completed.

The

best
as

way, probably,
that

is

.to

nail the flooring crosswise

upon the frame,

makes the trough very strong and capable of carrying a consmooth side of the boards
is

siderable weight of water, the

of course

turned towards the inside of the tank.

Such a tank, however, when

in operation

should not contain a

greater depth than six (6) inches of water, rather less probably, both
for the
light.
all

convenience of catching the

fish

and the

better admission of

The trough must be kept

clean, every

now and

then removing

the contents and thoroughly sponging the interior.

This

an aquarium;

may appear to it may be


are, in

contradict the author's

method of managing

said in explanation that dealers' tanks are, as

a rule, overstocked, and therefore require a

somewhat

different treat-

ment; they
a hotel
is,

comparison with a regular aquarium, the same as

compared with a private residence.


in the

While

hands of the dealer the

fish

should receive a limited


its

but regular supply of food, and should disease make


the sick fish are at

appearance,

once taken out and put by themselves.

Chapter XXV.

TRANSPORTATION OF
The

FISH.

vessel best adapted for the shipment of live


is

fish,

to

any

reasonable distance in this country,

a tin can, clad with wood.

The shipping can should be


en route.

perfectly

smooth upon the

inside, so

that the fish will be subjected to the least percentage of injury while

At the upper end the can should taper


similar to that

off,

forming a kind

of neck or shoulder,

seen

upon
it

the

common
is

coal-oil can.

This makes

easy for the contents to slide out


to be emptied.

when
at

the vessel
the top
is

The opening
in diameter,

five (5) inches

and

closed with a perforated

lid that is fitted in

like the top to a milk can.

The

perforations

consist of half a dozen one-half


holes,

(^) inch
side

"^

punched through from the under


lid, '

Shipping Can.
. The

of the
lioles

thus leaving ^ rim of the the sharp

on the outside where they can do no


the fish within the vessel.

injury to

(See

strong, metal guard fastened to the lid is to prevent an accidental closing of the air holes,

illustration.)

Those cans very extensively used


designated

in the coal oil trade,

and usually

"wooden

jacket cans," are about the very best thing

that could be invented for our purpose.

As

the Express Companies


or

demand

that tin vessels be protected in


find
in

some manner

other with

wood, we

these vessels
109

the

'^O

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

fulfillment of all requirements of that nature,


in weight.
cities,

and

at a slight increase

Besides,

these cans are readily


all

obtained in the large

(and smaller ones, too, in

probability), the only necessity

being the enlargement of the opening to

make

it

a complete shipping

can for

fish.
it

When

is

desirable

to

make

a shipment of live
size,

fish,

it

is

necessary to take into consideration their

the length of time

they will be upon the road, and the season of the year in which they
are transported,
all

with reference to the all-important supply of


fish

oxygen, without which, of course, the

cannot

live.

The shipping can


its

is

filled

with pure water, to four-fifths (4-5) of

capaciiy only, thus providing ample space for the water to splash
it

about during the journey, as


water in the vessel that
the fish with oxygen.
it is

is

by

this

constant motion of the


of supplying

aerated and

made capable

The hour of shipping


the journey on the road

ought,

if

possible, to be so arranged that


at night, as
it

may be made
fish to

is

cooler in the

summer, does not expose the


the arrival
is

the great heat of sunlight and


in the

made

usually-

sometime

morning or forenoon

when

those at the destination are on hand to receive them.

The

cans must be plainly labeled, stating the nature of their contents, so


that they
agents,

may

receive

more care
running

in the
less

handling from the express

consequently

risk of

damage.

It

is

also

advisable to notify the party to

whom
he
if

the fish are sent that

the

shipment has been made,

in order that

may

take

them from the


remain quiet

agent as soon as possible, otherwise,

they are

left to

at the express office or freight depot, the fish will

be

in great

danger

of their lives from want of proper care.


If the shipping

can

is

an ordinary small
the

tin bucket,

such as are

on

sale

at

the

tinsmith's,

ventilating holes

would better be
left

punched

in the center of the lid, the

remainder being

unmolested.

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

Ill

forming a shoulder against which the water can splash without being
spilled.

In

all

cases the lid must be securely fastened with strong


it.

twine or wire, so that a jar will not displace

The above

directions apply

more

especially to shipments that


transit.

do

not occupy any great length of time in the

If the fish are to be sent great distances over our

own country

or

exported to foreign parts, the safest plan


fitted

is

to put them in a vessel

up

like a regular

aquarium.

Japanese goldfish have been sent

to

Europe with perfect success

in the following

manner
is

A
fitted

one-gallon candy-jar, (such as are used for hatching spawn)

up

in

proper

style,

with sand, waterrplants, snails and tadpoles,

and
four

filled

nearly to the top with pure water.


fish,

In

this

may be

placed
lid,

two inch

the top then covered with a perforated tin


for observation for
is

and the whole

set aside

about a week.

Dur-

ing this time a tin bucket

obtained of such a size that the entire


fit

candy-jar aquarium will nicely

into

it,

the top of the jar being

neither higher nor lower than the upper edge of the bucket.
tin

This

bucket, or sheath,

if

you

will,

serves as a perfect guard against


jar,

breakage, and should any accident occur to the

the bucket

is

on

hand

to act as a substitute.
it

Furthermore the

tin is

provided with a

convenient handle to carry

by, and for greater security the jar can

be retained in
adjusted that
it

its

place with a heavy wire bar across the top, so


at will.

can be removed

On
As

board the ocean steamer, the buckets are suspended by the


is

handles, the water


will

not changed, neither are the

fish

fed anything.
will

be seen, the uncovered shoulder of the

jar

admit
it

plenty of light, so that the plants can act on the water and keep
fresh, neither

can the water in the jar be


it

lost

by splashing

out, as

when
it

this

does happen,

merely

falls into

the bucket, from


air,

whence

can be returned; the perforated

lid

admits the
fish.

but at the same

time prevents the accidental escape of the

112

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.
is

This description of a trans-Atlantic shipping can


expensive, and
rule,
is

not at

all
it

further

recommended by
such

its reliability.

Make

however,

to ship only

fish as are in perfect health

and

fully domesticated.

