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DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATlOa
OORNEaUNIVERSlTK
MATHEMATICS
^J^^gS
^2^, y^d^.
DEPARTMENT OF WrtHEM^lSa
flORHEaUNlVcRSlTl
A TEEATISE
ON
PHYSICAL OPTICS
ffiambtiBBt
PRINTED BY
0.
J.
mmiummm
A TREATISE
ON
PHYSICAL OPTICS
BY
A.
B.
BASSET,
M.A., F.E.S.,
CO.
PREFACE.
so large a class of
phenomena,
to give a comprehensive
account of
addition
subject,
experimental and theoretical portions of the would necessarily be of an exceedingly voluminous character. I have accordingly limited the present work to one special branch of Optics, and have endeavoured to place before the reader as concise a treatise upon the Mathematical Theory of Light, and such experimental phenomena as are immediately connected
to
the
Those who are acquainted with the Mathematical Theories of Hydrodynamics, Sound and Elasticity on the one hand, and of Electricity and Light on the other, cannot fail to have been struck with the difference, which exists between the two classes of
subjects.
In the former
class,
certain
which approximately, though not quite accurately, specify in a mathematical form, the physical state of fluids and solids as they and the subsequent investigation of these exist in Nature branches of Science, is thereby in great measure reduced to a question of mathematics. As soon as the fundamental equations are established, the subject is brought within the dominion of mathematical analysis, and mathematicians are enabled to exercise their ingenuity and analytical skill, in elaborating and developing
;
different state
Theory of Light, we are confronted with a totally of things. Although the existence of the luminiferous ether may, at the present day, be regarded as a scientific axiom, which is as firmly established as any other scientific law,
But
in the
unknown
to us.
M.
PREFACE.
are therefore unable to start with certain definite equations,
We
we can
feel
assured
but are
compelled to formulate certain hypotheses concerning the physical constitution of the ether, which are capable of being expressed in
a mathematical form, and then to trace the consequences to which they lead us. The only means at our disposal for testing the
correctness of any hypothesis, which forms the foundation of
any
dynamical theory of
light,
is
to
compare the
results furnished
by
theory, with
known experimental
which
it is
facts; accordingly a
knowis
ledge of the
facts,
of
Under
these circum.stances,
it
phenomena of an experimental character this work is to investigate the dynamical but as the object of theory of light in relation to experimental phenomena, I have abstained from entering into many details respecting the methods
at length, a variety of of
of
the
necessary instrumental
fuller
recommended to consult Verdet's Legons d'Optique Physique, Mascart's TraiU d'Optique, and Preston's Theory of Light, where
ample information concerning these matters
will
be found.
of
The
first
and Thin Plates, Diffraction, Double Refraction, Rotatory Polarization, and Reflection and Refraction of Polarized Light and in these chapters, dynamical theories are
;
and contain an account of some of the dynamical theories, which have been proposed to explain optical phenomena. The investigations of numerous physicists upon the theories of Reflection and Refraction at the Surfaces of Isotropic and Crystalline Media, upon Double Refraction, Absorption, Anomalous Dispersion and Metallic Reflection are considered and a description of a variety of experimental
character,
;
are of a
more speculative
which require a dynamical theory to account for them, is given. The last two chapters are devoted to Maxwell's Electromagnetic Theory, together with the additions made to it since the
results,
death of
its
author.
The
last
chapter of
all,
contains a description
which
is
PREFACE.
for the action of
VU
is
propagated
of matter increases
a medium, which represents, even imperfectly, the action of ponderable matter upon ethereal waves. A full and complete investigation, by the aid of rigorous mathematical analysis, of the peculiar action of a medium, which is assumed to possess certain
definite
properties,
enables us to understand
the reason
why
and cannot fail to impress upon the mind the conviction, that the dynamical theory of light is a I have a profound reality, rather than a scientific speculation. distrust of vague and obscure arguments, based upon general reasoning instead of upon rigorous mathematical analysis. Incertain effects are produced,
vestigations founded
upon such considerations are always difficult and are sometimes erroneous.
When
connected with the motion can be mathematical language, and equations obtained, which are sufficient for the solution of every conceivable problem
expressed
in
;
and
if
the
number
of
equations obtained
is
insufficient,
the
specification is incomplete, or
overlooked.
I consider it
mathematical physics, that the solutions of the various problems which present themselves, should be properly worked out by
it is possible to do so, and that mathematical results should be obtained and interpreted. At the end of some of the earlier Chapters, examples and problems have been inserted, which have been derived from the examination papers set in the University of Cambridge. During
recent years, there has been a disposition in certain quarters to question the educational value of examples ; and a little sarcasm
in, with reference to socalled mathematical conundrums. One of the difficulties, which the Examiners for the Mathematical Tripos have to contend against, is the tendency on the part of Candidates to devote their time to learning certain pieces of bookwork, which are likely to be set, instead of endeavouring to acquire an accurate and thorough
VUl
PREFACE.
knowledge of the fundamental facts and principles of the subjects, which they take up; and wellselected examples and problems illustrating the book work are of great assistance to an examiner, in enabling him to discriminate between candidates, who have acquired a perfunctory knowledge of a subject, and those who
have endeavoured
to
master
it.
But
it
would be a
is
fallacy to
exclusively
to be estimated solely
by
which
embodies.
The existence
is
of
great
to
them
;
and
is
who
and are able employ with ease the more recondite processes of mathematical
analysis.
That the scientific discoveries of the present century have been of incalculable benefit to mankind, will be admitted by all but it is also a distinct advantage to Science, when any discovery
in abstract Science
optical
turns out to
be of practical
utility.
The
properties
of
chemical
weapon
in the
hands of Chemists.
which
have
am
also
much indebted
the body of this treatise. Larmor for having read the having made numerous valuable suggestions
in
to
Mr
J.
April, 1892.
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
I.
INTRODUCTION.
ART.
1.
PAGE
The Science
3.
4. 5.
6. 7.
....
of Light
.... ...
. .
. .
1 1
2 3
4
5
.5
8.
9.
...
.
5 6
10. 11.
12.
Polarization
and double refraction Composition of two waves polarized in the same plane
and
circularly polarized light
.9
10
11
13.
14. 16. 16.
Elliptioally
The
Principle of
Huygena
....
II.
...
13 14
15
Law Law
CHAPTER
INTERFERENCE.
17.
Description of the
Fresnel's mirrors
phenomenon
of interference
17
18.
19.
18
20
21
20.
21. 22.
22
23 24 25
28.
24.
Displacement of fringes by the interposition of a plate Abnormal displacement of the central band. Airy's explanation Lloyd's experiment
Examples
B. O.
26
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
ABT.
25.
26.
III.
Description of the
phenomenon
of the Colours of
Thin
Plates
28 28
29 31 33
27.
28. 29.
30. 31. 32.
34
34 38 39 39
. .
33.
34.
water
Examples
41
CHAPTER
35
IV.
DIFFRACTION.
36.
Description of the
phenomenon
of Diffraction
....
. .
42 44 45
47
37.
Stokes'
theorem
for the
38. 39.
43.
44. 45.
46.
plane wave Huygens' zones Displacement produced by an element of a cylindrical wave Diffraction through a slit Conditions for the formation of shadows Expression for the intensity when the aperture is of any form, and the waves are plane, or are converging to a focus Rectangular aperture Aperture an isosceles triangle
. .
48 50
51
,
....
.... ....
52
52
Circular aperture
Elliptic aperture
19.
53 56
Stokes' investigation
47
Talbot's bands.
56 61 63
.
50
51.
52.
58.
Comparison of the results furnished by theory and experiment Resolving power of optical instruments Resolving power of a telescope whose aperture is rectangular
do.
64 66
67
do.
is circular
Theory of gratings.
Resolving
power
of
70
double line
58. 59.
Reflection gratings
70 72
72
60
61.
Miohelson's investigations.
measurement
.
sources of light
62.
....
.
Examples
........78
. . . .
74
77
CONTENTS.
XI
CHAPTER
ART. 63.
V.
DIFFRACTION CONTINXTED.
PAGE
Diffraction arising from light diverging from a focus.
for the intensity,
Expression
.
when
Fresnel's integrals.
do. do.
Diffraction
80
81
method
.
.
82 82
83 85 86 87
Diffraction
by a by a
straight edge
circular aperture or disc
.
.
Poisson's theorem,
70.
71
and Arago's experiment Lommel's method. Evaluation of two definite integrals Lommel's expressions for the intensity in the form 73.
series,
...
of certain disc
when
diffraction
is
produced
by
circular
or
aperture
74.
88
90
75. 76.
Diffraction
by a
circular disc
91
is
On
the
Bessel's
function
J^i, where n
integer
77.
Value of J
,,
where n
is
,
...
.
93 94
95
78. 79.
80. 81.
82
Lommel's method, when Diffraction by a long rectangular slit or obstacle Evaluation of two definite integrals 83. Lommel's expressions for the intensity in the form
series involving Bessel's functions
95 96 96
97 98
of certain
84.
85.
86.
...
VI.
100
101
CHAPTER
DOUBLE REFRACTION.
87. 88.
103
104
.
89.
90.
Definition of the ordinary and extraordinary indices of refraction Huygens' construction for determining the refraction of the extra
104
105 105
91.
The wave
94.
ordinary ray in uniaxal crystals surface in uniaxal crystals, consists of a sphere and a
spheroid
Polarization by double refraction.
Directions of
vibration in
92
95.
...
.
106
108
...
62
xii
ART.
96.
CONTENTS.
Biaxal crystals.
97. 98.
99.
Equation of Fresnel's wavesurface Principal indices of refraction for aragonite and topaz
Photogyric properties of quartz
....
. . .
^*
109
110
HO
111
stress, exhibit
double refraction
CHAPTER
VII.
Laws
by Fresnel
101. 102.
Discussion of the hypothesis, that the vibrations of polarized light . . are perpendicular to the plane of polarization
.
.113
113
115
103. 104.
Discussion of the second and third hypotheses Equation determining the velocity of propagation
crystal
in
biaxal
105.
The
the circular
sections
of
the
110 116
117 118 119
107108. Values of the two velocities in terms of the angles, which the normal to the wavefront makes with the optic axes 109. Determination of the equation of Fresnel's wavesurfaee 110. Traces of the wavesurface on the coordinate planes
. .
111. 112.
Singular points.
Bay
axes
120
121 121 121 122
113. 114.
115. 116.
117.
Uniaxal crystals.
....
. .
123
124 125 125
118.
119. 120. 121.
W. Hamilton
126 126
122.
Stokes'
criticisms
126
127
124.
On
125
126.
127.
128.
Theory and construction of Nicol's prism Polarization by a plate of tourmaline Polarization by a pile of plates
128 129
.
Examples
130 130
CONTENTS.
XIU
CHAPTER
AT.
129.
VIII.
General explana137
130. 181.
138
189
132.
140
of
133
134.
143
When
the axis
is
137.
the isochromatic curves are curves of the fourth degree Rings produced by two plates cut parallel to the axis, which are
145
145
superposed
138.
Biaxal crystals.
plate
of
nitre
or
147
crystals are lemniscates
. .
The
148
149 151
141.
Rings produced by a plate of biaxal crystal, whose axes form an . angle which is nearly equal to 180, are hyperbolas When a biaxal crystal is cut perpendicularly to one of the optic
. .
152 152
May
plate
144.
145.
Rings produced when the incident light is circularly polarized, and is analysed by a Niool's prism Rings produced by hght, which is circularly polarized and circularly
analysed
152
153
Examples
154
CHAPTER
146.
IX.
ROTATORY POLARIZATION.
Rotatory polarization discovered by Arago. handed and lefthanded quartz
Biot's
laws.
Eight
157
147.
Values of the rotation for the principal lines of the spectrum produced by a plate of quartz one millimeter in thickness
.
148.
149.
150.
.
151.
and those
of a
magnetic
field
159
the photogyric
properties
of
152.
of
quartz
153.
160
161 162 164
154.
155.
between the velocities of the two oppositely circularly polarized waves Rings and brushes produced by quartz. Airy's theory Description of the rings and brushes
Difference
. . . .
XIV
ART.
156.
CONTENTS.
PAGE
Expression for the intensity,
dicularly to the axis
when
a plate of quartz
are crossed
is
cut perpen
164
157. 158.
do.
167
169
160.
...
when
any
169
t'he
161. 162.
....
is
....
.
170 172
Two
lefthanded
163.
...
Airy's spirals
....173
174
CHAPTER
164.
X.
AND REFRACTION.
common
Brewster's law
...
light
....
. .
176 176 177 177 177 178 178 178 179 180
181
170.
171. 172. 173. 174. 175.
Rate at which energy flows across a surface Reflection and refraction of light polarized in the plane of incidence Values of the intensities
accompanied by a change of phase The refracted wave is a superficial wave Reflection and refraction of light polarized perpendicularly
Total reflection
is
to
the
plane of incidence
176.
182
177.
178. 179.
Experiments of Airy, Jamin and Rood Total reflection is accompanied by a change of phase Experimental verification of the change of phase, which accom. . .
Theories of
Examples
...
XI.
187 187
CHAPTER
182. 183. 184. 185.
may
189
189 190
elastic
of
an
medium.
The
stresses are
momentum
...
191 192
CONTENTS.
ART.
187.
XV
PAGE
Theory
of isotropic media. The equations of motion, and the values of the potential energy and the stresses in terms of the
displacements
188.
192
189.
194
types
;
viz. dilatational
and
distor
195
190191.
Criticisms
on Green's Theory
196
CHAPTER
192. 193.
XII.
and kinetic energies of wave motion are equal and refraction. Light polarized in the plane of
.
198
in
cidence
194.
199 201
Pressural
Change
of phase
195.
203
196.
much
light
is
reflected at the
197.
Change
of phase
....
Neumann and MacCuIlagh
lead to two
198.
199.
angle
200.
201
202.
....
light
210 210
211
and
polarized
208.
...
of
204. 205.
206.
Dependence of the
zation
the polari
207. 208.
....
. .
213
and
209.
210.
by a
pile of plates
and transmitted lights Finely divided substances exhibit colour, or are white
Tables
Discussion of the tables
Perfectly transparent plates
218 218
219 220
CHAPTER
XIII.
...
223
. .
224 225
= a?v''<t>
XVI
ABT.
218.
CONTENTS.
Character of the disturbance represented by this solution Complete solution of the equations of motion of the ether
219.
220.
The
initial velocities
and displacements
221.
on the
222.
223.
Determination of that portion of the displacement, which depends on the initial displacements
Stokes' application of the preceding results
224. 225.
232
. . .
226.
Disturbance produced by a given force acting at a point Discussion of the result. Expressions for the displacements when
the force
is
232
234 236
periodic
227
229. 230.
228.
238
to
the
plane of
231.
polarization Besolution of plane waves. Expression for the disturbance produced by an element of a plane wave of sound
232.
233. 234.
244
Stokes'
effect
of
an
245
element of a plane wave, is equivalent to the combination of a simple and a double source
235. 236. 237.
Lord Eayleigh's theory The direction of maximum polarization of the scattered perpendicular to that of the primary beam
246 247
light is
248 248
238.
The theory
239.
hght shows, that the vibrations of polarized light are perpendicular to the plane of polarization The scattered light is blue, when the particles of foreign matter are
of scattered
.
. .
sufficiently fine
240. 241.
Common
light
Examples
CHAPTER
XIV.
medium
252
253
medium
244.
The
245.
medium
254 254
CONTENTS.
ART. 246.
XVll
PAGE
crystalline
transversal
waves unaccom255
247.
The equations
strains
panied by longitudinal waves, unless the constants reduce to four of motion of the special kind of medium considered
by Green; and the expressions for the potential energy and the
255
longitudinal waves in the
248.
Green's
as
same manner
256
257
249. 250.
medium
is
determined by
258
251
252.
it
259
Failure of Green's theory to
253.
Crystalline reflection,
and
refraction.
phenomenon
260
262 263
254. 255.
produced by
stress
CHAPTER
XV.
SIR W. THOMSON.
This theory supposes, that the ether in a doubly refracting medium behaves as if its density were seolotropic Dynamical illustration of a system, which behaves in this manner
of motion,
This theory does not lead to Fresnel's wavesurface, when the resistance to compression is large in comparison with the rigidity 261262. Sir W. Thomson's modification of the theory
260.
.
263
264.
is
...
light
267 268
Consequences of supposing, that the resistance to compression a negative quantity, whose numerical value is slightly less
270
the
vibrations
of to
this
According
zation
theory,
polarized
on
271
266267.
268.
Additional formulie
of continuity require,
all
272
that the rigidity should be
media
. . .
272
269.
272
273
270. 271.
and
is
refraction
When
the
medium
isotropic,
are the
272. 273.
274. 275.
Criticisms
....
.... ....
.
. .
277 278
278
279
Theory of quartz
280
XVUl
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
ART.
XVI.
DisPEKSioN
279. 280.
The colour of light depends upon the period . Transparency and opacity The visible portion of the spectrum extends to rather
octave
.... ....
Table of wavelengths
282 282
283 283
283 284 284
less
than an
281. 282.
Spectrum analysis
Frauenhofer's lines.
283.
own
particular spectrum
....
when
incan. .
.
285
284.
Spectrum analysis furnishes a means of detecting the presence or absence of a chemical element ; and has also led to the discovery
of
new elements
infrared
285. 286.
287. 288.
waves infrared waves are waves of dark heat ultraviolet waves are noted for their chemical
ultraviolet
and
....
effects
285
286
286
287
287 287
and a
dif
289.
290.
The portion
of the
solar
to
287 288
292.
293.
294. 295.
Spectrum analysis enables the presence of elements to be detected in the sun and fixed stars Stokes' dynamical explanation of the cause of Frauenhofer's lines
.
288
289 289 289
coupled with
Kirohhoff's
completely
Spectrum
motions of the sun and fixed stars to be determined, in cases where astronomical methods fail
Einalysis enables the relative
290
290 291
297.
Doppler's principle
298
299.
300. 801.
Huggins' investigations on the proper motions of the stars Norman Lockyer's investigations on the velocity of sunstorms
291 292
Selective absorption
302
303.
Dynamical
illustrations
'of
media,
which produce
selective
absorption
304.
305.
292
294 295
306.
307
295
.
309.
Anomalods dispersion
First observed by FoxTalbot,
295 296
.
.
310.
311.
312.
296
297
pro
of
is
313.
297 298
CONTENTS.
AKT.
314.
XIX
PAGE 298 298
299
315.
816. 317.
Laws
of selective reflection
...
effects
on account
of
the
299
318.
on permanganate of potash Experiments on carthamine and herapathite Chromatic effects of selective reflection are increased, by bringing
Stokes' experiments
.
the reflector into optical contact with a substance having nearly the same refractive index ,. ._ Kundt's experiments 328. Plboresoenoe 324. Stokes' experiments on quinine 325 326. Explanation of the fluorescence produced by quinine 327. Fluorescence is produced by a number of other substances besides
. . .
322.
...
.
302 303
303
quinine
328.
Stokes' law
329
330.
331. 332.
333.
334. 335.
Dynamical explanation of fluorescence Dynamical illustration of a medium which produces fluorescence Galobescence Dynamical illustration of calorescenoe PnosPHOKBSOENCE Dynamical illustration of phosphorescence
303
.
...
304
305
...
CHAPTER
XVII.
308
is
vibrating
338
339.
under the influence of waves of sound Discussion of the results, and their application to phosphorescence
309
340
343
341.
Application to absorption
342.
W. Thomson)
and
The equations
their integration
.... ....
terms of
shell, in
Expression for the index of refraction Application to ordinary dispersion. FormuliB of Cauchy and Ketteler
Application to anomalous dispersion
Discussion of the value of the index of refraction
....
353.
XX
ART.
354.
CONTENTS.
Von Helmholtz' theory of anomalous dispersion The equations of motion of the ether and the matter
of the matter
"
....
.
355.
356.
...
.
357.
323
358.
Expression
for the
index of refraction
359.
....
medium having
324
325 325 326
360.
361.
Cauchy's formula
so as to apply to a
362.
Selective reflection
326
363.
364.
327 327
its
365.
state of ;polarization
328
CHAPTER
XVIII.
METALLIC REFLECTION.
366.
367.
329
368.
The
principal incidence
in
Transmission of light through thin metallic films The pseudoindex of refraction is a complex quantity
Theories of metallic reflection
....
. .
Cauchy's theory.
Expression
wave
376.
The constants
336
337 339 339
339 341
381.
382.
Kmidt's experiments
many
metals,
383.
Eisenlohr's calculations.
and their electrical conductivities For many metals, the real part
341
of
ij?
must be negative
384.
342
of
viscous term
385. 386. 387.
342
. .
343 343
Explanation of metallic reflection by means of von Helmholtz' theory Discussion of the results to which this theory leads .
.
344 345
388
389.
mutual reaction of
CONTENTS.
XXI
CHAPTER
ABT. 390.
XIX.
391
393.
394.
medium
395.
396.
light, is
351
the equations
of
electric
397.
displacement.
Fresnel's
wavesurface
398.
351
399. 400.
....
Summary
Isotropic
of the results
401.
402.
media
is
vacuo
approximately equal to the
its
403.
The index
of refraction of paraffin
square root of
404.
dielectric capacity
405
406.
Hopkinson's experiments
407.
Experiments on Iceland spar &c 408409. Hertz's experiments Experimental verification of Fresnel's hypothesis with regard to 410.
the vibrations of polarized light
411.
. .
Intensity of light
.... ...
360
361 361 362 362
412. 418.
414. 415.
pressural
Eefleotion
surface of
an isotropic medium
363 363
and a uniaxal
416
417.
The
When
by Fresnel's formulae
418.
the axis
419.
863
is
internally reflected
with air
those
365 366
420.
Crystalline reflection
and
refraction
421.
The
intensities
satisfy the
same equations,
as
furnished
422.
428. 424.
Uniradial directions
....
whose axis
368 368
369
370
the
case
425.
Polarizing
lies in
angle in
of
uniaxal
crystal,
426.
....
371
372
XXU
ART.
CONTENTS.
PAa=
427
428 429
372 373
373
431.
When
no light is reflected at the twin plane 432434. Plane of incidence perpendicular to the plane of symmetry 435436. In this case, the direction of polarization is reversed by
.
375
377 379 379
reflection,
when
.
437.
Metallic reflection
...
is
small.
Note to
402
CHAPTER
XX.
Faraday's law
Verdet's discovery concerning ferromagnetic media
Kerr's experiments
....
. . .
443.
444. 445.
when under
450.
451.
452.
453.
454.
455.
456.
Experiments on benzol, paraffin and other liquids Kerr's law Kerr's experiments on reflection from a magnet Description of the appliances employed Experiments upon, from a magnetic pole Description of the arrangements employed, when the incidence is normal Experimental results in this case Kerr's law Experiments when the lines of magnetic force are parallel to the
.
. .
.... ....
...
384 384
385 385
reflector
457.
458. 459. 460. 461. 462.
Experimental results
Summary
463 465
HaU's experiments on nickel and cobalt 389 Experiments on reflection from an electrified conductor are needed 389 Kundt's experiments on reflection from nickel and cobalt 464. 389 Experiments on the transmission of light through thin films of 466.
.
these metals
467.
468.
.......
.
,
.391
CONTENTS.
ABT.
472.
XXIU
PAGE
392 393 394
395
Table of the values of Hall's effect for difEerent metals Theory of magnetic action on light
396
.
Rotatory polarization
The theory explains Faraday's experiments The boundary conditions The electrostatic and the electrokinetic energy The final boundary conditions Beflection and refraction from glass, which is magnetized normally
....
is parallel to
the
408
485.
...
...
...
486.
Concluding remarks
408 411
ERRATA.
Page
33 lines
7
and
8,
read "
it
will be
37
41
9,
10,
5,
read
flint
for fluid.
;
94 95 102
for
(2G).
9,
14,
5,
ad r'^/^Vor
.""'.
139 144
,,
242
284
read in for
is.
294
CHAPTER
I.
INTRODUCTION.
1.
The
Science of Optics
:
may
(i)
and refraction
and the theory of optical instruments (ii) Experimental whose object is to discover the optical properties of transparent and other substances, which are capable of affecting
Optics,
light
;
(iii)
Physical
Optics,
whose aim
is
to
explain
optical
phenomena by means
Optics,
of a dynamical theory;
(iv)
Physiological
which deals with the sensation produced by light upon The present treatise will be principally confined to the third branch of the subject but inasmuch as the fundamental object of every theory of light is to explain experithe retina of the eye.
;
principles, it will
be necessary
and discuss a variety of experimental phenomena, in order that we may be in a position to compare the results furnished by theory, with those established by experiment.
2.
Two
Undulatory Theory. The corpuscular theory was proposed by Newton, and it assumes that a luminous body emits material particles in all directions, which, by their impact upon the retina,
produce the sensation of
of light;
light.
By
Newton
leads
to
the
conclusion,
is
highly
refracting substances
tive power, whereas
it
r>
2
converse
is
INTRODUCTION.
the case.
untenable.
first
1678, and in the hands of Young, Fresnel and others, has been
found capable of furnishing so satisfactory an explanation of experimental results, that it is now universally accepted as the true
theory of
is
light.
all
space
is
filled
with a
medium
which
wave motion,
and of transmitting such vibrations with a definite velocity. Whenever any substance, which is capable of exciting periodic motion in the ether, exists in any portion of space, it is supposed
that waves consisting of periodic vibrations are continually propa
gated in
all
directions.
When
and a certain
is
transmitted to the
brain by means of the optic nerve, and gives rise to the sensation
of light.
3.
It
all
vibrations which
the ether
In
it is
well
air,
the physical
is
wave
incapable
any impression upon the ear. In fact the ear is only capable of taking cognizance of waves of sound, whose periods lie
within certain definite limits.
Similarly the eye
is
only capable
of being affected by ethereal waves, whose periods lie between certain limits, which are far narrower than the corresponding
and which in acoustical language may be described as lying within an octave. At the same time it is certain that ethereal waves exist, whose periods lie outside the
limits in the case of Sound,
which
existence
effects
The luminiferous
liquids,
air,
and
ultraterrestrial space,
Mole
cular theories furnish strong grounds for the conclusion, that the
which are
filled
it
is
owing to
hard transparent substances like glass and diamond are capable of transmitting light. If therefore we assume that a hard and dense
substance, such as glass, contains interstices which are filled with
would be somewhat inconsistent to suppose, that the is due to the fact, that it does not contain ether. We must therefore look for an explanation of the opacity of tallow or wax, as being due to some peculiar action of the molecular structure of such materials, which prevents the ether contained in them from transmitting vibrations.
ether, it
If
we were
and its relation to ponderable matter, the explanation of optical phenomena would become a mere question of mathematical
ether
analysis.
ties
We
and
are
abundant grounds
ether,
ties.
for justifying
we
question,
is
to
dynamically sound method of making some hypothesis which and physically possible, and which is capable of being expressed in a mathematical form, and then to compare the results to
which theory leads us with known experimental facts. If the results of our theory are wholly inconsistent with experiment, the
theory must he abandoned; but
if
wholly or partially in accordance with experiment, we shall be justified in concluding that our theory, if not absolutely true, may
at
truth.
The
first
He supposed that the ether is a medium by Green compression and distortion and he resisting which is capable of showed that when the medium is isotropic, the equations of motion are the same as those of an isotropic elastic solid, and contain two independent constants, one of which measures the resistance to Green compression, and the other the resistance to distortion.
in 1837.
;
12
INTRODUCTION.
also led to
is
was
constant
sometimes been interpreted to mean that the ether is almost is not an essential
part of Green's theory.
satisfied, if
the ether
were more compressible than the most highly compressible ga.s; all that is necessary is, that the ratio of the resistance to compression
to
Green's
media, but
refraction,
it
fails
to
furnish
persion.
5. The second class of theories, are theories based upon the mutual reaction of ether and matter. When a wave of light impinges upon a transparent or opaque substance, it is supposed that the vibrations of the ether set the molecules of the matter composing the substance into a state of vibration, and that these vibrations modify the motion of the ether. If the ether be
is finite
though
small
of
substances
met
which
that
if
incandescent (such as burning sodium), be transmitted through the vapour of those substances, light will be absorbed. The
first suggested by upon a theorem due to Sir J. Herschel, that when a dynamical system is acted upon by a periodic force, whose
Stokes', depends
period
is equal, or nearly so, to one of the periods of the free mhrations of the system, the corresponding forced vibration will he
sodium vapour when incandescent, emits light of a is consequently one of the free periods of the vibrations of sodium vapour. Accordingly, when light from a sodium flame passes through sodium vapour, the molecules of the vapour are thrown into a violent state of vibration; and as the energy required for the maintenance of these vibrations must be supplied by the waves of light, it follows that a comparatively small portion of the energy which enters the vapour emerges from it, and therefore light is absorbed. The
large.
Now
Fhil.
p. 196.
foregoing illustration will give some idea of the way in which the vibrations of ether are affected by the presence of matter.
6.
The
of an
third theory,
is
which supposes that light is the electromagnetic disturbance. This theory not only explains the propagation of light in isotropic media, but furnishes
the most satisfactory theory of double refraction which has yet
been proposed.
The early death of Maxwell at the age of fortynine prevented him from elaborating and completing this theory, which as it left his hands, took no account of dispersion, nor of rotatory polarization produced by quartz or turpentine but several important
;
additions to the
made during
recent years,
which
7.
will
To commence
upon
in the
variety of optical
mathematical resources of the reader; but inasmuch as there are a phenomena, which are capable of being explained
upon the hypothesis of a medium which is capable of propagating waves, without entering into any speculations concerning the physical properties of the medium, I think that the best course to
adopt will be to dispense as
for
far as possible
means
wave
We
Double Ee
be
satisfactorily discussed
kind
we
and the production of coloured rings by thin crystalline plates; and we shall then be in a better position to understand the more theoretical portions of the subject.
wave
8.
When
out the
medium
and
if
the
effect,
INTRODUCTION.
its
comparison with
be observed, the
waves
may
We
plane waves
is
we
then
if v
we may
= Acos(xVte)
(1).
wave motion
is
given in
76, to
my
V,\,e; we may we please introduce the period t in the place of V or X, because Vt = \; accordingly (1) may be written in the forms
v
t\ fx e = Acos2^^ ^=Acos
.
{y
27r/x
j
,\
,,.
(2),
We
The quantity
constant
is
e is called
its
assumed
as the origin.
This
The quantity
the medium.
is
travelling in
In isotropic media,
is
is
a function of the
That light
was
first
established in
when the
Jupiter's
planet Jupiter was nearest to the Earth, the eclipses of moons happened earlier than they ought to have done
;
whilst
when
Jupiter was
therefore
later.
He
from one point to another, and he calculated that the velocity of light in vacuo was 3023 x 10' metres per second.
WAVE
vacuo
is
MOTION.
The
appears
produce dispersion,
practically the
same
from
theoretical
considerations
media which do not for all colours, and to depend upon the
is
properties of the
medium
being propagated.
Both theory and experiment agree in showing that the colour of light depends upon the period of vibration or, since the velocity
;
is
may
also
The
periods of the
red waves are the longest, whilst those of the violet are
shortest
;
the
assisted
for it is
known
a note
is
determined either by
its
period or
wavelength,
wavelength.
There
is
if
however an important distinction between the period of one note is double that of
Nothing corresponds
this
is,
that the
sensitiveness
octaves,
limited to less
than an octave.
table
will
of the
spectrum
hereafter be given
but
it will
be well to mention,
and
tenthmetre
10"^" of a metre.
10.
The
Let
This
may be
seen as
be a source of
light,
and
be elements
of the surfaces of
two spheres, whose common centre is 0, which by a cone whose vertex is 0. Let r, r be the radii of
intensities at
falls
d&, dS'.
equal,
IdS^I'dS',
whence
Ir^
= I'r'^
INTRODUCTION.
A, A' be the amplitudes of the spherical waves at dS, A and A' are inversely proportional to r and / whence
i{
Now
dS',
IIA'^I'/A'^
from which we infer that the intensity
of the amplitude.
is
state of vibration
is
the wave.
Modern
Lord Rayleigh
is
light,
on the other
by the average energy per unit of volume. Now so long as we are considering the propagation of light in a single isotropic medium,
it is
not of
definition
we
and
the refracted light will not be proportional to the squares of their amplitudes, but will contain a factor, whose value will depend
upon which
definition
we
adopt.
It will
be advantageous to adopt
in
make the
same
which we
is
a gas or an elastic
half kinetic
is
and
half potential;
in
is
proposition
that a similar the case of the ether, with regard to whose physical properties we have not at present made any
true
in
1
therefore
we assume
"
Wave
DIRECTION OF VIBRATION.
hypothesis,
it
is
per unit
of volume
,.^.
= :^l + cos^(^eFO
(3).
We
therefore
see that
consists
of a nonperiodic
and a
The former
term represents what we have called the average energy per unit of volume, and accordingly the intensity is measured by the quantity 2'7r^A^p/T'\ and is directly proportional to the product of the density and the square of the amplitude, and inversely proportional to the
square of the period.
11.
Up
we have been
considering the
made
any supposition as to the direction of vibration. We now come to a point of capital importance, which constitutes one of the fundamental distinctions between waves of sound and waves of light. It is well known that in a plane wave of sound, the displacement is perpendicular to the wave front but in the case of plane waves of light, the displacement lies in the front of the wave. This is established experimentally in the following manner. There are certain crystals, of which Iceland spar is a good example, which possess the power of dividing a given incident ray into two refracted
;
rays,
and from
this
refracting
crystals.
Iceland
is
spar
is
called
uiiiaxal
crystal,
are
symmetrical.
The symmetry
crystals is
therefore of the
is
same kind
There
a second class of doubly refracting crystals, called biaxal crystals, which possess two optic axes, with respect to neither of which the
properties of the crystal are symmetrical.
refracted rays, which are produced
Now
if
by a
upon a
usually
it will
divided into two refracted rays, there are four positions, at right
angles to one another, in which one or other of the two refracted
rays
is
absent.
10
positions,
faces,
INTRODUCTION.
and then be turned round an
that
of the
intensity in
creases,
when the
plate has been turned through a right angle, the intensity of the
is
maximum,
restored.
Now
if
therefore in an isotropic
of a ray
medium
would be the same on every side of it if however the vibrations were parallel to the wave front, and therefore perpendicular to the ray,
we should
would
We
is
amply
justified
periment.
12.
is
the direction of
then
if
that
v
= Acos{xVte)
A.
(4).
light,
Equation (4) represents what is called a wave oi plane polarized and the plane of xz, which is the plane to which the vibrais
was
for
many
but modern
is
investigations
supposition
We
in subsequent chapters.
We
shall
trains of waves,
whose wave
lengths are equal, and whose planes of polarization are the same,
may be compounded.
Let the
first
wave be given by
v'
(4),
and
let
e');
then
if
</>
= (27r/X) {xVt
e),
= (27r/X,)
(e
 e)
COMPOSITION OP WAVES.
we obtain
v
11
+ v' = A cos ^ + A' cos (4> + S) = (A + A' cos 8) cos A' sin <p sin 8 = (A' + A'"' + 2AA' cos B) cos (0 + a)
cj)
(5),
where
tan a
.
77 + A'
cos 8
"We therefore see that the two waves compound into a single wave, whose amplitude and phase are different from those of either of the original waves.
The amplitude
is
proportional to
(A"
+ A'^+ 2AA'
;
cos
S)i,
and
to
may
A  A'
to
A + A'
the
J)
iirst
of which cor
responds to 8
S = 2mr or
differ
X,
that
when
the phases
intensity
by an odd multiple
due
to
of
the light
;
diminished
multiple
the
the
intensity of the
resultant
light is increased.
li
A = A',
we
lights
13.
We
shall
now
compounding two
=A
cos
 (xVt e)
A.
'W
= A' cos
(xVte')
A,
(6),
in
which the
first
represents a
wave polarized
xi/.
may be
written
cos
(f),
w= A' (cos
Eliminating
(fj,
(f)
cos 8
sin
(/>
sin 8).
we
v^
T
obtain
+ A,. A'A^
From equation
ellipses,
(7),
w^
8 =smo
.
,_.
(7). '
^
we
12
propagation.
INTRODUCTION.
The
resultant
light
in
this
case
is
said
to
be
elliptically polarized.
may
be
produced by the composition of two waves of plane polarized light, whose amplitudes and phases are different, and whose planes of
and conversely, a wave of elliptically polarized light can always be resolved into two waves of plane polarized light, whose planes of polarization are at right angles.
polarization are at right angles
;
If
A = A', and 8 =
(?i
becomes
differ
and the
light
circularly polarized
compounded
of the
as
v=
A cos {aoVt e)
A.
(8).
w= Asm
Let us now suppose, that
of
let
{xVte)
A
tlie
observer
is is
in the direction in
If
ether,
accordingly.
dt
2TrA
cos
^'
;
velocity along
OP
is
zero
and
if
be the
OP, measured
in the direction
which ^ decreases,
POLARIZED LIGHT.
Since
TJ is positive,
13
is
called
a righthanded circularly polarized wave^. We see that compounded of the two plane polarized waves
v
may be
=A
cos
<j),
w=A
sin
<}).
POy = 7r
= i sin
this
I
Since U'
left
;
is
from right to
and a wave of
It
kind
is
polarized wave.
may be compounded
v
waves
=A
cos
^,w = A
sin
<^.
Conversely, any plane polarized wave may be regarded as being compounded of a righthanded and a lefthanded circularly polarized wave, whose amplitudes, phases and velocities of propagation are
equal.
If
mr,
or e
= e' +^X,
(7)
Tedncesto v/A=w/A',
which represents a plane polarized wave. From this result, we see that two plane polarized waves cannot compound into another plane polarized wave, unless their phases differ by a multiple of
half a wavelength.
elliptically polarized
We
proposition,
known
as the Prin
ciple
of Huygens.
Let
PQ
fix
be the
front, at
;
t,
of a
wave
of
is
travelling outwards
t'.
and
let
To
our ideas we
may
spherical,
in
an
seolotropic
medium.
At time
t,
will
be in a
state of vibration
1
hence
may be
are the same as those of translation and rotation of a righthanded screw ; they are
also related in the circulating
force produced
by an
electric current
14
ance,
INTRODUCTION.
which propagates a spherical wave.
t'
;
Draw OPP'
to
meet
after the
a'
will
if Q be any other point on the wave front at time t, and OQQ' be drawn to meet the wave front at time t', it follows that at time t' the ether at Q' will be set in motion, owing to the secondary wave propagated by Q. We therefore see, that the wave front at time t'
is
may be
conceived to
t.
We
was
:
first
may
be stated as follows
of a primary wave upon any given point in the region beyond the wave, may he obtained by dividing the primary luave into
an
the
indefinite
centres of disturbance,
number of small elements, which are to be regarded as and finding by integration over ike front of
the
primary wave,
sum of the
It is a
light
is
equal
We
shall
now prove
this
law by means
Let
is
AB
reflected
be any portion of the front of a plane wave, which at AG, any point upon it; and draw MP, BO
Draw AB,
CB
15
angles DAG and DCA are respectively equal to the angles BOA and BAG; and draw perpendicular to CD. Let t, T be the times which the wave occupies in travelling to P and G.
PN
Then
also since the triangles
in every respect,
hence since
Now when
a
and spherical waves will be propagated at the end of an interval Tt the wave has reached G, and the secondary wave which diverges from P has reached N, since we ~ V{T t). Hence all the secondary waves have shown that which diverge from points between A and G will touch AG, which is accordingly the front of the reflected wave at the instant the incident wave has reached G.
centre of disturbance,
PN
Since
in
BCA = DAG
of
incidence
16.
be the In order to prove the law of refraction, let second medium in the and with A as light centre velocity of and let GE be the tangent drawn describe a sphere of radius VT,
;
from
G to
this sphere
draw
PN'
perpendicular to GE.
Then
whence
'
which shows when the incident wave has reached G, the secondary wave which diverges from P in the second medium, will have reached N'. Hence GE is the front of the refracted wave.
If
i,
and
whence
which
is
smr
tf/
16
INTRODUCTION.
is
more highly
accordingly
the
of light
is
medium
a more
highly refracting
medium such
is
as glass.
index of refraction
in the
two media.
direction of the refracted ray
The
we
not spherical.
Let
AB
the
of
point of incidence.
With
as a centre describe
two spheres
V,
AG
two media.
meet the
plane
first
Let the incident ray be produced to sphere in P, and let the tangent at P meet the
the tangeat from
AP
to the second
PTA = PAX,
V'~
But
and
QTA = QAX,
V^A^^
PAX =
i,
whence
QAX =
r.
CHAPTER
II.
INTERFERENCE.
17.
We
we
shall
assume
ether, without enquiring for the present into the physical constitu
We
which
is
We
shall
now proceed
to examine
how
far
this hypothesis
have shown in 12, that the superposition of two waves of whose directions, wavelengths, velocities of propagation and planes of polarization are the same, but whose amplitudes and
light
We
may
is proceeding from two sources very close to one another. At a point whose distance from the two sources is large in comparison with the distance between them, the waves may be regarded as approximately plane and parallel to one another, and the displacements may be resolved into two components at right angles to one another in the front of the wave. Hence if v, v' be any two components whose directions
are parallel,
we may take
 (a;
=A cos
is
Vt),
v'
= A' cos (x
Vt
e),
two vibrations
B. O.
18
INTERFERENCE.
+ v' = ^COS^(xVt^)
27re/X
(]),
where
and
X
(2),
u4'sm27re/X
A + J.
= 2^
.
.7
cos27re/A,
,
(S). ^
^
become
gl
le
(4),
when
that
It therefore follows
waves
differ
it is
two
common
origin, otherwise it
would be impossible to insure that the amplitudes of the two waves should be equal, or that the difference of phase should remain invariable accordingly if the light from two different candles were made to pass through two pinholes in a card, which
;
light
would not take place'; but if from a single candle were passed through a pinhole, and the resulting light were then passed through the two pinholes,
are very close together, interference
interference
if
close together.
The phenomenon
of the truth of the
of interference was regarded as a crucial test Undulatory Theory, before that theory was so
it is
firmly established as
at present
inasmuch as
it is
impossible
lights
to satisfactorily explain
how two
We
AB,
shall
now
two mirrors" inclined at an angle tt a, where a is very small let be a luminous point', and let S, be the images of formed by the mirrors AB, AG; also let P be any point on a screen PN, which is parallel to the line of intersection
;
AG he
of the mirrors,
'
and
to
SH.
not considered.
pp. 159, 186, 268.
light
i.
The
effect of diffraction is
vol.
^
'
CEuvres Completes,
slit.
FRESNELS
Since
MIIIIIORS.
19
AO =AS = AII,
S and
is
SP HP.
SH.
Let
AO = a, NP X,
whence
accordingly
d the distance
Then
Now
of the screen
is
large
is
equal to
.(5).
dX
a
Since a
is
sin a,
and
\nKd\aa.,
is
an integer.
homogeneous
light
N of the
and on either
side of this
bands
and dark bands succeeding one another in regular order; the distance between two bright bandf or two dark bands being equal
22
20
to ^Xdjaa.
INTERFERENCE.
From
this result
we
the bands
of
many
as
is
quently the
number
equal to ^Xd/aa,
it
length,
bands depend upon the waveand therefore upon the colour; hence if sunlight be
At the
of phase of
and
will
At a
still
become mixed
to such
In Fresnel's second experiment', the light was refracted 19. by means of a prism having a very obtuse angle, which is called
a biprism.
Let
let
face
let
S and
draw LG,
i.
LH
p. 3.S0,
BIPLATES.
these faces.
21
be the index of
refraction.
Let
OA = a,
and
let
fi
Then
Hence
if
/j,')
sin
T is
S',
The
light
may now be
if
and
and therefore
d be the distance
1)
a;
sin 2a,
of the
same form
of the
The breadths
(T +
fia)
{fi I) sin
2cc'
Now the index of refraction which involves fi as well as X. depends not only upon the material of which the prism is made, but also on the colour of the light; hence the breadths of the
bands are affected by the dispersive power of the prism, but are
otherwise the same as in the last experiment.
20.
third
mode
is
by
means of
biplates.
Let GQ, Cq be two thin plates of thickness T inclined at a If be a luminous origin situated on ir  2a.
GA
through the plates GQ, Gq will appear to diverge from two 8, H, such that ;Si.ff is perpendicular to OG.
^>
INTERFERENCE.
parallel to Let OQET be any ray, draw be the angles of incidence and refraction
QM
SH;
then
if
i,
OS
Tsecr
sin (i
cos(i
r) a)'
i).
2T
Since
a.
is
small, this
may be
approxi
mately written
SH = 2Ta(lfj.').
Having obtained the value
before.
of
SH, the
calculation proceeds as
21.
M, N, placed
so that
and
N intersect
at a point
on M.
The
first
and
is
reflected at the
mirror L, and
such that
S'A
= 2 (' +
80
to
o,
6),
and
at, a>'
The
light reflected at
such that
SB =
whence
e),
AB = SASB = 20 + S'ASB
= 2((o'0).
'
i.
p. 703.
DISPLACEMENT OF FRINGES.
Hence
interfere.
if
to'
23
and
is
AB
will be small,
will
be in a condition to
When interference fringes are viewed through a prism, or 22. through a plate of glass held obliquely to the screen, the fringes will be displaced, and we shall now calculate the displacement.
Let
/3
plate,
/j,
its
index of refraction,
its
draw
EM
OF.
SQRP
GP = x,OS = c;
then
/3,
and
the angle of
and we
and
higher powers.
Now
whence
RM _
_ sin (i  r)
cos(i/8)'
RM=(u,l)i.
Also
QM _ cos
QR
QM.
{13
r)
cos (i
yS)
whence
Now
whence
SQ + RP
d^
+ \wc+~
T
{/J,
!rcos(^7')
cos r cos
(i
1)1
/3)
24
INTERFERENCE.
whence
R^
= d+ ^^
{/u,
{x
c)
+ T (fi  1) i]'
.iT(.i)(.;:.?f)
We
or
must now
find i in
terms of
x.
We
have
whence
^^d + ,^(xc) _
+ ir(/.  1) (2  1)
approximately, accordingly
^=
P,
is
'^
+ 2^=d {m (^
of
Rn,
c)
r(/.
1) /3}=
The value
H to
obtained by
changing c into
2c^
c whence
;
i?,iJ,^+
The
which
is
2(^l)yc/3 _
^^^
0,
8.
original central
band was x =
determined by S
is
now given by
(6),
^_(j^^}m
which shows that
23.
it is
examined through a prism, different from the theoretical result given by (6). This difficulty was first explained by Airy\ who drew attention to the fact that when no prism is used, the central band is the locus of the points /or which all colours of
interference fringes are
When
is
the light coviposing the two pencils have travelled over equal paths.
Now from (6) it appears, that the displacement of the points which formerly constituted the central band, depends upon jx, the index of refraction of the prism and this quantity is different for different colours, being greatest for violet and least for red light.
;
Since the original central band consists of a mixture of light of every colour,
portion
it
of the
band
will
be
less
violet,
and
nearest
violet.
This band
Phil.
Mag. 1833,
p. 161.
LLOYDS EXPERIMENT.
25
The
actual achromatic
band
is
con
bands of
all colours
hence
if
central
displacement will be
= v + xXdjIc.
is
as nearly as possible
in
d dX'
Since the width h
written
of a
band
is
may be
dv n=
dh'
band
is'
dv
'^'dh24.
is
reflected
GD
at
The
emerge
is
therefore equi
Let BG,
1 See also Comix, Jour, de Phys. vol. i. p. 293 (1882). Lord Eayleigh, " aohromatio interference bands," Phil. Mag. (5), vol. xxviii. pp. 77 and 189. ' Trans. Roy. Ir. Acad. vol. xvii.
On
26
INTERFERENCE.
meet the screen
in Q, q
;
BD
is
due to the
is
q.
visible
by
AB=2c
the retardation at x
is
2cx/dr(iJLl),
whence
x,= T(fil)d/2c,
and
Xn
T(iJ.l)d/2c
+ n\d/2c,
and consequently the position of the achromatic band, which is determined by dx^jdX = 0, will be given by n, where n is the
integer nearest to
Tdf^ldX.
One peculiarity must be noticed, and that is that the band, which corresponds to a zero difference of path, is not white but black. Now when we consider the dynamical theory of reflection
and
refraction,
it
will
but
is
negative.
of
From
e
(2)
we
is
see
that
when
to
A'=A,
band
is
the
intensity
the
mixture
proportional
= 0.
The
adjoining bright
given by e
= ^X,
or
x=T{iu,l)dl2c + \d/4<c.
EXAMPLES.
1.
is
ABC,
of which
is
a right angle.
(x, y)
on a parallel screen at
TT
\d
(ax
TTilX
^ cos TTCy r
\d \d
of
where x\.G=a,
the origin,
on the screen
is
EXAMPLES.
2.
27
is
A small
reflected in three
mirrors, in such a
form an equilateral triangle ahc, whose centre of gravity is o. A, B, C, are the projections of a, h, c, o upon a screen which is parallel to the plane a, h, c. Show that the intensity at any point P in the line OA, is to that at 0, in the ratio
1
 f sin' STrpd/iXh
I,
where h
is
PO p, oa= d.
CHAPTER
III.
When
light is incident
of a transparent
The explanation of this phenomenon incidence upon the outer surface of the
portions, the first of
film, is
which
is
reflected
by the outer
is
refracted.
The
refracted portion
reflected
and since the thickness of the film is very small, the difference of the paths of the two portions is comparable with the wavelength, and the two streams are therefore in a condition Accordingly if sunlight is employed, a series of to interfere.
the outer surface
;
brilliantly coloured
bands
is
observed.
shall
In order to obtain a mathematical theory of these bands, we suppose that two plates of glass cut from the same piece, are
them
and we
26.
It will
and refracted
formulae,
manner, which depends upon the angle of incidence and the index
of refraction.
The mathematical
two
cases,
intensities in these
is
however the angle of incidence refracted from the plate into the stratum
If
critical
of of
is
less
than the
angle,
we can
PRINCIPLE OF REVERSION.
29
Let
let
lA
in the
first
medium, and
AE,
refracted rays
also let
AB! be
dent along
FA
FA
are reflected
the second medium. Then the principle two rays AR, AF be reversed, so that RA and and refracted at A, they will give rise to the
Let
first
let
Ah,
Ac
the
when the
medium
is
glass
is
air
Af be
amplitude
is
AV^
reflected along
AI, AR'.
Abe
Similarly
if
refracted along
it will
AF be
reversed,
give rise to
Ace
reflected along
AR',
Acf
another,
refracted along
AI.
AR' must
along
destroy one
AI
must be
we
b^
obtain
+ 6 = 0,
= J.
+ cf=l
(1).
27.
We
are
now
in
Let
sin 27rf/T
;
let i
D the
Matli,
Cairib.
11.
and Dvhlin
p. 1
vol,
p. 89,
30
which
is
incident at
is
A^
is
reflected
reflected at B^,
portion
is
which
is
due
to
by
Acefsm
Also
if X'
't
27r I
2AB,\
j
(2).
be the wavelength in
is
glass,
the vibration at
due
to the light
which
reflected at
.J
.
A^
is
ft
AM\
(2AB
Writing
(t
^AM\
.4ce/sin (0
AM\
,.,
(2)
may be
written
+ S),
where B is the retardation of the light which was refracted at A^. Taking accoiint of (1), and also of the infinite series of reflections and refractions at An, A, etc., we obtain for the resulting
vibration at
A
{sin
y=Ab [.sin ^  (1  )
Summing
^
'
(^
+ 8)
I sin
((j>
.38)
}]
this series
(1
we
obtain
sin S cos
^ 2 Ab
whence the
inten.sity is
j,_
Since
obtain
8
M'5^sin'8
(1 62)2
+ 4^2 sin^iS
i,
.(4).
AB, =
\'/X
sin i/sin r,
we
(5).
Newton's rings.
31
film of air
Although we have supposed at the commencement, that a thin is contained between two plates of glass very near one
it is
another,
black.
The
when 2D
cos r
n\, where
\, it follows
is
an integer
that
when
sunlight
light, it
can
be shown in a precisely similar manner, that the vibration which emerges at Bi is represented by
y = Ac/ {sin
(f>
e=
sin (^
+ S)
I
e"
sin (^
1
2S)
+
we
}.
Summing
this series,
is
(1),
shall find
'
(lbj+4<b'sin"i8
see that
^"^
Adding
(4)
and
(5)
we
P + I,' = A^
or the
is
(7)
sum
This result
is
sometimes
in mind,
complementary
that (7)
is
to one another.
It
inasmuch as a portion of the light is always absorbed in transmission through the plate it only becomes true in the limit for perfectly
;
transparent substances.
Newtmis Rings.
28.
The coloured
rings
first
down upon
flat
the experi
ment may
also
of a convex lens.
exceedingly
32
may be regarded
Let
R be
OM = p.
Then
PM=
D,
D, and
whence neglecting
= 27rp/R\.cosr
or p^
(8),
= 2n7r
nR\ sec r
(9).
and therefore whence the central spot is homogeneoua light is employed, the central .spot will be surrounded by a series of dark rings, whose diameters are pro0, p
At
S = 0;
black.
If
The
intensity will be a
maximum, when
or p
8=(2n+
l)'n
(n
+ i) RXsecr
(10);
Vf Vf
etc.
are
also proportional
to
it
increases.
employed, a number of
red
(3) purple,
;
33
is usually known as Newton's scale of colours ; and the expression " red or blue of the third order," refers to the colour of
that
name
In the preceding discussion of Newton's rings, we have supposed that a thin stratum of air constitutes the thin plate conse;
quently
it
is
it
exceeds the
central spot
critical angle.
is
Under
these circumstances,
it will
be
a system of coloured rings, and that the but the consideration of this question must be deferred, until we have discussed the dynamical theory of
still
;
black
reflection
and
refraction.
The system
of transmitted
is
rings
is
complementary
to
the
less distinct.
The phenomenon known as the colours of thick plates was who allowed sunlight, proceeding into a hole in the windowshutter, to fall a through room darkened
29.
first
observed by Newton',
perpendicularly upon a concave mirror formed of glass quicksilvered white opaque card pierced with a small hole was at the back.
placed at the centre of curvature of the mirror, so that the regularly reflected light returned through the small hole, and a
set of coloured rings
hole.
experiment,
observed that the brilliancy of the rings was much increased by spreading over the surface of the mirror a mixture of milk and water, which was allowed to dry, and thus produced a permanent
tarnish.
The
first
explained on the
to the interfer
who
attributed
them
ence of two streams of light, one of which is scattered on entering the glass, and then regularly reflected and refracted, whilst the
other
is
emerging from the first surface due to Stokes^ which we shall now
Book
part
4.
Optics,
II.
2
3
Mem.
"
On
B. o.
34
30.
thesis
In order
and repassing, hy
originally
like
the
same
same
set
of particles.
Two
may
have come
from
the
were not
true, it
would
follow, that if a
and water,
such that they could not possibly have escaped notice had they
been formed.
law
is
This experiment
is
decisive,
for the dimensions of particles of dust, although small compared with the standards of ordinary measurement, are not small in comparison
also
apparent from
theoretical
considerations
light,
is
so
that the
;
light
scattered
at
most irregular
why
regular interference
is possible at all is, that each particle manner, once when the wave enters and
again
when
it
emerges.
31.
We
shall
the problem
is
plane.
Let
Lo,
L be the luminous point, the eye of the observer let Eo be the feet of the perpendiculars let fall from L and on to
;
the
dimmed
PLANE MIRROE.
Let
35
is
L8TPE
regularly
and scattered on emergence at P; and let LPVQE be the course of the ray, which is scattered entering the glass and is then regularly reflected and
T,
8 and
refracted.
Let LoP
also
i,
let
be the
its
Si;
index of refraction,
i?i, i?,
r the angles of
Then
R,:=LS + 2iJ.ST+PE
(11),
(12).
= s,
sini
= /isinr
r,
Now
We may
i,
therefore,
as
sufficient
Expanding
powers of
r and
u,
we
Ri=c+2fit + h + ^{ci' +
But
(12) gives
i=fir
=
fic
lis
2t'
whence
Aoain, if
^=
i',
'
(^^^
R,=LP+2fiPV+QE
= (c + s^)* + 2/jLt sec r' + c sec
and
A tan
i'
i',
E, = A + 2^ +
+ 2^^^^ +
J
(15),
whence
^ = ^i " ^= =
{/,
(^7^+ 2^
~ ^O^li)}"
is
.(16).
The
therefore pro
portional to cos'ttR/X.
32
36
Let Ea be the origin, and let EJE be the axis of z, and let the Let x, y be the coordinates of P, and plane xz pass through L.
let
ELa
= a.
Then
u
.(17).
Also
its
let
square
may
be neglected.
Then
substituting in (16),
we obtain
.(18).
R:
U.lhX' +
R
is
f')
2ax
c
constant;
circles,
on the axis
Hence
if
all'
'*" 1 / ah
ah
'
.(19).
Now
ah/{h
+ c) and
ah/{h
c)
which the plane of the mirror is cut by two lines drawn from the eye to the luminous point and its image respectively. We thus
obtain the following construction for finding the centre of the
system
Join
tlie
and
its
image,
and
meet the mirror ; then the middle point of the line joining the two points, in which the mirror is cut hy the two
lines joining the eye, will be the centre
of the system.
Hence
if
perpendicular let
fall from the eye on to the plane of the mirror, the miiTor between and the eye, the concavity of the fringes and will be turned to the right. If the luminous point, still lying on
the right, be
so as to
and ultimately fall behind it, the curvature will decrease until the fringes become straight, after which it will increase in the
PLANE MIRROR.
contrary direction, the convexity being
right.
37
The
circle iJ
it
may be
every point of
the intensity
When
is
drawn through
= 0, and
(18) becomes
is
reduced to a point
for
the
order
R=X,
the ring
is
equal to
which becomes
be at
first
infinite
when
= h.
Hence
if
till it passes behind it, the rings expand indefinitely and then disappear, and will reappear again when the luminous point has passed the eye.
but
sun in a small concave mirror, and placed a piece of plateglass between the concave mirror and a plane mirror, the surface of
The
plate of glass
was situated at a distance of some feet from the plane mirror, and was inclined at an angle of about 45. The greater part of the
coming from the image of the sun, was transmitted through and on returning from the large mirror, a portion of this light was reflected sideways, so that the rings could be seen by reflection in the plate of glass without obstructing the The system of rings thus seen was very beautiful incident light. and Stokes found that on moving back the head, the rings
light
filled
expanded until the bright central patch surrounding the image the whole field of view, and on continuing to move back the
In the position in which the view ex
central patch filled the whole field of view, the least motion of the
sufficient to bring into the field of
38
32.
We
To prove
this, let
LE, the
LPpE
be a ray
which
is
and
let
LQpE
be a ray which
p.
is
scattered at entrance at Q,
and
regularly refracted at
Then
R,
where
if
/3
i,
Now
= Mp
p=
whence
Accordingly
Again,
if
i',
tan
i+
fJU>
tan
r,
1= firRi
=c+
fj,t
+ Ep +
fip
R, =
But
whence
LQ=c +
(p
*+ (>+i)'+'"+^+^'Ml
whence
Rj
2/i
\c
^ h)
(20).
39
by different particles to interfere, it would follow that there would be a series of rings whose radii are determined by means of (20). No such rings are however foimd to exist; and Stokes has shown, by
were possible
for light scattered
the'
have escaped notice had they been formed; hence the fundamental hypothesis enunciated in 30
is
proved to be true.
The
pressed
colours
of
first
discovered
by
together,
mixture
;
composed of two
different
materials, such as water and air and it was found on viewing a luminous point through the plates, that a system of coloured
was produced, which were considerably larger than the Further rings produced, when the intervening medium was air. experiments were made by Brewster", who employed various materials, such as transparent soap and whipped cream; but he obtained the best results by using the white of an egg beaten up
rings
into froth.
To
small quantity between two glass plates, and after having pressed it out into a iilm, he separated the glasses, and held them for a
.short
fire
so as to drive off
moisture.
The two
glasses
pressed together.
Young
fact,
that
of
immense number
;
separate globules,
some
and since the whilst others are transmitted through the liquid air, liquid than in a difference in a of phase velocity of light is less
is
is
in a condition to
interfere.
34.
The
is
due
to Verdet'.
Let 81, S'T be two parallel rays incident upon the surface of plate at an angle i, and let the refracted ray IR be supmixed a posed to pass through air, and the ray FR through the liquid.
1
=
i.
Ibid. 1838.
p. 155.
40
Also let
referred to air.
the retardation R^
to T8',
and R^ be
Let
of
r,
I,
T;
the thickness
whence
7^ = t sec r, TR = t sec r, I'K = t (tan r tan r') sin Ri t[fi (tan r tan r') sin isecr +
i,
fj,'
sec
'}.
But
whence
Ri =
t{/j,'
cos
r'
cos r),
=t
is
{(jj,'^
The
length in
intensity
will
maximum
1) X,
or
is
minimum,
the wave
according as R^
air.
equal to
nK
or
(re
where \
At normal
maximum when
R,=n\=t{ti \).
Newton's rings be formed by a prism and a lens, the be equal to (2iiJ)* whence if p be the radii of the bright rings seen by transmission when a mixture of air and liquid is employed
if
Now
ln\R
seen by transmission
If p' be the
plate
and
(6),
that at
from
2D = n\
EXAMPLES.
where
41
is
the thickness
and
since
p'^
= 2DR,
this
becomes
p' = n\R,
whence
If the
/u,'
^. p
/J,
1
composed of
air
mixed plate
consists of froth
and water,
= f, whence
p
= pW6.
^6
The
to
1.
EXAMPLES.
1.
Two
indices are
surfaces.
of crown and fluid glass, whose refractive form four parallel plane reflecting and refracting Light of wavelength \ in air could pass through each
plates
fi, /*',
plate in the
same time. A beam of parallel rays, proceeding from between the two plates, and incident at an angle i on the front of the crownglass, is partly reflected once from the front and partly once from the back, and these two reflected beams are afterwards reflected once from the back and front of the fluid glass an
origin
respectively.
air
wavelengths, where
is
sin*i is to be neglected.
2.
dimmed plane mirror, and the thickness of the glass be small, prove that the retardation which gives rise to the rings
point on to a
will
be
1\
Tx'T^
where
and u are the distances from the eye and luminous point
to the mirror, and x that of the point of scattering from the foot
of the perpendicular.
3.
down
upon a piece of glass the equation to w^hose bounding ^ = aa?y'', where a is a very small quantity, describe the is surface appearance presented by the reflected light.
origin,
CHAPTER
IV.
DIFFRACTION.
35.
When
is
upon a
;
screen, the
if
is
well defined
similarly
an obstacle of
It thus
cast
upon the
screen.
we
Now
it
is
known
all
lines; for if a
band
is
person seated in a room with an open window can hear the music
distinctly,
may be
its
was therefore raised inasmuch as sound is known to be due to aerial waves, and that such waves are able to bend round comers, a theory which seeks to explain optical phenomena by means of the vibrations of a medium, ought
seeing any of the musicians.
objection
The
infancy, that
sound
is
capable of
is
The reason
what was
theory, arises
met
wavelengths of audible sounds are not small compared with them'. In fact
it
shadow in the
case of sound, as
'
The wavelength
DIFFRACTION.
light.
43
At
be produced.
Thus:
an
opening of some size in the high ground which forms the watershed between the Mersey and the Dee. The noise of the explosion was heard through this opening for many miles, and great damage was done. Places quite close to the hulk, but behind the low hills through which the opening passes, were completely protected, the noise was hardly heard, and no damage to glass and such like
happened.
tlie
wavelength
of the sound^."
On the other hand it is not difficult to produce a soundshadow with an obstacle of small dimensions, by means of a sensitive flame and a tuningfork, which yields a note whose wavelength
is
so short as to be inaudible
for
turbance of the sensitive flame, by means of which the existence nonexistence of the sound is made manifest. And if an
obstacle be held
between the tuningfork and the flame, it is observed that the oscillations of the latter either cease altogether or appreciably diminish, which shows that a soundshadow has
been produced
When light passes through an aperture, such as a narrow whose dimensions are comparable with the wavelength of light, and is received on a screen, it is found that a welldefined shadow of the boundary of the aperture is no longer produced. If homogeneous light be employed, a series of bright and dark
36.
slit,
bands
is
and
if
of coloured bands
is
produced.
is
apertures thus
same conditions
and thus
the objections which were formerly advanced against the uudulatory theory fall to the ground.
"
of Sound, see
Lord
Eayleigli's
44
chapter
is
DIPFBACTION.
to show, that they are capable of being accounted for
parallel to that of
may be
be any
If
element
dS must
0.
will
When we
be shown
we suppose
that portion
same as if the screen in which the aperture exists were not present, or thai tJie wave passed on undisturbed ; the vibration at produced wave, an element dS of the primary would represented by be by the expression
'^^^ (1
cos 6)
ain^
cos
~{Vtr)
(1),
where r is the distance of from dS, 6 and <j) are the angles which r makes with the normal to dS drawn outwards and with
the direction of vibration respectively, and csin27rFi(/\
is
the
is
insensible unless
small,
nearly equal to
^v
we may
therefore as a
smcj)
l,
becomes
cdS
27r ,^ _cos(nr)
(2),
at
will
be obtained by integrating
The formula
(1),
rigorously deduced
which is based on the assumption that the equations of motion of the luminiferous ether are of the same form as those of an elastic
solid,
whose power of resisting compression is very large in comparison with its power of resisting distortion. It will not
1
Stokes, "
;
vol. IX. p. 1
On the Dynamical Theory of Diffraction " Trans. and Math, and Phijs. Papers, vol. ii. p. 243.
;
HUYGENS
however be necessary at present
ZONES.
45
to enter
may be
38. Let be any point towards which a plane wave is advancing; draw OP = r perpendicular to the front of the wave,
and with as a centre describe a series of concentric spheres whose radii are r + ^\, ...r + ^nX. These spheres will divide the wavefront into a series of circular annuli, which are called Huygens' zones. Now PM^^ = (r + iX)^ r^ and therefore, if \" be neglected, PMn' = nrX, and the area of each zone is equal to
TrrA..
= 27r/\,
be the displacement at
due to the original wave. Then it might be thought, that the due to an element at if would be displacement at
however
it is
is
we
that
to
Let e be be different from that of the primary wave. then since the amplitude of the zone this difference of phase is proportional to its area, the displacement produced by the th
;
zone will be
TrrXAn cosK(Vtr
 ^n\ +
e)
Now
1
by any
The
socalled Principle of
The reader may therefore, of dealing with the question of the resolution of waves. See Ch. xiii. and the truth of Stokes' law. if he pleases, assume for the present
also, Proc.
46
DIFFRACTION.
0; we may
therefore write
^r\ { 
^, +
. .
^=^"1
K{Vtr + e).
Now
^^+1
8271+2
^^i^_Oi+i)X).
are very nearly equal
^2n + \
Bo+2
__
2S,+i
+ (7i + l)X
(n.
+
r
1) X'
25., 2m+i
sum
of the terms
series is approximately neutralized by which immediately precede and succeed of the wave upon a distant point is
PM,
equal to
7rB
J y
27r
27r