While on the road the water


in exceptional cases,

in the

can should be changed only


care.
If the fish

and then with great

become

weak

it

is

a sign that they are not in good condition, and that a

mistake has been

made

in preparing
will

them

for travel,

and the simple

changing of the water then


is,

not prevent their dying.

The
to

rule

do not crowd the shipping cans.

When, upon
dead ones

the arrival of a lot of

fish,

there

happen
in a

be any

in the vessel,

and the balance weak or


pale, with

dying confins or

dition, or look slimy

and

bloody streaks on the

around the

scales,

it is

a sure sign that suffocation has been the cause

of the death of some, and will speedily cause that of the others.

The
open

living ones should at


air, filled

once be placed in a large vessel in the

with fresh water, to which a good handful of

common

table-salt is

added.

A
if

clean wash-tub answers the purpose nicely,


at

and besides, has the merit of usually being close


This treatment,
restore the fish to

hand.

resorted to immediately, will, in most cases,


health.

good

PART

V.

Enemies and Diseases of the Goldfish.


Requisites, Tools, Etc.
Chapter XXVI.
" Knowledj^e
is

power."

THE ENEMIES OF THE GOLDFISH


It

has been stated elsewhere in these pages that the raising of


consists

goldfish

largely

in the

protection of them

against their

make the defense most effective it is essential that we know something about the transgressors, for by being acquainted with them and their habits, we can more intelligently combat them.
enemies, and to

For

this

end the author has described them


less familiar to the

in the following lines,

adding to those that are


of their natural history

general reader, an outline


in
fish.
it is

and viewing them


life

the successive stages,

during which they endanger the

of the

Before beginning the description of insects, however,


to say that the
is

proper

spawn of the
fish

goldfish immediately after

its

deposition,

sought for by other

and devoured, the spawners themselves Those eggs that have

also

engaging in

this

nefarious practice.
fish

escaped the notice of the


enemies, foremost

are
is

consumed by various smaller

among which

THE COMMON POND


(Lymnea
which devours them.
fragilis.)

SNAIL,

THE WATER
This
little
is

ASELL.

(Asellus aquaticus.)
creature, of

which the accompanying


not more than

illustration gives a

good

idea,

crustacean,

one-half

of an inch
113

114
in length.
It

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

crawls about upon the bottom of the ponds and over

the water plants, searching for food, part of which consists of fish
eggs, to

which they are very destructive, devouring them wherever

found.

Another voracious enemy of the crustacean

tribe

is

THE WATER FLEA


(Gamarus
or Flea Crab,
pulex.)
little

Buck Crab,

etc.

This lively

creature

is

closely

related to the shrimp found in the ocean.

It

furrows through the

The Water Flea

(enlarged).

The Water Asell


its

(enlarged).

water in any direction lying on


bent.

side,

because
its

its

back
it

is

naturally

(See illustration.)

In

all

stages of

growth

feeds

upon
fish.

the fish eggs, but in turn, furnishes an excellent food for

young

THE BOAT FLY


(Notonecta glauca,)
or

"Shoemaker,"

as
is

it

is

commonly
at the

called,

is

a most voracious

insect.

The body
below,

long,

contracted posteriorly,
sides

convex

above
which,

and

flat

having hair
supports

and
upon

extremities,

when spread
head
the
is

out,

the

insect

the

water.
side,

The
giving
color
legs,

large

and presents a large eye upon each


the

possessor
is

power of

vision in all

directions.

The

of the body

a greenish grey, the

wings are white, of the

THE GOLDFISH AND


the four
long,

ITS CULTURE.

II5

nearest the head are short,


in

but the third pair are very

different
oars.

shape from
in

the others, very water, the


insect

much resembling
swims

boat

When
in

the

upon

its

back, using the hind legs as oars for propulsion, while the front ones
are instrumental
also insects,
especially,
all

seizing

its

prey.

Young
it

fish,

tad-poles,

and

contribute to supply

with food, to the former,

it is

a very dangerous enemy.

The instrument

or

weapon

with which the insect makes the attack upon the victim
conical beak.
It
is

is

a strong,

believed that

when making
it

the attack, the boat-fly injects


fact

poison into the

wound

makes, as seems to be proven by the

The Boat Fly.


that

Larva of Deagon Fly.

when once

attacked, though subsequently escaping, the victim

always dies
in

in a short time.

When upon
its

land, this fly crawls along,


it.

an upright position, dragging


at night,
it

oars behind

In the evening,
excursions to

and

likes to leave the


;

water and
habit
the

make

other ponds or creeks

from

this

culturist

may

take

warning.

Its

eggs are deposited against the stems of aquatic plants

in the early

spring,

and again

in

mid-summer, so that one season

produces two crops of them.

The young make

their

appearance

soon

after,

immediately
the back

following the example of the parents by

swimming upon
to meet.

and eating almost anything they happen

The accompany-

Il6

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

ing illustration shows the insect as seen from below


water.

when

in the

There are two or more


and of smaller
destructive
especially.
to
size

varieties of this fly that differ in coloring,


all

than the one described, though

are extremely

the

young

fish

the

one

just

delineated,

more

THE YELLOW-BANDED WATER BEETLE.


(Dytiscus marginalis.)

This rather pretty beetle, lives entirely below the surface of the
water, never

leaving

it,

except during the night

when

the air

is

Yellow-Banded Water Beetle and

its

Lakva.

damp

or

in

rainy weather,
to

and then

for the
is

purpose of making
of a greenish black
this feature

excursions

other

localities.

The body

color, encircled with a


it its

brownish yellow band


it

giving

name.

When

taken from the water

exudes a milky fluid of


legs are

a most offensive and disgusting odor.

The hind

shaped

very

much

like those of the


is

boat-fly,

and serve the same purpose.


fish

This beetle

very courageous, attacking


caught, into

of any size, as large

ones have been

whose
in the

flesh the beetle

had eaten large

holes, the beetle itself


fish.

found
is

hole hard at

work eating up the

The

larva,

which

produced twice within the same season,


fish.

lives

and grows upon tadpoles and young

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

II7
it

When

of sufficient size,

and the proper time has arrived,

changes into a pupa, which in turn, becomes the perfect beetle.


illustration.)

(See

THE BLACK WATER BEETLE.


(Hydrophyllus piceus.)

As

the

name

indicates, this beetle


It is

is

black, shining with a rich,

purple lustre.
ing,

(See illustration.)
in proportion.

of larger size than the preced-

and strong

The Black Water Beetle.

The

beetle itself

is

a vegetarian, and as such,

is

not directly

dangerous to the
destroying
all

fish, its larva,

however,

is

voracious without limit,

that

comes

in its way.

The female

of this species
its

spins a

white cocoon around the


its

posterior portion of

body, with the aid of

hind

legs, the

cocoon,

when completed, being


its

the size of a hazel nut.


it

In

this it deposits

eggs,

and
it

after closing

carefully, fastens

it

to a floating leaf,

adding to

little

projecting point on

the top,

which

by

the

way resembles
mounts guard.
appearance, at
six legs
It is

a small mast, retires to the water underneath


Affer
first

and
their

a few days the


little

young grubs make

resembling

whitish worms, but possessing

near the yellow head.

by the motion of these

legs that the grub

is

propelled through

the water, continually on the search for something to eat.

When

at

"

Il8
rest

THE GOLDFISH AND


on a water-plant, the head with

ITS CULTURE.
its

fearful apparatus,

formed of

a strong pincher with two pairs of adjuncts, which can be

moved

in

any direction,

is

placed in such a deceiving position as to almost


little

always lure an unsuspecting


reach.

fish,

tadpole or

insect, within its

As

the grub gets larger,

it

turns darker in color, until having attained


it

a size of about four inches in length,

has become nearly black

on the back ; the under part


have been fringed with
hair.

is

then of a creamy white, and the sides


its

In this state

appearance

is

extremely

repulsive, being about as ugly as anything can be imagined.


earliest

The

and best time

to destroy
is

them

is

when
this

the cocoon has been

finished,

and the female

standing guard in the water beneath, both

can then be captured and obliterated, in

way

great

damage

is

prevented before there has been an opportunity for development;


very

much on

the principle of the old proverb

"A

stitch in time

saves nine.

The grubs
have
to

breathe through the posterior part of the body, and


to the surface

come

occasionally for that purpose, at which

time they are easily caught with a dip-net.

In general appearance, the color excepted, the grub of the black


water-beetle resembles that of the preceding.

The
at

beetle, moreover, is very prolific,

spinning several cocoons

two

different periods,

namely,

in the spring

and high summer.

Other varieties of

this insect exist, the


fish.

one under discussion being


concerned,

the most dangerous to the


it

So

far as the others are

is

sufficient to

remember the
of the fish

injunction, allow nothing alive to

remain

in the

company

when newly

hatched.

THE DRAGON
The dragon
flies

FLIES.
as

(commonly known
all

snake-feeders)

may be
fish.

divided into three classes,

very destructive enemies of the

THE GOLDFISH AND


1.

ITS

CULTURE.
flat

irg

The

Libdlula possesses a short,


(See illustration).
is

body, about two inches

in length.
2.

The Aeshma_ The Agrion


from

longer than
six

the above,

its

slender,

round

body sometimes measuring


3.
is

inches in length.

not large, the body small and slender, varying

in length

1^

to 2}^ inches.
first

The wings

of the

two named,

are,

when

the insect

is

at rest,

always expanded horizontally, while those of the


together, pointing backward.

latter are

folded

The Drauon Fly.

The hind

part of the
rings.

body

in all of

them

is

long, slender,

and

composed of ten
three pairs of legs,
latter in

On

the forepart of the

body, they have


the

and two

pairs of transparent,

webbed wings,

some

species glitter like gold, in others they are dotted with

spots of different color; in the Agrion species they are of the

same

color as the body.

The

coloring of the bodies of

all,

especially the
scarlet,

asshma,

is

very

brilliant,

being of a bright green, blue or


colors.

and sometimes mottled and spotted with various

The eyes
field

are large and prominent, giving the insects a very large

of vision.

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

They

all fiy

very rapidly, feed upon insects of every description

that they catch flying about,

and from

this fact they

may'be made
Al-

useful to destroy the mosquitoes in

bedrooms and elsewhere.

though very voracious, they are perfectly harmless to


can not injure him in any way.

man they
is
its

The manner

of their copulation

somewhat

curious.

The male

fastens the extreme

back part of
fly

body to the neck of the female, and thus attached, both

about for

one or two hours, when, over some water, they separate.

The

female then deposits her small white eggs by immersing the posterior
part of the

body

in the water, attaching

them

to the

submerged

surfaces of water-plants ; there they remain until hatched.

The
are

larvse or grubs of the dragon-flies live in the water

those

of the libellula are short and thick, while those of the other genera

more

slender, corresponding with the shape of the adult.

The

color of these grubs varies from blackish-brown to a brilliant green.

They breathe through


is

the posterior part of the body, which apparatus

also used to propel

them forwards through the water, making them

good swimmers.

They
good
the

are extremely destructive to

young

fish

and

fish-eggs,

upon
a

which, together with tadpoles and snails, they manage to


living.

make

Instead of hunting their victims, they lay concealed in

mud

with the eyes only protruding from the surface.

Whenever
(See

a victim comes within reach, they produce their concealed pincers

by a rapid motion,
illustration.)

rarely missing

the

mark they aim

at.

There are instances on record where one of the


libellulae,

larvae of the

which was overlooked


fish in a

in

the

fish-tank,

destroyed two

thousand (2,000) "young

week's time.
full

After they have attained their


water, climb

growth, the grubs leave the


it,

upon some object projecting from

when

the perfect

THE GOLDFISH AND


fly
its

ITS

CULTURE.

makes

its

appearance through the back of the grub, rising upon


air as

wings into the

soon as they are unfolded and dry.

The eggs

are also produced twice in a season, the grubs from the

last deposit, living in the

mud

during the winter, and produce in the


of the season.

early spring the

first

dragon

flies

latter,

The own size, is, nevertheless a powerful antagonist, attacking them when in the act of depositing their eggs. The attack is made upon the eye, the largest dragon-fly
Their natural enemies are
small as
it
is,

the frog and the water-spider.


their

compared with

thus being easily overpowered

by

its

small but intelligent enemy.