{Vtr + e).
the
displacement
1,
produced at
e=
^\.
We
produced at
wave
^(Vtr)
(
is
equal to
may
also
sin
Fi
r)
(.3).
This result
27r,,
.dS
27r
r
A.
27r ,,^^
= cos
provided
justified
(Vtr),
=0, an assumption which
is
we suppose
by the
result.
that
cos co
'
Camb. Math.
Jmirii. vol.
iii.
p. 40.
CYLINDRICAL WAVE.
39.
47
result in the
We
we
write
R = (r^+ z")i
oc
for r,
,
and
x we
effect of
produced by an
whose distance
is
whence the
the source
equal to
A.
J
Jr (RT'rf
1{
Too
u=
R r,
g tKj' IK
Jo
ui(2r^u)i'^''
f
_ 
Also
'"
_
/CO
~(2f.lo
V"
M 2.2r +
(!)"

2.nl
r GO
e'"''^''
[ir)
+ P"'
e""Vidu=2
x^"dx
2''(("k)+4
"
Hence
if
kt
is
large,
which
is
all
may be
neglected,
be equal to
\^ikJ
\2,k,
accordingly the
part of
effect of
r,
is
the real
i^,
(1
 Oe'"''
^'^
7% sin (r  Ff + IX)
that
x
. .
(4).
We
ydy
can
now prove by
original wave.
integration,
this
expression
reproduces the
Writing
y for
r\ we have
= rdr,
e"'''rdr
Putting r
x = u,
this
'
becomes
e'""^'
{u
+ a;) du
m)*
Jo
Vm {2x +
48
whence expanding
the integral
is
BIFFRACTION.
in
powers of
ujx,
and supposing k\ to be
large,
approximately equal to
2V7re""'
(1
i)
>Jk'
is
effect,
which
(5).
(2X)*(l
+ 0\/
Diffraction through a
40.
Slit.
Before
we
we
narrow
slit
which plane waves are diffracted by a in a screen, which is parallel to the wavefronts.
Let A be the middle point of the slit, P any point on it, any point on a screen on which the phenomena are observed.
Let
AO=rr,
If the vibration
will
be
A' COS
and therefore
disturbance at
if
~{RVt)dx,
of the
a be the breadth
will
aperture,
the total
be
f=
J ia }o
A'
cos
2_
SLIT.
49
Now
ij2
r''
0,
we have
to a sufficient
R = r xsia 6.
A may
be neglected, whence
^=A\
J ha.
27r
Ax
cos
TT
sin ^
TT
(r
Tr,\
TTCisin^
X,
'
Vt) sin
is
proportional to
.
A\^was'md , ^ sm
,. (6).
and consequently the projection of the bright. The intensity is zero when sin 6 = niKJa, where m is any integer, and consequently the central bright band is surrounded by a series of dark bands. Putting
9
Islit
is
When
= 0,
= Aa,
naK"^ sin 6
u,
it
follows
is
proportional to
u~ sin= u, and the positions of the bright bands will be found
by
obtaining the
maxima
sin
Equating the
we
'
shall obtain
sin
u u cos u
u
The
first factor
= vnr,
(7).
tan
ti
=u
The
roots of (7), as
Assume
where y
\s,
u=
a,
{in
+ ^)k y U y,
is
small
when u
is
large.
Substituting in
we
obtain
coiy
= Uy,
whence
tany = y^f 1
in
^+
y,
J^.
Expanding tan y
powers of
we obtain
15
207.
y^ U\ ^ U^ U"'")
1
3
i.
315
B.
0.
50
This equation
is
DIFFRACTION.
to
from which
it
will
be found that
The values
different
method by Schwerd'.
Since the
it
maxima
is
occur
when u
is
nearly eipal to
(m + ^)
tt,
approximately equal to
4 9^' 4
A^
4977^
su
'
25^'
We
by a
slit
does not
Since the
minima
by the equation
rnXja,
where 6 is very small, it follows that the angular distance between two dark bands is X/a. The bands are therefore broadest for red Hence when sunlight is light and narrowest for violet light. bands will be observed, coloured employed, a series of brilliantly which will however be necessarily limited in number, owing to the
overlapping of the spectra of different colours.
41.
It has already
been
stated, that
in
inasmuch as sound is known to be produced by aerial waves, it ought to follow that light should be able to bend round corners as sound is known to do, and that an obstacle ought not to be able to produce a distinct shadow. The results of the last article
furnish an explanation of this apparent difficulty
;
for if
X be
a,
as
is
/=
Aar,
will
which
is
independent of
d,
be
geometrical shadow.
is
51
is
The more general problem of diffraction through a large number of slits, will be discussed under the Theory of Gratings.
42.
We
shall
now proceed
is
problem
of the aperture
given.
When
through a small
(i)
the aperture,
(ii)
are plane,
and
cases
is
different,
we
two
cases in the
present chapter, reserving the discussion of the third case for the
succeeding one.
In the
phenomena
are
is
converging
and
let it
Let
point
f,
rj
of the aperture
wave
at the aperture.
QP"
Then
Since
^, r)
compared with
f,
we may omit f^
rj^,
whence
Now
if cos
produced at
dS
at
will
be equal to
.^smF^/+
the intensity at
^J.
we
shall find that
is
proportional to
42
52
DIFFRACTION.
Exactly the same result may be proved to hold good in the case of plane waves, provided / denotes the distance of the aperture
+ y^ may be
neglected,
and
We
shall
now
Rectangular Aperture.
Let the aperture be a rectangle, whose sides are the lines !x= \a,y = U>; then by integrating (9), we shall find that
43.
j^
ah'
sinTra^/Xf.smTrbri/Xf
{^ra^lX/y.irrbn/Xfr
^'=Xy=
Each
of these factors
is
^^"^
of the
?(,
= ttitt,
by a
series of
dark
lines
= mXf/a,
= wXfjh
(11).
0,
The
To
intensity
I"
is
evidehtly a
in
which case
= {ahjXff.
maxima
values,
that
I'^
is
the
the
accordingly
maxima
tan u
= u,
40.
The
spot,
= mXf/b
and within the rectangle formed by consecutive dark lines, the intensity rises to a maximum but these secondary maxima are
;
An
44.
Isosceles Triangle.
origin,
and
let
the
x be perpendicular to the base also let e be the length of the perpendicular drawn from the vertex to the base, and let the
axis of
53
sides of
the triangle be y
=+
inx.
Then
if
=
JJ
2'irelXf,
\f
^
"
J
477=7?
fwM?
+ inrj
and
^'^
]}
Xf^
^
47r=7;(
+ mr,
 mr,
J'
_ V/=
477^7?=
sin=^ (f
+ mt)) c
sin= J (^
(?
+ 'J^'?)^
jjitj) c inr])" (^
^
'
ij,
f=
0,
r^ /
is
equal to
/=
= mV/X=/=
axis of
(13).
either
x may be found
we
"*^
7r
7r!^e
\fe
77^
27rfe)
7rt
\/
X/
The
similar
may be worked
out in a
manner; but
is
it will
the origin
diffraction pattern is
The pattern
exhibits
a starshaped ap
Circular Aperture^.
45.
circle of radius c
also let
27r^/\f=p,
27rr,/Xf=q.
Then by
(9)
'
Airy, Trans.
54
where
DIFFRACTION.
To evaluate
JSF {px
these integrals,
we
shall
+ qy) dxdy =
J"
2
(c=
according as
integral
is
F is
taken over a
Let r be the distance of any point of the screen from the then 27rr/X/= (p= + (f)i
;
whence by
(14), /S
=
J
and
(c^
= 2r
c
= 2c^l
sin
c?(/>
=2.c^^(^;;[^/),
ZTTcr/Xf
whence
where J^
is
,,
47r^cnj;(27rcr/V')l^
,_,
(15),
/^=_^^^
_A_^y_^J
The
by
The
function Jj
(a?)
may
X =
f^
I
COS {x cos
rn
(f>)
aiu^ (hd(j)
(16),
^i3
/Jib
/,(.)
It is also
= 22^T4 + 2^4^6
(^^)
known
that
.(18).
2nJ,i
"
)i 1
+ "n
(),
From
(15)
The theorem may be proved by turning the axes through an angle tau"';)/^. Lommel, Bessel'sche Fiiiictinnen. Lord Eayleigh, Theory of Sound. TodHeine, Kuyelfunctionen. hunter, Functions of Laplace, Lame and Beuel.
1 "
CIRCULAR APERTURE.
the origin
is
55
is
proportional
to the fourth
power
Writing x for ljrcrjXf, it follows that the minima are determined by the equation /i(a;) = 0. The roots of the equation J^ {xjir) = have been calculated by Stokes \ and are equal to
12197, 22330, 32383, 42411, 52428, 624.39, &c.
;
from which
it
first
r//= 12197 X
Since X
distinctly.
is
X/2c.
very small,
it is
The maxima
whence by the
this case is
last
two of
(IS), the
0.
J () =
^,^,Jo(.^).
The
Lommel,
= 0,
values of
t/o'
(*)
56
DIFFRACTION.
Elliptic Aperture.
46.
The corresponding
results for
an
elliptic
aperture can be
ellipse
be
x/a
x = xja,
be
y'
= y/b, p =pa,
= qb.
Then
the values of
+ y' = 1. Whence
^=
^"^/_i (1
='
where
it?
=p +
q''^=
(a"^
b't]).
+ by = ab'.
Talbot's Bands.
47.
first
observed
by Fox
is
Talbot',
and
are produced
telescope, hcdf
when a
tlie
viewed by a
thin plate of
aperture of which
covered by
glass or mica.
The theory
first
given by
Airy'^,
but we
We
by a screen, in which there is a rectangular aperture, the lengths of whose sides are 21 and h + 2g + k. Let h be the width of the thin plate, h that of the unretarded stream we shall also suppose
;
Fhil.
Mag.
vol.
a. p. 364,
1837.
Brewster,
Assoc.