How
least

strange

it

is

that just those animals with


his best friends
!

which

man

has the

sympathy are among

Such are the toad and

the spider

Chapter XXVII.

THE CRAY OR CRAW-FISH


(Astacus
Is also
fluviatilis)

known

as

the

fresh-water lobster,
as
it

and should be

killed

whenever and wherever met,


fishes.

is

very destructive to the eggs of

It

will

also

occasionally catch a

young

fish,

and often
and

injure
flesh,

others by snapping at them, tearing

away

parts of the fins


fish

thus rendering a beautiful and valuable

wholly valueless as

merchandise.

The main damage done by


mining of the dams, which
is

the craw-fish, however,

is

the under-

not only annoying and costs


it

much

time

and labor
ponds

for repairs, but

makes

possible for the fish in the several


to the other.

to get

mixed by passing from one

THE WATER-FROGS
(Ranse var.)

As

the heading indicates, there

is

a recognized distinction between

frogs, there

being water-frogs, tree and grass frogs, the latter in no


fish

ways molesting the

in the ponds, in reality

on the contrary,

making themselves very


ful insects.

useful to the culturist frog


is

by destroymg harmto

The common
and

the one

we have

guard against,
far

both
the

itself
little

all its varieties,

whose destructive habits

outweigh

benefit

derived from them.

Just as soon as they have


frogs,

completed their gradual metamorphosis, and become perfect


they prey upon anything that has
life,

including young ducks, turtles,


Besides
this,

snakes and cray-fish, as well as

fish.

the adult deposits

THE GOLDFISH AND


its

ITS CULTURE.

I23

spawn

in the ponds,

and when the

tad-poles are hatched, they


in the pond,

consume a great per centage of the natural food found


thus depriving the young
fish

of proper nourishment, in this

way

being indirectly injurious.

The

frogs

are furthermore dangerous, through their habit of


locality

wandering in the night from one

to another, during their

spawning season, and thus often unconsciously introduce into the


ponds, the spawn of minnows, which being adhesive, sticks to the
skin of the frog, and
is,

of course, carried about by

it.

The
manner

frogs

make

their

appearance early in the spring, and

it

is

at

that time that they can be


:

most

effectually destroyed in the following

water

is let

into

one of the ponds, to the height of several


will collect

inches, in this
their

pond they

at night, in order to deposit

spawn.

Next morning, most of the frogs themselves can be

caught with a dip-net, and the spawn also removed and exposed to
the sun to dry up,

by merely placing
If this process
is

it

upon the ground, where the

sun can reach


their

it.

systematically carried out, during


will trouble the
all

spawning season, not many frogs

establishment

during the season.


is
it

When

it

appears that

are captured, the

pond

drained
will die

off,

so that

any tad-poles that might have been hatched in


in the sun.
culturist

by being dried up

In destroying the frogs the mistake the

must be careful not

to

common American
is

toad (Buffo americanus) for the frog,

as this innocent creature

worthy of our protection.


is

They may
from

very easily be distinguished by their color, which


yellow, the skin moreover being warty.

brownish and
differ

Their eggs also

those of the frog by the

manner

in

which they are joined together;

those of the frog are found in one compact mass, a lump, in other

words

those of the toad, in strings


If the

the eggs of tree

and grass frogs

in sheets.

amateur

will bear these distinctions in

mind he
friend.

will

have no trouble ridding himself of a pest and preserving a

124
It will

THE GOLDFISH AND


pay
it

ITS CULTURE.
carefully,
is

to

remove the toad-spawn

and put
in

it

into a

pond where
July-

can hatch unmolested, which

completed

June or

Toads

in the

neighborhood of ponds and gardens are a blessing,

and should

not, therefore, needlessly

be exterminated.
is

One of
attacks the

the natural enemies of the frog

the water-spider, which

young

in the

eye and

kills

it.

Although the water-spider


it is

has been repeatedly mentioned as a friend,

not out of place to


fish.

keep an eye on him,

as

he also frequently catches young

SALAMANDERS AND NEWTS.


All the varieties of those tailed batrachians frequent the water in the spring, for the purpose of depositing their eggs or

young

some

being viviparous.

In

all

the stages of their growth, from the tad-

pole state to the perfect animal, these creatures are destructive to

both the

fish

eggs and the young

fish,

they should therefore be kept

out of the ponds.

localities

The newts spend their entire life in the water. In certain they may exist in such vast numbers that it is necessary to
Neither of these creatures, however,

take especial precaution to keep them away.


is

harmful to man, the larger

varieties living in the river, such as the water-dog

and the

hell-bender,

excepted, nor are any of them poisonous.

They may, with As


already mentioned,

perfect safety, be handled with the bare hand.

the season advances various other enemies, in addition to those

make

their appearance.

Most

particularly

must

a sharp lookout be kept for

WATER SNAKES.
These
will

be found concealed near the water's edge, or in the

corners of the several ponds.

They

lie

hidden from view, the head

THE GOLDFISH AND


only exposed,
all

ITS

CULTURE.

12?

the while playing the tongue in the water.


fish

This
it

they do to allure their prey within reach, the

mistaking

for a

worm

rush to their certain destruction.


best

The

means of exterminating them

is

by the use of some kind

of fire-arm.

smooth bore, 22 caliber Flobert gun, loaded with a

cartridge containing shot,


it,

and a good marksman


that forever

at the

proper end of

generally

makes a combination

prevents that snake

from exercising
If

his fishing propensities.


easily

young snakes are about, they may


up
in the morning,

be discovered by placing

pieces of board here and there about the ponds; these boards are
lifted

often revealing two

or three of the

little

snakes that had sought shelter there, when thus found they are easily
despatched.

A good A wire

snake trap was accidentally discovered as follows

coop made of

inch mesh galvanized iron wire netting,

served as the dwelling of a couple of muskrats, which the children

kept as pets.
frogs,

These having died, the coop was used

to confine live

and kept outside of the establishment


it

in the water, just at the

point

leaves the ponds.

The next morning


meshes of the
It

a large water snake was found caught in the

wire,

and dead.
tried to get into the coop,

had evidently

and help

itself to

a frog

or two, and was thus caught, the wire preventing the entrance of the
entire body, the scales of the reptile at the

same time precluding

the possibility of retreat.

Since then this trap, and smaller ones,


results,

have been used with very good


easily

and being simple they are

made.
filled

Following the snakes, and at the time the ponds are


water, one must be on the watch
for fish-eating birds,

with

among which

are

126

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS CULTURE.

CRANES AND HERONS,


which, seeing the surface of the water below whilst flying above, are
attracted

by the
visit

glisten,

and immediately descend

to reconnoitre.
in the water

These birds

the ponds at regular hours,


skill all

wade

and

catch with consummate


their

the fish they can get.

The

fact that

stomachs are sometimes found to contain nothing else than

crayfish

must not mislead the amateur into the belief

that they prey

only on these crustaceans, as the following fact abundantly proves


that they prefer fish

whenever they can be obtained.

heron was

seen flying towards the ponds; to secure the ever-ready shotgun

from the lodge, sneak within range and


five minutes' time.

fire,

did not take more than

Yet within that short

interval, the bird

had cap-

tured and devoured three 2)^-inch long, brilliantly colored goldfish,

which, though already dead

when taken out

of the bird's stomach,

were

still

perfectly bright, showing conclusively that they

had

just

been swallowed.
If these birds discover that fishing in the
will

ponds pays

well, they

become frequent

visitors,

and,

if

not killed, soon clean out the

establishment.

But, as before stated, they

come

at

regular

hours,

thus affording the one on duty at the ponds an easy chance to be on


the watch to kill or trap them.

THE KINGFISHER.
This bird

may

likewise be expected to visit the ponds, but


!

it

gen-

erally advertises its arrival with a lusty kar-r-r-r-r-ack

that

may be

heard quite a distance.


It selects projections

over the water, such as a branch of a tree,


it

a post, or the outlet pipe of the ponds, from whence

shoots

down
itself
its

upon the unsuspecting upon


its

fish,

seldom missing.

It also

supports

wings immediately over the water, darting down upon

prey with like success.

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

127

These
heron,

birds,

although not so easily shot as the crane or


if

may

readily be caught in a trap,


laid

the latter

is

some-

what concealed and


birds

on the post or outlet pipe, which the

mostly frequent.

TURTLES AND ALLIGATORS.


These
reptiles are both extremely destructive
in
;

the latter, of

course, not being found

the

Northern States, need not be

looked for in that locality.


small, should

Neither of them, no matter


in

how

be permitted to remain

or

near the ponds.

THE MUSKRAT.
Not only do these animals destroy the dams
but they will
also
of of

the ponds,
fish,
if

destroy

the

entire

stock

not

stopped

in time.

Luckily for the fish-culturist, they are easily


or

mastered.
style

One

two muskrat
i),

traps of

the

old fashioned

(Hawley
in

&

Norton's No.

used by professional trap-

pers

the Far West,

can be procured at almost any hard-

ware store for thirty cents apiece, the chain included.

The
At
a

muskrat holes are looked


the

for

and

will

be found leading into

bank and a
peg

little

below the surface of the water.


a

short distance
the
free
trap), a

from such
is

hole

(the length of

the chain on

driven securely into the ground, and the


it.

end of the chain fastened to


little

The
in

trap

is

then set

without bait, and laid a


hole, in
is

to one

side immediately into the

such a manner that the animal


to

going

in

or

out

obliged

tread upon

the

plate
it

that springs the trap and


is

over one or the


of
its

other end, thus

always caught by one

legs.

If

the trap

is

placed at right angles with the hole, so that


latter, in

the animal has to walk over the bows, these


together, will

coming
it.

throw the rat upwards, and

fail

to

catch

128
It is advisable

THE GOLDFISH AHD


also
to catch

ITS

CULTURE.
in

the muskrats

the surrounddur-

ing neighborhood of the ponds, as they

make excursions
fish.

ing the night to the ponds in order to

This long
raccoon,

list

of enemies

may be

increased by adding the


ducks, geese,

the mink, and

water-fowls

such as

and

swans.

In stores where

fish

are kept in tanks they must be watched

and protected
occasionally

from house-rats

and

cats,

both of
if

which

will

make a descent upon the tanks

not prevented.

MU
I

Chapter XXVIII.

THE DISEASES OF THE GOLDFISH.

The
in

goldfish,

when
in

in perfect

health, carries the

dorsal

fin

an erect position,

other words, fully expanded.


fish

Its colors

are

very distinct, the body of the

glistening as

though

highly polished.
ing an
ible,

The

fins

appear very

clear, translucent, allowflex-

examination of their structure, they are also very


in

moving

the water with animation the


gill

and grace.

When

closed by the
Liveliness

fish,
is

covers

fit

tightly against the head.

not always an indication of good health, and,


is

on the contrary, sluggishness


fish
is
ill.

no positive evidence that the

But when the

brilliant

red color fades away into an


the body

off-

colored pink, or the milky-white portions of

become
and

intermixed with bloody streaks, or the


to

fins of

the fish appear

be coated with something unusual, or seem inflamed


or are carried
close to the body, or
fit

stick together,
gill

when the
tightly
in

covers appear so swollen that they will not

their proper place, then the health of the fish has failed,

and

danger

is

close at hand.

Most
of

of the diseases of the goldfish

are

the direct result

ill-treatment

while

kept

in

captivity,
;

and
gills,

nearly always

originate in the breathing apparatus


fail

the

when
129

affected,

to supply the blood with

oxygen.

Some

of the diseases,

130

THE GOLDFISH AND


the
fish

ITS

CULTURE.

to which

are subject, originate from improper

meth-

ods of

feeding,

and always manifest

themselves

in

disturb-

ances of the stomach, and other digestive organs.

Again there are diseases that make


odically, the origin of

their

appearance

peri-

which

is

involved in as

much

obscurity

as that
all

called " pink-eye," which attacks horses,


less.

and of which

have heard more or

ASPHYXIA.
This affection
is

the

most commonly met with.