"
On
new
Tran3. 1840
p.
and 1841. ' " On the Theory of certain Bands seen 227 Math, and Phy. Papers, vol. ii. p. 14.
;
TALBOT S BANDS.
that there
is
57
streams, and that the axis of the telescope passes through the
Let
plate,
let
the projection of
be the
origin,
and
let the axes of x and y be respectively parallel to the sides and 21 of the aperture.
h+2g+k
We
light
After passing through the objectglass of the telescope, the emanating from this point will consist of a spherical wave,
whose radius is equal to OG, which converges to a point 0' as focus. Let P be any point on this wave, Q any point on the plane xy 0' (, v) {p, q) those of let (x, y, z) be the coordinates of P
;
;
those of
also let
OG=f.
at
The displacement
Q due
to
an element at
is
equal to
Now
PQ' = (?  ooy
if
p+
;^3
_ p2 _ qi
Whence
if
the displacement at
Q becomes
approximately
(20).
^sin?^(Fi/ + *r//+2/V//)
58
DIFFRACTION.
Since the thin plate of glass or mica occupies the space buunded
hy the
lines
x = g + k, x = g, y
= l,y= l;
it
Q due to the whole wave produced by the point, we must change dS into dxdy f into f+ B, where i2 the retardation due to the plate is a small quantity whose square may be neglected, and integrate over the area of the thin plate, that is from y = l to Z, and x = g + k to g whence
to obtain the resultant
displacement at
TT^
/
Xf
^ttIt,'
sm
ttJc^'
lirln'
+ V f
^'g
^'k\
o7^
2fJ
(21).
To obtain the displacement at Q due to the unretarded stream, we must put i2 = 0, and integrate (20) from y = 1 to I, and x = g to g h; accordingly we obtain
,
2cl
ir^'
'
Xf
2Trl7)'
27rlr,'
7r/tf
27r /^^^
Xf
Xf
if
P'q
The
is
total displacement at
Q due
to the
we put
P=sm'y
+sin^J~
+ 2sm^
s,n
cos
)^p
^(ig +h+k)
(23),
i"^.Q'P
This
is
(24).
To obtain the
is
intensity of a line of
homogeneous
light
which
we must
the the
is
Xfjl.
Now
when q changes by
Xfl2l,
which
bands which would be seen with a luminous point. Since I is not supposed to be extremely small, but on the contrary moderately
large,
that
Talbot's bands.
59
we may without
00
.
Since
it
follows
is
1Al\r,r
sin=6i,.
(25).
'^T'
49. To find the total intensity at Q due to a plane area of homogeneous light, it would be necessary to change A into Bf~^dp, and integrate with respect to p between the limits oo and CO but since the bands which we are investigating are produced by a spectrum, the colour, and therefore B and p, vary from point to point. The variations of B and X may however be neglected in the integration, except in the term p or 'inRjX, because a small variation of X produces a comparatively large change of phase.
;
Since p depends upon the position of 0', we shall have p=f(p); whence if p' and zr denote the values of p and dpjd^
at Q,
we
shall
have
= P + ST (^ p) = p' + CT^'
approximately.
Let
'7rh/Xf=h', TrJclXf
= k'\
it
also let
^'.
Since
dv,
= dp,
and
is
Try
+ sin= k'u +
q'u)\
M'
(27).
Now
also
if
u~'^ sin
h'udu
= ttJi
a>
we write
cos (p
vanish.
60
DIFFRACTION.
l.^^J.^
where
(h'
(28),
w=
iir'
J ao
we get
_ = _
dg
dlU
f
J
u~^
^
= {(
But
{sin {g'
+ h' + k') u + sin (g'  h'  k') u  sin {g' + h'  k') u sin {g' + k'  h') u}
known
/:
that
w""^
iir^
du.
it is
well
sin
sudu =
tt
or
vr,
we
use F(s) to
according as s
is
positive or negative.
If therefore
is
represented by the
is
equal to
tt
or
tt
according as s
positive or negative,
we
get
k'h%
= 0, from g' = xi to g' =  (h' + k') = \ir, from g' =  (h' + k') to g' =  (h' ~ k') = 0, from g' =  (h' ~ k') to = + Qi ~ k!) =  ^TT, from g' = h' ~ k' to g' = h' + k' = 0, from g' = h' + k' to g = 'X>:
c?'
;
;
h'
h'.
and
k'
when
h'
>k'
if h'
< k',
the expression
p'
h'
~ k' denotes
k'
Now w
vanishes
when
=+
oo
whence integrating
w = when
'X>
g'
= cc
;
y/o obtain
w = 0, from g' = to g' = {W + k') w = \'!r (h' + k' + g'), from g' =  {h! + k') to g' =  (h' ~ k') w = irk' or tt/i' (according as h' > k' or h' < k') from g' =  {h' ~ k') tog' = + (h' ~ k') = g' = h' ~ k' to g' = h' + k' Qi +k' from w \K g'), w = 0, from g' = h' + k' to ^' = oo
;
Talbot's bands.
Substituting, in (28), and putting g'
so tliat
61
i^^XfJTrighk
we get the
(i)
(29),
When
When
r
+k
(30).
2Blf" {h
k)
(ii)
+k
and
hk
= 2Blf"[h
+ k{(h + k 'Jf)
cosp']
(31).
k,
.
(iii)
When
is less
than h ~
r
= IBlf" {hJrk + 2h
is
+ k + 2k cos p').
.(32)
according as h or k
50.
In discussing these
in
" Let the axis of x be always reckoned positive in the direction which the blue end of the spectrum is seen, so that in the
retina,
negative side
" First,
p.
suppose p to decrease algebraically in passing from the red to the blue. This will be the case when the retarding plate is
held at the side on which the red
negative,
is
seen.
In
this case
in
is
and therefore
therefore (30)
is
the
Secondly, suppose p to increase algebraically in passing from This will be the case when the retarding
is
seen.
In this case
positive
and
to
may be made
{ig
+ h + k)
to
oc
"The
first
suppose
equal and that the streams are contiguous, so that g = 0. Then the expression (32) may be dispensed with, since it only holds
62
good when g
the
value
DIFFRACTION.
= 0,
q^
in
which case
it
Let
T<,
be
of the
thickness
corresponds to
Q[
= {h + k),
of
= /i+A;;
are
and
for values
T for which g = 0. Then 7^=0 T ^ T^ to g = 0, and T^'lT^ to T equidistant from y, the values
signs.
of g
equal in
Hence,
provided
be
less
much
the greater as
to T^, for
h,
Ig
is
that ^
If
= {h + T be less
if
then
lie
T, or greater
2r
between
h,
an interval 2^
then g
T^ suppose, of
T:
being as
T which
gives g
= 0.
0,
As T
h~k when T = 2ToT and to h + k when T=2T, T,. When T <Tn, there are no bands. As T increases to Tj bands become
visible,
till
T= T^,
when the
A;.
ratio of
the
minimum
h+
'Ak,
k h to
Ti,
of
k to As T inh
creases to
2r
and as
increased.
"The
hest
particular thickness
T,,
may
thickness.
This term
is
to
since
to
when h and k are unequal the thickness may range from T^ 2TTi without any change being produced in the vividness
The
best thickness
is
of the bands.
63
Now
in passing from one band to its consecutive, p changes by ^rr, and p by e, if e be the linear breadth of a band and for this small change of p we may suppose the changes in p and f proportional, or put dp/dp = 2Tr/e. Hence the best aperture for a given
;
thickness
is
+ h + k=2Xfje. =
X//e."
li
0,
and k =
h, this
equation becomes h
The theory
When a distant object is viewed through a telescope, an 52. image of the object is formed at the focus of the objectglass which is magnified by the eyeglass; and in order that the object should appear well defined, it is necessary that each point of it should form a sharp image. The indefiniteness which is sometimes observed in images is partly due to aberration this however can in great measure be got rid of by proper optical appliances,
;
but there
is
another cause,
viz.
diffraction,
which
also
produces
indefiniteness, as
we
If
it
of the telescope
is
a rectangle,
appears from 43, that the intensity at the focal point is equal to {ahjXfy, and therefore increases as the dimensions of the
aperture increase; on the other hand the distances between the
dark lines parallel to x and y are respectively equal to Xfja and X//6, and therefore diminish as a and h increase accordingly the
;
diffraction pattern
creases,
becomes almost
The
effect of
diffrac
a large aperture
tion,
and
an image.
When two very distant objects, such as a double star, are viewed by the naked eye, the two objects are undistinguishable from one another, and only one object appears to be visible. If however the two objects are viewed through a telescope, it frequently happens that both objects are seen, owing to the fact
that the telescope
'
is
able
to separate
or resolve
1883.
them; and
it
1,
64
DIFFRACTION.
might at first sight appear, that a telescope of sufficient power would be capable of resolving two objects however distant they might be. This however is not the case, owing to the fact that
the
finiteness
of
coupled with
the
latter.
an image of each double star will be formed at two points which very nearly coincide with the principal focus of the objectglass but physical optics shows that two diffraction patterns will be formed, whose centres are the
According to geometrical
;
star.
If the
two
diffraction patterns
which the two central bright spots but if the two patterns do not overlap to .such an extent as to make the
of light of variable intensity in
into its
53.
two components.
In order to investigate this question mathematically, and
at the
shall
same time
much
as possible,
we
suppose that the light from each star consists of plane waves
shall investi
If
{\r)^sm K{Vtr)dS
denote the displacement produced at P, by the element of the
wave which
is situated at the centre G of the aperture, the displacement produced by any other element will be
'^dy^^^^lvtRx.\ne]
65
Nowif 0<7=/
whence the
total displacement at
is
'''
Xfi..^,
i^*
^+ * (r/sin
will
ira
e)lf]
dx
be proportional to
rr^^fsiner^'
^(^Zsm
6)
(33).
The
greatest
maximum
when
(34),
?=/sin0
which gives the position of the central bright spot minimum, which occurs on the negative side of
given by
;
and the
first
is
this point,
r=/(sin^X/a)
The
will
(35).
intensity due to the other component of the double star be obtained by changing ^ into  f accordingly, the greatest
;
maximum
will occur
when ^=
r'
^",
where
(36).
= /sin0
first
minimum
of the diffraction
star, coin
maximum
then
f = ^',
2sin^ = X/a
or since 6 is very small,
(37),
2e=X/a
By
(38).
(33), the value of the intensity at either of the bright points is ab^/Vfand the intensity of either component at
;
^=
is
h"^, Jira .,.. sm  sin 6
.
.
IT
J sin^^'
4!ah
..,
\ A.
'n\J'
by (37)
whence the
ratio of
equal to
S/tt^
'8106.
geometrical images,
about
"'' of
and from experiment it appears that this is about the limit at which there could be any decided appearance of resolution. Now 20 is the angle which the components of the double star subtend at the place of observation and since by (38) 26 = X/,
themselves
;
;
p.
66 we
see that
DIFFRACTION.
an
object
its
components
an angle which exceeds that subtend at the place of subtended by the wavelength of light, at a distance equal to the
breadth of the aperture.
If the distance of the object be such that 6
^'
X/a, it appears
from (36) that there is accordingly a dark band at the middle point of the two images, which is more than sufficient for
;
resolution.
54.
We
shall
now
Let the axis of f be drawn perpendicularly to the line of inwaves with the plane of the aperture.
at points on the axis of
^,
Then
of a double star,
which
lies
be
P = 0=l;Sf^
where
^ ^\l\\ ^^XfjJ
''^
T?"
^^
~f^^^
/sin
^)
^* ^1/'
dxdy,
^^f^^
0)
and the integration extends over the area of the aperture. these expressions we see that 8 = 0, and
From
where p
27r(^ /sin
d)/\f,
and
c is
The
greatest
maximum
;
occurs
when p 0,
=/sin 0, which
The
Ji (pc)
first
left of
;
when
0, or
pc/n
= 1'2197
in which case
f =/sin e  (fX/c)
If ^"
X 6098.
component,
r'=/siii^;
accordingly
if ^'
= f",
2 sin
61
(X/c)
x 0098
=^
nearly
(39).
fc
When^ = 0,
c
^'^/fn.'^^e?^)
(^0).
THEORY OF GRATINGS.
and
if
67
is
given by (39)
^ = ^J^
whence the
for
(18849)
= I X
1937
The corresponding number a rectangular aperture was found to be S/tt'^ and 20 was equal
7r=
about
75 ^
26 = \/p. If therefore the components of a double star subtend at the place of observation an angle, which is somewhat greater than the angle subtended
to X/a; whereas in the present case
by the wavelength
Hence
is
the resolving power of a telescope having a circular aperture, less than one whose aperture is rectangular.
The
article
is
on
Wave
Theory'.
Theory of
55.
Gratings''.
diffraction
many
as
40000
When
light
is
diffraction
spectrum
is
produced.
For the purpose of presenting the theory in its simplest form, waves of light, whose fronts are parallel to the grating, fall upon the latter, and are then refracted by a convex lens, which is likewise parallel to the grating; and we shall examine the appearance on a screen which passes through
we
we
falls
upon the
and
sequently each ray will occupy the same time in travelling from
'
Bncyc. Brit.
Lord Eayleigh,
Art.
Wave
p. 437.
52
68
DIFFRACTION.
to P.
Afi
grating,
AA =
Let Qi, Q... be points on the transparent parts of the whose distances from A^, A.... are equal to x; let A,B,= ... a; B,A = B,A, = ... rf.
Then the
resultant displacement at
is
proportional to
.
/[./
sin27r( + ^
aft a\  + sm ^l+sin27r
. (
+ sin 2^*+^i)sin^]d:....(41),
where n is the number of opaque this becomes equal to
^ ft COS ZTT 27r sin
.
Integrating,
6
t
Vt
+ cos 27r
a
2a + d
^
sin
6y,o.2',r[l
+ "^sme)
n(a + d)^sm^ +^
.
+ cos27r] +
{t
+ n(a + d) '
\sinl9[cos27rj
(t
.(42).
If 9 be chosen so that
(a
+ d) sin 6 = m\
(43),
where
is
n+l
is
,
pairs of terms
become equal
equal to
.... (^*)
+ l)X(
2Trt
]cos
[
cos27r T
ft
\T
ma \] + 7,U dJ]
a]
mined by
produced at
THEORY OF GRATINGS.
portions of the different
69
elements
is
maximum
is
and the
when the
central
as
position of
it is
A^G
is
a+d upon
band
wavelength.
The
is
bright,
and
its
/(,
is
equal to (n
= 0,
can at ouce be seen from (41) by putting and then performing the integration.
it
+ 1)V,
follows from
(43)
and
(44) that
,
,
^
(n
+
1)^
(a
+ dY
amir
:^' mTT'
.
^^ ;rT77 a a
>
/=
whence
If the
/a
+ dy
amrr
(45).
the disturbance at
would be
a+nia+d)
sm
/:
(t
Ztt
I
+  sm
to
6
J
dx,
sin^
{a
+ n (a + d)] sin 6
= 0,
is
P = {a + n (a + d)Y,
and therefore
I^ ^
r
(n+iyja + dy
mir [a
H
amir
^^.^^,
'
n (a
amir
+ d)Y
a\d
(40),
mTT'
if
a
is
+a
n
the
number
of lines
so large that
may be
treated as
infinite.
Since the sine of an angle can never be greater than unity, it can never be follows that the amount of light in the mth spectrum a grating in Hence light. original the of l/m%= than greater
composed
of alternately
parts,
whose
70
56.
DIFFRACTION.
In practical applications the angle 6
written for sin 6
;
is
so small,
that
may be
equal to \/(a
+ d).
The
+ d,
and
will therefore
be broad when a
+d
is
very small
of lines,
number
Since
be broader
is
than
accordingly
when sunlight
will will
be red, and the inner edges of the two adjacent lateral bands be violet.
If the values of the quantities for red
and
violet light
be
v,
= mXr/{ci + d),
erd =
in (X^
Oo
= m\J(a + d)
d),
whence
 X)/(a +
which gives the angular value of the dispersion for the two extreme colours in the mth spectrum. This result shows the importance of having the lines ruled very close together, so that
the dispersion
may be
as large as possible.
In order that the spectra may not overlap, it is necessary that the value of 0^ for the (m + l)th spectrum should be greater than
the values of 6^ for the
mth
Resolving
57.
Power of
Gratings.
We
=
and
shall first
sum
<f),
Let
2Tr(a
2Trt/T
61
= a,
+ d)/X.smd = x>
then the
first
becomes
[cos (^ + + n^) 
1)
p^}
cos
((^
71
+ a + ^iix)sm^{n\sin I ^
at
,
1)')(^
'
P becomes
"
^''' ^"^
'^''^^^
We
when
will
be a
maximum
+ d) sin
= m\,
or
%=
2m?r.
We
shall
now show,
(a
when
(47),
+ d)sm0=(7n + ^^~]\
this case
s},
where
1, 2...n.
For in
i 0^ +
whence
and n + 1 is the number on the grating; consequently between the directions determined by (43), which may be called the prindpal
n
is
Now
the
number
of opaqwe lines,
of transparent lines
number
of
opaque lines of the grating, which will be separated by bright lines, which may be called secondary maxima. The principal
maxima maxima
are
however
far the
most
distinct,
left
may be
out of consideration.
wavelengths
maximum
of the
ith
I
minimum
succeeding the
mth
(4.3)
principal
maximum
of light of
wavelength X.
Whence by
and (47)
we must have
(a
d) sin 6
= m (X 4
8X)
=(m\
,
X,
which gives
=
X
m> (n +
(48).
^
1)
consequently the
total
resolving
solely
upon the
number
72
of lines
DIFFRACTION.
and the order
of the spectrum.
lines in the
spectrum of sodium vapour, S\/X= 1000~^ so that to resolve this line in the first spectrum requires a grating having 1000 (transparent) lines upon it; and in the second spectrum 500 lines, and so on. It is of course assumed in (48) that w +
transparent lines are really utilized.
Reflection Gratings.
58.
it is
act
flecting surface,
The
grating.
be the incident and PZ the diffracted ray, and if i, (f> be the angles which the incident and diffracted rays make with the normal to the grating, the disturbance at any point Q may be
If
YP
obtained by writing sinitsin<^ for sin ^ in (41). position of the mth spectrum is determined by
(a
Hence the
d) (sin
+ sin
</>)
= mX.
light
is
when
incident obliquely
In these gratings lines are ruled upon a concave spherical of speculum metal, and are the intersections of parallel planes one of which passes through the centre of the
59.
mirror
made
sphere.
'
73
and
let
let be the centre of the mirror, Q a source of us for simplicity consider the state of things in the
plane
QOA,
dimensions.
may be treated as one of two Let Q' be the primary focus of Q; let AQ=u,
= Q'AO;
also let
By
geometrical optics
 + =
Vi
II
112
!
sec
<f)
;
hence
mirror,
if
zj
lie
on the
;
circle
= a cos
circle.
whence
whose diameter is the radius of the = a cos and therefore Q' also lies
(f>,
on the same
The point
which we
now
consider.
Let
ray
;
let
PR
be the diffracted
also let
The
QP^ =
retardation
proceed to calculate.
w'
QP + PR QA AR, We have
sin
which we
must
^a
sin (^tu
sin^
0)
cos ^) sin=
if
(u
+ a sin
o)
cf>
sin w)=
a^ sin^
w +4<a(a u
whence we may
co.
Now
is
we
neglect
powers of sin
w higher than
4 sin^
^(0
the fourth,
write
74
whence
DIFFRACTION.
QP = {u +
as'mcj) sin
co)
+ a cos ^
circle
sin'
to
(a cos
accordingly if u
lie
on the
whose diameter
is
OA,
so that
= a cos
<f),
vanishes,
and we obtain
rf))
,
(i
^
a (m
,
a cos . + a sm
<f>
sin^ 
(it
(^
(/>
sm
ft)
cof
,,
or
QP QA = a sin
If
</)
sin
co
+ ^a sin
tan
sin^ w.
R also
lie
on the same
circle,
<j},
the value of
PR AR will be
tan 0') sin^
obtained by writing
(j)'
for
whence
(sin
cf)')
sin
w + ^a
cjj
tan
is,
(/>
sin
</>'
&>.
The advantage
involves sin*
co,
of this arrangement
is
and
is
the accuracy of
the instrument
involving sin^
co
and
occurred.
it
follows,
a (sin
where a
is
sin (/>')=+
m\.
view
may
be
in focus,
placed at 0, whence
o
^'
and
sin
(^
= + mX,
and the different spectra can be observed by moving the source Q, (which is usually a narrow slit), along the circle OQA.
Michelsoii's Investigations.
60.
The
been
lately applied
by
light.
This was effected by providing the objectglass of a telescope with a cap, in which there are two slits adjustable in width and If such a combination be focused upon a star, distance apart.
of
the
star,
a series of
coloured
being arranged at equal distances apart and parallel to the two slits. The position of the central white fringe can be marked from
ten to
fifty
image
of the star.
MICHELSON
In the figure,
every respect
in the cap.
;
INVESTIGATIONS.
75
let
e,
e'
let
AB be
ee'
Let
=
a
a,
AB = d,
eAe,
/8
8S'
(49),
also let
= SBS',
where
a, yS
vanish,
interference
fringes
produced at
(S
and S'
will
Se'Se = ^^a=^ba=^\
that
is
(50), (51).
when
is
and
quantity be
becomes
a
o(o.
Hence
when the
light, instead of
The theory
as follows.
ances
is
Let X be the distance of any element of the source from the dx the width of the element and ^(a;) its length and let us consider the intensity at a point P on a plane
axis of the telescope,
;
parallel to
SS'
Then
= ^x+yy;
76
whence the intensity
proportional to
(f)(x)
DIFFRACTION.
at
e,
is
\l
+ cos Y
T' is
(/5*
+ 7y)(
f^*
The
total
intensity
(52).
We
shall
now
is
whose centre
is
in the
and whose
Putting
<f)
(x)
= 1,
rT.
limits
a
and
a, we
obtain
^ a+^sm^
'""/Sa
cosr^''
27r7?/
,,.
(53).
and
visibility
h'
+ If
by putting y
The values
(?!
= n\/'y
and
+ ^) X/y
respectively,
whence
^^sin(^^a/X)
We
have shown in
maxima
values
of this
expression occur,
when
/Sa/\
when
/3a/X=l,
2,
Since
^a = ba,
/3,
it
follows that if a
= X/b,
which
;
is
the limit of
if b,
but
and
consequently
and
will
again disappear
when
/3
alternately appear
increases.
of the source
remains constant.
verified
by Michelson.
*l*l
We
s
shall
now
be the distance of the centre of either source from B, 2r its breadth. Then the intensity due to the source whose centre is x=s, will be obtained by integrating (52) between the limits
s
Let
+ r and s r; and
is
therefore equal to
cos

tI^
(72/
+ ^s) sm ^
The
intensity
s,
the sign of
due to the other source is obtained by changing whence adding these two results, the total intensity is
j.
/=
7r/3
X
'
(.55),
^
'
whence
'^
,^
,,^ (56). ^
'
Let a be the angle subtended at A by the line joining the = a, whence ^tt^sjX = iraja^, where
Also
let
= X/6.
2r/d=ai, then
27ry3?/X
= ttXi/hu
hence (56)
becomes
^'^
By
due
is
^^sin(^/o,)
Tra/Hu
From
a double
these results
star,
;
we
is
focused upon
and the preceding investigation furnishes a method stars may be detected, which are incapable of being resolved by telescopes of the largest aperture in Further information, together with the application of existence. the theory to spectroscopic measurements, will be found in the
a single star
by means
of
p. 338.
78
DIFFRACTION.
EXAMPLES.
homogeneous light from a source, is intercepted by a screen pierced with an aperture in the shape of a cross, consisting of two equal rectangles of sides 4a, 2a superposed with their longest sides at right angles, and their Investigate the phenomena upon a distant centres coincident.
1.
Parallel
at right angles
screen.
2.
is
A
the
screen
pierced with
of any
Show
is
image on a
the
at the position
sum
3.
wavelength
impinge normally on a diaphragm, and are diffracted through an aperture in the diaphragm, and received on a parallel screen at a
distance
d.
If the aperture
that the
intensity of light at
Ar'J^ (27rAr/\d)
 ar'J^ (iirar/Kd)
where r
is
Homogeneous
and
falls
is
light
of wavelength
\ emanates from
point,
which there
falls
on a parallel screen
/i and outer and inner radii r, r' Find the change in the intensity of the illumination at the point on the screen opposite the centre of the hole, and show that this point will be black, provided r = rV2,
now placed
in the hole.
and
EXAMPLES.
5.
79
screen
is
lens,
formed on
the screen at
If the light
is
is
given by y
w=
6.
c,
A,
0,
B,
AB
of
line
an opaque
interval.
The
Find
grating
AGBD.
the projection oi
AB
screen,
to find
them
is
one
series of
which are parallel by a very narrow horizontal and rather short slit, of given length and equidistant from its vertical edges, and illuminate the
opposite' wall.
of
Prove that there is on the surface of the concave wall a series dark bands, the projections of which on the screen are approxi
Supposing the colour of the slit to be changed, what alteration must be made in the length of the slit, in order that the position
of the
dark bands
may
not vary
CHAPTER
V.
DIFFRACTION CONTINUED.
63.
We
we
shall
now
is
investigate the
which
is
We
mensions.
a
Let
required.
AQ
;
is
OA=a,
The
to
AB = h, AQ =
s.
vibration at B, produced
be proportional to
cos 2ir
i
ds,
where
= a +
(a
h)
2a {a
h) cos s/a,
FRESNELS INTEGRALS.
whence
81
QB = b + (a + b) s^Zab,
P is
{t
(a
+ b)s"\
P
=
is
proportional to
r
(/cos I Trvdvf
v^
(/sin J jrv'dvy
(1),
where
= 2(a + b) s^/abX.
to
?;
properties.
Ft'esnel's Integrals.
64.
The two
j
definite integrals,
Jo"
,
COS ^TTV^dv
and
sin^wvdv,
Jo
cannot be evaluated in finite terms except in the single case in which v = x when they are each equal to ^. We shall denote them by C and S, and shall show how their values may be
expressed in the form of a
series.
it
By
integration by parts,
follows that
Jo
accordingly
^"''
2n +
2n+lJa
^^
ffl
Putting
real
^""
"
(^
the
and imaginary
parts,
we
obtain
(2).
^=''
"
173775
3. 5.
7.9 ~
"
.(3).
These two series are easily shown to be convergent, and are adapted for numerical calculation when v is small they are due
;
to
Knockenhauer'.
'
p. 3G,
B. O.
82
65.
DIFFRACTION CONTINUED.
When v is
may
be expressed by means
We have
Jo
2a
Jv
i2+2
Now
whence
j
r ,a^.^dv  e^^ r J ^
\2aH
2^aV
^ + 1:1 2=aV
1iii^
2^aV
\ )
real
Putting
a=\{l + i,)rr^
as before,
and
sin \ TTv'dv
"
=
,
P cos ^
,
TTi;^
+ Q sin J irif,
\
where
P=
1.3
n+
1.3.5.7
^'
*
Q_J.
1.8.5
1.3.5.7.9
f
The first few terms of the series for P and Q converge rapidly when V is at all large, but the series ultimately become divergent. Such series are called semiconvergent series, and it is a known theorem that the sum of any number of terms of such a series
differs
represents,
by a quantity
less
last
term
included
when
is large.
(7
^^^'
66.
= \'ivv'^,
Put
^=(2^* Jo 07*'Now
whence
1
i_L r
f/u
/i/TrJo
^dx
sjx
C=
C.
r\
1
/"
dx\
f"
6~"'coswdM.
TTsIl 'o
iJ. vol.
Jo
Mim.
STRAIGHT EDGE.
The
r,
83
effected,
u can be

whence
Iff" xHx +
7rV2 (Jo
777 \
I
r
I
a?
Jo
first
l+a;=
sin M +"
Jo xi(l+x')\
is
integral
by a known formula'
^TTCOsecf 7r
= 2^Tr;
.(6),
we thus
where
obtain
H
By
proceeding
in
S
e"*
dx
.(7).
i(l+a;=);
it
a similar way,
= ^ ff sinw iTcosit G = H = ^.
When M = 0,
it
follows that
Now u, which is equal to ^nv^ is necessarily positive, and consequently the factor 6~"* decreases rapidly as u increases. It
therefore follows that the values of
G
as
and
than
J,
increases
Straight Edge.
67.
The
diffraction
shall
lie
Let
the
BAG
BA=h;
then
1+y
62
84
intensity at
DIFFEACTION CONTINUED.
is
=h
to s
= oo
whence
if
At the edge of the geometrical shadow, h = 0, C = S =0, and 1" = ^; but when V is large, which
the case unless h
follows
is
in
will
so small as to be
from
is
to
I/tt^FI
Whence
shadow
proportional to
P proceeds
inwards.
For a point
s
Q
,
=h
to s
CO
where h
now equal
to
or
(i
;Sf^)
sin
i F=
= 0.
positive,
F=0 this expression is equal to J and is therefore and the corresponding value of the intensity is equal to ^. Using the series (2) and (3), we see that when F= 1, the value of this expression is equal to ^ + Sy or  + M, which is also positive but if F^ = f the expression is equal to 0^ + Sy which in this case is equal to 2N if we employ (2) and (3), or equal to 2Q if we employ (4) and (5). The expression in question = f and therefore vanishes and is therefore negative when
When
;
,
changes sign
for
some value
of
.
This
first
root corresponds to a
maximum
^72 =
1
The
maximum
and the
when
_ 0046,
first
minimum when
JF= = +'0016.
'
vol.
i.
90.
CIRCULAR APERTURE OR
DISC.
calculated
85 by
Fresnel,
The maxima and minima values have also been and are shown in the following table
86
DIFFRACTION CONTINUED.
If therefore the vihration at
^jrtJT,
the vibration at
will
be expressed by
llhHi^'^Now dS = pdpd^
very approximately
;
if
therefore
we put
<">
'^l^'iwe
shall find that the intensity is
^='
where
= iv(^^ + ^^> pdpdcj}] (7 = // cos (^ k/o^ Ip cos (S = //sin (I^K/3^  Ip cos (^) pdpd(f))
^^
(fy)
(^)'
>
for the intensity is of a perfectly general and the limits of integration must be chosen so as to include the whole of the aperture. When the aperture is a circle = to 27r, and from p = whose centre is A, the limits are from
character,
(f)
to c; if
on the other hand, we are investigating diffraction produced by a circular disc, the limits of p will be c and co
69.
we
shall consider
(i)
two
special cases.
Let the
diffraction
c;
= 0, and
cos ^Kp^
pdp
sin kc^,
Jo
S=
whence
(ii)
(1
cos ^KC^),
.
4 P = (a + sin^ 4 kc\ by
t^
Let the
diffraction
be produced by a
1
disc,
then
whence
if
p = ^iK,
X X
f
J c
2p
cos *KX'dx
1,7 =
=
StT
sm
*c^,
sin I Kx'^dx
(a
cos  c^
whence
/"
a=&=W
+ Vf
lommel's method.
and therefore the iateusity on undisturbed.
is
87
the wave had passed
the same as
if
theory, that
to be the
it required the intensity at the centre of the shadow same as if the wave had passed on undisturbed. The experiment was accordingly repeated by Arago', with a small disc whose diameter was one millimetre, and the required phenomenon was immediately observed.
70.
The preceding
results,
which are of a
fairly
elementary
The
we
= 2/
= 21
cos {^ Kp^
Ip
cos
(j))
pdpd(p
cos
I
(^KpO
(j))
pdpd(j)
Similarly
Except in
cannot be
= 27r //o Qp) cos {^Kp^) pdp S = ^nJJ^ (Ip) sin {^Kp^) pdp the special case of 1 = 0, the integrals
(12). (13).
and
We
Let
M=
Jo
a'e^'^'Jo (6)
dx
Jo (hx)
/""
sin {bx
cosh
(f)
d^.
IKm.
2 3
Verdet,
Legom
i.
66.
(Euvres Completes, vol. vii. p. 1. thia > Abh. der II. Gl. der Koii. Bayer. Alead. der Wiss. vol. xv. p. 233. In in the same volume, a large amount paper, and also in another by the same author
Bessel's functions will be found. of interesting information concerning 5 A proof will be found in Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. vol. v. p. 431.
gg
DIFFBACTION CONTINUED.
r
But
xe<'''''&viihxdx
whence
"=
[ TT Jo
JO
^e"''^"
= ~
Putting a (1
parts,
_L_f%^^"^'^^*cosh</>d.^
2aV''''Jo
2a^ ^
l,
a?
= ^ic, we
obtain ('*)
".'frl71.
.=T"v:
We shall next
0.
is
show,
the
c
integrals
G and 8 may
that 2 J",/
how series maj be obtained by which be calculated, when the limits are
and
It
known
2nJn
Z
ZJn,= ^JzJn)
(15),
_ ^+^ =
^"
(zJb]
(16)
cZ^V^"/
parts,
Using
(1.5)
and integrating by
dp
we obtain
p"+'/ (Ip)
6 JP^
I"
Accordingly
J jy+"
Jn+^ (Ip)
e^'"^'
dp.
...).
= y,
lc=
(17),
/coslv
rr
sinly,,\\
.
(18),
/siu
\
COS
iV
jT
'
\y
\y
LOMMELS METHOD.
where
89
f^^
(19).
...
These
series for
when yjz
72.
or kc/Z
is
small.
when
yjz
is
large
may be
['
obtained as follows.
ei.P
By
(16)
we
obtain
MA
P
do
=M) ,Wo^
?!_
whence
we
obtain
yy
^y
Z"
\y
COsiVrr y Iy
/2
V'/ \y
2 22/
V iy siniVTr\ iy ;
.(20),
where
Vo
= J,(z)J.^{z) + J,(z).
.(21).
By
(9)
and (17)
it
follows that
when y = z,
(a
+ b)la = r/c
this
U,=
V^
= ^{Jo(z) + cosz},
also find
U,=
ro
= ^sinz.
+ /S'siniy =
tri
sm(^2^ +
JyjFi
..(22),
Osiniy>Sfcosiy=^f/',=
therefore
^cos(^ + y)
Fl
[/i+F=singl+iy)
(23).
V,U, =
1
cos
(
^ + ^y]
22/
p. 320.
z'
90
73.
DIFFRACTION CONTINUED.
The
functions Ui, U^, F, Fj, although expressed in the
form of
that
In
fact since
it
the greatest values of Jo, cos ^Kp^, and sin ^Kp' are unity,
follows
G and S
jrc^
at once that U^, U^ cannot exceed certain limiting values in calculating the values of these quantities, of the pairs of series (19) or (21)
is
hence
If
we may
use whichever
most convenient.
we
employ the
series (21) we the values of Ui, U^ can then be found from (23).
Since
it
= 2'ir{a+h)c'^jdb\,
to be
= 2Trrc/Xb,
not.
follows that z
the
intensity
is
We
must
accordingly assign a definite value or series of values to y, and then calculate the values of C/j, C/o corresponding to each of these
definite values, for different values of r or z.
by Lommel
from y = tt to y = IOtt, for the and from these tables the values of
We
shall
intensity
may
is
be calculated
Since y/z
= {a +
it
>
or
<
1,
ac
= z.
By
The points
equation
of
^.f^.f
From
(1.5)
i^>
dUi dz
whence (24) reduces
_
to
z
.J.
dZZj
J.
z jj
dz
The values
calculated
have been
of the equation
ix. p.
166
CIRCULAR APERTURE.
i!72
91
for
= TT,
27r,...107r
The
= tt and y =
Stt.
92
DIFFRACTION CONTINUED.
;
whence
By
f?_(7
(Ficosj2/Fosinji/),
= ^(^>^+^)values of
are determined
by the
'^^
+ F.^ = 0.
dz
(25).
By
we
see that
J '^'~y^"
2r
dV^ _
dz
^^\_^Tr
Tzy"'
= o,
it follows, that the maxima and minima are determined by the roots of the equations Fo = 0, Ji = 0. The roots of the former equation have been calculated by Lommel for the values and the results io,x y = n,y = ^k are shown in the 2/ = TT, 27r,. .Stt
from which
following table.
CIRCULAR
shadow
is
DISC.
rings.
93
surrounded by a series of
We
diminish.
maxima and minima values The general appearance on the screen accordingly
surrounded by an obscure
in
shadow
and
sensibly uniform.
When y is equal to 47r, the intensity within the geometrical shadow, and also the differences between the maxima and minima
are very small.
There
central
is
is
rounding
the
bright
As
the boundary of
the
geometrical shadow
some distance
a matter of
common
thrown
upon a but an
This
is
shadow
is
accounted
for
On
76.
with twodimensional problems of diffraction, it will be convenient to make a short digression for the purpose of considering the Bessel's
function Jn+\
When
equations
is
an integer,
it
is
satisfies
the
w.
(2')j
^n+i
^riri ~~ ~^n
(^^X
and the Bessel's function of order n + ^, will be defined to be a function which satisfies these three equations, when m H J is written for n, where n is any positive or negative integer.
94
Writing w
DIPFBACTION CONTINUED.
+^
for
in (26), it
may
be written
(29), ^
^'
p
dx'
Idu xdx
we
(^_in+^)
\
x^
whence
if
ira;"'+i,
obtain
()
S^^>S+t=
Equation
solutions.
series
(29),
One
being of the second order, has two independent solution may be expressed in the form of the
'''""^~2.2n+3"^2.4.(2 + 3)(2n +
from which we see that
the Bessel's function
i^o
5)~"""^^^'*'
= *~^ sin x.
where n
is
We
J"+j,
zero or
any
positive integer,
by the equation
x' j, _ _ /2V ^"+*Wl.3...(2n + l)r 2(2n + of
"+*
oH^
3)
2.4.(2w + 3)(2w
+ 5)
2A.Q.{2n + S)(2n+5){2n + 1)
'
...
...(32)
2\i
"+*
1.3.. .(2n+l)
,
Wy
From
it is
"^n
the manner in which J^+i has been deduced, we see a solution of (26) we have now to show that it satisfies This can be at once done by substituting from (27) and (28). (32) in the equations
that
;
r
r J n+i
_n + ^
T ''mi
J
T
.(33),
(^
+ i) r ~ "n+i +i
is
written
77.
We
any
n,
miist
now
is
zero or
positive integer.
series for
ir
containing negative
powers of
""^ni
a?
a^
"
...(34),
bessel's eunctions.
from which we see that
\f_j
95
This series obviously
= x~'^ cos x.
(31) and (34), each multiplied by an arbitrary constant, represent the complete solution of (30). If therefore we define the function
._^=(.,0^),, 2(2nl)
^
"^2.4..(2nl)(2n3)
"^2.4i.6(2nl)(2n3)(2,5)"'"
it
^^''^'
follows that /nj is a solution of (26); and by substituting from (35) in the equations
r " ni r
_ T
nJ
T ~ " )i+J.
"
+i
7
^
7z
is
written for
satisfied.
78.
It also follows
(35), that
/
.=
If in (30)
2\^
sm
^
,
/i=(
\i
1
cos
a;
(36).
irx,
we
dy
write y
x^,
it
>/fi+i,
accordingly
V'.=
r
(^^)>o,
/2\i
i
"+*
whence
/I d\"sina;
^+j=(J
^
.3...(2n+ 1)
fessj
/
^'
/'2
Y 1.3...(2w 1)
is
J^ d^y cos a;
a;
zero
when
= oo
and
infinite
when
a;
= 0.
79.
We are
now
in a position to explain
Lommel's method'.
and to on the
The
be received on a screen.
'
Let
be the projection of
vol. xv. p. 531.
Ahh. der
96
screen,
DIFFRACTION CONTINUED.
then
if
we put
<f>
0, BP = x, AQ = p,
we may prove
is
proportional to I^
G
S^,
.
i^,
^^^^'
aU^rThe
^~iK
OB
integration extends
^^^>'
is
with the
over the
80.
The two
principal
problems, which
slit,
we
shall
and
diffraction
have to by a long
When
so that its
the
is
slit
or obstacle,
equal to 2c,
middle line
be from
to
c to
in
and from
oo to
c,
and
oo
in the case
an
obstacle.
81.
When
the integration
is
from
c to
c,
we thus
cos
obtain
cos Ipdp
.(39).
= 21
Jo
^icp''
S=
The
c
Jo
integrals (39) cannot be evaluated in finite terms unless
in this case, it
00
may be shown by
COS
writing a
= a(l + L)/2i
in
the integral
ga'a?
2rxdx
jr e~o%
la
(
/,
that
COS
^/c/3^
COS Ipdp
) cos
'.
sin
=  c [^'
lc
sin
(g^
 i tt)
where
= y,
=z
(41).
LOMMEL S METHOD.
82.
97
We
shall
and
in series.
Since
2 \*
it
follows that
= (27r)i
S = (27r)*
Jo
f ' {Ipf
(''(lp)i
J_i
Jo
Now by (32) J+j vanishes when x=0, provided n is zero or any positive integer, whence integrating by parts, and using (15),
we
find
fC
rt?l+A
p+ij_i(lp)ei^'l'
j^
dp
=^
fp^iJ^+iilp)ei^"''dp,
Jo
whence
(7
+ ,^f=(2p)ew{/,V, + (i^)V..
real
Equating the
obtain
and imaginary
parts,
and using
(41),
we
C/'sini2/)
.(43),
_ S=
where
/277Y j
y/
c(Ui
sin
ly 
U, cos ^y)
c^=
s ()Wf)
/+.p(^)
.(44).
83.
To obtain
zero
when x
cc
and
infinite
we must when a; = 0.
We
must
therefore write
. .
.(45).
By
j
we can show
that
=
B. o.
f#^ + [ r''*^i
'i
98
where n
is
DIFFRACTION CONTINUED,
zero or any positive integer
;
whence
real
and imaginary
parts,
we
obtain
J r
=  ( j c(Vi
(27rZ)i
I
sin
y + Fj cos
4?/)
.(46).
:/3=cZ/3
"
where
If therefore
")'
I
2/
'^
^^* ^^ *^
~ ^* ''^^
^^^
F =''i()*
()+^^J_,p (^)
(47).
respectively,
sides of (46)
by C, S'
(7')'(^)
.(18).
= = (7)'^'(2.l")^
Diffraction through a
84.
Slit.
We
are
now prepared
through a
slit.
is
proportional to
it
/=
27rc=
W+u^'l
dz
+ ^7,^^=0,
.(49).
DIFFRACTION THEOUGH A
From
(16) and (44)
SLIT.
99
we obtain
dz
also
dz
from (44)
^i+^f^gV'^i'
whence (49) reduces to
ziJ.U,=0.
Now
n
is
ziJ)^
(2/7r)* sin z,
= mr,
where
is
accordingly there
a series of
bands parallel
Another system
U
of
= 0.
following
100
Diffraction by
a Narrow
Obstacle.
85.
We
shall
now
is
produced by a
is
proportional to
S'",
= C +
(Fj
sin
where by (46)
G'
= c
(y j
y + Fj cos
Bin
^y),
S'
l,y),
whence
nf*^nc^'=^
By
(15) and (47)
(^)
we
obtain
^/.=_f2()^pr"v,_.,=^F_, ^
dz
\y)
and
dV.
f
= Fi,
V
dz
also
by (47)
to
F., f
Fj=
g^
./j,
maxima
or
minima
shown
values
corresponding to ^
= 0,
tt,
27r.
..
= 0.
The
results are
in the
101
102
Whence
be the intensity,
F'
and therefore /metrical shadow,
27r//r,
= ^I''^
is
would be
if
the obstacle
were removed.
When
finite
is
terms; they
to Fresnel's integrals.
We
have
C=
Jo
+ sin
iico"
sin Ip)
dp
7r\i
(P
+ i^r j +
e"'^" sin
00
Let
7
=
2
2bxdx,
JO
.
then
TJ7
db
xe"^"''
cos
2bxdx
Jo
^1 _2bu
'
a"
a'
_b
lb
?^'
whence
Writing a
I
a"
e"'
dx.
Jo
= c (1 + t)/2*, we
.
obtain
1 =
r*
I
f"
Jo
b
XC'
sin
cuf
sin
2bxdx
, o, zoiBrtiz;
cos
dx,
dx.
cJo
f" cos
Jo
ca sin
1 r*
&==,
c'*
sin
c'.'o
The
integrals on the
integrals,
and accordingly
and
quantities.
CHAPTER
VI.
DOUBLE REFRACTION.
87.
We
fact,
that there
two
rays.
We
shall
now
One
crystallized
is
There are certain other kinds of doubly refracting crystals, which have two optic axes, and which possess three rectangular
planes of symmetry.
Such
crj'stals
104
DOUBLE REFEACTION.
Unicual Crystals.
88.
When
is
of uniaxal
crystal,
refracted rays.
One
of these rays
is
is
refracted according to
law,
and
is
cases in
which there
when the
of the
direction
of propagation
the
optic
axis
crystal, (ii)
when the
is
and
the pencil
In both these
coincide,
is
refracted through
of Iceland spar,
and
let
a second rhomb.
it
and that the plane of incidence contains two the refracted rays be transmitted through When the two rhombs are similarly situated,
in the
will
rhomb, gives
the
first
rhomb, gives
than 90",
rise
to
an
If
less
is
will
be found
and
each give
respectively.
an ordinary and an extraordinary ray O^, 0^, oaA E, Eg When the angle is small, 0^ and Eg are very faint,
but become brighter as the angle increases, whilst 0 and E^ diminish in brightness and when the second rhomb has been turned through an angle of 90, Og and E^ will have disappeared,
;
leaving 0^ and
E^
These experimental results show, that doubly refracting crystals, an incident ray into two refracted rays, also produce an essential modification in the constitution of the
in addition to dividing
refracted light.
89.
The index
is
constant for
all angles.
The
is
defined as follows.
Let the
huygen's construction.
plane of incidence contain the
axis,
105
and
let
a pencil of light be
is
perpen
called
The reason
appear hereafter;
is
it
can be
entirely independent
90.
refraction of
the extra
discovered experimentally
construction.
Let
AB AC
optic axis;
draw
and
AG
let
perpendicular to
AB.
Let
and
be
points on
AB, such
that
AD/AB
is
of refraction,
be a point on
are
such that
ADjAG
also
is
With
J. as
a centre, describe
radii
AB,
AD;
is is
and describe
an
with
equatorial axis
AG.
and
/,
Through
T draw
two tangent planes TO, TE to the first sphere and the ellipsoid and E\ join AO, AE. Then respectively, meeting them in
AO,
AE will
rays respectively.
suggests,
that
the
wave
viz.
a sphere
Traite de la LivnUere.
106
and an
DOUBLE REFRACTION.
ellipsoid of revolution,
we
conclusion
is
When
aie
and
same velocity in all directions, whilst the other is spheroidal, and its velocity is different in different directions. When a plane wave is incident upon the surface of the crystal, each point of the surface may by Huygen's Principle, 14, be regarded as the origin of secondary waves, and the envelop of these secondary waves will consist of two planes TO, TE, which are the fronts of the ordinary and extraordinary waves in the crystal. If the equations of the sphere and the ellipsoid of revolution, referred to A as origin, and AB dta the axis of
travels with the
z,
be
1/'
1,
then
will
dicular
drawn from
wave will be equal to the perpenon to the wavefront TE. Since the
it
follows that if d
be the angle which the direction of the wave makes with the
optic axis,
and
V=
We
axis;
c= cos^
a''
sin^ 6.
V=c, and
therefore
in
the latter
V=a.
The
and
are
called
ratios Vjc,
V/a are
We
is
upon a crystal, two refracted rays are always produced on the other hand we have shown, that when the incident light consists of the ordinary or extraordinary ray, which is produced by
incident
refracting
common
two positions
is
absent.
We
for.
shall
this
107
said to be
We
of
I.,
that light
is
polarized,
composing the wave are vibrating perpendicularly to a fixed plane, which is called the
of ether
plane
light
is
refracted
through a crystalline
plate, it is
through the optic axis and the normal to the ordinary wavefront
;
lie
in the
plane passing through the optic axis and the normal to the extraordinary wavefront.
axis
for
The plane which passes through the optic and the normal to the wavefront is called the principal plane that wave; we may therefore say, that the ordinary wave is
wave
is
polarized in the principal plane, whilst the extraordinary polarized perpendicularly to the principal plane.
94.
We
are
now
able to explain
why
it
is,
that in certain
disappears.
For simplicity,
to the optic axis
let
;
AB
xy be the plane
of incidence,
TO,
TE
be
the
extraordinary wavefronts,
and AO,
AE
When
is
But
since
plane xy,
it
rise to
wave, but only to an ordinary wave. When, on the other han<l, the incident light is polarized perpendicularly to the plane xy,
so that the vibrations are executed in that plane, the incident
light gives rise to
to
an ordinary
wave.
108
respectively in
DOUBLE REFRACTION.
and perpendicularly to the plane of incidence xy, would give rise to an extraordinary wave, whilst would give rise to an ordinary wave.
is
the
first
of which
the latter
a sphere, the
wave and the ordinary ray coincide but since the wavesurface of the extraordinary wave is an ellipsoid of revolution, the directions of the extraordinary wave and the
extraordinary ray do not coincide within the crystal, unless the
direction of propagation
is
wave are
it
may
wave
is
parallel to
EY,
that
is,
We
have thus
far given
show how these phenomena may be There are however certain other experimental facts which demand attention.
the next chapter
we
shall
In
all
wavesurface
of the wavesurface
a planetary ellipsoid.
Such
;
crystals are
in
which the
ellipsoidal
There are however certain other crystals sheet is an ovary ellipsoid and crystals
It therefore follows, that
is
The
following
is
list of
some
Positive.
Ice.
Negative.
Beryl.
Cinnabar.
Emerald.
Iceland spar.
The red
silver ores.
Ruby.
Sapphire.
Tourmaline.
109
the
110
97.
DOUBLE REFEACTION.
The next
table gives the values found by
Rudberg
for
velocity
a.
Rays
111.
Most
isotropic
transparent media,
when
subjected
to
whose
direction of compression
There are
Phil.
Mag.
(3) vol.
i.
p. 417.
CHAPTER
VII.
100.
When
is
excited at
any point of an
isotropic
is
propagated
;
but we
dis
medium
is
a function of
The laws regulating the propagation of light in crystals, were first investigated mathematically by Fresnel, who showed that the wavesurface in biaxal crystals, is a certain quartic surface, which reduces to a sphere and an ellipsoid of revolution in the case of uniaxal crystals. The theory by means of which Fresnel arrived
at this result, cannot be considered to be a strict dynamical theory;
but on account of
fact that
and
also
owing to the
experiment has proved that Fresnel's wavesurface is a very close approximation to the true form of the wavesurface in
biaxal crystals,
we
this surface.
The theory
of Fresnel depends
light are
to the
plane of polarization.
(ii) The elastic forces tvhich are produced hy the propagation of a train of plane waves, whose vibrations are transversal and
'
Vol.
i.
p. 465.
FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS.
rectilinear, are equal to the the displacement
113
factor, which is
(iii)
product of the elastic forces produced hy of a single molecule of that wave, into a constant independent of the direction of the wave.
the
When a luave is propagated in a homogeneous medium, component of tlie elastic forces parallel to the wave front, is
alone operative.
The velocity of propagation of a planewave, which propagated in a homogeneous medium without change of type,
(iv)
is is
proportional
square root of the effective component of the elastic forces developed hy the vibrations of that wave.
to
tlie
102.
We
wave in a uniaxal
the direction of propagation and the optic axis, whilst the vibrations of the extraordinary
wave
plane.
Up
to the present
is
we
know
wave might
to that plane.
for
We
shall hereafter
there
are
strong grounds
but
must be
regarded as an assumption.
103.
sideration,
The second and third hypotheses require careful and it will be convenient to discuss them together.
con
when
{x, y,
undisturbed,
must be
this point
in
stable equilibrium.
x, y,
Hence
z
;
if
F
y
z)=V
it
be
its
and
if
a particle situated at
+ u,
+ v,
+ lu,
follows
that
Taylor's theorem,
114
constant term
value of
forces,
the
may be
+ iV + c=w=)
(1),
X = a?u,
Hence
if
Y=h''v,
Z = cw
(2).
we
aV + 6y + c=2= = l
whose centre
is
(3)
0,
and
if
direction of displacement
OY will
The
follows
will not
ellipsoid (3) is called the ellipsoid of elasticity ; and it from the preceding construction, that the resultant force
ment
If
front
;
is
ellipsoid.
I,
m,
11
be the direction cosines of the normal to the wavethose of the direction of displacement,
it
\, fj:,v
follows that
This force
may however be
latter
is in
perpendicular to
component according to the third hypothesis will not give rise to vibrations which produce light, and therefore need not be considered. The former component
it.
The
but
it
coincide with
the
direction
unless the
by the plane Ix + my + nz = 0. For the direction cosines of the force are proportional to aX, hjx, ov and the condition that this line, the direction of the displacement, and the normal to the wavefront .should lie in the same
section of the ellipsoid of elasticity
;
plane,
is
Z,
m,
/n,
n
V
cv
X,
a\,
=0,
lifjL,
or
(6=
I
which
is
c=)
f
(4)
v should be a principal
by the wavefront.
VELOCITY OF PROPAGATION.
115
Let US now suppose, that plane waves of polarized light are incident normally upon a crystalline plate, the direction cosines of
whose
face,
I,
m,
n.
Let
OA,
OB
of elasticity
made by
OP
the direction
If the second
medium were
wave would be
crystal,
and the surface of the plate but if the second medium is a a single wave whose vibrations are parallel to OP is incapable of being propagated, and it is necessary to suppose that the incident vibrations are resolved into two sets of vibrations, which are respectively parallel to OA, OB. These two sets of vibrations are propagated through the crystal with different velocities (unless the normal to the surface of the plate is parallel to one of the optic axes), and thus give rise to two waves of
;
OP
one another.
be the displacement of a particle of ether in either of the waves, the equation of motion of that particle will be
104.
It q
^jj2
=
('^
^ +
^v + ^'^
and therefore
if
2irvl\'
X' is
where v
is
Hence
if
we
where
a, b, c
now denote
(5).
bfi,
we obtain
= w^" + b/jr + cV
is
From
(5) it
cv
equal to a force
v
along
along
m,
71,
whence resolving
parallel
to the axes,
we obtain
ix,
;
follows that
v^
^,1^; + a^ V & v^ b
.
(6),
two waves,
m,
n.
82
116
105.
will
We
upon a
is
incident normally
is
sets of vibrations
if
Now
the surface
be a principal
axis,
and
therefore the
component
be in
crystal.
hence only one wave will be proThese two directions are the optic
elasticity.
axes of the crystal, and therefore the optic axes are perpendicular
106.
We
can
now prove
The planes of p)olarization of the two waves corresponding to the same wavefront, bisect the angles between the two planes passing through the normal to the wavefront and the optic axes.
Let
BAB'
wavefront,
ON
OS
of the planes of circular section with the wavefront. axis corresponding to the circular section through
The
is
optic
OS
perpenthe
it
and
ON cuts
axis,
plane
if
BAB'
in a line
OQ, which
is
perpendicular to OS.
Similarly,
circular section
OQ'
117
perpendicular to OS'.
Since
0S=
SOA=S'OA,
and therefore the angle QOA = Q'OA hence the planes of polarization AON and BON bisect the angles between the planes QON and Q'ON, which are the planes containing the normal to the wavefront and the optic axes.
107.
The
to
difference between
tJie
sponding
the sines
the
same wavefront,
is
6,
6'
make with
ON
also let X,
fi,
The equation
of the
two planes of
and therefore
and
cosJ.P =
cos
(a'c')i
AP'
X(a^fv(b''(fi)i
(a^c^
OP
.
QON, we
obtain
whence
Similarly, since
cos
AQ = AQ'
(S^Z^h
'
AQ sin e' = ^
and therefore
(a
Similarly
whence
108.
as follows.
 (0.=  cO sin= ^ Q sin sin 9' =  b^, 9' v^  v" = (a^  c") sin 6 sin
(7).
We
have
cos d
= cos PON =
in,/.xr = = cos P'ON
^
/,_gA
,\,
l(a'Jf')^n{c')i
!^
cos 6'
_ J^
and therefore
(a;'
9'
(S).
118
Now
and
V
v'
v'"
whence
= P (6= + c=) + m^ (c' + a^) + n" (a= + h% = a + d'  (a  C) cos cos 6'
(7)
(9),
by
(8),
and
(.9)
we obtain
" '
= a= sia= ^{0 + 0') + c= cos'^ ^{0 + 0') = a? sin=  (^  0') + c= cos= (6' now
(10).
61').
'
109.
We
are
wavesurface.
We
in a position to find the equation of the have already shown, that this surface is the
lx+mi/ + nz = v
where
I,
(11),
(6),
m,
n, v are subject to
the condition
and
also to the
condition
+ m' + n=l
I,
(12).
m,
n,
we
obtain xdl
Idl
if
mdm
v'
a
ndn v^ c=
(v"
 b) +
;
(v"
.Svdv  c=y
0;
whence by indeterminate
multipliers,
we

find
X+
AI+
v'
a
= =
(13),
y + Am +

i
(14),
z+An+
V'
Bn : = C
(f  erf
,
(15),
+ Bo
[{v"
= 0.
.(16).
I,
m, n and adding, we
(17).
+ A=Q
r' =x'^
y'^
+ ^, we +
n,'

obtain
\2Av
+ A"=B'
P
(v"ay
m'
.+
{v'b")
(^=c)
119
and therefore
(18),
(19).
x, y,
z and adding,
we obtain
\v"
a?
xF
b^
v^
cv
\r
I
a'
r'
o
z^
r'
c'/
whence by (18)
Xr
a
y
r b
I
rc
=1
r^
=^ ^'%.^i^.^^. or
also
(If
(20).
This
is
b"y"'
+ c^") a"
b") z^
(21),
which shows that the surface is a quartic surface. The preceding demonstration is due to the late Mr Archibald Smiths
110.
We
shall
now
Let x
0,
(r'
or)
(by
+ C'z'  <f) = 0.
on the plane yz
is
Hence the
circle
the
2/
and the
ellipse
y/c^
+ 2= = a\ + z^j^ = 1.
can similarly be shown that the
(ii)
Let y
0,
then
it
and the
ellipse
'
+ = , xjc^ + z^ja = 1.
x''
z"'
vi.
120
Let z =
0,
is
the circle
and the
ellipse
The form
of the surface
c, is
shewn
in the figure.
111.
Since the wavesurface is symmetrical with respect to it appears that it consists of an outer and
xz.
These four points are singular points, and it will hereafter be shown, that there is a tangent and normal cone at each of them.
If
QR
be the
and
circle,
and
if
whence
,^^.
Hence OQ,
optic axes.
is
and
is
an
ansjle tt
The 6 with
and makes
the axis of
x.
DIRECTION OF VIBRATION.
The
line
121
is
OP
is
called the
ray
axis,
and
its
;
equation
ax ( 
&f = cz (a=  f
the ray axes are therefore perpendicular to the circular sections of the reciprocal ellipsoid
x'^ja''
'if'jb''
+ zjc =
112.
We
shall
now
Draw
a tangent plane
to the
wavesurface parallel
to the
wave
then if
he the foot
of the
plane,
perpendicular from the centre of the wavesurface on to this tangent in other words, tJie is the direction of displacement;
PY
wavefront.
We
104 that
(23).
 a?) X/l =
(v^
we
see that
.
iJbly
= (r^ 
=k
(say). .(24),
where
x, y,
P is
+ my + nz = v,
follows that
if
L,
M,
But by (19)
,
xlv = ~~
r
V)
.;
X
f k
(r'
 V)
,
a^
whence
113.
X/L
The ray and
= /m/M = v/N.
For the direction cosines of the ray are proportional and those of the resultant force to a=X, 6>, cV and
;
to
x,y,z;
a'x'
c^^
114.
to the
of
circle.
122
therefore
OQ, v
= b, m =
and
= ?i6(r=c=)/(6=c=).
(22),
The values
of
these equations
whence by substitution
b (rb (r=
 a=) +
a;
(a"
0,
by the coordinates
of the points
with the wave surface, and since they represent two spheres,
follows that this tangent plane touches the
it
wave along a
circle.
The diameter
find its value, let
of this circle
is
equal to
QR
(see
fig.
110).
To
OD
elliptic section
OGA,
which
is
conjugate to OR.
Then
or
whence
115.
To find
and normal
cones at
The
coordinates of
a;
(see
fig.
110) are,
z
= c (o.^ 
)y(a
c)^
Substituting in (19),
v"'
we obtain
v"
Now I, m, n are the direction cosines of any normal through whence eliminating v, we obtain
I
(a
 b") + w=
{b'
c=)
In (a'
a^
 c^
is
of the
as origin
( 
c=)
+ f {a' c') + z' (a'  b") = xz (a= + c=) (a=  b)i (6=  d')i/ac
(25).
TANGENT CONE.
Let
at
X,
(L,
;
123
any generator
parallel to the
be the direction
cosines' of
is
of the
tangent cone
normal
follows that if
F {x, y, z) be
\ _ _ V 'dF/dx~dFjdy~dF/dz'
IJ,
I,
m, n are proportional to
x, y,
z in (25),
we
X
2i (6=
 c=)  n {or +
c")
{a
Iff
(6^
and therefore
~ 2m~
fj,
2Xa'c" ( g^
_
But
whence
X"
2vac"
{
11
{a?
 c)^ + Xac (a + cr) (a'  6"^ c^) (a= V) (h c)^
IX
+ m/4 + nv = 0,
v"'
_ (g^ 
c=) fi '
__
{o?
+ c') Xv
(a(f)f
{o?^&)xz
116.
There
is
is
through the
We
have shown in
114,
is
the
h(r'''df)^x{d^f{a?&)^
^ ^
(27),
(28).
h{:r'(f)z{ao^fQic^)^ =
Hence
if X,
/a,
 0? _ _ X {a?  f
r'(y^~
therefore
^'
,
v(bf'
'
124
Also
.
r,
=
we
1=
^(^^')^
whence eliminating
obtain
c (a'b') X= + a (  cO
(29).
Uniaxal Crystals.
117.
If in equation (21)
(r'  c=)
we put
&
c, it
becomes
which
is
Hence
and the
ellipsoid
aa?
\
= c,
= Q;
is
which
of the crystal.
The
negative.
ellipsoid is
c> or <
a.
positive,
and in the
latter case
upon a uniaxal
crystal,
the ray
will
place
/a,
Also
if X,
from
(5),
c
whence
front
X = 0,
of
vibration
is
is
125
normal; and by 112 the direction of vibration is the projection of the ray on the wavefront. Hence the direction of vibration in
the extraordinary wave,
lies
perpendicular to the
We
in
uniaxal
have thus established the laws of the propagation of light crystals, which were discovered experimentally by
Huygens.
Conical Refraction.
118.
The
was
demonstrated by Sir
external 119.
and
let
us
and
let
such, that the direction of the refracted ray within the crystal
Let 10 be the ray axis within the crystal, / being the point of draw the wavesurface At the point of exit. incidence, and in air. Produce for the crystal, and also the equivalent sphere will be the to meet the crystalline wavesurface in P; then OP
ray axis.
To obtain
tanoent planes at P.
will
meet the
face of
the crystal in a series of straight lines Tj,T...; through each of plane to the sphere. these straight lines TT.^... draw a tangent
126
The
0,
lines
OP0P,....
120.
we must
Since the
tangent plane at the extremity of the optic axis touches the wavesurface along a circle, the refracted pencil within the crystal, will
consist of a cone of rays,
and
all
circle.
whose vertex is the point of incidence, whose generators pass through the abovementioned The equation of this cone is given by (29). On emerging
of
crystal,
from the
ray,
and
121.
will
The phenomena of external and internal conical refrachad never been observed nor even suspected, previously to the theoretical investigations of Sir W. Hamilton on the geometry of the singular points of the wavesurface and at his suggestion, Dr Humphrey Lloyd' examined the subject experimentally, and
tion
;
The
investigations of Sir
the
experiments of
Dr
but it has been subsequently pointed out by Sir G. Stokes'', that almost any theory which could be constructed, would lead to a wave surface having
conical points,
for
the phenomenon of
Also a series of very elaborate experiments by Glazebrook' upon uniaxal and biaxal crystals, have shown that
conical refraction.
crystals,
but
is
=
3
1880, p. 421.
CEITICISMS
(i)
ON FRESNEL's THEORY.
127
assumed that the potential energy of an elastic medium, which is displaced from its position of equilibrium, is a quadratic function of the component displacements whereas it will be shown in a subsequent chapter, that the potential energy of an elastic medium, which is symmetrical with respect to three rectangular planes, is a certain quadratic function which involves the space variations of the displacements, and not the displacements themselves.
It is
;
(ii)
The component
altogether neglected.
And
although attempts
may be made
to justify this
by arguing,
rise
it
may
be,
cannot give
which
inasmuch
tions,
when
light passes
would be produced by
not light.
It is not a legitimate
way
motion of
an
elastic
medium,
to treat
a wave as
were composed of a
is
number
force
which
acted upon by a
of
depending_on_jts_displacement.
seolotropic elastic
media
;
is
be considered in
a subsequent chapter
as its
but although this theory is rigorous as far dynamics are concerned, it does not offer a satisfactory
On
124.
the
When
spar, it is
divided into two rays within the crystal, which are polarized in perpendicular planes, and on emerging from the plate, two streams
of plane polarized light are obtained, which are parallel to the
incident rays
is
considerable,
is
elliptically
to
a quarter
circularly polarized.
128
125.
A very
common
light
name
which we
There
is
index of refraction
intermediate between
be
totally reflected
is
alone
transmitted.
Let
AG
be the optic
axis,
AC OF, ACEH
;
and
is
let the
plane of the
Let AO,
AE
Let
ABG be
ABG
the
will
be a
intermediate between
polar
and
meeting corresponding to the ordinary ray, draw a tangent at draw a tangent to from ABG, T the face of the spar in T, and
and join the point of contact with
if
however
and G,
it will
NICOLS PRISM.
129
To obtain the directions within the balsam of the extraordinary draw a tangent at E meeting the face of the crystal in 8, from S draw a tangent to ABG meeting it in P, and join AP. If S lie
ray,
beyond O,
If this ray
it will
AP will be
it
will
be
beam
will
be plane polarized.
126. spar
is
In order to construct a Nicol's prism, a rhomb of Iceland is aboiit double its thickness, and is
cut in two by a plane PE, and the two parts are then cemented contains the together with Canada balsam. The plane optic axis, and is therefore a principal plane; and the plane of
ABCD
section
is
inclined to
BG
incident at
parallel to
at such an angle, that when a ray is BC, the ordinary ray is totally reflected
The extraordinary ray IE is therefore alone by the balsam. parallel to its original direction. at emerges transmitted, and
The
plane
ABCD,
which
is
127.
by means
of a plate of tourmaline.
uniaxal crystal, which possesses the property of absorbing the If ordinary ray, even when the thickness of the crystal is small.
therefore
we take a
B. O.
130
and pass
the plate.
128.
common
light through
it,
third
common
tan"'
fi,
light is incident
method consists iu using a pile of plates. When upon a plate of glass at an angle equal to
the index of refraction,
it
where
fx,
is
light
to
reflections, the
component vibrations in the plane of incidence may of, and the resulting light becomes plane
EXAMPLES.
1. In a biaxal crystal, prove that the cosine of the angle between the ray axis and the optic axis is
ac
Jfi
h(a+cy
2.
if
^ be the velocity of
wave
propagation,
order of magnitude,
vibration
3.
biaxal crystal
Prove that the velocity of propagation of the wave in a may be expressed in the form
(w'b'd'  dcf))  a?) {d){e c^) + a^ftv  6c}>
{d s/i
where
a, h, c
wave
velocities,
and
e = a? +
X, y, z
y''
+ z^,
^ = a'ofi+by+c''2^
Light
falls
show that
if t
be
EXAMPLES.
elasticity are
131
the area of
proportional to
1,
\' respectively,
5.
If
Vi, v^
crystal, of
7n,
(a6.
 ) (0,=  c')
'
(b'
"
c') (b"
a')'
(c' a?){c^b')
wave
inside
a biaxal crystal,
make
angles
;
a, /3,
other
make
angles
7, S
prove that
cos a cos S
7.
+ cos /8 cos 7 =
0.
If
a plane passing through one of the optic axes, prove that the
directions of vibration within the crystal will
be either perpen
lie
second degree.
8.
prism of angle
i is
principal
wave
velocities
a,
b,
are
known.
may be ascertained thus let a normally on the face, and measure incident be pencil of rays
axes of elasticity of the crystal,
of the
;
the deviations
Oi,
then will
'^
sm^
(^
I 6/1)
sin= (i
t
6^
where
\,
/x,
principal axes.
a biaxal crystal be cut in the form of a rightangled prism, two of whose faces are principal planes, find how a ray must be incident at one face, so that the extraordinary ray may emerge Show also that the minimum at right angles to the other face.
9.
If
is
where
and u
a, b
is
wave
the wave
velocity in the
medium surrounding
the crystal.
92
132
10.
fresis^el's
A prism
is
to
Show
through,
if
where u
prism.
is
air,
velocity for
perpendicularly to
system of extraordinary wave normals in a uniaxal on the surface of a cone of semivertical angle /8, whose axis makes an angle a with the optic axis. Show that if the optic axis be the axis of x, and the axis of the cone lie in the plane
11.
crystal, lies
!cy,
y"
{(if
}=.
12.
A plate
is
and a ray of
light
is
Find the
may
then equal to
t
).
13.
fall
Show
The measure
axes
is
h"
 aV
15.
wave
surface,
the angles contained by the planes through the same radius vector,
is Ijt, is
The two
EXAMPLES.
133
spending to a ray incident perpendicularly on one of the faces of the prism, emerge with deviations Si, Sa and those perpendicular
;
S3.
Prove that
a
(6^
(sin 1
+ cos Sj) = 1
17. If the wave surface be cut by the plane Ix prove that the radius vector whose equations are
{m^(?
a=)}
m {jiW
&
+ P^ {a"  )]
C)
+ mW (6^  c^)}
is
be a
maximum
or
minimum and
;
that
its
length
equal to
(I'la^
+ m/b"+ n/c")i.
18.
thin lens
is
is
Show
first refraction,
rays converge to a focus, and that the position of this focus for the
extraordinary rays can be found in the same way as for the ordi
nary rays, by supposing that the curvature of the surface and the index of refraction, altered by quantities depending solely on the
crystal.
Show
that after emerging from the lens, the foci of both sets of
rays coincide.
19.
Show
that
when a
is
biaxal crystal, parallel to the plane containing the optic axes, and
be seen
in
20.
crystal, so as to
circle,
when the
screen
be internally conically refracted. If the ring be a is placed parallel to the surface of the plate,
prove that the crystal has been cut by a plane, whose inclination to
the axis of least elasticity
ia.rr\
is
either
^
'
,^
or
tan^
c\/(a^
134
21.
tan
ab
a+b
,
or
c b+c
h
,
lie
ab,
same
22.
is
is
received on a screen.
of the
;
screen,
in
which a bright
formed on
it
and
if
parallel to the
mean
between them
is
(1 + tan
tan
^y cos
cf'
cj>
crystal,
and
= (a=6=)(6=c=)/6^
which the ring
is
circle,
rtan^,/<i=i!l^;^
where
23.
T is
the axis
is
perpendicular to the edge, and bisects the angle between the faces.
Show
may
extinguish one ray, and obtain formulae for the range of incidence,
wave surface be
1*8
and
1"4,
is
approximately
sin' (894)
 sin' (644).
all
24.
rays
EXAMPLES.
25.
135
so that the
/x,
A plate
of biaxal crystal
is cut,
normal to the
surface
cosines are X,
Show
menon
angle
of
V
where
26.
{X Qf
 c^> v{a?
IffY +
/^' (Q^'
 c')]^
V is
air.
If the
crystal are
show that
is
g:\.6=)(ac^)y/f
where d
is
air,
and
the
show that
1
v'^
1
v'^
a'c'

sin
sin
0',
arc'
where
28.
a, c
a prism formed of a biaxal crystal be perpendicular to one another, and one contain the two axes of elasticity a, c and the other h, c; and if ii f^b be the two refractive
If the
two
faces of
of refraction are
8,
perpendicular to the axes a and b respectively; show that minimum deviation of the extraordinary ray is given by
sin^ S
the
= ilMa'l) (fib'
be the direction cosines of one of the two lines of vibration of the plane front of a wave in a biaxal crystal, and of a plane X', /i', v those of either of the two lines of vibration
29.
If X,
iM,
front,
prove that
iy
b')lvv'
0.
36
30.
is
incident in
is
y(/.^/.'0(/xl)^aV2/x/,
where and fi' are the principal refractive indices and extraordinary rays, and T the thickness of the
/j,
CHAPTER
VIII.
shall discuss
phenomena
and we
shall first
When
is
the incident vibrations, upon entering the plate, are resolved into
two components, which are polarized in perpendicular planes, and travel through the plate with different velocities; hence the phases of the two components upon emergence are different. If the angle of incidence is small and the crystal is thin, the two emergent rays are sensibly superposed but since they are polar;
ized in different planes, they are not in a condition to interfere. If however the emergent rays are passed through a Nicol's prism,
each ray on entering the prism is again resolved into two components, which are respectively parallel and perpendicular to
the
principal section of the Nicol
;
cannot get through the Nicol, whilst the two former components
being brought into the same plane of polarization by the Nicol, and
being already through the action of the crystalline plate in different We thus perceive, how it phases, are in a condition to interfere.
is
line plate.
The apparatus
is
used
upon the
a.,
p. 36.
138
polarizer,
aud the second Nicol is called the analyser. The planes of polarization of the light, which emerges from the polarizer and the analyser, are respectively called the planes of polarization and
analysation.
130.
We
OB
are
now prepared
to
consider
the mathematical
Let OA,
0, the former of which corresponds to the ordinary ray, and the latter to the extraordinary ray. Let OP be the direction of
if
the light
let
is
polarized
by a Nicol,
OP
is its
principal section
and
OS
be the principal
;
vibration which
sin 2vt/T.
is
Let POA = a, POS = /3 also let the incident upon the crystal be represented by
On
into
is
resolved
along
OA, which
and
The waves
corre
written
cos a sin 27r (t/r
Ej\),
and
air,
OjX)
where X
of
is
and
and
two laminae of
On
139
and putting (^ = i/r  0/X, the resultant vibration on emerging from the analyser is represented bycos a cos (a
 /3)
sin Ik {^
+ (0 
E)\\\
+ sin
is
a sin (a
The
therefore represented by
/3)^
P = {cos a cos (a  /S) cos 27r (0  E)\X + sin a sin (a = cos2/3sin 2asin2(a/3)sin=7r(0^)/X
If in this expression
we
write ^tt
/3
for
y8,
which amounts
obtain
. .
to
we
whence
(2),
We
therefore
through an angle of
its
complementary
131.
one.
consists of a
small
which
P be
PQ
At the end
let
TI, TO,
TE be
and
be their velocities of propagation. Draw PO, perpendicular to TO, TE and let r, ?' be the angles which these perpendiculars make with the normal to the plate. Then
let v, u, u'
;
PE
ut
u't
,
(3),
sin i
whence
=
V
sin r'
;II,
(4).
^
'
140
emergence.
sponding to the incident wave PQ, the difference between the times which the ordinary and extraordinary waves occupy in
travelling from
to
OM,
is
equal to
PElii!
POju which
is
 EMju,
T be
= E
fsini
.
sm r cos
. ;
Tsint
7 (tan
sin r cos r
r tan?)sin
'\
(5).
is
We
reduced
x,
t'.,
in .terms of the
Their
of crystal
under considera
of the principal
wave
Uniaxal Crystals.
132.
when
141
to the
Axis.
wave surface
in the crystal
y''
z''
and the
ellipsoid
aW + 6= (f + z') = 0:^^.
In negative crystals such as Iceland spar, the velocity of the
ordinary wave
is less
a>b;
outside
planetary.
The
reverse
is
In the
crystal
;
figure,
is
PB
let
PQ
TO,
TE
be the fronts of the ordinary and extraordinary waves at the end Then if p be the length of the perpendicular of unit of time.
drawn from
P on to
;
TE,
a= sin^ r'
by
(3)
and (4)
i.
Similarly
i,
whence
accordingly
cot r
{v'
we
0E = Tb'
Now
we
i
(6).
if
a small quantity
therefore
i,
we
obtain
b') si n^ i
142
134.
being refracted by the crystal, consists of a small conical pencil proceeding from a focus, whose distance from the plate
let
and
p be the distance of the points of incidence of any ray from the projection of the focus on the plate then
;
sin= i
approximately.
Whence
0EThe
is
intensity of the
light
given by (1); hence the equation of the isochromatic curves, (or curves of equal intensity if monochromatic light be used), is
cos /3
^.
73
= const.
. .
.(7).
Case
point
(i).
= ^7r,
of
and
and
let
be the
principal intensity
any ray; then for that ray, OP is the and we see from (7), that the rays for which a = ^mr, that is for all rays
;
whose points of incidence lie in the intersections of the planes of polarization and analysation with the crystal. The field is therefore crossed by two dark brushes.
When
when
is
not
2n\bvd'
^Ti^F^
field are
^^^'
covered by a
dark
circles.
a,
2a
sin^
is
"
^
,
zovTm'
= const.
Hence
for
any
circle
intensity vanishes
when a
1)
tt.
maximum
end of
when a
^ {2n
The appearance
Chapter IX.
is
shown
143
and
Let
/3
= 0,
see
analysation coincide.
When
= ^mr, we
from
(7) that
the intensity
is
is
equal to
Also when a
is
righthand side of
equal to the
divided by a
circle
is
any
which
not one of
maximum
is
minimum when
= i(2?il)7r.
The
rings
and brushes in this case are complementary to those and the appearance is shown in fig. 2.
(8),
from
hence
if
white
be employed, the appearance consists of a number of brilliantly coloured rings, which will gradually disappear owing to
the superposition of the different colours. Also since the radii vary inversely as the square root of the thickness of the plate, the rings will be farther apart in the case of a thin than a thick
plate.
When
The
is
more complicated.
below \
to the
Axis.
Let
BPG be
FB the
also let
axis,
PNA
co.
of incidence for
any
ray,
PE
NPB =
W.
IV. p.
vol. xiii.
vol.
299.
v. p. 74.
144
The wavesurface
and the planetary
is b,
BAC,
Whence
;
a= cos^
t
b' cos^"
hut
cos
accordingly
i,
whence
and
cot
r'
{v
0E = T [&'
(?)=
 6" sitf
 ai
sin"
[if
i,
we obtain
B)}/a6. .(9).
.
and
a
/3
are the
same
upon the
crystal
whence
if
^nir, so that
the axis
is
is
constant and
equal to cos"
/8
consequently
if
/8
0,
is
but
is
if
= ^tt,
the field
perfectly dark.
/3
produced when a
= ^nir,
in
which
is
produced by the
position of
2a sin 2 (a 
/3)
upon the
The conditions most favourable for the production when a = ^tt, and /3 has either of the values or Jtt.
of rings are
When
= \ir,
/3
= 0,
tt
(0
E')/X
0E = {n + \)\
and the bright rings by
0E = n\.
Now
if X,
y he
a,
we have
tan
ft)
yjx, tan i
= (a^' + y^)/d
145
a sufficient approximation,
sin
CO
sin
yjd, cos
a>
sin i
= xjd,
is
{b/a)ix.
Since the righthand side of (10) does not in general vanish, the asymptotes do not usually form part of the system of iso
chromatic curves.
If a=:j7r, /S=}7r, the intensity is equal to shi tt (0 E)/X whence the dark rings are given by the equation U E = iiX, and are therefore complementary to the bright rings in the preceding
case.
136.
Wlien the
axis
is
more complicated. The isochromatic curves are of the fourth degree, which approximate to circles when the axis is nearly perpendicular to the plate, and to hyperbolas when the axis is nearly parallel to the
the surface of the plate, the calculation becomes
plate.
is
referred
p.
161.
Two
137.
Plates Superposed.
suppose, that light passes through two
We
shall
now
same piece
of crystal,
lu the figure to 130, let OA, OB be the principal planes of first and second plates respectively; then we have shown in 130, that on emergence from the first plate, the vibrations may be represented by cos a sin 27r (i/r E/X) along OA, and
the
sin a sin 27r (</t
0/X.)
along OB.
B. O.
10
146
The
of these waves,
which
is
becomes the ordinary wave in the second plate whilst Hence if 0', E' the second becomes the extraordinary wave. denote the retardations produced by the second plate measured by their equivalent paths in air, the vibrations on emergence will be
first plate,
represented by
cos a sin 2ir [tJT
 (0' + E)j\]  (0 +
E')/\}
along
OA, and
sin
a sin 27r
{tjr
along OB. Since the crystals are of the same thickness and of the same
material,
we must have
cos a sin 27r^,
= 0';
whence
if
(f)
t/r
(0
{
E)l\,
these become
and
{<^
+ (E E')IX],
cos a cos (a
/S)
sin
27r(/)
27r [^
+ (E
E')j\}
equal to
cos= 13
(^  E')/\.
The value
^jT
of the quantity
E' is
CO
for
03,
whence
&))/cro.
The appearance presented on a screen can be discussed in this same manner as in the preceding. The most favourable cases for the production of the rings are when a = ^tt, and /S = or In the first case the intensity is equal to cos ir {E E')/^, ^TT.
whence the bright
rings are given
by the equation
EE' = nX
or
(D
where n
is
zero or
The
iso
chromatic curves therefore consist of the two systems of rectangular hyperbolas, which are included in the equation x' y= + h^,
together with their asymptotes
y=x.
BIAXAL CRYSTALS.
Biaxal Crystals.
147
and brushes i^roduced whose optic axes make a small angle with one another, and which is cut
shall first consider the rings
138.
We
by a plate
We
In the figure,
OQ
let be the point of incidence for any ray let be either of the wave normals within the crystal corresponding
;
to this ray.
parallel to
A,B
and
two optic axes and the axis of least elasticity, corresponding to 0, meet the plane of the paper. We have already shown, that the plane of polarization of this wave bisects either the internal or the external angle between the planes OQA and OQB and since these angles, and also the angle
;
AOB are
the plane of the paper, will coincide very nearly with the internal
or external bisector of the angle
fix
AQB.
a
Hence these
or a
bisectors will
(1)
From
we
see
constant
when
= \nrr,
/9 = ^mr;
hence
all points, at
Let CP be perpendicular to the plane of polarization and chosen so that QR, the internal bisector of the angle be let Q Then a = PRG=ARQ; hence if perpendicular to GP. AQB, is
tion.
GN = X, QN =y,AB=
^
2a,
==
AQR = z,
2/_
oc
a