The

fish
is

become weak, the


lost

colors fade
finally

away
if

rapidly,

the
is

appetite

and the
its

fish

die

the

disease

permitted to

run

course without hinderance.


of

The cause
by the

the disease
gills.

may be looked

for in the

inter-

rupted functions of the


irritatirfg

These organs become inflamed


in

and poisonous gases that may exist


changes of temperature
in

the'

water, or by the sudden


If

the same.
the ailing

the disease has not already advanced too

far,

individual or individuals should

be taken from the collection,


water,
are

placed in a vessel containing a sufficient quantity of

and

in

which

number

of

flourishing

aquatic

plants

growing.

An

even teaspoonful of

common

salt

is

then dissolved in

the water, the whole then put in a light, well ventilated place,

and kept
the
first

at

temperature between 70 and 80 F.


is

During
beginregular

few days no food

necessary, and

should not be

given, after

which
very

the feeding

may be re-commenced,
administered at
a

ning

with

small

quantities,
fish

hour each day.

As the

brighten up, and approach congradually be brought up


,tO

valescence, the quantity


usual amount.

may

the

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

I3I

TUBERCULOSIS OR CONSUMPTION.
The
in
first

sign

of the

presence of this disease shows

itself

the

indifference

manifested

by

the

affected

individual.

They are seen swimming about in a careless, purposeless way, now and then stopping to make the vain attempt to remove
something from their
ently coughing.
gills

that annoys them.

They are apparIt is evident that

Their appetite decreases.

the gills are out of order, they thus failing to take up oxygen
for

the

blood.
fish

As the disease progresses, the

becomes

lean, as
in

seen

back of the head, on the back, and the sinking

the abdo-

men, causing the head to appear too large and. out of proportion.

The
of

gills

become agglutinated which


structure
is

results in the

destruction
this

their

by decay.
to

Having arrived
itself
it is

at

stage

the fish

too

weak

balance
it,

and

swims

head downward,
part of
its

finally

standing on
dies
in

because

the heaviest

body, and

that

position.
in

The duration
and seasons,
it

of this disease varies

different individuals

being of shorter duration during cold weather.


of this

The
get
it,
it,

origin

disease

may be
fish

traced
in

back to unnat-

ural treitment while in captivity, as

native waters never

and
in

in

while

managed aquaria they very seldom have those badly managed they frequently die of this
well
of the

disease.

The cause

disease

arises

from

invisible

orfish

ganisms called tubercular


these organs and

baccillcB,
is

these being inhaled by a

whose breathing apparatus

in the least

out of order, infest

destroy them.
fatal
in
all

The
done so

disease
in

proves

cases,

or has

invariably

the writer's experience,

discover an effective

remedy.
in

who has so far failed to The disease may be avoided

by keeping the aquarium

perfect condition.

132

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

SLIME OR ITCH.
This disease generally appears during the colder season of
the year, seidom manifesting itself
or
hot.

when the weather

is

warm

The body
whitish

of the fish

substance,

the

becomes coated with a layer of some deposit beginning on the back near

the head.

This white, slimy substance, when examined under a powerful

microscope, reveals a number of parasites darting about


field

hither and thither across the

of the

instrument.

These

minute organic bodies, technically termed bacterice, resemble a


wood-tick
of
in

general

shape.

They appear
and
function

to eat into the skin


in

the

fish,

destroying that structure,

consequence
performs
the

in-

terfere

very

much

with

the

the

skin
in

in

throwing out poisonous substances


inside.

that
fish

form

tissues

The
is

beautiful

colors

of the

disapear from

the

tainted

parts, they

becoming quite black.


of

The

result of the

disease

the death
afflicted

the

fish.

When
rubbing

with the trouble, the


the

fish

can be observed
in

itself

against the plants,


of

rocks, or

the sand

upon the bottom

the

aquarium.

The cause

of

the disease

may be found
of
in.

in the usual overin

feeding, in which

case the remnants

food remain

the

water until decomposition sets


favorable
for

The temperature
water-purifying

not being

the

production

of

insects,

the
of

bacterm make
the
fish.

their

appearance greatly to the detriment

The name
description
of

" slime "

has heretofore

been

applied

to

this

disease, but

without any apparent reference to


trouble.

the cause producing the


is

In the author's opinion,


the whole

it

the presence of the parasites that makes

diflfi-

THE GOLDFISH AND


culty.

ITS

CULTURE.

133

They annoy
its

the fish by their

presence,

their

attacks

upon

skin

setting

up an increased flow of blood to the


coat
of

part upon

which the thick

slime

is

found.
is

Mani-

festly the best

method

of treating the disease


if

the removal,
bacterix are

or rather the prevention, of the cause, for

the

not allowed to develop, they of course can do no harm.

Tadpoles and snails should be put into the aquarium

to
it-

consume any remaining


self

articles

of

food,

and the feeding

more

carefully attended to.

Place the aquarium in a


of

warm

and

light location,
filling

adding to the water a pinch

table-salt

when

the vessel.

DROPSY.
Dropsy, as every one knows,
is

a swelling up of the body,


fluid in

caused by the presence of watery


with fish
It

the tissues, so

it

is

when

affected in this way.


tail,

generally begins near the

but sometimes about the

middle of the body and

progresses forward.
in a circle
if

When

it

first

makes

its

appearance, a few scales

around the body

lose their firm attachment, at this stage,

the affected speciinto water brought

mens

are immediately

removed and placed


in

from some other locality than that

which they had

been

when taken ill, they will recover in a short time. The disease having started, will, if not immediately
ed
to,

attend-

spread over the entire


is

body

until

it

becomes almost

spherical, so great

the distention of the skin.


the
fish

The

scales

become
from

erect,

giving

the

appearance

of a " ruffed

grouse," the

eyes at

the same

time being

greatly protruded

their sockets.
all

During

this while

the fish

shows a good appetite, and

continues to do so until the end, which soon follows.

134

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

No
it

cause,

as yet, has been found


fish
fish

producing the disease


as in
this

appears upon

in

Europe,

as well

country,

and also upon any age

kept in open air ponds, as well as those


of

inhabiting the aquarium, and in any season


at
of

the year, and

the

goldfish.