tan
NAQ = tan (a + e)
 ^
x+ a whence
X'
_._2^f__
102
148
by the equation
ai
y 2*ycot2a = a'
when
(11).
similar
to
method
QP
is
per
pendicular
the plane
the
hyperbolas
From
we
see,
When
/3
= hirr,
hyperbolas coincide
in the
,13
When
= \mr,
and
former case /3 = 0, the brush is light, = ^tt, and the brush is dark. /3 = ^Tr ,so that the plane of polarization is
parallel or perpendicular to the plane containing the optic axes, and the Nicols are crossed, (11) and (12) both reduce to xy O; whence the brushes consist of a dark cross.
When
= Jtt,
/3
= ^tt,
become
y =
a?
so that the
transverse axis
139.
cot
7"')
sin
i.
A
;
very complete
may be
By means
the form
may
be expressed in
sin i)j
equal to
t\v(
Since
i,
;
I
 s
("
"') sin' i
and the difference between u and u' are small, we may i, whence (.5) becomes
^^=^GJ>)
1
(13).
Lecons
d'
ii.
p.
Phys. vol.
Lxiii. p. 57 (1861).
149
Since tlie angle between the optic axes, and also the angle of incidence are very small, the two rays, and also the two wave
ray, may be approximately supposed to coincide with OQ; hence in the formuliE (10), of 108,
22u'
we may suppose
respectively.
that
denote the
angles
QOA
and
QOB
Since
6, 9'
are small,
we have
u''
= c' + Ua'c')(99y,
1
,
whence
(a"c)99' = ^ _/ 
{aPc)QA.QB
2c'0A'
.(14).
0 E = nX
lemni.scates,
and consequently by (lo) and (14), they consist of a family whose foci are the extremities of the optic axes.
a.
of
The form of the rings and brushes when shown in figure 3 and when a = Jtt, /3 = ^tt
;
= ^tt,
/3
= \ir
are
in
figure 4, of the
may be worth
in
^= const,
are lemniscates,
and
?;
= const,
are
rectangular hyperbolas.
140.
When
is
very nearly
which
and
it
may be
are hyperbolas.
The
I,
VI,
is
Y^
cr^
V'
i=
V'
C'
150
In the
T
optic axes
;
i,
Then
n = cos r
also
i.
V  V
{I'
(6=
c=)
nab
= 0,
in,
n,
V,
we
shall
sin'' { + [{ab + c" {b cos= a + a sin o))} sin= i v^ (a + b)] cot= r sin i + c sin* i (b^ cos" co + a sin= to) V sin= i {b cos= a + a sin= o) + c) + v*=
(16).
This
cot
is
i,
sin
i.
Let
= b cos co + a sin{a?
co.
Then
2ub cot= r Rin=
{=v
...
(17),
where
7/2
= {^2(ct2 + j!) _ (a=j2 + sin= i}=  4a'6" (ch^ sm''ivh sin 1 + V) = (a.=i=  cVi=)2 sin* i2v'' sin^ i{(a"6= + ch')(a' +)  2aPb{h^+c)] + v*(ab'y = {b {a c=) cos co + a { c^) sin^ co} sin* i  2(a=6) j6 (a= c^) cos^ tuf a^ (6=  c) sin^w} sin= i + if (a  6=)= 4aV (a^  6=) (6^ _ c^) sin^ ta sin= i = [v (a  b)  [b (a=  c) cos= gj f a= (6'  sitf w} sin=^ if + 4iav (a b") (b  c") sin= co sin= i (18).
c"/i=)
t;=
f
c'')
151
We
hence
have shown in
111, that
if
be nearly equal to
may may
therefore
be written
H=
v^ (a
h)
c will be very small, and we c^) sin!' i accordingly (18) b" (a^ c) cos^ co sin^ i.
;
Now ab + ch = b (a" + c) cos" &> + 2a^c" sin co + athe last term
(17)
(b
c") sin" ca
i,
may be
by
sin^
whence by
we obtain
V (b cos co + c" sin co) sm i, ab cot" j\ sin" i = vb c" (b cos" co + a sin" a>) sin" i
6" cot"
'i
sin" 1
whence
(cot
r,
cot
?.,)
sin i
yay
cos^
To
yjd
J (b cos (u + a sin^ co) sin^ i curves, we must write xjd = cos a> sin i,
determined
sin
sin
i,
and we
by the equation
6^ (c'
a>b> c;
accordingly ab
>
&,
Also since the constant on the righthand side may be either positive or negative, we see that there are two systems of hyperbolas.
The
such as nitre or aragonite, whose optic axes make a small angle with one another, and which is cut perpendicularly to the greatest
axis of elasticity.
In this
case,
we must suppose
;
that c
is
c"
the
ab,
greatest and a
is
whence
>
but a <
141.
6,
hyperbolas.
When
a biaxal crystal
is
might be expected,
approximately ellipses, which are symmetrical with respect to this The equation to these curves can be shown to be axis.
\\fi
{a}
 c^)  (a? 
b")} X'
4 ' {b'
c')
f = const.,
the velocity of light in air being taken as unity (see Verdet, vol.
IT.
p.
179).
152
We
have hitherto supposed that the incident light is it is analysed by an instrument which
common
light.
If
however the
light
which
has passed through the polarizer, or the light which emerges from
the crystal,
polarize
is
we
shall proceed
143.
may
be
by
is
an instrument which will be explained in a subsequent chapter or by passing it through a quarter undulation plate, which consists
of a thin plate of uniaxal crystal cut parallel to the axis, of such a
thickness, that
it
equal to a quarter
Then
since
E = IX,
and perpendicular
tion plate, are
sin
7 cos
27r (i/r
0/X),
and
cos7sia 27r(</T
is
0/\).
We
to convert plane
= ^77,
is
circularly polarized.
We
undulation plate
rhomb)
is
circularly
polarized.
The
upon the
and
may be taken
the vibration
plane
hence
if (^
27r (t/r
0/X),
is
where a
is
emergent
light, is proportional to
....(19).
P=l.sin2asin27r(0');x
153
we
1;
(0
 E)j\ =
is
see, that can never vanish unless hence there are no brushes.
When
the crystal
to the axis,
E varies as
/==
1
sin 2a
(20),
wliere A
If
is
a constant.
r,
we
say r
maximum when
and equal
to
= f7r,
or ^w.
When
r
= n'rr/h,
maximum
^TT.
and when r= (2?2 +f)7r/^% the intensity is a when a = ^7ror ^tt, and a minimum when a = 7r or
1;
Hence the general appearance of the pattern is, that the brushes are absent, whilst the rings in the first and third quadrants
are pulled out, whilst those in the second and fourth are pushed
in.
Any
appearance
of an analogous character,
which the light In order to accomplish this, we must place another quarter undulation plate between the crystal and the analyser, with its principal plane inclined at an
145.
shall lastly consider the
We
case
in
is
circularly polarized
and
circularly analysed.
latter.
Let 7 be the angle between the principal section of the quarter Then on emerging from
cos
')(^
sin
sin \x
[p^;
'2'7r(0
E)/X} cos 7,
sin
and
sin
p^
cos
7 cos
27r
E)/X\
7
is
(%
7)
 sin
{%
+7+
27r
(0
 E)/\]
accordingly
Z = 4 sin= tt (0  Ej/X.
same form
as
when
the light
brushes.
is
154
EXAMPLES.
1.
axis inclined at an
by a show that
is
of crystal.
2.
is
tan a
= tan j8 sin
2'rrk/X
tan 7 cos
2'rrk/X
where a is the angle between the principal plane of the first plate and the plane of polarization of the incident light, /3 is the angle between the principal plane of the second plate and the plane of polarization of the emergent light, y is the angle between the
principal
planes of the
first
and second
first plate.
plates,
and k
is
the
small
beam
is
incident on
is
cut
crystal is then
made
to
being small
unchanged.
It is found, that
when
lies in
polarized
emergent light
incident light.
same
Prove that
If
laid
upon each
EXAMPLES.
form
spiral staircase,
;
155
them
and a polarized ray pass normally through of the emergent rays are of the form extraordinary and ordinary
prove
that
and
Y
;
are
of the
form
cos 717
cos S cos a
a being
the
angle
two consecutive plates, and 28 the difference of phase between the ordinary and extraordinary rays in passing through one plate.
directions of
Determine
polarized
5.
also
originally
plane
may emerge
plane polarized.
The extraordinary wave normal OQ in a uniaxal crystal, whose optic axis is OA, makes a constant direction with a given Show that the mean of the displacemenis irredirection OP.
spective of sign, which are parallel to the plane
position of
POA
and
as
the
are
OQ
varies, will
be a minimum, when
OA
OP
If a biaxal crystal
is
bounded by two
be the
prove that
bc
cosec d
I
c").
7.
is
opposite sides of
it
refraction, when the thickness of the plate and the distances of the holes vary, the angle in air between the two pencils which can
pass, varies as
h
h
+ fji,{k + k')
k, k'
where h
is
The
show that
if
polarized light be
incident nearly perpendicularly to the faces, and afterwards analysed and received on a screen, the rings will be sensibly the same as
156
would have been formed if the surfaces had been perpendicular to the axis, but shifted in the direction of the projection of the axis through a distance proportional to fia., where /u. is the refractive
index for the ordinary ray, and a the angle between the axis of the crystal and a normal to the surfaces of the plate.
Plane polarized light of amplitude c passes in succession 9. through two plates of crystal cut parallel to the axis, and is then
by a Nicol's prism. The inclinations of the principal planes of the two crystals, and of the Nicol's prism to the plane of polarization of the incident light, are a, a + /3, and a + /3 + 7 /) and q are the retardations of phase due to the two crystals respectively.
analysed
;
Prove that
if
c cos
a cos
/8
cos 7,
AB = c sill
and
cos 7,
and
of
AB, BC,
q and
p + q;
will
then
CD make with AO angles respectively equal to p, OB will be the amplitude, and the supplement
of a Nicol's prism, in
CDO
10.
The end
is
which air
is
substituted for
balsam,
sawn
^
V5
_ J_
V2
746
]_
Co
V2
CHAPTER
IX.
KOTATOKY POLAHIZATION.
146.
When
is
transmitted at normal
is
cut perpen
was however
uniaxal
there
are
certain
which quartz is the most notable example, which possess the power of rotating the plane of polarization. It thus
appears, that crystals of the class to which quartz belongs possess
certain peculiarities,
crystals,
The
crystals
by
Biot",
who
Tlbe rotation
of the plate, and inversely proportional square of the wavelength of the particular light employed.
tional to the thickness
II.
the
If an
is travelling, there are certain varieties of quartz which rotate the plane of polarization towards his right hand, whilst there are others which rotate it towards his left hand.
The former
and the
latter lefthanded.
'
Mem.
p. 36.
'
Mem.
ii.
p. 41.
158
EOTATORY POLARIZATION.
this definition
it
From
follows, that
if
an
observer,
who
is
it
whilst
Many
continental
writers
is
when the
observer has to turn his Nicol towards the right, in order to bring
it
much
as the
the directions of
same manner,
be
different
be employed, the be superposed on emergence, and the emergent but if the emergent light be examined by a
colours.
If
sunlight
plane of polarization of any particular colour, that colour will be extinguished, and the light on emergence from the Nicol will
appear coloured.
The
159
all
On
rotation will
amount
to a large
is
number
considerable.
the observer
of rotation
is
is liable to
amount to less than 180, be mistaken as to whether the direction to the right or to the left. In fact it appears from
thin for the rotation to
G of the spectrum, a plate of quartz only one millimetre in thickness produces a rotation of 42 12'.
By employing
specimen of
plates of different thicknesses all cut from the
same
crystal, or
by employing
when
the ray
is
;
parallel,
for
and disappear
spar.
is
quartz behaves in
same manner
oil
as
Iceland
There
common syrup
&c.,
of polarization of light
which possess the power of rotating the plane and this property is independent of the
;
150.
Faraday
'
discovered, that
when plane
polarized light
is
is
placed in a
field of
magnetic
force,
whose direction
is parallel to
;
and the direction of rotation is the same as that in which a positive electric current must circulate round the ray, in order to produce a magnetic force in the same direction as that which actually exists in the medium. was afterwards discovered by Verdet", that certain ferromagnetic media, such as a strong solution of perchloride of iron in wood spirit, produce a rotation in the opposite direction to that of the current which would give rise to the magnetic force.
It
151.
There
field.
is
magnetic
If,
an important distinction between the rotation &c., and that produced by a when a ray is transmitted through quartz in a
is
from
left to right, it is
found that
Exiierimental Researches, xixtla series, 21462242. G. R. vol. Lvi. p. 630; vol. LVii. p. G70; Ann. de Chim.
;
ct
Lxix. 415
3Mm. de
ROTATORY POLARIZATION.
transmitted in the opposite direction, the rotation
If therefore the ray after passing through
from right
to left.
a plate of quartz, be reflected at perpendicular incidence by a mirror, and thus be made to return through the plate in the same direction, the rotation will be reversed, so that on emerging a
second time from the plate, the plane
restored
to its original position.
of polarization will
is
be
transmitted
through a magnetic field, the direction of rotation in space is always the same, whether the ray is propagated along the positive if therefore the ray or negative direction of the magnetic force through the magnetic field, be reflected, and be made to return
;
The photogyric properties of a magnetic field will be more fully considered, when we discuss the electromagnetic theory of
light.
152.
The
to
account
present
At
we
shall
geometrical considerations.
manner wave
is
immediately
split up,
is
pendicularly
parallel to
to
the axis.
Let the incident displacement be = ^TrtJT and let the where </>,
<f)
;
The
incident wave
may be
conceived to be
made up
of the
four displacements
= ^a cos v = ^a sin
u
(f>,
(f>,
<j),
</>.
By
13,
the displacements
represent a righthanded
(it',
')
repre
Their combination
is
equivalent to a
FEESNELS INVESTIGATION.
161
Let d be the thickness of the plate; Fi, V^ the velocities of Then on emergence, the two waves are represented by
u,=
^acos[tyJ,
J
27rf.
d\
v,
27r/ d\ = iasinUyj,
1
.
u^
217 (. d\ = ^acos~Uyj
t)2
d\ = ^asm 27rf^ U =
,
.
j;
,,
= asin^{^id(^+)}sin'^(^^),
= ..+
..
= asin?J^{*id(^ + l)cos^(i.y,
= tan ^^ ^ VVF,"F
u u ^
whence
nrd / 1
i
We therefore see that the emergent light is plane polarized, and that the plane of polarization is rotated through an angle
jrd/l
1
wrvj
Hence according
as Fj
wbe towards
>
or
<
who
is
is
looking along
which
the direction in
this result,
is
supposed to be travelling.
From
wave
is
Equation
the rotation
(1) is in accordance
is
fact,
that
any information respecting the dependance of the rotation upon the wavelength, inasmuch as the relation between Fi, F, and t is
unknown.
F Fj
must be a
153.
From
it
mean
is
the rays
B. O.
162
whose thickness
is
ROTATOEY POLARIZATION.
15
mm.
and
1^^(7,43=2^
where
(^>'
V is the velocity
is
and X
is
the wavelength in
;
air.
If the plate
righthanded, Fj
between the
velocities is small,
where
A.
is
v~Y^ vr
approximately.
2.
The
ratio
Y\Yi,
is
ordinary index of
;
refraction of quartz,
which
1'555 or about f
whence
/VFi
= AX.
;
rays,
;i,/F,
X = ^ x 10~'mm.
whence
= xlO^
two
thousandth part of one of the
;
from which
velocities
it
appears,
velocities is less
difference
two circularly polarized waves and that the between the two indices of refraction is less than 1"00005,
of the
which
gases.
is less
Fresnel
The
gations
we
shall
proceed to consider.
is
When
a plate of quartz
is
plane of incidence
Trans.
Gartib. Phil.
ii.
Soc, Vol. n. pp. 79, 198 see also Verdet, Lemons d'Optique
;
Physique, Vol.
pp.
237265.
airy's
163
that of any other uniaxal crystal; but when the plate is cut perpendicularly to the axis, and the incident rays are inclined at a small angle to the axis, he found that the two refracted rays
were
Quartz
is
a positive
and if the plate is righthanded, it follows from 13J and from the definition in 146, that the lefthanded elliptically polarized ray corresponds to the ordinary ray, and the righthanded one to the extraordinary ray. The converse is the case when the
crystal
also
;
plate
is
lefthanded.
elliptic polarization is only sensible,
The
of incidence
does not
much
exceed 10;
if
is
considerably
greater, the refracted light appears to be plane polarized, and the position of the planes of polarization is the same as in the case of
It therefore follows, that the ratio of the major and minor axes of the two ellipses, which is equal to unity at perpendicular incidence, increases rapidly with the angle
of incidence
ellipses
so that
when the
differ
do not sensibly
of the
latter ceases to be small, the two from two straight lines at right angles
to one another.
ordinary ray, is 'perpendicular to the plane containing the optic axis and the ordinary wave normal, whilst in the case of the extraordinary ray, the major axis lies in the plane containing the optic axis and the extraordinary wave
vibrations
normal.
We
very small
it
ellipses
corresponding
When
waves
is
light is transmitted
through an
this arises
consists of
But
the
spheroid
is
prolate,
From
this
hypo
elliptically
polarized
waves
is
112
164
EOTATORY POLARIZATION.
is
a function
of the period.
155.
in
By
passed through a
it
will
be
When
pendicular,
set
between them, a
centre of the
of circular
coloured rings
observed.
The
is
plate.
;
If the thickness
'48 of
an inch,
'17 of
pale pink
with thicknesses of
'38, '26
and
an inch, the colours of the central spot are a bright yellowish green,
a rich red plum colour, and a rich yellow.
The
colours of the
same
as in
Newton's
scale,
colour of the
central spot.
faint brushes
At a
commence, which
same
When
the latter is
in the centre,
made
which on continuing to turn the analyser becomes and the rings become enlarged. When the inclination of the planes of polarization and analysation is 45, the rings are nearly square, and the diagonals of the square bisect the angles between these planes.
yellow,
III.
When
two
incident light
is
circularly
consist of
spirals
IV.
When two
is
which
spirals
together,
and placed between the polarizer and analyser, four proceeding from the black cross to the centre make their
appearance.
156.
spirals.
We
now proceed
to give the
mathematical investi
We
convergent light
is
Let
be the point of
VALUE OF THE
INTENSITY.
165
incidence of any one of the rays, OA the intersection of the plane passing through the ray and the optic axis, at the point where the central ray of the pencil meets the crystal also let OP, OS be the principal sections of the polarizing and analysing Nicols.
;
Let
If
2'jrtJT,
and
let
we suppose
elliptically polarized wave, which the extraordinary wave, and a lefthanded ellip
and their major and {u', v') respectively denote the displacements parallel to OA, OB in the two waves, and is a quantity lying between zero and unity, we may put
axes are at right angles,
follows that if (u, v)
ifc
two
u= mk cos
vl
V
v'
1/),
= m sin + = nsm{<l) + v)
{(j)
/J,))
^
J
''
sin ^,
The resultant of these four displacements must be equal and must be parallel to OP, whence
to
coefficients of sin
and cos
(m cos /x (m cos
(
w cos
v) sin a
{mk
cos
^ nk~^ cos
v) cos
a=
0,
(m sin (i
From
f
sin v) sin a
= 0,

these equations
fi
find,
a,
166
accordingly
ROTATORY POLARIZATION.
cos/i=jj^,
sin
TOSin/i
= ^j^,
k cos a
^cosa
cos.= 3^,,
Substituting in
(3),
k^ sin
n^mv=
j^^
we
k
r,
obtain
u=
V
= =
=
z
(^ a
*
cos
Y2
(^^'^
^^'^
u'
rj
Tj
(k sin a cos
cos a sin
(f>),
v'
(A sin a sin
^+
The
first
and
and
we put
2TrGjX
= 27rD/\, 7 =
we must
replace
^ by
S for
(^ 7
become
+ v) sin (a /3),
{<f>
+ k)"^ [[/c sin a cos ((^ 7) + k" cos a sin (^ 7) k sin a cos B) + cos a sin (<^ S)} cos (a /3) + {sin a sin (<^ 7) k cos a cos (^ 7) + k^ sin a sin {j> S) + cos a cos (c^ 8)} sin (o y3)]. 8, picking out the coefficients of Writing ^ 7 + 7 S for 7) and sin 7), and then squaring and adding, and cos writing for brevity yjr and % for a /3 and 7 S, the intensity P is
A;
</>
((f)
{(f>
a sin %) cos
^jr
+ ( cos a + k^ sin a sin % + A; cos a cos x) sin i/rp + [{k^ cos a + sin a sin + cos a cos x) cos i/r + (sin a + k^ sin a cos % A; cos a sin t^) sin ^Y sin (cos a cos ^ + k^ sin a sin ir) k cos ;^ sin 13 +k
;;^
)(^
sin
/8}^
VALUE OF THE
INTENSITY.
167
i/r
+ h^ sin
a.
sin <y)
+ +
k"
sin a sin
k'^
sin a sin
1/^)=
+ 2k'' sin^ jS
^Ir
+ k^ sin
a sin
i/r
i/r)
x
;;^;
+ 4= cos a cos \lr)+k sin sin /3} % + 2k sin % sin ^ (sin a sin i/r + cos a cos i/r) cos x sin'' yS. Keplacing cos by 1 2 sin" J this becomes
{cos
(sin a sin
A;=
2/;;=
;;^
;j(;,
= (1 + k^y cos^ ^ + (1 + &2) sin 2^5 sin + 4^;" sin" ^x sin' /8  4 sin= %(cos acosr+/c= sin asim/r) (sina sin +&"cosacos ir) = (1 + ty cos= ^ + (1 + A") sin 2/3 sin %  44" cos 2/3 sin" x  (1  ky sin 2a sin 2i^ sin" ^,
A;
;!^
i/r
A;
whence dividing by
form
/"
(1
+ A")",
may be
sin
(^cos
^ cos ^x + y:^,
.
sin
/3
^x)
{2k
)
,3
(cos" /3
yjr
and
cos
^^)
Returning to 155, we see that the first case which has to be examined, arises when the Nicols are crossed, so that j8 = Jtt in this case (4) becomes
P=
is
{(rS)= + (^r^^^^'"h^^^^('^>^^)field of
view,
independent of a
patch.
field
consists
of a bright
As we proceed from
the centre, k
is
approximately equal to
2a
sin"
sin"
^ (7 S),
It therefore follows, that at
when a = ^nrr.
a certain distance from the centre, four dark brushes make their
168
EOTATORY POLARIZATION.
field into
;
up
to the centre
are
much
We
shall
now
 7 = 2w7r,
crystal, it follows
D = n\.
an ordinary uniaxal
from
^^where
2arf
;
'
T is the
We
know
that this
and Airy therefore assumed, that the retardation is equal of this expression, together with a quantity, which is directly proportional to the thickness of the plate and inversely
sum
air.
We
therefore put
^(^^J(b'a^)r' + ^m
where
(6),
is
a.
constant.
is
very nearly
{BG)/\,
when
r
and since
it
never be black
G')/X is
of the form
follows that the colour of the central spot will vary with the
At some
as
whence the
according
maximum
or
minimum
D0={n + \)\
The pattern
or nk;
by coloured circular rings and the rings are interrupted by four faint brushes at right angles to one another, which commence at the circumference of the circular
spot.
169
^ = 0,

and analysabecomes
tTTkJ + (iT W
^^^^
2a) sm^ i (B
 y),
from which
brushes,
it appears that the rings are interrupted by two white and that the colours are complementary to those in the
former case.
The forms
shown in
figures 5
and 6 of the
159. When the planes of polarization and analysation are neither parallel nor perpendicular to one another, the isochromatic curves are of a more complicated character. In order to get an
let
2k tan
TT^=^an^.
yS,
cos
/8
deduced from
this equa
term of
(4), it
becomes
^^^
4i=+(l+A;=)tan=t
^'''
* ^^ "
" *^ ^ ^^
^ ^^
"
^^^^"^
whence
7
= jcos=/8 +
 7 + 2ir)
If we suppose that a small variation oi S y does not produce any sensible alteration in the value of k, the maximum or minimum
P with
respect to B
y,
constant;
we thus obtain
(1 + k^y cos" /3 + 4!k^ sin^ ^ + (lty cos^ (2a  0) ^{1+ k^y cos^ yS + sin= /3  (1 cos^ (2a  /3)
tan (B
y + ^fr)
' '
'
fc=)=
^^
= tan
Let
D, (say).
Q
;
QP
OQ
the direction of
QS
analyser
then
if
is
the principal
170
EOTATORY POLARIZATION.
Now as we proceed along OQ, value of S 7 and we see from (8), the upon the intensity depends brightness occur, when minimum that the points of maximum and Now if OQ = r, it S 7 has a value which depends upon a and k.
section corresponding to the ray Q.
;
follows
from
(6),
that
8
 7 = Ar' + B,
Hence
lie
is
where
and
are constants.
as
OQ
square curve.
The equation
of these curves
A'r'
= irSlylrB. Now O is a maximum when = ^^ + \nTr, and a minimum when a = J/3 + (Jm + i) tt and therefore fl is a maximum when
a.
;
OQ
polarization
and exterior angles between the planes of and analysation, and is a minimum when OQ makes
with
its
an angle
{tt
The
/3
best position
when
= Jtt,
field,
is
and from
2ir
(7) it appears,
when
7+ 7
= (2n +
1) TT
Now
;
(7),
that for
points
which are near the centre, the intensity is approximately greatest when a = J/3 + ^itt, and least when a = J/8 + {\n + ) tt hence in
;
is
a dark
cross,
We
and
when
is
circularly
and we
are righthanded.
u=
where
cos ^,
?)
= sin ^
= 2'7rtlT.
entering the quartz at oblique incidence, the incident light
is
On
is
171
Vi
v),
1
fj,),
we must have M=
tti
+ Mj,
/J,
= ! +
<f},
1)2
whence equating
coefficients of cos
sin 0,
we get
m sin + n sin = 0,
fi
z^
m cos + ncosv = l,
fi
= 0,
,
= 0.
in
= ~1+k Tz
l+k'''
k(lk)
^^
J+ k^
crystal,
u,
= j^^
cos
(<j)
 S),
v,
=
^_^J
sin (0
 S).
If
a.
by
1
zfa)
cos a
+ (i +
7)
I
vi)
sin a
that
is
j^l {k(l
+ j^,
{(1
+ k) cos (</> 
(1  k) cos (^ S)},
+ *) sin (.^  7) 
/<;
(1
 ^) sin(<^  S)j.
x
for
S,
the
+ k^y P = [{l+kk{l k) cos x) sin a(lk) sin cos a]=, + [{(1 A) cos F (1 k)} cos a (1 A;) sin sin a]^ = {(1 + kf 2k(l k'^ cos x + Je^O ^y} sin' (1 + A;)'} cos'' a {(1  ky 4 2A; (1  k^) cos ^ 4 (1  A:^) sin 2a sin
;;^
;)(;
A;
f
A;
j(;
f
A;"
;^,
172
whence
ROTATORY POLARIZATION,
"^
(1+fcy
^^^""'Xi:ppsm2asinx
we put
2k tan
21/r
(9).
161.
If in this expression
(1
+ Jc") tan 2a =
')^,
we
obtain
2Ml^0eos(S72^)
"''
(H/fc7
^(l+A;){(l+/fc=)=cos''2f +4yfc=sin^2A/r}i""^
Let us now draw a line from the centre making an angle a with Then if we consider a series the principal section of the analyser.
of points on this line, which are not very distant
we may suppose that k is approximately constant for such points. From (10) we see that I' is a maximum or minimum according as
8
and since
the points of
maximum
by
(11).
differ
Ar^ + B
= 2n'Tr + 1y]r
first
much
may
therefore as a
for a, the
approximation put
= a;
whence writing d
curves becomes
Ar^
2m7r
WB.
if
The form of the curve when n = 1 is shown in the we put w = 2, we obtain a second spiral which is derived
AIRYS
from the former by turning
values of
it
SPIRALS.
through two right angles.
spirals will
173
For
be found to be
reproduced.
162.
The
we
when
which is righthanded, and the other lefthanded and the planes of polarization and analysation are parallel.
The displacements in the two elliptically polarized waves on emergence from the first plate are given in 1.56 and we must recollect that on emergence, we must write <^ + % for j> in the
;
values of
{u', i/).
Since the second plate of quartz is lefthanded, the sign of k must be reversed, and therefore on entering the second plate we must write
U = mk cos ((j)+
for the ordinary wave,
If'
fi),
V=m sin
(<f)
+ fi)
+ v)
and
V = n sin
'^
(yfr
= ^ + x
The
four quantities m, n,
yjr,
cos
in the equation
v
u+
u'=U+U',
V.
+ v'=V+V'.
n,
fi,
v,
we must
write
>/^
+%
{U+
U') cos a
+ (F+ V) sin a
we must therefore form this expression, and then write down the sum of the squares of the coefiScients of sin ^, cos 0, which will
give the intensity.
The
somewhat
will
be found that
cos
2a sin  (S
 7) 2 sin
2a cos ^ (^
~ 7)f
174
163.
ROTATORY POLARIZATION.
This expression can vanish in two ways. 'y) = 0, which requires that
S
In the
first
7 = 2mr,
homogeneous
used.
which represents a series of circular rings, which are black if light be employed, but coloured if white light be
when
tan i (S 7)
1 +/&"
tan 2a.
much
may
7 = 4a + 2mr
equation of the isochromatic curves are
whence writing d
for a, the
Ar" + B
which
is
= 416 + = 0;
2nn;
Let us
6
suppose that n
so that the spiral
then
it
follows that
when
0.
= ^B,
d
commences
at the origin,
and the
= (2^  B)/A. Next let n = 1, then r = 0, when 6 = \B ^'7r; and when = 6 IB, r^ = (27r B)/A. We therefore see that the spiral corresponding to n 1 is equivalent to the spiral corresponding to
When
Jtt, r^
left to right
Fig.
1.
Fig. 2.
Fig.
3.
Fig. 4.
Fig.
5.
Fig. 6.
Fig.
7.
B. 0.
airy's spirals.
Similarly for n
175
there are two other spirals, whose by turning the spiral for which w = backwards through two right angles, and three right angles When n = 4s, the original spiral is reproduced. respectively.
2,
=3
makes
its
Now
at a distance
is
whence the
intensity
becomes
I"
sin=
<^
2a
sin^ (S
7),
h = mr
a
= ^WTT.
The
first
CHAPTER
X.
When common
light is incident
it
upon the
is
surface of a
or
amount
large,
of light reflected
is
greater
It
known, that when light proceeding from a denser medium, such as glass, is incident upon a rarer medium, such as air, at an angle greater than the critical
it is small.
is
than when
is
said to be total.
When
effect
is
common
light;
polarized
is
and very
tan~^yii,
;
nearly vanishes,
when
is
equal to
where
fi is
as
normal incidence.
light polarized perpendicularly to
165.
was
of
discovered by Malus,
Iceland spar the light reflected from one of the windows of the
Luxembourg palace
On
;
turning the prism round the line of sight, this image reappeared
image
BREWSTER S LAW.
reappeared.
Brewster',
177
More accurate experiments were afterwards made by who discovered that when the reflector is an isotropic
transparent substance, and the incident light is polarized perpendicularly to the plane of incidence, the intensity of the reflected light is zero, or very nearly so, when the angle of incidence is equal
to tan' n.
This discovery
jx is
is
known
as Brevi^ster's law,
and the
angle
tan""'
166.
transparent bodies in contact with media other than air, in the following manner. A glass prism was placed in contact with water and with carbon tetrachloride respectively, and the polarizing angles were determined.
49 41' 46
32'.
The
for
and the
The
results
were
as follows
.57
14'
error, Brewster's
These results show, that within the limits of experimental law holds good for glass in contact with water
tetrachloride, as well as air;
and carbon
it is
and that in
all
probability,
167.
In isotropic media,
equal to sin^'ya;
simply expressed.
168.
plane of incidence
'
a minimum.
See also Lord Eayleigh, "
On
Eefleotion from
B. O.
12
178
and
refraction.
In order to explain these experimental facts, it is 169. necessary to determine the intensities of the reflected and refracted This was first effected by Fresnel and although his theory lights.
;
is
it
will
physical
the
ether,
which are
and
it will
them
We
w = Acos~{x
and
let
Vt),
T denote
the
amount of
wavelength
A."
Jo
A,
^ ~
Since this
7r"A"V'pdS
\
of kinetic energy flows across
amount
dS
in time t,
dS
is
TrA^VpdSjXr.
an angle
is
Let dS' be any oblique section of the cylinder, which makes e with dS, then if we assume that the energy of the wave
half kinetic
and half
across dS' is
2Tr A'V'p cos
edS'/\r
is
for unit of
volume
iir'A^V'pIV
as has already
(2),
been shown in
are
10.
171.
We
now prepared
to consider the
problem of
reflec
let
179
then the incident, reflected and refracted waves be the real parts of w, w', lu^, where
may
be taken to
10'
= ^V<''^+"'
'!''''
(3),
and K
= 27r/X,
k^
^tt/Xi.
Since the reflected and refracted waves are forced vibrations" produced and maintained by the incident wave, it follows that the
periods of the three waves must be the same
;
whence
(4).
kV=KiVi,
Since the traces of
together,
all
it
or
V/\=VJ\
all
m = Kin' =
If
i, i',
Ki7}ii
= cos = m sin
i,
i',
li= cos
:
r,
i',
sin
r.
i',
V
smr
which
is
172.
amplitudes
Fresnel
of the reflected
In order to effect
this,
assumed,
the
(i)
same
122
180
and refraction.
The
condition gives
A+A' = A,
and by
gives (1) the second condition
(6),
AVpX^ cos
or
A'Vp\' cos i
= Ai'V.p^Kr'
r
cos r
(7).
{A" A'')
Vp
cos
= A^^V,p, cos
into
product of the velocity Fresnel's third assumption was, that the constant for all media; which is density the square root of the
,
gives
,,
 A') tan
we obtain
= ^iHan
^
(8).
A'
^1 =
A
'
sin (i
.(9).
But
if I, I', /i
it
(10).
^ ^
1 .
^
7sin(ir)')
.
sm (i + r) 7 sin 2i
sin
{i
r^
c
.(11).
+ r)
When
as
is
the second
the
first,
the case
medium is more highly refracting than when light proceeding from air is reflected
is
always real
case, r
imaginary when the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle. For if /i be the index of refraction from air to glass, and light is
internally reflected
and refracted
sin i
with
air,
= pT^ sin r,
when
i
cos
Since
/i
>
1, it
Under these
CHANGE OF PHASE.
181
the reflected and refracted waves become complex, and their interpretation in former times was supposed to be a matter of considerable difficulty.
reflected
The
true explanation
is this.
The
incident,
and refracted waves are the real parts of the righthand if therefore A' and ^i are real, the reflected and sides of (3) refracted waves are
;
but
if
A^
= ai+
w'
A' and Ai are complex, we must write A' i^i, and the reflected wave is
i^,
= cos K ( lx + my Vt) j3 sin k ( Ice + my = (a fi')^ cos {k ( Ix + my  Vt) + tan"' /3/a}
0.
Vt)
1
is
a change of phase.
first
(
To
find a,
/3,
of (9)
A\u, cos i (u^ sin^ i 1)*} ^^ ra + t/3 '^ = / . 1 irr^ cos I + t.{fi' sin1)^
/J,
whence
n
ne
if
tan
= X
(/A=
^^^
sin= i
fi
1)*
;
I
(IZ)
cos
we
obtain
is
a+i^ = Ae''"^'"
the wavelength in glass
tan~'/S/a
where X
whence
Also
(a
=
2'7re/\.
+ S=)i = 4, w = j4
cos
wave becomes
2,7
( cos i
+ y sin iVt e)
which shows that the reflection is total, and is accompanied by a change of phase whose value is given by (12).
174.
To
flnd
what the
refracted
2AiJ. cos ^
fli
+''P^
= ^cosi +
i,
ifj.'
sin= i
1)*
whence
Oi'
+Pi
= riTT'
fX
J.
ifjp cos^ i
^__
!
(jJ"
sin i
/*
 1)^
i
cos
Also
tiZi
=
t/ci
cos
=^
(/L4=sinil)^
182
and
refraction.
T (ij.
,\re'^
1)*
cos
^
A.
(ysmiVtie)
it
(13).
Since x
is
The preceding theory is rigorous from a dynamical point but when we consider the corresponding problem in
is
we
difficulty arises,
which will be
considered in
180.
The displacements
they
lie
in the three
(3),
and
to the direction
The
continuous gives
(A A')
cos
= Ai cos r.
POLARIZING ANGLE.
176.
183
When
is
resolved into two components respectively in and perpendicular to the plane of incidence; and the first of (16) shows, that the component of the reflected
vibration in the plane of incidence vanishes, when the angle of incidence is equal to tan"' /x. It therefore follows, that if common
light be incident at this angle, the reflected light will be polarized
may be
This
is
experimentally by Brewster.
177. Airy observed, that certain highly refracting substances, such as diamond, never completely polarize common light at any
angle of incidence, but the proportion of polarized light is a maximum at the polarizing angle. The subject has been further
investigated experimentally by Jamin',
who found
is
true as a
approxi
mation
light
only.
by a single
but this
may be
accomplished by
that
when
light
which
is
plane polarized in
flected
shows, that
The reflection and refraction upon a glass plate have been experimentally investigated by Kood', and his results show that
components of the
reflected
light''.
When
light proceeding
from
glass, is reflected at
the
surface of a rarer
medium such
it will
it
as air, at
given
Ann. dc Chimic et de Phys. (3), xxix. pp. 31 and 268; Ibid. (3), xxx. p. 257. Owing to the extreme smallness of the wavelength of light, compared with the ordinary standards of measmement, it is probable that if the surface of a polished reflector were magnified to such an extent, that the wavelength of light were represented by one inch, the surface of the reflector would appear to be
"
It is therefore
be due to the fact, that our mathematical secondary machinery is too coarsegrained to take into account inequalities of the reflecting which though excessively minute, are not small compared with the waveobserved by Jamin,
may
surface,
length of light.
vol.
i.
July 1870.
184
and
refraction.
total,
and
is
accompanied by a change of
is
TTSi
where
tan
is
_ /i
(//.''
sinH'
 1)^
(17),
cost
2^/i^2^i__eE("'"*cos^(2/siniFieO.
{cos^t
+/".='( /x^sin^zl)j*
A.
179.
The change
was
experimentally verified
by Fresnel
in the following
manner.
Let
ABCD
be a rhomb of
than the
glass, of
and
D are greater
critical
makes an angle of 45 with the plane of incidence (that is the plane of the paper), be incident normally upon the face AB, and after undergoing two reflections emerge at the face DG. The vibrations in and perpendicular to the plane of incidence
in a plane which
after
A cos ^ ( A,
Vt
 2ei),
and
If therefore
Acos(xVt2e).
A,
ei
 e = ^X, Now
if
e)/\ = S,
FRESNELS RHOMB.
we obtain from (12) and (17)
tan
5,
185
= cos i ^^
(up sin" i
.
^'
l)i
i
/M sua." I
whence
^ ^ ~ ^^^' ^  ^l^' ^^^'  (1 + /^) sin i + 1 l + tan^S (1 + 1^2) sinH" 1 Hence if S = ^tt, this becomes 4^= sin* i(2 + V2) (1 + /a=) sin= i+2 + j2 = 0.
cos 2S
for values of
fi
lying
between
1'4
and
1'6.
Ai
rhomb of St Gobain glass, for which which gives i = 4>S 37' 3" or 54 37' 20". Now the angles at B and D of the rhomb are each equal to the angle
Fresnel employed a
= l51,
fraction is 151,
therefore a rhomb of glass, whose index of reand whose acute angles are equal to 54 37' 20" be employed, and light polarized as described above is incident normally on the face AB and is reflected twice, the emergent light ought to be circularly polarized. This result was found to
of incidence;
if
incident
will
light
is
polarized
in
emergent light
be elliptically polarized.
azimuth of the plane of polarization, and the elliptically polarized light be passed through a second emergent rhomb, the reflected light will be plane polarized, and the plane of polarization will be rotated through an angle 2a.
If a be the
Theories of
180.
Neumann and
MacGullagh^.
alluded to at the
We
difficulty
commencement
The
(ii)
(i)
continuity
surface.
Now when
;
is
of incidence, there
this surface
'
Neumann, Abliand. Berlin Akad. 1835. MacCuUaph, "On Crystalline Reflection and Acad. vols. XVIII. p. 31, and xxi. p. 17.
Refraction.''
186
and refraction.
ought also to be
is
components perpendicular
continuous.
would involve something analogous to an area source in Hydrodynamics, and there are no grounds for supposing that anything
of the kind occurs.
we obtain
(A
A')
ami cos i =
(18).
From
= pi.
Accordingly
may be consistent with (18), we must have Neumann and MacCullagh assumed this
we
shall
now
When
A + A' = Ai,
(A 
whence
sin 2i
,
t
Ai
=
sin (i
A sin 2i
r) cos
{i
.(19).
r)^
When
^,^
.
As\n{iry
sin {i
+ r)
.(20).
_
'
A sin 2i
sin
{i
+ r)
It follows
from
(2),
in all transparent
is proportional to the square of the amplitude, and accordingly (19) and (20) give the intensities of the reflected and refracted light. Neumann and MacCullagh
media
and on
this
EXAMPLES.
181.
187
are
of
and
and
to
elastic
media
of the ether
different in
for in
the
place, there
and
in the
conclusion
that
there are
two
polarizing
angles,
which
is
contrary to experiment.
EXAMPLES.
1.
Light
is
of
is
where
jjb
and
/j,+
Sfi
respectively,
and
a,
vibration.
the separating surface of two media, there be a straight groove of small depth c, inclined at an angle a to the plane of incidence, prove that there will be a groove in the reIf
in
fracted
wave of depth c sin (i  r) cosec i, inclined at an angle tan' (tan a cosec r) to the plane of refraction, where i and ? are
the angles of incidence and refraction.
What
is
Explain
why
188
3.
and
refraction.
falls
on a refracting surface
if
between
and
is
3,
incidence
is least,
when the
Jtt.
medium
is
such that
its
polarizing angle
4.
is
manner
perpendicularly to the
with
faces
normal
to
it,
and
with
its
Show that
the intensities
\/2
/2
+ l.
falls
on a thin plate of
glass,
prove that there are two angles at which the colours will
disappear, and that between the two angles a change takes place
in the order of the colours.
6.
is
and e' are the excentricities of the elliptically polarized light reflected and refracted, and i and r the angles of incidence and refraction, show that
surface of separation of two media.
(1
e')
(1
CHAPTER
XI.
The
been proposed
three heads;
various dynamical theories of the ether, which have to explain optical phenomena, may be classed under
(i) theories which suppose that the ether possesses the properties of an elastic medium, which is capable of resisting compression and distortion; (ii) theories based upon the mutual
(iii)
the
electromagnetic theory
advanced by the
light is
now proceed
183.
the ether
an
elastic
medium, which
is
is
capable of resisting
if
the ether
position
in equilibrium,
displaced from
its
of equilibrium or
thrown into
Now
depend upon the particular kind of displacement to which it is hence the potential energy per unit of volume must be a function of the displacements, or their differential coefiScients, or of both. If therefore we can determine the form of this function,
subjected
;
known dyto be
namical methods.
is
regarded as a system of material particles acting upon one another by mutually attractive and repulsive forces, such that the
'
p. 245.
190
mutual action between any two particles is along the line joining them but inasmuch as the law of force is entirely a matter of speculation, Green discarded the hypothesis of mutually attracting particles, and based his theory upon the assumption tbat; In
;
whatever
way
the elements
may
act
upon
of
their respective distances, the total sum for any assigned portion of the medium will be an exact differential of some function. This function is what is now known as the potential energy of the
portion of the
medium
its
most general form, it is a homogeneous quadratic function of what, in the language of the Theory of Elasticity, are called the six components of strain, and therefore contains twentyone terms, whose coefficients are constant quantities. For a medium which
is
to
three
medium
it
medium
to compression, or
unac
The
;
general
distortion, is given in treatises on and it will therefore be unnecessary to reproduce investigations, which are to be found in such works. There are however one or two points, which require consideration and we
compression
and
Elasticity
shall
stresses,
191
medium.
of the
The
A normal traction X^ parallel to Ox A tangential stress or shear Y^ parallel to Oy A tangential stress or shear Z^ parallel to Oz.
Similarly the stresses which act upon the faces are Yy, Zy, Xj, and Z^, X^, Y,.
BD
and CD,
These are the stresses exerted on the faces AD, BD, CD of the element by the surrounding medium; the stresses exerted by the medium on the three opposite faces will be in the opposite
directions.
In order to find the equations of motion, let u, v, w be 185. the displacements parallel to the axes, of any point x,y,z; p the density, and X, Y, Z the components of the impressed forces
per unit of mass. the equations
dhi dX dX dX,\ P'd^^P^ + Tx ^d^+'di
Then
we obtain
" df'
^=
"
F+ + dx
^
dy
(I).
dz
dw
"
dZ^
dZy
dZ^
dz
dV
dx
dy
fact,
momentum
an element
of the
upon however also necessary, that the rates of change of the components of the angular momentum of the element about the axes, should be equal to the components of the couples which act upon the element. Whence taking moments about the
the element.
It is
medium,
axis of x,
we
obtain
Jjy
~cU'
~^
dl)
^^^2/^^
IT [y (IZ^
.(2),
where dS is an element of the surface of the portion medium considered, and m, n are the direction cosines
I,
of the of the
normal at dS.
192
JJJ{ZyY,)(h;dydz
(3),
which requires that Zy = Y,. It can similarly be shown, that X, = Z^, and Y!, = Xy. These results show, that the component Z^, stresses are completely specified by the six quantities X^, Yy,
Fj, Z^,
Xy, which we
shall denote
by the
letters
P,
Q,
R,
S, T, U.
Equations (1)
may now
be written
di'~P
'^
dU dQ dS dx^ dy^ dz
(4).
P df
186. of
d?W_ ~
2:Ar^1 + dx dy
^+ dz
Yx
fundamental principles
relations
X2=Zx,
= Xy
respecting
(5),
been
proposed,
involving
assumptions
the
mutual
reaction of ether
satisfied.
static
and matter, in which these conditions are not however the medium were supposed to possess gyromomentum, the above conditions would not be fulfilled.
If of a
flywheels),
The conception
stats (or
medium, possessing a distribution of gyroby means of which it is endowed with angular momentum, is originally due to Sir W. Thomson", and suggests a means of explaining the rotatory eifects of magnetism
on
light.
187.
We
are
now prepared
to apply the
Theory of
Elasticity
to isotropic media,
and
Tait's
;
constants
rigidity,
and we shall adopt the notation of Thomson Natural Philosophy, for stresses, strains and elastic so that k denotes the resistance to compression, n the
shall often
and we
employ
m to
denote k + \n.
'
effected
my
treatise
on
Hydrodyjiaviics, vol.
'
7.
vi. p.
;
Larmor, Ibid.
vol. xxi. p.
423
and
vol. XXIII.
193
_ du
dw
dy
It is also
,
j,_ dv
dw
s^^lTz
Jd^j'
dv dz
,
du
dz
dw
dm
_dv
dx
du
dy.
.(6).
rotations
by
f,
equations
J,
_ dw
dv
_du
dz
dw
dx'
'^"'
'
y_dv ^___du\
dx
^"
(7).
^~dy~dz'
The
rotations
dy]
The medium
potential energy
is
c^
 ^{ef + fg + ge)]...{8).
Q, &c.
stresses P,
in producing the
&c.
is
USc
(9),
dW = P,
de
&c., &c.
.(10),
dW = S,
da
and therefore by
(6)
&c., &c.
we obtain
P = (in n) 8 + 2?ie
Q = (mn)S + R = {m n) 8 + S = na, T = nh,
2?i/'ing
TJ
..
(11),
= nc.
' It is interesting to notice, that (8) is an example of an application of the Theory of Invariants to Physios. The three invariants, which involve the first and second powers of differential coefficients of the first order of u, v, w with
respect to x, y, z are
e+f+g,
and
e + V^' + t^
Since the value of )V must be independent of the directions of the axes, and must
also be a quadratic function, its
is
4
Equations
(5)
8=
JS
{a2 +
6=
4 (e/+/5 +
(/e)
+C
J2
(
+ ,2 + f2).
(8).
require that
C=0; whence
B. o.
13
194
If the
and no bodily forces act, the by substituting the values of obtained equations of motion are account of (6); we thus taking the stresses from (11) in (4), and terms of the displacein obtain the following equations of motion
medium
is
isotropic,
ments,
viz.
dt
d'v
d^
r7o
^ dt^
dy
dS lnV% =m dz
.(12).
d?w
p'n^
~dt
we
z,
add and
take account of
we obtain
d'h
/o^
If
= (^ + '^)^'S
..(13).
we
account of
we obtain
P;,> df
d'r)
'^^=^
Pdpd'^
nV'r) y
.(14).
Pd^ = '''^^,
in the
,.
waves which can be propagated one of which involves change of volume without rotation, and whose velocity of propagation is seen from (13) to be equal to (m + n)i/pi whilst the other involves rotation and distortion, without change of volume, and whose velocity of propagation is (n/p)K The first type of waves depends partly on the rigidity and partly on the elasticity of volume; whilst the second type depends solely on the rigidity, and is therefore incapable of being propagated in a
It therefore follows, that the
medium
consist of
two
distinct types
medium
Hence if any volume and distortion, be communicated to a portion of the medium, two distinct trains of waves will be produced one of which consists of a condensation
devoid of ligidity, such as a perfect gas.
;
195
which is propagated with a velocity (m + w)*//)*; whilst the other consists of a distortion or change of shape, which is propagated with a velocity (n/p)*.
Let us now suppose that a train of plane 189. waves is propagated through the medium, the direction cosines of whose fronts are I, m, n. Since equations of the form (13) and (14) are satisfied by the function
F(lx
where
+ my + nzVt),
we may suppose
that the
V is
resultant displacement
is
S = F{lx + my + nz  Vt)
hence
if X, (i, v be the direction cosines of the direction of displacement, we shall have
Whence
= SX, v = S/i, w = Sv. S = (Zx + mii + nv) S', ^ = (mv iifi) S', V = (piX  Iv) S',
is
IX
whence
If
+ m/j, + nv = 0, S = 0.
is
perpendicular to the
whence
when
distortion
are
alone propagated.
and not longitudinal, we must suppose that the portion of the disturbance, which consists of distortional vibrations, is alone
132
196
190.
Let us now suppose, that a wave of light consisting of transversal vibrations in the plane of incidence, is refracted through a prism. Then it is not difficult to show, that the incident wave will give rise to two refracted waves, which
respectively consist
of transversal
two
The
vibrations
normal to the wavefront, will be divided on emergence at the second face of the prism into two more refracted waves, one of which will consist of transversal and the other of normal vibrations. Thus, even though we assumed that waves
are
consisting of normal vibrations are incapable of affecting the eye it would follow, in the first place, that a wave of normal vibrations
might give
rise to a
wave
of transversal vibrations,
and consequently
the sensation of light might be produced by something which is not Hght and in the second place, that whenever light polarized
;
is
refracted through a
This
the
is
altogether
ether without
some further modification is defective. When we discuss the reflection and refraction of light, it will be proved that the refracted wave whose vibrations are normal, will become insensible in the second medium, at a distance from the face of the prism which is
equal to a few wavelengths, provided the ratio of the velocity of propagation of the normal wave to that of the transversal wave, is either very great or very small ; that is whenever (ni + n)jn is
hence this
a uniform
be
large, if
is
But
if
medium, k
is
n, the
k is large compared with power which the medium possesses of resisting compression, must be very great in comparison with its power of resisting
the compression produced.
If therefore
{k + ^n)/n were would be necessary for A; to be a negative quantity, whose numerical value is equal to or slightly less than ^n. But inasmuch as in this case, an increase of
distortion.
On
the other
hand,
if
the
ratio
positive
it
known
is
very
compared with
n.
The
difficulty of satisfactorily
accounting
197
waves of normal
vibrations,
to admit, is
vacuo
waves would be enormously greater than those of the distortional waves and it is therefore not unreasonable to suppose, that they
;
are
incapable
of
affecting
our eyes.
At
the
same
is
time,
the
amount amount
factory.
which
due
to these
this large
Sir
W. Thomson
Ic
it
is
assumed that
to,
is
numerically equal
shall confine our
we
we
supposed to be large
compared with
191.
n.
sometimes
is
been
supposed to
This however
is
an altogether erroneous view, for as a matter might be more compressible than the most
;
all
that
is
necessary
is,
about 299,860 kilometres per second, p must be very small in comparison with n. That h, n and p must all be exceedingly small quantities compared with ordinary standards, is
vacuo
is
tions
proved from the fact, that the most delicate astronomical observahave not succeeded in detecting with any certainty, that any
resistance
is
it
offered
by the ether
to the
has been suggested that the irregularities, which are observed in the motions of some of the comets, may be referred to But whether this be so or not. Green's hypothesis this cause.
although
p,
n and
Ic
are
exceedingly small
is
large in
comparison with
p,
and k
is
large
compared with
n.
CHAPTER
XII.
shall
two
isotropic
Newton's
and the
reflection of light
from a
pile of plates.
We have stated in 10, that the intensity of light is measured by the mean energy per unit of volume. Hence if T and denote the kinetic and potential energies of a plane wave per unit of volume, which is being propagated parallel to x, we have
^=*^'
Hence
if
y;
dw
^=*"(S

A.
=^
cos
(^
Vt),
then
T=
A.
si
n^
{x  Vt)
A/
Tf =
and
since
^^
2'7r'A''n
.,27r, sin(*
.
 ^0
^
n=
Vp,
it
follows
that the
kinetic
and potential
per unit of
energies
are
is
equal.
Accordingly the
mean energy
volume
E=2!r'A^n/X' = 27r'A'n/VT^
(1)
intensity.
199
Reflection
and Refraction^.
193.
and
refraction.
let
Let the axis of x be perpendicular to the reflecting surface, and the axis of z be parallel to the intersections of the wavefronts with the same surface and let us first suppose, that the incident
;
light
is
it
d?w
\dx^
in the first
(2)
df
medium and
dPWi
It^
in the second,
= Fr
dx^
J) dy
(3)
where
V^==n/p, V^
= iVilpi.
The
media.
These conditions
will often
be referred
to,
as the con
and
stress.
The
first
condition gives
w = Wi
and the second
(4),
dw
ax
dwi
.(5).
Green, Math. Papers, pp. 245, 283. Hon. J. W. Strutt (Lord Eayleigh), Kuiz, Fogg. Aim. vol. cvm. p. 396.
Pliil.
200
and
we may write
''^'^'
where
/gv
(7),
The
second
medium
all
is
a forced vibration
waves, hence the
produced
and
t
maintained by the
incident
coefficients of
coefficients of
three waves.
Also the
move
together.
Kin = KiOrii
lx rtii
Hence
(8).
F= iFi,
l'
But
= cosi, m = sin
l
i,
= cosi, = sin
i,
= cosr = sin r
.(9).
From
these equations
we see that
V _ sin i _ X
sin r
.(10).
Xi
The
first
wellknown law of
sines,
whilst the second expresses the condition, that the period of the
refracted
we obtain
A+A' =A
{A
the last of which
A') UK cos i =
be written
jdi^i/Ci
cos r,
may
AA' = Aii\
whence
A'
tan
i
'
n tan r
=
(?ii
tan i
i
tan
n tan r) + tan r
11
A,=
If /,
/',
.(11).
/j
follows from
(1) that
An^jV
A'ni/V~A,n,i/V,
{i^)
Up
to
relation exists
between n and
media, and
201
we
^,^_/sin(^r) sm (i + r)
7.
^% +
sin
{i
(14),
r)
on the other hand we adopt the hypothesis of Neumann and MacCullagh, that the density of the ether is the same in all media, and that refraction is consequently due to a difference of rigidity,
If
it
follows that
n _
rii
V'^
_ sin^ i
sin= r
''
Vi'
and we obtain
/'
J.
.\
tan
{i
+ r)
r
^^
(15),
^
"
J il
=^
sin
/sin2i
(%
r) cos (t
J.
r)
to
(16).
light
polarized
perpendicularly
the
plane
of
formulae do not enable us to decide the of polarized light are in or whether the vibrations question, or whether the plane of polarization perpendicular to the hypothesis of Green on the one hand, or of Neumann and
194.
;
The preceding
MacCullagh on the other, is the best representative of the facts. For the present we shall adopt Green's view, and shall proceed to calculate the change of phase which occurs, when the angle of
incidence exceeds the critical angle.
If
/t is
^~
hence
if pi
i _V _ sin r
__
sin
is
""
Vt,"
IPi
'
p
;
> jO.
/u.
>1, and r
always real
but
if
/jj
< p,
/a
<
1,
and
of
when
the angle
When
/3i
< p, we
shall write
jjT^
for
/i,
so that
fi
denotes the
index of refraction from the rarer into the denser medium, and
fi
sin i
= sin r.
202
APPLICATIONS OF GEE EN
THEORY.
Since the expressions for the amplitudes of the reflected and refracted waves become complex, we must write
w = Ai'
^:
'^""'^
''"
+ (a + 1/3)
'"'''+""' ''
(17), (18).
K+
ij
ift)6"'^'"'"+""""^'*'
in
which
a, jS, oii, /3
are real.
Now
+
t (/x^
= cos r =
sin=
1)*
(say),
whence
i/CiZj
medium.
The boundary
conditions give
4 + a + tj8 = Hi +
(A  a Equating the
real
f/3)
i/8i
cos i
= (! + t/8i)
parts,
tOj.
and imaginary
we obtain
A (cos^ i  of) "' _ 2A cos'' i "~ cosH' + ~ cos^ t + a,' 2J.ttiC0si _ P = P'~~ cosH' + Oi^
Oi''
'
7re
Let
then
a
tan^X.
tti
.
= ^^t/3i
(/i=sin=il)i
^
cos
a,
is
(19),
fi
cos
tyS
= Ae'^'"""',
wave
whence the
reflected
Vt
e)
= (/l)i
2Aficosi ''"
ru.'^Kiii2i.i>ii
27r
'='
^2/
^"^
is ^^t ie).
.
i
//sv
.
.(20).
From
these equations
we
see,
that
is
given by (19).
which
is
203
is
The
investigation
of
the
problem,
of
when
the light
is
polarized
difficult.
perpendicularly to
the plane
incidence
more
In this case w = 0, and by (12) of 187, the equations of motion in the upper medium are
'^^^
d C^u
dv\
/d?u,
dh(,\
.(21),
In these equations the resistance to compression, which Green supposes to be very large compared with n.
is
The boundary
conditions are
w=Mi,
= Vi
(22),
dii,
djy
dv\
/dui
\rfy
dxj
dvA dxj
of which
the
first
have therefore four equations to determine ttuo unknown Now we have already shown, that elastic media are capable of propagating waves of two distinct types viz. dilatational
quantities.
;
We
When
reflecting
there will
be a dilatational as
well
as
and refracted wave, whose amplitudes must be determined by (22) and (23); accordingly we have four unknown quantities and four equations to determine them.
distortional reflected
When
is
is
+ dvjdy
we
kZ
as zero, because
finite
dilatational waves.
^tfy
U'
'~f,t
V'^n/p
(^.
(25),
= {k + ^n)/p,
204
SO that tional
U and V are
waves respectively.
Then
^'
dx
where, by (21),
</>
dy
i/r
dy
dx
and
^=^3V=,
(26),
'
dV'
first
medium
^1
= 5i6"" (<.+
"iJ'i^i')
J
''
whence
m = K^trii,
also since the dilatational
it
kV= KiVi
is
(29),
wave
is
follows that
its
wavelength
equal to
UX/V which
is
therefore
we
V'={a' + m')U'
and
since
(30),
VjU
is
very small,
ia
we
shall
have
to
a sufficient
approximation
= m;
is
medium.
Similarly from the second of (28) and (26),
Ki Fi=
we
shall obtain
(31).
= K,' (oj
4
mi') Ui'
= (Ki'ai' +
k'tii') t/,=
Whence approximately
CKjOi
= Km
because x
is
205
We may
therefore write
J
J}/
,
Kmx+iK{myVO
Kmx+i.K(myVf)
.(32).
</>i
= Bji
From
we obtain
.(33).
We
shall
that
n = ni; whence,
since
or
(34).
The
first
of (23)
may be
written
pI7.V=.^2=/,,C/rV^<^,2n;,
which, through the continuity of v and dvjdy, becomes
we
wP)
B'/\'=BJ\i'
;
since
V^p
Vi'pi
71,
and k
2Tr/\.
p,,
which
is
equal to
X/\,
may be
written
B'/B,
= p\
last of (33),
From
and the
we
obtain
.(36).
^=
Using these in
lA,(p,'~1)
P^+l~'
(33),
B,
p'+l
we obtain
A+A' = A,p',
AA'^Aj'^'H^Uni tan r +
p,'
and therefore
i'^
tanr
tan
i
I
p'+l
(p/
2A' = AAp'
^ tan
.(37).
i [
tan r
p^
206
then
A'/A
if
= iR'/R)e^^^'+'\
il/
A, = 2AlRt';
whence
(/i^
(u.'^
l)/(/i=
+ 1),
i
tan e
^
fj?
l) tan
^7
tan r
=
tan r
+ tan i
(38),
= iftan(ir)
since
fi
= sin i/sin r.
=  if tan (i + r)
(39),
Similarly
tan
e'
whence
^lr'
\ri
,^q.
polarized
per
is
determined by (38)
and
(39).
The amplitudes of the reflected and refracted waves are determined by the equations
R'"
R'
_ ~
 cot ry + M (fjP If  1y lij? cot i + cot rj + M" {fjP ^ ^ cot (i + r) + M cot'{ir) + M'
(fi
cot i
^'
and
4
_
sin i sin^ (i
4sin^rcosi
R^
196.
'"^
''
M=0.
is
According to Fresnel's formula, when light polarized perpendicularly to the plane of incidence
experiment
this result is
as the intensity of the reflected light does not absolutely vanish, but attains a minimum value. On the other hand Green's formula deviates too much the other way, and shows that too
much
CHANGE OP PHASE.
197.
flected
207
To
calculate
surface
when
light
is
re
at the
medium
at
an angle greater
than the
critical angle,
we
shall denote as
medium hy
we must
fj,
in (37).
i,
Now,
sin r
,
= /A sin
=+
,
tan r
a sin i
.
t(/ti=sinH'l)*
,
ana
also since
ikiI^ is
kJi
j
+ Kb tan r
r
;
tan
t(/Li^sini
/u,
1): ;
cos
= cos
j^tan
i,
the upper
sign
must be taken
2A = A.
2A' = A,
i
I
+ ^At^^^^Lll _ iM^li)
/J,
fi'
cos
/J,
\\ (/A
iO^l^iRlizil^
fj,
+ (/^l^
'
fj,
cos
M tan
These equations
may be
2A = A,Re""'\
from which we get
2A'
'
= A.Re''""'
,
A' = Ae~
yii
where
tan 
(/a
tan=
is
sec=
?!)
 ;;
tan i
....(43).
= A cos
{lx + my Vt
e),
which shows that the reflection is total, and is accompanied by a change of phase, whose value is given by (43). The first term of the change of phase agrees with that which we have already obtained from Fresnel's theory, whilst the second is small unless
the
medium
is
is
lai'ge.
When
is
may be resolved into two components, which are respectively in and perpendicular to the plane of incidence; and from (19) and (43), we see that when the light is totally reflected, total reflection is accompanied by a change of
phase, whose value
is
not the
same
for the
two components.
208
ance,
when we
which
is
produced
by
198.
We
We
ditions
of continuity of displacement
violate
the condition of
continuity of energy, unless p = p^. It therefore becomes important to enquire what results would be furnished by Green's theory,
on the supposition that the density of the ether is the same This point has been examined by Lorenz' and in all media. Lord Rayleigh^ and the results are decisive against the hypothesis in question.
In this
(23)
case,
the
become
\dy
dx)
\dy
dxJ'
From
the
first
equation,
we
obtain
VT?)
 2 Win [B'm {A A') I] = B, U,W (ar + in^)  2V^Ki'm, {B,m,  A,k),
and (31) becomes
2?<)
t
which by
B' (1
(29), (30)
2AA^rh
(44).
.(4.5),
From
(33),
we
get
= {A+A')t + {A A') l/m  A, {f^l,/m + ,), 2B, = (A+A')i{AA') l/m + A, {fil,/m 2B'
1).
1 "
Pogg. Ann.,
vol. cxiv.
Hon.
J.
W.
Strutt, Phil.
209
we
Substituting the values of B', B^ in (44) and (45) and reducing, obtain
{A
(fi'
1) sin i
and
{A\A'){l +
fi'^
cot^ i)
 A, (fi + cot= r) =
(47).
be sufHcient for our purpose to calculate the intensity when the difference between the refranoiis
In this case, the intensity A' and ^i and r are nearly equal to A and i respectively. We may also neglect squares and higher powers of /i" 1, hence in the small terms we may put A' = 0, r = i, A^A^; we thus obtain from (4C) and (47)
small.
small,
'
fA,
fi
cot
i+1
,
.
Now
therefore
cot= r
= ^.
cot=
i,
sin
cot r
= cot ill +
V
. 2cosi;

approximately
hence
i
and
accordingly
i.
0,
be two polarizing angles; and since nothing of the kind has ever been observed, we conclude that the hypothesis that p = pi is untrue, and that the rigidity of the ether in all media is the same.
B. O.
14
210
On
199.
Neiuton's Rings.
In the investigation of Newton's rings, which is given in Chapter III., the assumption is tacitly made, that the angle of incidence is less than the critical angle but when these rings are formed between the under surface of a prism and the upper
;
is
no
angle of
exceeds the
angle.
it
is
found, that as
black
spot remains.
Now
and
show that when the angle of incidence exceeds the critical wave exists in the second medium, which In the penetrates a few wavelengths, and then disappears. the air between stratum of the rings, experiment of Newton's
angle, a superficial
be comparable existence of the the with the wavelength of light; accordingly, ^ central spot beyond the critical angle was attributed by Dr Lloyd
is
so exceedingly thin, as to
of
that which,
of incidence
than the
critical
We
wave
is
200.
when
first
Also let us
and let e and / be from air to glass. suppose, that the stratum of air is bounded by two
light passes
from glass to
air,
when
light passes
in
let
by
where
k^
2irl\,
glass.
Then
the
be represented by
hpiici
(xcosi+ysini
Vft)
'
vol.
iii.
p. 310.
"
Tram. Camh.
Math,
nnil
Phy.
Newton's rings.
Since the refracted wave
is
211
it
a superficial wave,
may be
represented by
gga,.r+iic(2/ sill)' Vt)
where =
277/X,
\ being
the wavelength in
air.
The
polarized
in
or
to
the
plane
of
incidence.
When
is
the amplitude of the reflected wave will be ceq, where 5 = 6""'^. This wave will be again reflected and refracted at the first surface,
will
be
ceq
and
cefq
whence taking
we
+ cefq'{l+eq' + e*q'+
)=^+i^go
= e, cf=le\
156=
201.
It will
polarized in,
incidence.
now be necessary to distinguish between light and light polarized perpendicularly to the plane of Taking the first, it follows from Fresnel's theory that
tti
= (27r/X)
(/J,
sin= i
1)*,
fi is
where X
is
where
(49).
Xi
ytt
cos
coefficient in (48)
may be
written
ig gM _ g2g2cfl
Lui!
(1q^) cos
(1
 g)
+ 2=) sin 20 ((1  q') cos 2g  (1 + q) sin 26 (1  qy + 4f/ sin= 20
26/
J
(1
142
212
proportional to
(l_5=y+4f/sin"2^
{ (27rZ)/\)(ya=sin=t 1)^}
is
^^"^'
(51).
where
202.
= exp
When
the light
of incidence, ^?e
must write
tan
6'
where
fji.
{fj,
tan i
 sec= i)*
is
(52).
Ill
accordingly equal to
p cos
(os
cos
+y
:i
sin i
V^t
yjr),
where
tau^ =
\,
a
lq
tan 2d)
is
(.53),
and
(^ is
equal to 6 or
^',
polarized in or
The corresponding
forrnulaa
for the
transmitted
snjDerficial
light
When
cqf,
the
is
wave
;
amplitude
is
equal to cq
the
reflected
cqe
whence
cq"e/
and
becomes
is
of
the refracted
portion
J''
'
_ e^qi
()i
q^b
h,
this
becomes
20
 q")
cos
2^Tt (1 + f) smYe
_
Whence
2q
.sin
20
((1
(1
4g^sin2
~ (1  qj+
is
2^_
_
^'^
^'
4>/ sin="26'
cos
(,r
cos
i~y sin i +
l+q
V^t
Tfri),
where
(.5.5). ^ ^
Newton's rings.
Iti
213
is
Hence
D = 0,
and therefore by
(51)
q=l;
accordingly p'
= 0,
or there
is
absolute darkness.
On
receding from the point of contact, q decreases, but slowly at first, inasmuch as x r', where r is the distance from the point of
contact
whence the
r*,
and therefore
There
is
consequently a black
becomes insensible
intensity at
first
Further on q decreases rapidly, and soon hence as we proceed from the black spot, the
then slowly again as
it
it
approaches
its
soon becomes
sensibly equal.
205.
colour.
We
Since
shall
now
consider
how the
it
depend upon the colour, but the variations in passing from one colour to another are so small, that they may be left out of account. From (51) we see, that as the distance from the point of contact increases,
fi is a,
function of X,
follows that 6
and
6'
q decreases more rapidly when X is small; accordingly the spot must be smaller for blue light than for red light, and therefore the black spot must be bordered by a ring of blue light. On the
other hand towards the edge of the bright spot, which transmission, the colours at the red end predominate.
206.
is
seen by
next consider, how the spot depends upon the Let s be the ratio of the transmitted nature of the polarization. light to the reflected; Si, s.^ the particular values of *, belonging to
shall
We
light polarized in
and perpendicularly
4(/ sin=
to the
plane
cjf
incidence
then
26
_
'/..
^^'^^
4(/ sin
26
s,
sin
2^
whence
sS^W
,i\.,
^ ^"'" ^ ~
iio
'
/r'\
^^
^'
the distinctness of the black spot, which is produced by reflection, depends upon s being large; and since in the neigh
Now
bourhood of the
critical
we have from (56), S2 = Si/x*, it conspicuous for light polarized more much
angle,
2L4
perpendicuLarly to the plane of incidence, than for light polarized As i increases, the spots seen in the two cases in that plane.
become more and more nearly equal, and become exactly alike When i becomes greater i = i', where cosec=i'= J(l +^=). reversed, and when i^iv, is magnitude of order the than i', large. It must however becomes inequality = the that SJ/i^ so Sl
when
be recollected, that this statement refers to the relative magnitudes of the spots, for when the angle of incidence is nearly equal to Itt,
the absolute magnitudes of the spots
become very
small.
All the conclusions deduced by the above theory have been verified experimentally by Stokes, and he has also discussed the case
in
is
polarized in a plane,
making a given
l^lie
from a Pile of
Plates.
A common method of producing polarized light is by 207. means of a pile of plates, and we shall now give an investigation, due to Stokes, of the intensity of the light reflected from^ or
transmitted through a pile of plates^
The
to
same material,
be sufficiently
an elementary distance dx of a
portion of
1
plate, will
is
to 1
qdw, where
is
g'
a constant.
Hence
if/,
I \dl
whose thickness
dx,
dl = lqdx
whence
/,
(.57),
if
is
/i the intensities on
makes with the normal to the plate, and entrance and emergence, we obtain from
(say).
(.57)
I,
= Ie"i^^ = Ig
which
The constant
q,
may be
called
the
coefficient
is
of
;
upon the material also since the amount of light absorbed q also depends upon the colour.
absorption, depends
1
made
refrangibility,
POLxiRIZATION BY
208.
A PILE OF PLATES.
tlie light,
215'
retlected at
the
first
is
surface of a plate
which
is
p
is
which
transmitted.
is made up of that which is and that which has suffered an odd number of internal reflections, it follows that if the intensity of the incident light be taken as unity, the intensity of these various portions will be
p.
(1
 Pf Pf'
(1
 pyp'9''
etc.
Hence
if i2
<'t^
TJ]P^f
P)
T be
The value of p depends upon the particular theory of light which we adopt, but in any case it may be supposed to be a known function of i the angle of incidence aud p, the index of refraction the value of g depends upon i and p,, and also upon q,
209.
;
to
To complete
problem
light
to
:
the solution,
we have
Tliere are
and
of the light incident upon it ; incident upon the system, it is required unity being intensity of
and
light.
Let these be denoted by (m), yjr (m) and conssider a system of m (i plates, and imagine them grouped into two systems of m and n plates respectively. Since the incident light is represented by unity, (m) will be the intensity of the light reflected
4
from the
</>
first
fraction
(ft)
(m) of the be transmitted and the fraction light reflected by the second group will be reflected by the first group, whilst the fraction ifr (?)i) will be transmitted, and so on. It therefore follows, that the intensity of the light reflected by the
portion
(;i)
will
<j)
(m)
+ (\jrmY
()
+ (t/thi)
(j) (
m) ^
()
216
be
(Hi)
yfr (,)
{ill)
(j)
()
^ (m)
;
^r (ii)
ir
f (h) +
The
second
series,
first
of these expressions
yfr
is
equal to
{in
+ n)
equal to
we obtain
*(.+,.)=*(.)+,
.
^^f<:'^)
<p
(60).
N '
^(.m) <ir{n)
1
,.,
'^
(m)
(n)
m
to
and n are
obtain
the
solution of these
how when
and
;i
have
From
(60)
we obtain
<f>
{m + n)
{1
(/)
(??i)
^ (ft)} = ^ (m) +
(n) {(ylrm)is
 i<pmy}.
letters,
symmetrical with
and
n,
and
4>{n)
is
true for
all
values of vi and
ft,
each side
we obtain
(>/rm)=
(07?i)=
(62).
^
Squaring
(62),
(61),
by means of
we obtain
{10 (in) {n)]" [1 20 {in + n) cos a + {0 {m + n)]] = jl  20 {m) cos a + (0Hi)') [120 [a) cos a + (0ft)}
.(63).
In order that (60) and (61) may hoUt good for a zero value of one of the variables, say n, we must have If (0) = 0, t^ (0) = 1.
however we put ft = in (63), the equation reduces to an identity we must therefore differentiate (63) with respect to n, and then put Ii = 0. Accordingly we find
;
0' (0)
{m)
Dividing out by
= {1  20 (m) cos a + (0m)=} 0' (0) cos a. {m) cos a, since the solution (??i) = cos a
= G, we
0' (0) [1
would lead to
i/r
(m)
obtain
0' (m)
 20 (hi) cos a +
(07)1)=}
(64).
POLARIZATION BY
Integrating this
equation,
PILE OF PLATES.
determining
(j)
217
arbitrary
/3
and
the
(0) = 0, and
writing
for
we
obtain
d){m)= ^^ '
..
sin?n/3
;
sin (a
5,
t/3)
(65). ^
(66).
in the
form
,57)
f ("0 ^f_0)^
sin?;!.;3
sin a
sin(a+??i/8)
= ii, i/r (wi.) = jf, where the values of R and and (59) and therefore to determine the arbitrary constants, we have the equations
When
ui
1, <^ (i)
^
=
sin /S
sin a
1 sin (a
+ /3)
following
:
210.
quasi
Construct a
in the case of a
the angle opposite
the
and
second,
by the number of plates; then the sides of tJoe new triangle will represent the corresponding intensities in tlie case of a system of
plates.
actually effected,
inasmuch as
is
sum
of the
two
others,
numerical calculation,
it
will
be
Putting
we have by
'
=  2R
{I
\+R'T'
'
tA ^=2ii;'
.
whence putting
(70),
we have
= cos a + t sin =
a^^^
218
APPLICATIONS OF
signs,
C4IIEEN S
THEORY.
we have
tA,
.
2R sin a = also
'"'
=a
cos
/i
^=
+ yE:^
(1
,
sm fi =
Esina y
"^
lA
2T'
(71),
Whence we
shall
if
+ r^E= + A)/2r=6
e'^
have
= b,
jjm_im
211.
att1
ab'"
 a^ b'"
^"
From
this
equation
we
see,
light reflected
a~^
and
or A,
since a is
changed into
a'
we have
(1
+ B' +
 ^)/2E
of perfect
(73),
which
is
equal
to
unity in the
case
transparency.
thrown down as chemical precipitates, which are finely divided so as to present numerous reflecting surfaces, and which arc transparent in mass, are brilliantly white by reflected light.
212.
The
of
1,
2,
4 and
of
for three
The
is
refractive
index
is
= 1 6~^^
= 0.
is
corresponds to
to
transparency
also
the
value
of p
supposed
be
^^
tan=(tr)
tan(i
sin^i
is
+ r)
+ r)
'"'
plane of incidence.
(j>
and
light,
ct is the polarizing angle tan~' /i denote the intensities of the reflected and transmitted the intensity of the incident light being taken as 1000.
y}r
The angle
it
is
necessary to
distinguish
between
219
and the
suffixes 1
and perpendicularly to the plane of incidence, and 2 refer to these two kinds respectively.
Ill
220
= 02)
reflect
(for
much
kind
as
9i
60 per cent.
also
"The
number
its
table
shows, that
while
the
amount
of
light
state of polarization is
somewhat improved.
which
is
underwent
reflection,
number
it
of times
and since
medium
is
by
reflection,
follows
that
in
a defect of
the
transparency must
operate
more powerfully
in,
reducing
also shows,
any greater
loss of
illumination,
transparent kind."
214.
We
shall
now
incidence.
The degree
of polarization
is
yjrjyjr^,
;
which we shall denote by %. When % = 1, there is no polarization and when % = 0, the polarization is perfect in a plane perpendicular
to the
plane of incidence.
i+pwhence
+ p'
R + T=l;
each equal to unity, and (72) becomes indeterminate. Now when a and b arc nearly equal to unity, a and /S become indefinitely
small,
yfr
(wi)
_
a
m^
z/3
221
^ = Ita/T, whence
(^)
i~r=e,
c^r
+ r=(r,
/*
sin r
sin
i,
J^ ^
tan
i
tanr
tan
whence
and we see that
da_  tan r " tan i + tan r " '^"^ d^* = sin ^'t^w, rfo = sin otZa
i
dd
*'
'
(76),
and
<o
We
to i^hn.
also obtain
from (74)
sin^^
^'
= sin='.'
= 2 sin ^ cosec^ a (sin a cos Odd  sin 6 = 2 sin= cosec= a (cos 6 cos tr) c^w.
cos otZa)
dpi
, Also
= =