The

disease

may run
it

a course of four month's, at the end


in in

of which

time

results

the

death of the

fish.

It also

seems to be intermittent
eral

character, disappearing for

sev-

weeks,

and returning again


in

upon

the

same

individual,

but always

such cases with fatal


to be

effect.
fish

There seems
as comfortable

no other treatment than making the


that chance

as

possible, taking

for recovery.

ERYSIPELAS.
This disease
restlessness
of
is

indicated by what appears to be a nervous


fish.

the

They

are

seen swimming with very


there

quick motions, darting here

and

with

great

rapidity,
flee

and with no other apparent reason than a desire to


their

from

torment, for

it

seems that they

suffer

from

muscular

pains.

After this extreme activity which


days, the
fishes
(for

covers a period of
affected
at

several

they

all

become
of

the

same time) huddle together on the bottom


and then resuming
their

the tank,

now
by

mad
in

capers.
this

The

external

appearance
fin,

case

is

characterized

a closed dorsal

bloody streaks upon

all

of the fins, which,

moreover, instead of being nicely founded upon their extremities,

as in health,

become agglutinated

and

appear

like

the

spikes

upon a

catfish.

The
of

tissue

between the spines decays,


a

the latter looking


this
is

like

the disarranged bristles on the


end.

brush

the beginning

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

135

The
theless,

appetite continues in good

condition, the

fish

neveruntil

become

lean

and weaker

each

succeeding

day

death takes place.

The cause
methods of

of the disease, also, can be traced to improper

feeding,

the

stomach

in

consequence

becoming
the
it

overtaxed and the entire system disarranged.

When
same
will

it
;

does appear,
the

all

the

fishes

are

attacked at

time

aquarium

then

should be placed where

be exposed to the sunlight, the


kept at about 70
Snails
F.,

temperature of the

lo-

cality being for

and no food administered


they are excellent

about a month.

and

tadpoles should not be omittank,


will

ted

when stocking the


th'eir

hospital

as

scavengers, and by
of
diseases.

presence

prevent a complication

The
culosis,

diseases described above constitute the main ones

we
out

have to expect, and, with the exception of dropsy and tuberare


easily

managed,

if

the

treatment

is

carried

properly.

ACCIDENTS.
According
to

the

old

saying,

" accidents

happen

in

the

best regulated families," so will they happen

to goldfish.

In
sur-

most

cases, nature,
skill,

if

left alone, will repair


little

damages with

prising

though a

assistance

often helps to secure

a desirable result.

Scales that have been knocked off will be


is

replaced, just as a finger-nail

when

bruised.

Injured fins grow again, but the form afterwards does not

always assume perfection.


If

an eye has been torn out,


as
in

it

will

not necessarily

kill

the
(for

fish,

most cases
use by

it

heals kindly,

and indeed might


artificial

appearance sake) be replaced by an


in

substitute,

such as are

the taxidermist.

136

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

When we

wish to assist nature to heal a wound,

we must

bear in mind that a


that purpose, and
fungi,
is

warm temperature

is

most favorable for


for

also jio^ favorable

the

growth of
guard

which would certainly collect on the wound and reduce


complete
recovery.

the chances of

As an
in
is

additional
quantities
is

against the formation of fungus, table-salt,

men-

tioned above in treating asphyxia,


tion
of

good, as also

a solu-

carbolic acid, five drops to the gallon


of

of water.

We

conclude this description


phrase, "

the

various diseases with


is

the homely
of cure,"
his aquaria
tells

an ounce of prevention
in

worth a pound
see to
it

so

bearing that

mind, one will

that

and ponds do not


fish.

suffer

from neglect, as that always

upon the

Chapter XXIX.

REQUISITES AND TOOLS.


Not many
fish.

of these are necessary for the

raising of gold-

In addition to the ordinary gardening tools used in con-

structing and repairing the ponds, four sizes of dip-nets should

be kept near at hand.


ist.

large

one,

consisting of a heavy iron

wire ring,
fif-

about the thickness of a lead-pencil, and measuring about


ten

inches in

diameter.

This ring
in

is

securely fastened to a

hickory pole

seven feet

length,

and covered

with heavy

mosquito netting, the bag to be about twelve inches deep.


2d.

A
of

medium-sized
inches

dip-net

of

oval

shape,

measuring
is

six

inches by ten

through the center.


fastened
finer

This

best

made
in

No.

lo brass wire,

to

a handle

four feet

length,

and covered with

mosquito netting, forming


This net
is

a shallow bag similar to the bowl of a spoon.

used to remove insects and small


3d.

fish

from the water.


2,

hand-net of the same size and material as No.


difference,

with

this

that the

handle

may be made
wire,
in

of

the

same wire that forms the frame. 4th. A small dip-net, also made
17,

of brass

No. 16 or

in

this case

of sufficiently

small size

to use

removing

fish

or insects from

the hatching jars.


;

Several one-gallon candy-jars for hatching the eggs

several
;

tin-buckets of different sizes, for carrying and removing fish


137

138

THF GOLDFISH AND


or

ITS

CULTURE.
;

a yard

two of

mosquito netting

some wire netting of


;

the same mesh as that

used in the guards on the outlets


if

a thermometer, a couple of muskrat traps,

needed, and a
outfit that

gun
is

to dispose of snakes, birds, etc.,

complete the

necessary for the proper performance of the work in hand.

European Watek Lily {,Nymphcea

ulda).

Chapter XXX.

PROFITABLENESS OF GOLDFISH PONDS.


The
question will naturally arise in the mind of the reader,

should he have any desire to


goldfish,

engage

in

the culture of the

"Will

it

pay?"

"Are

the profits accruing sufficient

remuneration for the time and labor expended, to say nothing


of the capital invested?"

To

these

questions

the

best anso of

swer

is

the book

upon which the author


is

has

expended

much
the

time, for he
will

certain

that

the

proper cultivation

goldfish

pay, though

the absence
result.
it

or

presence

of

some considerations, which somewhat determine the


there are_
of

If

looked at from a business point


the
local

view

solely,

wholly depends upon


especially

demand

for

them, though
is

more
to

upon the

class

of

customers one

expected
varieties

supply.