tan=
,
tanodp.,
o sec'
sin^
o,
(cos a cos 0) da
o.
0"
cos
~~^^0^P'
Now
cos ^
cos
o
or
2 sin
sin r
is
positive;
i
and coso
is
positive from i
to i
ijr
= T^,
decreases as p increases.
decreases,
'UT,
= ^7r. From i = to
t3
to i
dpjdi
is
negative but the maximum value of i/tj is 1, so that on passing through the polarizing angle, ^^ still decreases, or the
d^JTi/di is
polarization improves.
When
decreases rapidly
whereas
i^i,
which
little
is
Hence
in this case,
minimum
minimum
an arbitrary number of
plates,
we have from
^~
(sin^
sin= 0) (sin= o cos= + {2m 1) sin= sin[sin^ a + (2771  1) sin= 0} (sin= o cos^
(7
o)
cosec
+ (2 
1) cosec^ u
(77)
222
Hence x
minimum
Dif
we
maximum
cos^sin=o(2ml)cos(rsin=^=0
For any assumed value of
the value of m, that
is
i
from
ro
to
W,
the
number
must be composed,
that of
maximum
polarization
of the
The
equation
may be put
2to
tan o sin = pi
(7
tan 6 sin 9
{pipd'
p^ continually increase,
Now we
and
and
At i = tn to i = ^ir. = = a> at second, the the first of tliese limits p. 0, and therefore i = p.,= L, a,nd therefore wi = l. Hence with a single plate, the Pj
thereftjre
up
to
a grazing incidence
attains a
maximum
but with a pile of plates, the polarization at an angle of incidence, Avhich approaches
number
of plates
is
Eliminating
(78),
we
find
(79),
any
pile
j^^i,
the defect of
maximum
polariza
is
a maximum.
We
is
negative,
it
of incidence exceeds
follows that
as
decreases as
o (and
i
there
decreases,
;
or
,
m
o
increases.
For
;)^i
m=
;
1,
= ^tt,
of
and
= ii~^
for
m = 70
cos
= 0,
and have
or the
maximum
plates
polarization tends to
is
become
perfect, as the
number
indefinitely increased.
CHAPTER
XIII.
If
we put
a and
a"
= {k + ^n)lp,
h
= njp
so that
and distortional waves, the equations of motion (12) of 187, ra&y be written
 =
dt
{a?
^
6^)
+ dy
iV^z)
.(1).
we may
divide u,
first
and
zero
Mo,
V.2,
W.2,
of
which the
two parts, viz. u^, v^, Wi depends upon the dilatation, and
v,
into
^,
rj,
f are
w^dz
when there
is
no distortion,
dwi/dy
is
dvi/dz
+ v^dy
\
a perfect differential
we may
therefore
put
^^''
"'dx'
where ^
is
"''dy'
""'
dz
some function
of x, y, z and
lu, v^,
t.
it
du2
dvs
dwi_^
dz
,,
^'
dx
dy
224
From
we
see that
f"'*
also putting
xt,
w.
(4),
= d^ldx + tu
in (1),
we
obtain
"^^'^
with two similar equations
for v^, Wn.
is
(^).
dd)
dd)
where
Me, v,
(5),
<)>
is
any function of
x, y,
z and
which
satisfies (4),
ami
subject to equation
We
shall
now apply
which was first investigated by Sir G. Stokes, viz. the propagation of an arbitrary disturbance in an elastic medium'.
of a problem
is initially
excited
of
the
medium.
pletely
The subsequent character of the disturbance is comdetermined, when the initial displacement aad the initial
T is
known.
Let
is
be any point
within T,
us
first
upon the
(6), it follows that S = V^0, where <^ and it will be more convenient to consider the function </> than 8, for when the former function is known, the portions of the displacements which depend upon the dilatation can be immediately obtained by differentiation.
By
satisfies
.r, y, z be the coordinates of 0, the initial values of <^ and ^, depend entirely upon the position of 0, and we must therefore have <^o = /(a;, 2/, 2), ^^ = F{x,y,z) (7),
If
will
'
Tram. Camb.
Phil.
p.
Hi.
poisson's solution.
225
where
and
We
The
solution of (4),
which was
first
obtained by Poisson,
is
may be
effected as follows.
^ = cosh
where t^ and from (7)
v/r
^+
sinh (a<V)
x,
i/r,
are functions of
y,
z;
we
therefore obtain
and
^=
<^i,
= aV\r.
^ = cosh(a^V)/+5^^^i.
(8).
We
by the
symbolic operators
may be
performed.
r,
on this sphere 7 be the coordinates of any point relatively to also let us temporarily denote djdx, djdy, djdz by
//.,
V.
where the integration extends over the surface of the sphere. If through the point a, /3, 7, a plane be drawn, whose direction cosines are proportional to X, /i, v, and if f be the perpendicular
from on to this plane,
it is
known
that
Xa +
Also
point
if
/i/3
P makes with p,
to the d be the angle, which the radius drawn from then p = r cos 0, dS = Inrr sin 6d6\ whence
the integral
= 27rr=
= ^wir
But
X,
fi,
["e^'"^' sin Jo
QdQ
sinh (rV)
rV
if
do
;
dS
at 0,
dB = i^dD,
V,
whence putting r
obtain
= at, and
d
d
we
aV
47r
ji^
^"15
R n
226
the operation denoted by the exponential factor on the righthand side of the last equation, can be performed by means of
Now
we thus
obtain
'J^'^)f(.,
y, .)
= ^fje^^^<'''^F(.,
y,
.)dn
= ^jJF(x + a, y + ^, z + y)dn.
If
yS
I,
rii,
n be the
;
direction cosines of
OP, we
shall
<p
= viat, 7 = nat
upon the
initial velocities is
T
From
changing
obtain
jj
F{x+
lat,
y + mat, z
+ nat) dD,.
(j>
it is
depending on the
initial
displacements
may
be obtained
t;
by
F into /,
we thus
^=+
II
F(x +
lat,
+ mat,
+ nat) dH,
(9).
^ndt"
^^t\\f{x\lat, y
+ mat, z + nat)dil
cf)
at
time
z,
t,
at
any point
medium whose
coordinates are x, y,
in terms of the
The portions of the displacements values of <^ and <^. which depend upon the dilatation are obtained by differentiating
z.
218.
is
confined to a portion
T of the
medium, and whose radius is at cuts a portion of the whose centre is be outside T, and if r^, r^ be respectively the space T. Hence if least and greatest values of the radius vector of any element of until at = r^. that space, there will be no dilatation at The will then commence, and will last during an dilatation at interval (rj r^ja, and will then cease for ever.
the double integrals in (9) will vanish, unless the sphere
219. If/i, /s, f% denote the initial values of Mj, %, w^, which are the portions of the displacements which depend upon the
distortion,
and
if F^,
v^,
w^,
then since
w^ each satisfy equations of the same form as (4) with h written for a, it follows that the values of these quantities
u^, v^,
227
It
(3).
are determined
must
also
by equations of the same form as (9). be recollected that/1,/2,/3 and also F^, F^, F3 satisfy
If therefore
we
F(at)
F(ai+
lat,
y + mat, z
+ nat),
+ ljfF{bt)da+l^tfJMbt)dn
with similar expressions for v and w.
220.
(lo),
The
dF
w=
where
the
F,,,
dF F ^+ dz
F^,
v,
values of w,
initial
F, satisfy (3) and since our object is to find the at any subsequent time in terms of the values of
;
we must proceed
to
eliminate the F's and/'s from (10). It will however be sufficient to perform this operation for those parts of 11, v, w which depend
upon the
initial
velocities, for
initial
when
t
this is
respect to
and changing
tio,
Vo,
Wo into
221.
relatively to
of
OP
7 denote the coordinates of any point P and let I, m, n be the direction cosines then at points on the surface of the sphere r = at, we have
Let
a,
;
/3,
let
OP = r,
lat,
&c.
also if
x=r.^(*)
the
first
(11).
Jjxd^ 47r..
tJlfjS
(12).
152
228
By
jj^^dS
where
jjj<t>'7'
^dad^dy
=jl
dv is an element of the normal to the sphere r = at, and the upper or lower sign is to be taken, according as the volume integrals extend throughout the space
dldy,
V = djda^+d^ld0' +
Putting <f>=X> '^ ^' ^^^ ^PP^3^g the theorem to the space outside the sphere r = at, we obtain
Putting
(f>
= X'
</^=l,
= at, we
jjjV^Xd<^dl3d^=jj^d8
Eliminating
d'x^/dr
(14).
(14),
we
obtain
 ^J\\v^xdod^dri
(r
> at)
by (11) and
If
ito,
(12).
^0. M'o
be the
dj,
initial velocities,
l(du,
dw,\l(d^
dx \da?
d'^F
d^F\
dy^
dz^ )
^'
''^
''
the function x> ^^^ consequently the functions iio, %, Wo, in a triple integral, are functions of the position
djdx
= d/da,
whose coordinates are x+a, y + y8, z + y; whence and accordingly we may write d/da, &c. for d/dx, &c.
Hence
by
parts,
x from (16) in (1.5), integrating and observing that the two surface integrals which appear we
obtain
r>at.
Integrating the righthand side again by parts,
it
follows that
229
initial velocity
of dilatation,
W = ^^s jj
Let
be the
(ai'o
+ /3*o + 7W0) dS
ffff.
da
13
d y\
^^,
+i^l].hdi^+''Tu?^''^di^)'^^'^^'^'^g'o
initial velocity
and
let (qo)at
q^ at
be shown to be equal to
III(uoSlq,)r'dadmy;
whence we
w depending upon
the
Ui=;^jjl(qo)atdD,
+
222.
[[[(!>
(r
>
at)
(17).
We
must now
u due
to the initial
velocities of rotation.
= bt,
by writing ^1
for
pj;
in (13),
we
obtain
jJF.dn=jf^ds
(r >bt)
..
.(18).
dF,
Jda.
dFdF,
by
(3),
we have
=
1 fffjdF,
r jj\
dF,
dF,\,
dS.
j
da
230
Adding
we
obtain
//...a=//l{.(f^f).(ff)}.
_ f Li V'F.dad^dy, Now
if o, Vo, to
(r
> bt)
(19).
dF,
dFi
~da~dS~^~da
and
_dvo _duo
d/3'
^.F,^
 Vu,,
r'^
(^  ^) dad^dy
jjj(^^,yV)r'dad0dy
///(t +
From the
e^+y''^]<r'<i'^fi<hthat the
first triple integial
(r
>
bt).
dad^dy
= drdS = rdrdil,
= jjj^drda = jj(u,),td[l;
whence the portion of
of rotation,
"''
u,
initial
velocity
is
^ 4^ M"" ~
/
^^"
^^~i~
ljj^'^<'~
^^"^
^^ dad^dy,
(20).
(r>ht)
To obtain the
portion of
u due
co
we
sides of (17)
and (20), and must recollect, and at, and in (20) the limits
and
bt
we thus
finally obtain
("
^2')m
d^
(21).
+ ^
[[[ (3/^0
231
initial
upon the
223.
displacements
iio,
Wo,
In order to obtain the portion of u due to the initial Uq, v^, Wo, we must change Uq, v^, w, q^ into 1^0, po, where
Po
tto is some function of which is the value of u^ at some point on the surface of a sphere whose centre is and radius
and
differentiate with
hence
(uo)at,
at, is
some function
of
lat,
nmt,
+ nat.
d\/
li
<i
,
)at
The
triple integral is
common
bt.
0,
and whose
radii are
If therefore
we
triple integral
may be
ffr {3lpou,)r^drdn;
and therefore
its differential coefiScient
with respect to
t,
is
ir^jjiSlpo
initial dis
"=s;//K+"l''i''"
+ 
f//(3?Po
(bt
<r< at)
(22).
of the displacement n, due to the initial velocities, is obtained by adding the values of and displacements u, li," given by (21) and (22). The values of v and w can be written down from symmetry.
232
224.
of two
Sir G. Stokes has applied these results to the solution important problems, viz. (i) the determination of the disturbance produced by a given variable force acting in a given direction at a given point of the medium ; (ii) the determination of the law of disturbance in a secondary
wave of
light.
We
shall
now proceed
is
sought
also let
be the density of
the medium.
Let
epoch
;
and
in travelling from
P to
0.
Let f(t) be the given force, and F(t) the velocity at P produced by the force during a very small interval of time dtf, then the usual equation of motion gives
Now
if
we
t'
at a time
;
we must
t^ior
t,
and
dt' for dt
also Bv
= F{t
if),
whence
F(tt')
f^^
(23).
This equation gives the value of the velocity communicated during the interval Bif in terms of the force.
be the origin, OP = r also let I, m, n be the direction cosines of OP, and I', m', n' those of the force and let k be the angle between OP and the direction of the force, so that
Let
;
;
= ir + mm! + nn!.
may by virtue of (23) be regarded as produced by a given initial velocity, the resulting is determined by (21) disturbance at also since
Since the disturbance
is
one which
^0
kF,
233
first
4>'!rDT
^jjlkfit 
j^//
and
Ikf [t
 3 . BrdS,
since r
= at'.
is
respect to
is
t'
between the
oo
but
f)
will
be
where r^, r^ are the least and greatest values We may therefore omit drawn from to T. the integral signs, and replace BrdS by T, and we thus obtain for the value of the first term of (21),
rja and
r^Ja,
4J^/(*D
If
(2*)
we denote by
t",
in travelling from
to 0,
in
similar manner,
we
shall obtain
M/('D
see from (17)
<^*>
In order to find what the triple integral in (21) becomes, we and (20) that it may be written
_ .
The
first
[[[(u^
Slq,) r'
dad^dry
(r
> bt").
term of
this accordingly
becomes
we thus
^{i'mf(tt')df,
and
this has to
rja and
oo
t'
between the
limits
234
Treating the second term in the same manner, and remembering that the limits of <" are r/h and  oo and adding we obtain
,
Hence
Ik
we obtain
T\
I'lk
4:7rDb'r
f_r\
J
\
47ri)aV
ar
h)
^tDr^l/f^''^"'
The values
respectively for of v
I,
'''^
and
are obtained
by putting m, m'
n, n'
V.
If therefore
we take
OP
and
the plane passing through OT? and the direction of the force as the plane xz, and put
shall
have
V=
li
1=1,
= cos
j),
m' =
0, n'
sin
<),
235
from zero only between certain narrow limits of t, and the integral contained in the last terms of u and w will be of the order
and therefore the terms themselves will be of the order r", whereas the leading terms are of the order r^. Hence in this case the former terms will not be sensible beyond the immediate neighbourhood of P. The same will be true if f(t) represent a
r,
mean
value of which
is
zero.
But
if
f (t)
represent a force always acting one way, as for example a constant force, the last terms in u and w will be of the same order, when r
is
is
Consequently the first term of w, which relates to normal vibrations, will be insensible, if not absolutely evanescent. In fact, if the ratio a/b were no greater
if
extremely large
not
infinite.
than 100, the denominator in this term would be 10000 times as great as the denominator of the first term of w. Now the molecules of a solid or gas in the act of combustion are probably
thrown into a
We
may
thus see
why
unaccompanied by normal vibrations, or at of sufficient magnitude to be sensible. If we could be sure that the ether was strictly incompressible, we should of course be justified in asserting that normal vibrations are impossible.
"If we suppose that a=oo, und f(t)
obtain from (27)
= F sin 27rbt/X, we
shall
w=
v
=vScos
~(htr)
.,T^,,
sm 
cos
^(bthr)
Fsm6
27r,,^
F\sm<f,
2ir,,.
y(28),
Fxpind)
wr
27r,,,
^^^^.''^T'^'x^^^^'^
and we see that the most important term of u is of the order X/tt/compared with the leading term of w, which represents transversal Hence tt and the second and third vibrations properly so called.
terms of w,
will
may
be neglected
236
is
terms of this nature, in the case of a spherical wave whose radius not regarded as infinite, must be borne in mind, in order to
understand in what manner transversal vibrations are compatible
with the absence of dilatation or condensation."
Determination of the
Law
227.
Let us suppose, that plane waves of light are travelling Let the axis of x be parallel to the
the waves, whilst
;
direction of propagation of
the axis
of z
is
may
be denoted by
w=f(bt x).
Let
a point whose coordinates are x, y, z; dS a, small element of the plane yz, which contains P. require to find that portion
We
is
The disturbance
a velocity
at
dS
and
bf
(bt).
t'
due
have r
to the
velocity, let
travelling from
also let
I,
then
if
PO = r,
we
shall
= bt'
in,
n be the
direction cosines of
OP
so that I,
m, n
have
from P.
We
shall thus
{qo)H=nbf'{btbt');
also since the dilatational
the largeness of
at time as r~^,
I,
a,
due
which existed at
ago,
is
given by (20).
;
must be omitted whence recollecting that the signs of m, n in (22) must be reversed, we obtain for the portion deit
pending on dS,
u = ^^f(btbt')dn.
In order to find
comprised between
bdt".
dH
dS and
is
bdt'dS
is
237
r"dD,
and
since r
= W,
it
follows that
= dS
whence
='^/' ('')
Treating v and
TO.
in a similar
manner, we obtain
*^'^
I
(30).
Equations (29) and (30) show that In + tnv + nw = 0, from which we see that the displacement takes place in a plane through
0, perpendicular to
PO
= l/m,
it takes place in
plane through
and the axis of z, which is the direction of Putting n = cos vibration of the primary wave. so that is the angle between PO and the axis of z, the magnitude of this
</>,
cj)
PO
displacement
is
JO
?i
= ^Bin<^/'(6ir)
(31).
228.
The
the
initial
from
(22).
we
neglect
all
r~^,
the only terms of (22) which it will be necessary to retain, are those which involve the differential coefficients of Uo, Vq, Wo, po in Writing r = M, dS = r'^dil, the value the second double integial.
of u" becomes
Ids
since the signs of
,'dpo\
47rr \drJbt''
I,
be the coordinates of
Po
and
^^l^ = lnf'{btbt'x');
in
bt.
the
origin to P,
bt'
= r, we
whence
u'^f (U ')
(32).
238
Treating v and
we obtain
ImndS
J.,
n.
.(33).
""=
47rr
/(^^^)J
we denote
it by fu, and put same as that of fi, and
This
is
P.
If
= cos^, we
its
magnitude
r,
= ^cos0sin0/'(6ir)
the results of (31) and (34)
(34).
229.
By combining
we obtain the
0, ^
= 0, w=f{bt x)
let
primary wave ;
he
yz,
dS an
element of that plane adjacent to and consider the disturbance due to that portion only of the incident disturbance, which passes
;
continually
across
dS.
Let
he
any point
is
of the
'medium
situated at a distance
from
let
P, which
and let this line respectively and with the direction of propagation of the incident light, and with the direction of vihration. Then the will take place in a direction perpendicular displacement at to PO and lying in the plane zPO, and if ^be the displacement at
the wavelength of light ;
PO = r,
make
angles
(f>
to
^^^(l + cos^)sin<^/(6ir)
dS
(35).
In particular
if
f(bt
a;) = c
sin
2_.
(bt
x)
we
shall
have
f=^(l + cos^)sin(^cos^(6r)
(36).
This equation, as was stated in 37, determines the law of disturbance in the secondary wave proceeding from the element
dS
239
Sir G. Stokes has verified this result, by showing that if the righthand side of (36) be integrated over the w^hole area of the plane yz, the result will be
^= c sin
according as x
is
{ht
x),
or
positive or negative.
Hence the disturbance, continually transmitted across the plane yz, produces the same disturbance in front of that plane, as
if
the wave had not been broken up, and does not produce any
back wave.
The whole
whatever,
a purely mathe
medium
by
whose motion
is
capable
(1).
of
being
represented
to the
Plane of
230.
Polarization.
We
pre
In the figure, let the incident wave, which will be supposed to be plane polarized, be parallel to the plane OBG, and let OA be perpendicular to OBG, so that OA is the direction of propagation
of the incident light
to OZ.
;
240
Let
OD
OBA,
of
then
the
equation (36) shows, that the direction of diffracted ray OD lies in the plane ZOD.
vibration
We
shall
call
ray and
we
between the incident ray produced and the angle of diffraction; and the plane con
Whence OZA
and
diffracted
is
and
rays
OZD
;
AOD is
ODAB
the
plane of diffraction.
Let 6 be the angle of diffraction and let Oi, a^ be the angles, which the planes of vibration of the incident and diffracted rays respectively make with planes drawn through those rays perpen;
Then
DZB, we
obtain
or
tan a^
If the plane of vibration
(37).
ZAO
made
to
turn round
OA
follows that
ZBO
is
round
with
In order to see
then since 6
dad
dt
eo,
we
obtain
_
1
cos 6
sin^0 sin^tui
t
From
7r/2a),
this equation
we
observe, that as
increases from
to
distributed
uniformly, but
to
will
perpertdicular
the
Now
polaiization
of
the
be really
plane polarized),
diffraction,
make with planes perpendicular to the plane of can be measured by means of a pair of graduated
241
the instrument, which is used as the analyser, will show whether the planes of polarization of the diffracted rays are crowded towards
the plane of diffraction, or towards the plane perpendicular to the plane of diffraction.
Let OT, a. be the azimuths of the planes of polarization of the incident and diffracted rays, both measured from planes perpendicular to the plane of diffraction.
Then
if
the vibrations of
ZOA
we
and
ZOD
accordingly on
this hypothesis
should have
tn
,,
= a^
and therefore by
(.37)
tan a
= cos
Q tan
in
ot
this
case,
the planes of
But
tta,
if
the vibrations
of polarized light
= ^TT +
a,,
^tt
which case
tan a
sec ^ tan vr
and from
fraction.
of the diffracted rays will be crowded toiuards the plane of difhave thus a crucial test for deciding, whether the
We
An
which
made by
of
Sir G. Stokes,
is
taken, and
he found
of
the
whence the
B. O.
16
242
The question
of
the resolution
of
recently been discussed by Lord Rayleigh ', who has argued that the method of resolution employed by Stokes is the simplest, but
is
proposed,
of which are equally legitimate so long as the question is regarded as a purely mathematical one ; and that the purely
all
For the purpose mathematical question has no definite answer. of investigating this point, I have recently discussed the corresponding case of plane waves of sound, and have shown ^ that the most general expression for the disturbance produced by an
i.=!
= cos 
{at
x)
is
ie
dS
is
where n
zero or
any positive
integer,
Pn
is
a zonal harmonic,
k=
2ir/\,
and
^n==^fn{i>cr)
where
(39),
ft\
(
,
!)
{nl)n{n + \){n +
1^2 3 2.4.6
is
2)
2n
2n.a;
^
''
"*
^nPn
ftlh
1, n,
1.
If in (38)
we put n =
0,
and
realize,
the result
r),
is
 ^where r
is
(1
+ cos e) sm
 {at  r) + ^^^
cos
 (at 
is
of propagation.
is
r,
problems, the
'
term
is
V,i.
'
243
From
it
Stokes' formula
and we
shall
now show
that this
is
the
We
have shown in
21.5,
equation
(0),
given by
the equations
u = d^/dx +
where and i(f,
is
(f)
u'e'"''*,
v',
(41),
dx
It
is
(42).
= r^'fnXn, V = r"t7,
w'
= r'^^nZn
(43)
??, where X, F,j, Zn function y^ and f^n is the function defined by (39) and (40). The can also be shown to satisfy the following equations, viz.
...(44),
(2)1
1)
fn =
IKV
(T/r,i+i
r/r^.i)
useful.
;
%) be any positive solid harmonics of degree n by means of a process similar to that employed by Lamb '\
Let
(f>n,
then
can
it
be shown that
,
"^
[r''^+''
(45)
v',
w'.
is
to recollect, that
oi
a homogeneous function
;
of x, y, z of degree
' Lord Bayleigb, Theory of Sound, Ch. xvii. Stokes, On the communioation of vibrations from a vibrating body to the atmosphere, Phil. Trans. 1868. see also. Basset, Hydrodynamics, 2 Proc. Land. Math. Sac. vol. xiii. p. 51
;
vol.
n. pp. 316318.
]6
244
we thus
u' is of the form ?" y]rXn, whilst ?'"The above expression \r+o.Y+,. the second is of the form differentiate the expressions for if we Also satisfies (41). therefore
term of
?(',
v',
y, z,
(44),
it
will
be
fonnd
233.
The
simplest solution
is
obtained by putting
??.
= 0,
in
which case
y{r
 r'e"""*,
r
f,
ipj
= Ax + By +
3
,
Gz,
const.
Cz)
a'>
whence
u=
+
2?
1+
+
3
r
Ar"
 3 {Ax + By +
(46).
This expression
sivijde source of
may be
and
ii
for
licjht,
The expression
is,
however,
more analogous
to a doublet or a
The
have
direction
and,
0.
we suppose
that
its
axis
is
parallel to
z,
we
shall
A=B =
is u.siially .so
may be
neglected
whence, writing
F= ^G, we
shall obtain
Fxz
ti,,
Fyz
.(47).
F(af + f )^_,,
In the
also let
figure, let
P be
e
the point
j>
x, y,
=
= POx,
POz
245
Then the
is
PT
its
perpendicular to
OP
in the plane
POz.
along
PT, and
magnitude
is
equal to
F
'
sin
<^.
e"'''
and
realizing, this
becomes
.(48).
sin
')
This
is
large
might be expected, symmetrical with respect to the axis of z, and vanishes on that axis where ^ = or tt and = it is a maximum on the plane xy where ^tt.
is,
The motion
as
</>
234.
In order to obtain the most general expression for a we must put n = \; whence
z"
+ lAlyz + ^B'zx +
IG'xy,
Xi
+ ^y + 72:
and
The
and
is
therefore a
function
of
considerable generality.
that
then,
if
we
may put
yjn
yjr,,
= r~^e~""',
,.
Fxz
whence
,.4
y,
=
.(50).
to.
246
represented by (50)
is
EI
 e~""*sin (j)Cosd
(51),
and that its dircctiim is along PT. Restoring the time adding (48) and (51), and writing cdS/2\ for F, we obtain
factor,
cdS
,,
(1
^v
27r
,,
cos 6) sin
(p
cos

{bt
r),
,^
which
is
Stokes' result.
therefore see that Stokes' expression for the disturbance
is
We
produced by an element of a plane wave of light the combination of a simple and a double source.
equivalent to
At
if
we were
to carry out
the investigation on
the same lines as I have done in the case of sound in the paper
referred to, there can, I think, be little doubt, that
find that there
is
we should
an
infinite
number
is
of combinations of multiple
sources which would produce the required effect, Stokes' law although the simplest,
and consequently
number.
The question
is
much importance
diffraction,
inasmuch
problems relating to
will
,
we may with
sin^=cos^=l,
be
in
which
due
to the
element
27r,,^
_cos(6fr).
corresponding to the wave
cdS
w = csin
(bt
j:).
timtterinc] of Light
by Small Particles.
235.
The
of the sky,
which cannot fail to have attracted the attention of those who have resided in warm countries, has formed the subject
It has also
of various speculations.
that a
is emitted by a bright cloud, exhibits decided traces of polarization, and that the direction of maximum
beam
of light which
polarization
is
The
experi
SCATTERING OF LIGHT.
247
ments of Tyndall^ on precipitated clouds, point to the conclusion, phenomena are due to the existence of small
of solid matter suspended in the atmosphere, which modify the waves of light in their course; and we shall now proceed to give an account of a theory due to Lord Rayleigh^ by means of which these phenomena may be explained.
236.
The theory
of
Lord Rayleigh in
it is
its original
form, was an
elastic solid
theory; but
magnetic
of the
theory of light^
since
we
shall
hereafter see,
that
same form
as those
which are
satisfied
when
will
we suppose that the particles are spherical, it follows that wave of light impinges upon a particle, the latter be thrown into a state of vibration and the only possible
a plane
;
will
consist
of a
motion
and vibration of the impinging wave, and a motion of rotation about an axis perpendicular to this plane. If the ether be
regarded as a medium, which possesses the
elastic
solid,
properties
of
an
and
be a distortional wave, which will give rise to the sensation of light. If on the other hand, the ether be regarded as an electromagnetic
effects,
no optical
viz.
an
to proceed
would be on
1 2 <
Phil.
Ihid.
Mag. May 1869, p. 384. Feb., April and June 1871 See Phil. Mag. Aug. 1881.
be regarded as a
Aug. 1881.
"
If tlie ether
may
medium which possesses the properties of an be made respecting the boundary conditions.
requii'es that the
We may
;
velocity of the ether in contact with the sphere should be etiual to that of the sphere
itself
but,
much
with it, except in the extreme case in which one of the free periods of the matter equal to the period of the ethereal wave, this hypothesis is improbable. We may suppose that partial slipping takes place. This hypothesis (ii)
is
248
this kind, if
wave
is
237.
To
is
fix
our ideas,
let
the meridian.
The
is
in this direction.
be
any scattered ray makes with the line running north and south, it follows from (48), that the displacethe
angle which
ment
will
be of the form
sm
and
is
(p
cos  ibt
for rays,
r
lie in
therefore a
maximum
which
the vertical
is
Jtt;
whilst there
no
If
and south
line for
which
(^
= 0.
is
south
west.
is
entirely
due
east
and
perfectly
polarized,
is
we approach the
vertical,
altogether disappears.
238.
of polarized light
tion.
The preceding argument also shows, that the vibrations must be perpendicular to the plane of polarizaif
For
will
is
is
transmitted,
law of slipping
;
when the
is
principal section
We may
boundary conditions are continuity of normal motion, and zero tangential stress. This hypothesis has much to commend it on the ground of simplicity, since the action of the ether on the matter consists of a hydrostatic pressure, and in the
case of a sphere
is
whereas,
if
no slipping
or partial slipping took place, the action would (except in special oases) consist of a
uj
Sound, vol. n.
3.^4.
SCATTERING OF LIGHT.
parallel
to
249
Hence
tbe
the
direction
of
the
primary wave.
vibrations of the
wave
239.
We
The experiments
light
is
when
the particles of
The
simplest
way
is
of
obtaining a theoretical
by means of the method of and the primary light, is a simple number, and is therefore of no dimensions. This ratio must however be a function of T the volume of the disturbing particle, p its density, r the distance of the point under consideration from it, b the velocity of propagation of light, and p the density of the ether. Since / is of no dimensions in mass, it follows that p and p' can only occur under the form p/p', which is a number and may be omitted we have therefore to find out how / varies with T, r, A, and b.
explanation of this phenomenon,
dimensions.
The
ratio
Of these quantities b is the only one depending on the time and therefore since / is of no dimensions in time, b cannot occur. We are therefore left with T, r and X.
Now
it
is
/
In
varies directly as
and inversely
as
r,
proportional to TJXr,
is
the only
:
we thus
When
light
is
scattered
by particles, luhose
light,
dimensions are
the
ratio
of the
amplitudes of
the vibrations
of
the scattered
and
incident light,
and
the ratio
of the
intensities,
From
"reatest.
this
law we see, that the intensity of the blue light is the Hence the blue colour of the sky may be accounted for
it is
particles
of air,
which
250
240.
it
Tlie
distingiushiiii,^
feature
;
common
light
is,
that
and the theory of sources exhibits no trace of polarization of light given in 232 furnishes an explanation of the reason
why
is
it is,
unpolarized.
Tlie molecules of
;
an incandescent body are in a violent state of vibration each molecule may therefore be regarded as a centre of The most general disturbance, which produces ethereal waves.
form of the waves produced by any molecule is given by (4.5), but for simplicity, we shall confine our attention to the first terra
of this series for which
;i
= 0.
It therefore follows
wavelength of
the equation
light, tlie
large
COS
 (bt r)
and
w,
where A, B, G are
of vibration of the molecule, and the line joining the latter with
But owing
mentioned
to
may be
is
is
collisions,
most
irregular.
probability with
light,
a rapidity, which
particular direction.
an incandescent body,
of vibration
Moreover the light which is received from is due to the supeiposition of the waves
changing.
Hence the
form changes
it is
that
second.
We
thus see
why
COMMON LIGHT.
251
241. We can now understand why interference fringes cannot be produced by means of light coming from two different sources.
For the production of these fringes requires, that there should be a fixed relation between the phases of the two streams but inasmuch as the two streams are affected by two distinct sets of
;
no fixed phase relation between them is possible. however the two streams come from the same source, the irregularities by which the two streams are affected are identical, and consequently a fixed phase relation will exist between them.
irregularities,
If
EXAMPLES.
1
number
upon them.
Show
l)/(ft
be polarized.
2.
a.n
element of an
wave
at a point Q,
by integration over
wave be finite, and all points of its boundary be at the same distance a from Q, prove that the displacement at Q will be
If the
, f  {vt x) ^sm
, >
27r
1 , r^{a
27r
^{vt  a)>
where x
resolution.
3.
is
the distance of
angles between the optic axes for yellow and violet are
a,
(^.
The normal
makes
angles 6^, 6^ with the mean optic axis, and the planes through the normal and the optic axes make an angle w with one another.
Show
lie
Asin 9,
sin
62
sin
^.,\
sin
sin 9
sin a
CHAPTER
GREEN
242.
XIV.
The
We
such a
medium
is
components of strain
statement.
and we
shall
now proceed
to
examine
this
Let
00
be
medium when
will
Then any
strain
will experience
a bodily
displacement.
(ii)
The three
sides
OA, OB,
00
will
be elongated or
contracted.
(iii)
The element
will
piped.
be the component displacements at 0; e,f,g the OA, OB, 00; a, h, c the angles which the faces OCA, OAB, OBG make with their original positions. Since a bodily displacement of the medium as a whole, cannot produce
Let
u, V, tu
extensions of
any
strain, it follows that the potential energy due to strain cannot be a function of u, v, tu but since any displacement, which
;
'
POTENTIAL ENERGY.
253
produces an alteration of the forms (ii) or (iii) must necessaril}^ endow the medium with potential energy, it follows that the
potential energy due to strain,
must be a function
e,/
<7.
a, &,
c.
243.
The most
is
W=W,+ W.+
where
for
W, +
...,
Wn
is
a homogeneous
?itic
It
is
evident that
W cannot
is
zero.
W^ W, = Ee+Ff+Gg + Aa + Bb +
Cc,
if
where E,
...
are constants.
Now
the
three terms
is
appears to
me
e,
untenable.
For
if
P be the
stress of type
then
de
accordingly
if
de
'
W contained a term
is
W^,
stresses
would
exist,
when
the
medium
free
from
strain.
If the
medium were
absolutely
might undoubtedly contain terms For if a portion of such a medium were enclosed in a rectangular box, and stresses E, F, G, A, B, C were applied to the sides of the box, of such magnitude as to preserve its rectangular form, no displacement, and consequently no strain would be produced, on account of the incompressibility of the medium but the internal stresses would contain terms on depending the values of the surface stresses. These surface stresses could not however give rise to any terms in the potential If on the other hand, the energy, inasmuch as they do no work.
incoinpressihle,
the
stresses
strains.
independent of the
medium were
upon them,
stresses
strains,
compressible, the effect of the surface stresses would be to produce displacements, and consequently strains depending
in the interior of the
...
medium
P, Q,
Wj
We
have already
wave,
the
is,
it is
unnecessary to
is
make
;
medium
incompressible
that
it
is
necessary to assume
254
upon which distortion depends. Under these circumstances, we conclude that W^ is zero, and that the internal stresses do not contain any terms independent of the strains. Also since the terms W, W4... would introduce
large in comparison with those
quadratic and cubic terms into the equations of motion, they will
be neglected.
244.
The
potential energy
one
terms.
Biaxal
crystals,
planes of symmetry;
medium
Whence
Gff
2E'fg
(1),
The
coefficients
expression for
are
all
constants,
The
first
of
lateral elasticity;
pmncipal
245.
isotropic
rigidities.
The waves which are capable of being propagated in an medium, have already been .shown to consist of two
which are propagated with different
velocities
;
distinct types,
viz.
unaccompanied by
accompanied by
the dilatation
f,
77,
Waves of the first type depend upon and do not involve rotation hence the rotations f are zero, and the displacements are the differential
;
(j).
Waves
depend upon the rotations f, 7], f, and do not involve dilatation hence S is zero, and the displacements must therefore satisfy the
equation
du dx
which
is
dv
dw _
dz
'
dy
EQUATIONS OF MOTION.
246.
255
which
is
Let us now consider a portion of a crystalline medium, bounded by a plane and let plane waves whose vibrations
;
are transversal,
be incident normally upon the medium. The incident wave will produce a train of waves within the medium,
distortion, unless certain relations exist
between the
coefficients.
But
medium must be
which
is
unaccompanied by waves of longitudinal vibrations. Green thereassumed that the medium possessed this property, and investigated the relations which must exist between the coefficients, in order that this might be possible.
fore
247.
The equations
of motion of the
medium
clT
are
^^dP
" dt
dU
dy
dx
dz
&c.
Substituting
P=dWlde
^
.
...,
d"u
da:
^du
dy
dv
dw\
dxdz
dho
df
dxdy
,
diu
dv_dv
dt^
dv
dy.
.dv
dzr.
,,^,,^
.
dx'
r,
dydz
.
dydx
,
dw
dt^
dw
dz"
,,
^
dcht.
,^dv
dydz,
dy^
dxdz
*'"
+ (2C'+G')
If in this equation
dxdy
we put
F'
E'
it
= fi2A,
= /M2B,
=/iV=8
(?'
= /A2C,
...(4),
becomes
pr.i
(5).
Hence the
by
(4),
relations
between the
coefficients
of being
256
transversal waves
lont'itudinal
and therefore
will
if
waves
velocity
(fJlp)^
By means
now be
written
du
dt'
dS
_
jjdr}
^rff^
dx
dS
,
dz
dy
dv
d^
Pdr
= i'd^^^cL'^d4 dy
r,dv B
A^^v
(C),
dx
.Sv.fg^
dt
dn
^ dtr
'
dy
in
= GV%PA dtvhere
d^
dz
(8).
dx
for the potential
{a^
dy
dz
energy becomes
4(/e)
2W =
f^
(e
+f+r/y + A
 4fg) + B { 
+ 6'(c' 
4e/). .(9).
.
The
by the equations
^
.(10).
S^Aa,
248.
a^olotropic
T=^Bh,
U=Cc
Equations (6) and (7) show, that the special kind of medium considered by Green, is capable of propagating
viz. dilatational
is
We
distortional wave.s, is
as in Fre.snel's theory
determined by the same quadratic equation but previously to doing this, it will be
;
more
medium.
257
however possible
rigidity,
for
medium
to
be symmetrical, as regards
:
in
any plane be drawn of the principal axes (say x), and 8^, a^ be the parallel to one shearing stress and strain parallel to that plane and perpendicular to the axis of x, then Si =Aai. We shall now show, that when a medium possesses this property, the relations (4) must exist
other words, the
such, that
if
medium may be
between the
coefficients.
;
Let Ox, Oy, Oz be the axes of crystalline symmetry and let BG be the intersection of any plane parallel to Ox with the plane yz and consider a portion of the medium, which is bounded b)'^ the plane BG and two fixed rigid planes perpendicular to Ox. Draw Oyi, Ozi respectively perpendicular and parallel to BG, and
;
let
2(9.
no extension nor
Q = Ff+ E'fi,
accordingly^,
,S',
B = E'f+ Gcf
.
But,
.(11).
dyi
258
+ i{G + F 2E') sin= 26} + h(A[I.){AUCr + F 2E)} Rin 4>e + \{f. + ci,){.GF)^m2e.
[a,
cos^
2e
G=F=iJL,
have
it
8i
= Aai. = Bb^
,
In a similar way
and
?7,
Cc,
we must have
E = F=G =
2A=,xE',
which are equivalent to
(4).
,i,
2B = fj.F',
2C = fiG',
Green,
medium considered by
any one of the principal axes, be subjected to a shearing stress whose direction is perpendicular to that axis, and which lies in any plane
which
is
bounded by two
parallel to that axis, the ratio of the shearing stress to the shearing
strain
is
Moreover a crystalline medium which possesses this property, also possesses the property of being able to transmit waves of transversal vibrations
Hence the
relations
unaccompanied by waves of longitudinal vibrations. which Green supposed to exist between the
medium,
250.
We
shall
now show,
is
To satisfy (7) let u, v, w be those portions of the displacements upon which distortion depends let m, n be the direction cosines of the wavefront, and \, /a, v those of the direction of vibration. Then we may assume that
;
I,
u = S\,
when
From
^
We obtain
IK {inv
n/xJS,
J]
LK{n\
lv)t:),
^= iK{lfj. m\) S.
VELOCITY OF PEOPAGATJON.
If
259
we put
\'
= mvnfj,,
f,
t],
fj,'
= nXlv,
(7),
v'^lfimX
(12),
so that
X',
^ in
we obtain
(pV'A)X' + (A IX' + Bmfj.' + Cm') I =0] (pPi?)/ + (^ZX' + 5m/i'+C'/)m=0  G) v' + {AVh! + Bmp: + Cm!) = {p F=
1
(13),
^"^^"^^
pF^4+^F^+^ySrc' = o
(12)
(14).
From
we
at once deduce
IX
,.
.^
'^'
from (14), that the velocities of propagation of the two within waves the crystal are deteimined by the same quadratic as
It follows
in Fresnel's theory,
is Fresnel's.
251.
From
(12)
and
Multiplying (LS) by
X',
/i',
pF =
^\,'=
i?A(.'=
C/'
(16),
is
Ax^^B<r^Cz' =
which
is
\,
We
252.
109,
(17).
a'
= A/p, =B/p,
c'=C/p,
we
that
parallel to the
wave
then
x^lV
{r'~A\p)\{Y^Alp\
y = mV{V^Blp)l{V^Blp),
z=:nV {iCIp)I{V'C/p),
and therefore by (17)
(7
(r^
Gjp)
v'jz
(18),
172
260
from which
any wave, coincides with that of the projection of the ray on the tangent plane to the wave surface, which is parallel to the wave.
Now
is
perpendicular to that of
to suppose, that
rotation,
to
the plane of
From
11
(11)
we deduce
(mv
(p72 _ A)
and since
we
obtain
i(B \
C)
(1.9),
The theory
it
of
Green,
although
dynamically
sound,
renders
light
are
;
to
the
plane
of polarization, which
is
one
objection
also if
we disregard
to
crops
up
in
refraction,
owing
To
is
whose face
perpendicular to the
axis.
necessary on this
In the
first
is
PdJ^'W+da^)
and
in the crystal,
<20),
P^lF = '''l^^'d^
where we have written
Let
1
d'Wi
d^Wi
dWi
^,, ^21),
where
sin
/Cj
sin
?',
kV=k^V^
(22).
261
we obtain
Fj
F
= n/p,
The
give
iu
= iUi,
dw
ax
diu,
ax
when =
whence
Kii
+ 4'
= ^4,,
AiCKi cos
r,
{A A') cos i =
AA' = A, c^ tan i
n tan r
whence
1'
^1
n tan r + c tan i
^^, (23), \
/>
fli
= :
2^w tan nr
;
(2*). '
^
We have hitherto avoided assuming, that any relations exist between the physical constants of the two media; but, in order
that these results should be consistent with those which the theory
it would be necessary to suppose and the formulse then show that the amplitudes of the reflected and refracted light would be the same as if the crystal were an isotropic medium. Since the wave whose velocity is c is
that K
= c",
= c
might at
first
uniaxal crystal
crystals, there
but,
if
we attempt
is
should be assumed to be
rather than to either
rigidities,
If we adopt the assumption of MacCuUagh and Neumann, that p=Pi, the intensities will be proportional to the square roots of the amplitudes, and we shall obtain
.
+ c" cos^ r) sin 2i c sin 2r (a sin r + c cos" r) sin 2t 4 c sin 2r 2 A (a sin r c cos^ r) sin 2i _ (a sin^ r + c" cos r) sin 2i + c" sin 2r
.
(a sin
I
The
formulas,
as will
262
but Lord Rayleigh has shown, that the assumption that the densities are equal is not a legitimate one in the case of two isotropic media, since it leads to two polarizing angles, and there
can be little doubt that, in the case of crystalline media, the same assumption would lead to a similar result, and would therefore be one which it is not permissible to make. It tlius appears that
Green's
theory
fails
to
furnish
satisfactory
explanation
of
crystalline reflection
and
refraction.
To work out a
an teolotropic
medium, and
waves in
medium such
both media, arc very great in comparison with the velocities of propagation of the distortional waves, would be a mere question of
mathematics, and could be effected without difficulty on the lines
and Lord Rayleigh's investigations, when both media are isotropic. But the only physical interest of such investigations
of Green's
lies in their ability (or inability)
to explain optical
phenomena
reflection
and
refraction, it
vestigations.
dynamical
of Green stands on a perfectly sound and the various suppositions which he has made with regard to the relations between the constants, are not adventitious a.ssumptions made for the purpose of deducing Fresnel's wave surface, but correspond to definite physical properties of the medium. The assumption, that the medium
254.
The
theory
ba.sis,
is
necessary, in
fact,
without division.
is
is
medium
is
one which
is
vibrations
independently of
for this
dilatatioual
and
(4),
the
conditions
require, that
certain
should exist
and
263
terms.
which reduce the expression for the potential energy to four It is no doubt the case, that when waves of light whose
vibrations
crystal,
by a
but
large
this
the plane of incidence, are reflected and refracted waves of longitudinal vibrations would be excited; difficulty might be evaded, by supposing that is very
lie in
/tt
compared with A,
sight appears to
The theory accordingly at first be a very promising one but, as we have already
and
G.
;
for believing,
it
255.
fact,
energy contains cubic and higher terms, which have been neglected. Glass, however, and most transparent isotropic media exhibit
double retraction, when under the influence of stress
shows, that the propagation of ethereal waves
is
;
and
this fact
modified,
when
the
medium
is
subjected to
stress.
of these
external
refraction, could
The quantity
approximation
its
e is
value
dujdx;
x, and to a first however the approximation would be found that the strains
if
if
the
terms in
Moreover in this case, it would be necessary to take Tfs into account but in forming the expression for this quantity, The final it would be sufficient to take e = dwjdx, f= dv/dy, &c. equations of motion would accordingly contain quadratic as well as The solution of these equations would then have to linear terms. the same principles, as the wellknown problem on be conducted of the propagation of waves in a liquid, which has a motion
W...
;
In the
be the statical portions of the displacements, which depend upon the external stresses and let these quantities be found from the
;
complete equations of equihbrium. Next let u, v., w^ be the portions of the displacements due to the wave motion, so that
u^+
iLi,
!+
vi,
lUi^
+ wi
medium
264
wheu
in
and
lot
&c.
We
2,
for
determining
w,
into
stresses
introduced.
So
am
it
which
it
leads in
CHAPTER
THEORY" OF LORD RAYLEIUH
256.
XV.
AND
SIR
W. THOMSON.
shall now consider, was first was subsequently proposed and developed independently by Lord Rayleigh^ The theory might be regarded as one, which depends upon the mutual reaction of ether and matter; but inasmuch as it is capable of explaining several important phenomena, it will be desirable to consider it at
The
by
theory which
we
suggested
Rankine, but
once.
We
Green's theory,
when applied to double refraction. We have moreover seen, that there are strong grounds for supposing, that
is
the same in
all
isotropic media,
and
The properties
of an isotropic
medium
are the
symmetry
of the crystal.
ether are the same in crystalline as in isotropic media but that owing to the peculiar structure of the matter composing the crystal, the ether behaves as if its density were asolotropic.
257.
it
medium
is
a scalar function,
possibility
but
it is
Let an
ellipsoid,
suspended by a
fine
perform small oscillations without rotation in an infinite be the velocities of the ellipsoid parallel to If U, V, liquid.
Hon.
J.
W.
266
its
V
h
W);
;
equal to ^(P' U
Q'V'
+ R' W")
and therefore the kinetic energy of the solid and liquid will be of the form \{PU' + QV + Hence the effect of the liquid is to cause the ellipsoid to oscillate in the same manner as a particle, whose density is a function of its direction of motion. We thus have an example of a system, which behaves as if its density were
RW%
ajolotropic.
also
R'W.
is
therefore
equivalent to
ether, is
re
the assumption, that the effect of matter presented by a force whose components are
parallel to the axes of crystalline
upon
symmetry, where
v, tu
denote
py, p^
are
all
different;
In a but in an isotropic
medium they
258.
are equal.
kinetic energy of the ether
The
may
;
accordingly be
taken to be equal to
i///(Pa;'
whilst
the
potential
energy
the same as
in
an
isotropic
medium.
And by employing
found to be
diL
, ,
r.^dS
d'v
r>.dS
_
y
(1).
d'W
n^ f^S
t7
where
A B= m = ]c\ ^n, B = n,
Thomson and
in
and
ti
constants in
259.
tiiis
Tait's notation.
theory,
to find out
We
(5),
VELOCITY OF PROPAGATION.
Let
u
267
= SX,
Sfi,
iu
= Sp,
S = e"'^'^'^"^y+"^''"0,,,i^2).
+ iw) + nv)
c'
I,
Substituting in
(1),
we obtain
iiifji
Xp^V' =
+ BX\
(^)
iii/M
m + Bfi\
m/x
+ nv) n + Bv J
a
Bjpx,
b"
B/py,
= B/p2
(t),
we multiply
(3) in order,
by
obtain
BX
m,
n,
dividing by V
a' &c.,
and adding, we
fix
\a
iiifi
nv\
c/
b
= (AB)
{IX
mp,
nv)
(^y,^^ + y^^^: +
y^^ (6),
and therefore by
t
(5),
vt66
ir
F
This
the
is
V^
V'c'
A {AB)
V
the
velocity of
medium
is
By means
may
V
a
={AB) {IX +
mp,
+ nv) itljxB,
{hc)+
A.
{ca)+
/*
y{ab)=0
V
(8).
260.
resistance
Novir
to
A=k+f
much
ft,
compression
B = n,
very
greater than
its rigidity,
and therefore
i
is
If therefore in (7)
we put
/(',
B/A = 0, and
this
equation
may be put
+ vi +
268
This equation determines the velocity of propagation of the two optical waves. The velocity of propagation of the longitudinal
wave
is infinite.
The
direction of vibration
is
the equation
l\.
+ mfi+nv =
Equation (9) does not lead to Fresnel's wave surface; and inasmuch as the experiments of Glazebrook' have shown, that Fresnel's wave surface is a very close approximation to the truth,
the theory in
its
present form
is
unsatisfactory.
We
shall
there
wave
261.
When
a disturbance
is
communicated to a homogeneous
isotropic elastic
medium, two waves are propagated from the centre one of which is a wave of whose vibrations are perpendicular to the wavefront,
;
is
equal to {k
+ ^tifjp^
ii//3.
whilst
equal to
media
to explain optical
pheno
mena,
the
waves.
it is
fact,
This
+
;
^iif^jn^,
wave
to that of
is either very large or very small which k should be very large compared with n, or should be very nearly equal to f )i. Green adopted the former supposition, on the ground that, if the latter were true, the medium would be unstable. Sir W. Thomson, however, has pointed out that, if h is negative and numerically less than f/t, the medium will be stable, provided we either suppose the medium to extend all through boundless space, or give it a fixed containing vessel as a
boundary.
Putting
it is
U={k + in)ilp\
if
V = ni/pi,
+ ^n
;
obvious, that
medium,
will
be
1
provided k
p.
Phil.
Phil.
Tnms. 1879,
:SIarj. (5),
287
1880, p. 421.
RIB.
w. Thomson's hypothesis.
269
the motion will not increase indefinitely with the time, but will be
periodic
;
but,
ii
+ ^n
be negative,
U will be
imaginary, in which
and
will therefore
zero,
medium will either explode or collapse, be thoroughly unstable. If k = ^n, U will be and therefore the medium will be incapable of propagating a
wave.
dilatational
The
principal
difficulty
in
adopting
it
this
hypothesis appears to
me
requires us
in other word.=i,
So
am
aware, no
;
are acquainted
very
difficult
to form a mental
On
not exist
it
if,
therefore,
medium we adopt
W. Thomson's
hypothesis,
(i)
media which expand but do not explode or collapse under pressure, for which k may have any negative value which is numerically less than A?i; (iii) media which explode or collapse under pressure, for which k may have any negative value which is
numerically greater than
262.
7i.
In order to explain more clearly the necessity of supposing, that the medium extends through infinite space, or is contained with rigid boundary, we observe that the potential
energy
is
equal to
1/// {(m
+ v)
8=
{ef+fg
+ ge)] dmlydz.
becomes
surface integral.
2n (ii
If the
}}] \dz dy
dydxj
boundary
is fixed,
or at
an
infinite distance, u,
ii,
w must
Tf
= i/// {(m + n)
of
The value
is
i.e.
when
k> in
in other words,
work
will
to bring the
medium
270
263.
We
J!
shall
of supposing
that
zero.
m+
or
4 is so
may be
is
treated as
In the
first
place,
the
zero,
and
determined by Fresnel's
is
Fresnel's.
Since
is
+ !^ +
b
'^
c
(11).
a"
Equations
(.3)
may be
written
\{V/al) = {l\ + mfj.+ nv)l \ lj,{V'll) = {l\ + mii + nv)m\ V ( V'/c  1) =  (Z\ + mfj. + nv) n J
Multiplying these equations by Xjar,
taking account of (11), we
obtain
vlti")
(12).
filh,
v/c,
adding, and
+ fifb' +
(13),
V in
Again from
(
(12),
(
we obtain
V
a?)
X/aH =
F
(say).
.(14),
coire
v) of
the vibrations
(7)
with
qiiasidilatational
wave
will
is
very
therefore in (14),
F denote
be very nearly zero, and consequently the direction of vibration be approximately determined by the equations
Xjl
will
= fj./m= vjv
is
(15),
sensibly
We
lOi),
that in Fresnel's
wave
surface