In some places the finer qualities and

pay best, as the demand for them comes from a source that
is

both discriminating and

critical,

at

the same time willing

to
is

pay for the very

finest

that can be had.

Such a market

usually found in the larger cities where the wealthy classes


it

generally reside, and

is

from among them that the culturist

may
In

expect to find a ready and remunerative run of custom.


places
the

other

demand

is

for

quantity
^are

not so

much
his

care being taken


for

whether the varieties


wishes to

the best or not

instance, a gentleman
in

stock

a lake
fish,

upon
139

premises or

his

garden with ornamental

he does not

I40

THE GOLDFISH AND


especially to invest his

ITS

CULTURE.
in

care

money

a few choice varieties,

but would rather have a greater number of a less desirable kind


in

order that the


so

lake or

pond may contain them


be
seen,

in

plenty,

that

they can always

no

matter

from

what

point.

The percentage of young grown to perfection from a given number of eggs depends altogether upon' the attention paid
to

them, the locality in which they are raised, the season in

which they are bred, and the variety to which they belong.

The number

of saleable

fish

may

thus be but ten, or

it

may
rules

be eighty-five, realized out of one hundred eggs.

The

governing the productiveness of ponds are much the same as


those
that govern
is

the

crops raised from the

soil.

There
is

this difference,

however, the raising of


to

goldfish
of

confined almost

exclusively

the

nicest

season

the

year,

and makes

it

highly interesting

out-door recreation,
at triflng

and one that can be begun on the most humble scale

expense, besides being an occupation that any lady or gentle-

man can

indulge in with perfect propriety.

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

141

142

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

Com.G-oldfI$h

THE GOLDFISH AND

ITS

CULTURE.

143

Tyie/vlympK-

Tl^e Pli m pki h)?cL

Ikis

Gekmamca.

on the vsLrlous questions arising in the care of an aqviarium or the window^ garden.

FIVE FOR ONE DOLLAR.

HUGO MULERTT,
(Member
of the Imperial Russian Society of Acclimatization.)

Publisher,

BROOKLYN=NEW YORK.
COPYRIGHT.
'

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

145

MuLERTT's Waterproof Cementi


In

the market since 1877.

is used to stop leaks in sinks, bath tubs, wooden, marble, tin or iron vessels, gutters and tin roofs; to set the glass in aquarium frames, and to paint iron surfaces exposed to

This Cement

glass, china,

water.
It

resists the action of fresh


fails,

leaks where other cement

does
is

Where a
is

water-tight job

and sea water for years, and stops it quickly and permanently. wanted, Mulertt's Waterproof Cement

invaluable.

Mix
knife.
1.

this

powder

witli boiled linseed oil

on a saucer or pie plate with the aid of a

leaks in a roof, gutter, tub or vessel mix to a thick paste, spread a thin "but even layer on a ^iece of linen or cotton cloth, and paste this over the.leak. To set glass into an aquarium frame, mix to consistency of putty, apply the 2. cement as you would glue i:: gluing two pieces of board together, viz spread the cement heavily over the frame and then press the glass gently against it. For setting plate glass in tanks where a heavy pressure is expected, or in a case 3. where a repaired tank is to be refilled at once, mix rather stiff, then add copal varnish at the rate of a teaspoonful to every pound of cement, work all well together and
:

To stop

apply heavy.
^
-

oil

If wanted as paint, mix the 4. to consistency of cream.

powder or the mixed cement with boiled linseed

Put up in one and a half pound


Directions on the label.

tin boxes.

Price per box,

fifty

cents; cash with order.

Send by express
tm"

only,

unless

postage at the rate of one cent an

oimce accompanies the order.

The Trade

supplied.

Address

HUGO MULEETT.

Sole Manufacturer,
Street,

289 Fenimore

Brooklyn -New York.


146

THE KNY-SCHEERER
225-233

CO.

FOURTH AVENUE,

NEW

YORK.

SCIENTIFIC APPARATUS AND INSTRUMENTS, CHEMICALS, ANATOM. MODELS,

NATURAL HISTORY SPECIMENS AND PREPARATIONS, WALL

CHARTS,

MUSEUM AND NATURALISTS' SUPPLIES.


LANTERN
SLIDES.

MICROSCOPES AND ACCESSORIES.


Specialties

AQUARIA, PRESERVING FLUIDS, GLASS JARS.

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL

SCIENCE.
G.

LAGAI, PH.D.

147

PROPER FOOD FOR ANIMALS


is

the foundation of success with them,


Mulertt's Condensed Fish is the proper
!

Food "IXL"
tious

food for Goldfish

It is nutri-

and "wholesome

to the fish,

producing their typical shapes and colors, and securing that desirable pleasing motion that
betells their satisfaction.

The
is

Superiority of this

Food

acknowledged

in all climes.

It is also cheaper than any other food in the market. Being greatly condensed it is not bulky in

qualities

appearance, but its nourishing being greater, it goes

FISH FOOD.

than any other. One cent box contains ample nourishment to keep three medium-sized goldfish in perfect
farther

twenty-five

condition for a year.

ONCE TRIED, ALWAYS USED.


Price, 25 cts. a box, five
If

boxes for a

dollar, prepaid
it

by mail.

you cannot obtain

it

of your dealer, send for

direct.

Address

HUGO MULERTT,
THE TRADE SUPPLIED.

Sole Manufacturer,

289 Fenimore Street,

Brooklyn-New York.
148

STUMPP & WALTER

CO.

Seed and Bulb Growers


and Importers

50

BARCLAY STREET,
NEW YORK.

BRANCH STORE:
404 East 34th
Street.

TELEPHONE CONNECTIONS.

149

ESTABLISHED

1869.

HUGO MULERTT,
)^i^lJ-(i^ade /Iqijarium

Supplies

ORNAMENTAL
Publisher of

FISH

AND AQUARIUM

PLANTS.

Aquarium
289 Fenimore
No

Literature.

Street (Flatbush),
STORE,

BROOKLYN-NEW YORK.

RECEIVED HIGHEST PREMIUMS IN THIS COUNTRY AND EUROPE.


ISO