= ^^&z^?^ = ^^('^')/^'
(16),
by
(14),
Xx +
fLXj
vz
..
(t?
=0...(17). ^
is
DIEECTION OP VIBEATION.
265.
271
not
satisfied,
+ m/j, + nv =
is
the
We
shall
now show,
Let
it is
let
PY
OY
the
perpendicular on
it
YR
perpendicular to OP^
Then
RY
is
To prove
L,
M,
N be
RY, then
RY.L^OR.xjrOY.l.
But
OY^
V, and
OR^OY'jOP=
V'/r;
whence
L.RY=lVV'a;/r'
= ^Flii^^
by
(14),
whence LI\ =
M/fj.
= N/v
(18).
;
In Fresnel's theory,
PY
is
but
although on this theory the direction of vibration is not the same as in Fresnel's theory, yet it lies in the plane containing the ray
and the wave normal, and therefore the vibrations of polarized light on emerging from the crystal, are perpendicular to the plane
of polarization.
272
^V.
THOMSON.
266.
L'
.PY=xlV
IV (r^
~
by (14); whence
V" )
'
Va'
_il=_=_
X/rt.^
(10).
ij,/b
v/c
267.
The
is
also useful.
We
have
X=
cos
_
by (l.S)an(l(19).
c"
Xla 
But
X  1 =
r
_ F_
Xa
1 / \/a"
,,
[x'/a'
9^^
whence
268. theory,
,, (20).
V^
is,
the same in
is
crystalline as in isotropic
media
a;
due
to a difference of density.
For
if
we
0,
the displacements
Now
the continuity of v
and
if
+ dtv/dz;
but
k'
requires that
when x =
269.
= n'.
for the
We
must now
find
an expression
mean energy
are
= SX,
= Sfi, w = Sv,
+ my + vz Vt).
where
S=^
cos  (Ix
Hence
T=
;; (px\
yT {Ix +
my +nz 
Vt).
273
mean
T^
U'
"^
"*"
6^
= ^p^cos=;^
by
(20).
The mean
volume
(Ifx,
is
7r^^'B
 mXf}.
The quantity in brackets is equal to the square of the sine of the angle between the directions of propagation and vibration, and
is
>
is
pi^cos^X.
and
is
mean
,
kinetic energy.
The mean
energy
therefore
2'n'^^B
Crystalline Reflection
and Refraction.
Having discussed the preceding theory, which is due combined efforts of Lord Rayleigh, Sir W. Thomson and Glazel)rook, we shall now consider its application to the problem
270.
to the
Let
directions of the
The
u=u^,
(,.
=
,
Vi,
w = iVi
,
(21),
,
+ )^ +
.du
(22),
1
B. O.
18
274
dx
dii
dn dy
dtu
_ dV],
dx
dik
,nn\
dy
dwy
,
.
diiri
dz
in which
dx
dz
dx
zero.
If,
m+n
to
therefore,
we
we
equations
determine
unknown
thus
2'
^'e'{i+!
F<)
and
let
dilatational refracted
waves be
Let
d,
6'
axis of ^r; ^,, <?2 the angles which the projections upon their respective wavefronts of the directions of vibration in the two refracted waves, make with this axis.
Then, omitting the common exponential factor, and also all terms involving 1^, which are of the same form as those involving 2i, and can therefore be supplied at the end of the investigation,
(2.5)
for
the
first
medium.
275
= A (cos xi cos APi  sin ^i cos r,)  B^ = A, (cos ;^i cos BP, + sin ^i sin r^) + B, Wi = ^1 cos xi cos CPi
Ui
Vj
cos
E
.(26).
sin It
Since du/dy
(23)
fZui/rfy
when
a;
= 0,
and
du/dz
diti/d^
{A
cos
A
(4
cos
(cos x\ cos
5Pi + sin
;;^i
sin
7\)kJ,^
4 A7i sin
cos
i2
(27),
;)(;i
(28).
+n dvjdy, both sides of (22) ultimately become identically equal, and this equation need not therefore be considered.
Since
m+n
and m'
Now,
if
U, U^
K7
Itr
J cos 1,
Kf/j
27r IT cos
K,
Kin
.
sin 7
7 sui it
sm
X.
= &c.,
Ai
^^
and
therefore,
A
U,
~ =
A,
'
since
;
ultimately zero
whence /
Also,
R=0,
ultimately infinite.
Ky sin /
/.
182
276
= i
in full,
multiplying by
/cm,
and
we
obtain
(A
cos
sin 1\)
k^I^
p^;]
(cos %i cos
4Pi sin
we
(29).
From
cannot
see,
that
be
entirely
ignored
but,
since
I=
R=
v = v,
cos
BP + A' cos BP' = A^ (cos Xi cos BP^ + sin Xi sin n)equation w = iu' gives A cos GP + A' cos
and the
CP'
= A.cos Xi
cos GP,
(31).
Equations (28), (29), (30), and (31) contain the complete solutiou
of the problem.
Now
cos
J.P =
sin i sin 0,
cos BP
cos i sin
;
^,
cos
OP = cos ^,
CP' =
cos
^',
also,
0',
= sin
tsin
0',
cos
whence
(A {A (4
cos
sin
sin
and (31) become A' 6 cos 6') cot i = A^ cot r^ cos Xi cos 0, 9 + A' sin 6') cosec i= A^ cosec r^ cos Xi sin ^j A' sin 0') cos i = Ai (cos rj cos Xi sin ^i + 4 cos ^ + 4' cos 6' = Aj cos Xi cos ^i
sin r^ sin
;^i)
(32),
in
recollect, that
we
also
be obtained by a process,
u, v,
with respect to y and z, the first of (21) together with (23) and (24) involve the continuity of the rotations
equal,
n, both sides of (22) are identically and therefore this equation disappears we are thus left with the last two of (21). The surface conditions are therefore
7]
;
f and
also, since
m = m' =
ISOTROPIC MEDIA.
277
refracted
Equations (32) determine the amplitudes of the reflected and waves, but according to  10, the intensity is to be
Accordingly by
denote the square roots of the intensities of
A
I sin
i
A'
_
i
Ji cos
%i
sin
I^ sin rj
/^ sin r^
'
+ r cos 6') sin i = I^ cos 6i sin r^ + 1^ cos sin T cos 6') cos i = Ii cos 0^ cos ri + 1^ cos 0^ cos i\ T sin ^ + /' sin 6' = /i sin ^j + L, sin 0^ (/ sin 6 1' sin 6') sin 2t = Jj (sin ^1 sin 2ri + 2 sin^ r^ ^^t^Xi) + /a (sin 62 sin 2r2 + 2 sin^ ^a tan
(7 cos
6.^
r.^
(I cos
ff
...
(33).
;i^2)
271.
We
shall hereafter
we
to
but
which they
1st.
lead,
Let the light be polarized in the plane of incidence then 0=0' = 0^ = 0; %i = Xa = 0, and I^ = 0, whence
(/
{I
sin (i
r) + r)' + r)
'
h=
2nd.
/sin2i
sin {%
of incidence
then
=
(/
6'
= 0, = ^tt, and
/') sin
2i
= /i sin 2r,
r)
whence
/'
=/ =
,tan(i
tan
(i
+ r)
/sin 2i
/i
sin (i
r) cos (i
'
r)
278
perpendicularly to
The
that
it
leads
to a wavesurface,
which
(ii)
is
Fresnel's
wavesurface, unless k
absolutely
mately equal to
^n;
is
light on
perpendicular to
the
plane
of
polarization
(iii)
the
reflection
and
refraction
are,
as
we
shall
hereafter
see,
theory
which are furnished by the electromagnetic and when both media are isotropic, the results agree with
Also, as soon as the assumptions
have
is
equal, or nearly so to
?i,
crystalline
media
behave as
of being
if
which can be proved to be very approximately true, are capable deduced without the aid of any of those additional assumptions, which in many cases are indispensable in order to
obtain a particular analytical result.
When
will
motion
be of the form
''^S=^^^>S+^^^''+^
&c. &c.
(^^)
Now
and
we may endeavour
to construct
by supposing that the effect of the mutual reaction of ether and matter modifies the motion of ethereal waves in a peculiar manner, which may be represented by the introduction of certain bodily forces. The mathematical form of these forces is a question of speculation, but we shall now, following MacCullagh', show that
1
itil.
279
that
may be accounted
for
by supposing
274. Px
For an
Pi
isotropic
medium such
as
syrnp or turpentine,
= Py = Pz'!
= P2 = Pi
to
dhi
dV
.(36).
d'u,
Pd^=''d^ + P'd?
dv
d'v
Pdt'~''dF'~P'd^j
To
solve these equations,
assume
v
u = Le^y \
where
U
= Me^y
'
(37),
and
is
= n/p,
Palp
obtain
F^ 
the rotatory effect, which depends on p, is very small, may be written for V; we whence in the terms involving p,
Now
accordingly obtain
(38).
u= and
if
L cos
27ri/T,
= 0,
F,
= iicos?^(~<) + iicos^(.^),
t
'
Accordingly
u=
,
L cos
= Zcosi^(^+^)<jsm(^^^^
280
Whence
zation
is
rotated,
measured toiuards
^
the right
hand of a person
ivfio
is looking
tan
Y = v/u = tan
,
TTZ
/I
t
=
1 \
1
we
obtain approxi
mately
^'"^
which
is
(39),
The
is
sign of
is
positive
left
or negative, according as
the
medium
righthanded or
handed.
If the
of
this
We
Taking
whence writing
njp^
= a^
njp^
= c\
= p^/n,
equations
d^v\
and
recollecting
that
du
AB = n,
,/_,
the
of
motion
become
d8\
'^'^
Jti'l.
dh\
,dHi\
(40)
dt='''V'''dy)1^'d?\
dw
.,
/_,
d^
Since everything
is
axis,
we
may without
to
loss of
;
is
parallel
the wavefront
we may w = A^S,
= AS,
.
w = AS,
r*)
wb ere
V'
^_
we
^2117/ rv
(2j,
+ mz 
Substituting in (40)
(
obtain
0,
= 0, {V'cH')A, + c'lnAi = 0,
THEORY OF QUARTZ.
whence eliminating A^, A^, A, and putting 6
obtain
(
281
for the angle
which
crystal,
we
V^
a^) (
V
(41 ).
This equation
is
is
a small quantity,
we may put
for
VK when
the direction of propagation
so that 8
perpendicular to the
axis,
^11,
quartz behaves in
When 6 = Q,
the
first
two
of (40) are of
the same form as (36) consequently there are two waves, which travel through the crystal with different velocities, and are circularly polarized in opposite directions.
slightly
inclined
to
increases, so that
when 6
and
is
becomes
polarized.
insensible,
the
two
waves
are
sensibly
plane
CHAPTER
XVI.
descriptive
its object is to give an account of a variety of experimental phenomena. The subjects of which it treats are. Dispersion, Spectrum Analysis, Absorption, Colours of Natural Bodies,
and
Dichromatism,
Anomalous
Dispersion,
Selective
Reflection,
shall give
We
an account of the principal experimental results connected with these phenomena, so far as they relate to the Theory of Light
and in the next chapter, we shall enquire how explained by theoretical considerations.
far
they
may be
Dispersion.
277.
refracted
light
slit,
When
received
horizontal
slit,
is
by a prism whose vertex is downwards, and the emergent upon a screen, it is found that the image of the instead of consisting of a narrow line of white light, presents
is
the appearance
spectrum.
is
called
the solar
indigo,
The order
is violet,
lowest,
All transinto
its
parent bodies,
resolving light
;
menon
of resolution
is
DISPERSION.
278.
283
is the same in vacuo. We have also proved by more than one theory, that the index of refraction of light, which passes from a vacuum into a transparent medium, is equal
medium
Now,
dispersive
medium
is
greater for
be explained in
329, it follows from the fundaniental principles of Dynamics, that the period of light of any particular colour is an invariable quantity, which is independent of the physical constitu
tion of the
the light
is
passing
hence the
violet light in
of
less
continuously in going
279.
That the colour of light depends upon the period, is a fact of fundamental importance in Physical Optics and when we consider some of the dynamical theories which have been proposed to explain dispersion, we shall see that there are strong grounds for thinking, that the qualities of transparency and opacity do not depend so much upon the particular substance of which the
;
medium
280.
consists, as
A
p.
and periods
is
given on
it
will
number
extreme red waves is about 395 x 10', and the frequency of the extreme violet is about 763 x lO'l Accordingly the interval between the extreme red and violet is slightly less than 2, and the sensitiveness of the eye is therefore confined to less than an octave
on the other hand the sensitiveness of the ear to sound extends to about eleven octaves.
284
281.
in
Newton'
in
1675; but
slit, the spectrum is not continuous, but is by a number of fine dark lines. The investigation of these dark hues was subsequently taken up by Fraueuhofer' in 1814, who observed 676 of them, and they are now universally known by his name. Frauenhofer selected certain of the principal lines as landmarks, which he denoted by the letters A, a, B, G, D, E, b, F, G, H, I, and which we shall proceed to consider.
crossed
282.
il
is
is
a group of
;
and
and
the red
D is
a,
E
;
lies in
;
6 is a
group
;
blue end of
the extreme
green
lies in
the indigo
H in the violet
and /
is
end of the spectrum. The wavelengths of these lines were first measured by Frauenhofer, subsequently by Angstrom', and
in
SPECTRUM ANALYSIS.
285
283. Spectrum analysis may be considered to have commenced by the discovery of Bunsen and Kirchhoff' in 1859, that every chemical substance, when incandescent, produces its own particular spectrum. Thus if any salt of sodium is burnt in a spirit lamp,
the spectrum, instead of being continuous, consists of two bright yellow lines, which occupy the same position as the
solar spectrum.
lines in the
which coincide with the lines A and B, and a violet line between G and H. Lithium gives a strong red line between B and G, and three fainter lines in the orange, green and greenish blue. Sodium, potassium and lithium accordingly colour a flame yellow, violet and red respectively. Strontium also colours a flame red, but its spectrum can never be mistaken for that of lithium, since the spectrum of the former consists of a number of lines in the red and orange, and a single line in the blue. The spectrum of barium consists of a number of lines in the yellow and green, and this substance colours a flame green. Gases also, when incandescent, exhibit spectra. That of hydrogen consists of a red, bluegreen and an indigo line, each of which respectively coincides with the lines G, F and G; whilst the spectra of oxygen and of nitrogen are
lines,
more complicated.
Spectrum analysis furnishes an exceedingly delicate test of the presence or absence of any element in any chemical compound for if we place a small portion of the compound in the
284.
;
Avill
be detected
by its spectrum. It has by this means been discovered, that sodium is one of the most widely distributed substances; also lithium, which was formerly supposed to be rare, is found to exist in numerous minerals, and also in plants and in the bodies of
animals.
Spectrum
;
new
the spectrum of a substance shows lines, which do not correspond to the lines of any known element, the obvious inference is, that these lines are due to the presence of some
elements
for if
previously
unknown
element.
It
was in
this
18fiO, p.
Chemical Analysis by Spectrum Observations; translated, Phil. Mag. Aug. 89 Nov. 1861, p. 329 Deo. 1861, p. 498.
; ;
286
two new alkaline metals in the mineral springs of BadenBaden and of Diirkheim, which he named ccesium and
discovered
rubidium.
The spectrum
two
lines in the
blue between
F and
G
G, and a
number
of lines
and E;
in the red
in
the violet a
little
between
and F.
is
Thallium, which
was discovered by
little
Crookes' in 1861,
below E.
whilst
in
The spectrum
by Reich and
;
by Lecoq de Boisbaudan
The methods
the presence of an element, that 3 x lO"" of a millegramme of sodium, 10~ of a millegramme of lithium, and 6 x 10~' of a
millegramme
285.
Up
spectrum
ethereal waves exist, whose periods are greater than those of the
extreme red waves, and less than those of the extreme violet. These portions of the spectrum are called the infrared and the
ultraviolet respectively.
waves are waves of dark heat, and were W. Herschel in 1800 bj' means of their thermal effects. He found, that when a thermometer was held for a short time in that portion of the spectrum, which lies below the visible red, an increase of temperature was observed but perhaps the most striking way of showing the existence of the infrared waves, is by means of the following experiment due to Tyndall. A
286.
infrared
first
The
discovered by Sir
solution
of
iodine
in
disulphide of carbon
is
is
opaque
infrared
is
to
the
transparent
to
the
waves
passed through such a solution, the infrared waves are alone transmitted.
If therefore the rays are
now brought
effects
to
a focus by means of a
convex
lens, their
little
thermal
the focus a
lighting a cigar.
Phil.
Mag.
287
The
ultraviolet or
actinic
waves are noted for the This can be shown bylamp, or from burning magnesium,
which contains a large amount of ultraviolet light, through any mixture which absorbs these waves, and then allowing the light to fall upon a photographic plate, when it will be found that very little effect has been produced. Hence it is necessary to develop photographs in a room with yellow blinds, which are opaque to these waves.
288.
It
of
maximum
in
heating effect;
;
that the
whilst
the
maximum
chemical
portions.
is
effect
was
contained
the violet
and ultraviolet
all
More recent
If
two spectra of equal lengths, formed by a prism and by a diffraction grating', be examined, it will be found that in the spectrum formed by the prism, the maximum heating effect is
three
by the grating, it is in the yellow. The reason of this is, that the spectrum formed by the prism is more spread out towards the violet end and more compressed towards the red end, than the spectrum formed by the This was first pointed out by Draper. The distribution grating. of heat in the spectrum has been investigated by Prof Langley, bj' means of an instrument invented by himself and called a bolometer,
in the red, whilst in the spectrum formed
which is of so delicate a character, that a difference of temperature amounting to lO"** of a degree centigrade can easily be noted. By means of this instrument, Langley detected the heating effects of the ultraviolet waves, although the radiation was so weak, that if it fell uninterruptedly for over 1000 years upon a kilogramme of
ice,
The
infrared
by them.
others
290.
The
researches
of Langley,
Abney and
have
shown that instead of being confined to rather less than an octave, the portion hitherto examined extends from about wavelengths 1400 to 18000 tenthmetres, that is to about four octaves.
288
Having discussed the solar spectrum, and explained how 291. spectrum analysis enables us to detect the pre.sence of chemical
elements which exist in the earth, and can therefore be experi
mented upon
tained.
we must now
enquire,
or absence
and
fixed stars,
also
be ascer
292.
lines of
some agency, which lay outside the earth's atmosphere. Brewster, who was acquainted with Frauenhofer's researches, observed that the two red lines in the spectrum of potassium coincided with the Hues A and B, and was struck with the coincidence but neither Frauenhofer nor Brewster appear to have had any idea of the true cause. This seems to have been first pointed out by Sir G. Stokes' about 18.52, and depends upon the following considerations.
;
It is a
late Sir J.
Herschel, that
force,
when a
is
material system
is
whose period
Stokes accordingly suggested, that sodium by virtue of its molecular structure was capable of vibrating in the periods of the light, which corresponds to the two D lines of the If therefore light from a sodium flame be passed solar spectrum. through a stratum of vapour of sodium, the molecules of the latter will be thrown into a state of vibration, and owing to the coincivibration will be large.
dence of the
free
and forced
periods,
the
amplitudes of the
The
of
sodium vapour
energy
is
will
necessarily supplied
sodium
light,
emerges from the and accordingly if the stratum be sufficiently thick, no energy will emerge, and light will be absorbed. It appears that in 1849 Foucault'' experimentally proved, that light from a sodium flame was absorbed by sodium vapour, but the experiment attracted no
of energy in the form of waves of light which
much
less
Phil.
Mag.
KIRCHHOPI'S LAWS.
attention, and the subject was not properly investigated was taken up by Kirchhoff in 1859.
289
until it
293. Kirchhoff first examined the spectrum of incandescent sodium vapour, and found that the two bright lines of its spectrum coincided with the two D lines of the solar spectrum. He also examined the spectra of calcium, magnesium, iron and a variety of
other substances, and found that the bright lines of their spectra coincided with certain definite dark lines of the solar spectrum. From these observations he deduced the following two very
important laws
I.
spectrum
coincides with the bright lines in the spectrum of substance, that substance is present in the sun.
II.
any incandescent
same periods as
it
wmdd
emit
shortly afterwards showed, that hydrogen was present in the sun, and Norman Lockyer has added lead, potassium and a variety of other substances to the list.
294.
examined
the Nebula!.
295.
The sun
higher
we
could examine
the solid nucleus does not permit the spectrum of the sun's atmo
sphere to appear.
light,
The
solar
it
as sodium, is
present in the sun's nucleus, the sun's atmosphere will also contain
1
Phil.
Mag.
also,
193
185.
See
B. o.
19
290
the sodium in the nucleus, will be wholly or partially absorbed by the sodium gas contained in the atmosphere, and the dark lines
will
One
spectrum analysis,
moving
at the present
observed to have a proper motion, distances between the enormous it is evident on account of the sun and stars, that the directions of motion of the sun and star must be nearly at right angles to the line joining them but if the directions of motion are nearly parallel to this line, astronomical methods furnish no means of determining, whether the two bodies It is at are approaching towards or receding from one another. this point that spectrum analysis comes to our aid, and enables the direction of the relative motion to be determined, by means
Hercules.
fixed star
;
Now if a
297.
is
effected,
we must
is
usually
known
as Doppler's Principle'.
of light
is
is
emitting spherical
V; and that the source and the observer are in motion. Let the source be reduced to rest, by impressing upon the observer a velocity equal and opposite to that of the source and let u be the component of the relative velocity of the observer towards the source, along the line joining him with
;
the latter. Since the observer is unconscious of his own motion, the waves emitted by the source, will appear to be travelling with
V+u; hence if X be the wavelength, and t' the apparent period, that is the time which elapses between the passage of each successive crest of the waves,
a velocity
(F+u)t' = X.
But
if
Ft = X,
whence
'
t
Bohm.
= ^^
Abh.
V+u
ii.
Gesell.
18412,
p. 485.
doppler's principle,
291
Now
number
which
fall
in a second.
If
period, instead of
is
Accordingly
if
the observer
is positive,
actual period, and any fixed line will be shifted towards the violet end of the spectrum. The converse is the case, when the observer
is
star, so
that u
is
298.
By
Dr Huggins'
ascertained in
is
that there
is
end of the spectrum from which motion a of recession between the earth
relative velocity is about
anil Sirius,
but showed that many other stars are in motion, and that some are moving towards, and others from the earth. Thus Sirius, Rigel, Castor, Regulus and S Ursse Majoris, which are situated in that part of the heavens which is opposite to Hercules, are moving
Sirins,
the neighbourhood of
moving
The outer
the most
portion
of
gas,
the
solar
is
atmosphere
consists
chiefly of whitehot
hydrogen
violent
which
constantly agitated by
storms of
line F,
character;
Norman Lockyer
The reader who wishes to pursue this subject further, is commended to consult Roscoe's Sjjectrum Analysis, and
to
re
the
We
to
the
subject of absorption.
1
Tram. 1872. In this paper a table is given of the stars, which are approaching towards or receding from the earth. See also Eoscoe, Spectrum
2
192
292
301.
\Yill
it
why
sherry appears to
be of an orange colour
licrht;
the
colour of claret
due to
the
fact,
that
it
absorbs yellow and green light, and transmits red and violet. The property which certain transparent substances possess of refusing
to transmit light of certain colours, whilst allowing light of other
colours
to
pass freely
through,
is
called
selective
absorption.
when
used
for
is
sufficiently
not
perfectly
and green
light,
but has a tendency to absorb Air also has a tendency to absorb blue and in a less degree yellow light for the colour
transparent,
;
midday is a whitish yellow, whilst at sunset or sunrise it is red, thus showing that a sufficient thickness of air refuses a passage to all but the red rays, and this fact has led many
of the sun at
physicists to believe that the actual colour of the sun is blue.
Silver
leaf,
which
rays,
is
opaque
leaf
to
ultraviolet
gold
transmits green
whilst
glass
which is transparent to luminous rays, absorbs the actinic rays, and also the rays of dark heat'. Quartz, on the other hand, transmits both the luminous and the actinic rays and on this account it is customary to use quartz prisms when experimenting
;
upon the latter rays. It therefore appears, that transparency and opacity must not be regarded as qualities, which form part of the intrinsic properties of substances, but which depend rather upon the periods of vibration of the ethereal waves.
302.
Some
of the
understand
how
lie
that a
to
between certain
The mechanical
'
is
incapable
and
On
Vapours,
1880
Jan. 1881.
mentaUsts.
SELECTIVE ABSORPTION.
of transmitting waves whose periods
lie
293
limits,
beyond certain
may be
to X,
by supposing that for waves travelling parallel the equation of motion of the ether is
illustrated
dhu
dHu
,,
d^w
^^='''rf^ + ^"cZ5W
If in
this
(!)
equation
is
we put
&
= 0, we
obtain
;
the ordinary
equation which
may
be conceived to
and the last term represent the action of the substance upon
the ether.
Putting
we
obtain
V'^
= a Ifjr,
is
When
= co,
fi
l; as t diminishes,
/li
real as long as
T>h/a.
When
b/a,
fi
<X)
and
F=0;
and
is
when T<b/a,
;
is fj?
negative and
F is
imaginary..
The medium
whose period is less than hja and an equation of the form (1) might therefore be employed to illustrate the action of a medium, which is opaque to
therefore incapable of propagating waves,,
The
depends upon the dynamical theorem to which allusion been made. The molecules of all substances are capable of lias vibrating in certain definite periods, which are the free periods
of the substance.
The number
depends
upon the molecular structure of the substance and in all probability, the more complex the substance is, the more numerous are the free periods of the molecules. If therefore any of the free
periods
lie
medium
1
the form
aJ^
l^i
~ ^l'
xn\
T^~~k}t"where
KiT^~
r>K.,,
(tK^'){tK.?)
^''
is
a positive constant,
k^.
], k
When
is
real;
but when t
lies
between
/tj
and
k.^,
F will
294
which the velocity of light is represented by (2), would be transparent to waves of light, whose periods lie between oo and Va and between /Cj and 0, but would be opaque to waves whose periods lie between /Ca and a;, and
be again
Hence a medium,
in
(2)
band
The
first,
due
to
two distinct
colours of
causes;
irregular.
That the
same colour
as that
by examining the surface of a solution of sulphate of copper, enclosed in a vessel whose sides are painted black for it will be found that the solution appears to be black instead of blue, as
;
if it
same
colour as that
by the addition
of a little
The
addition of the
is
equivalent
colour
is
an
its
thereby
made
manifest.
When
surface,
white light
is
reflected at the
but by
Of
will
between the
particles,
and
The
refracted portion
become coloured owing to the absorption of certain kinds of and will then be reflected in an irregular manner at the surfaces of the different particles. Hence the light, which taken as a whole, comes from the surface of the substance, exhibits the
light,
not absorb.
the leaves of
The red
its
is
due
and
if
this flower
be held in
appears to be black.
DICHROMATTSM.
pince
295
upon
it.
The
colour of white
due to the
fact,
power
Bichromatism.
colour
There are certain substances, which appear to be of one light is passed throTigh a stratum of moderate thickness, but which appear to be of a different colour when the thickness is large. For example, light transmitted through glass coloured with cobalt, appears to be blue when the thickness is small, purple when the thickness is greater, and deep red when the thickness is large. If on the other hand, a solution of chlorophyll (that is, the green colouring matter of leaves), in alcohol be employed, the transmitted light appears to be of a bright emerald green when the thickness is small, and red when the thickness is
305.
when white
large.
This phenomenon
is
called dichromatisvi.
first
306.
Dichromatism was
Cobalt glass
it is
and green light and although and red light, it absorbs blue light to a greater extent than red. Let us consider a thin stratum of the substance, whose thickness is dx; let /, I+dl be the intensities of the light which enters and emerges from the stratum, and let q represent the proportion of light of unit intensity, which is absorbed by a stratum of unit
thickness.
Then qldx
is
which
is
whence
dl =
and therefore
where
This
I=
qldoo
Ae^'',
is
is
has passed
Let us now denote the values of the quantities for blue and red light by the suffixes b and r. Then for cobalt glass, q may
307.
296
hence
I,.
A,.
when
the thickness
considerable,
it
small,
it
Ai >4,..
This
must be interpreted to mean, that out of the rays of different colours which fall upon the glass, a far greater number of blue
rays are capable of being transmitted than of red.
In other words,
little
is
greater for
capable of transmitting
Anomalous
309.
Dispersion.
We
;
orange, red
is
the
least.
the most refracted, and the red There are however certain substances, in which the
violet
order of the colours in the spectrum produced by refracting sunlight through them,
is
different
glass,
and
The
dispersion produced by
such substances
is
called
anomalous dispersion.
310. Anomalous dispersion appears to have been first observed by Fox Talbot' about 1840, but the discovery excited no attention. It was next observed by Leroux" in 1862, who found that vapour
of iodine refracted red light
violet.
This
it
substance absorbs
all
and
was
observed that the order of the colours in the spectrum, beginning at the top, was red, then an absorption band, and then violet.
The
by Hurion', are
At^= 10205,
'
'
/i=lOiy.
See Proc. B. S. E. 1870 and Tait, Art. Light, Encycl. Brit. C. B. 1862; and Fhil. Mag. Sept. 1862.
;
<
Jouiii. de
vii. p. 181.
ANOMALOUS DISPERSION.
311.
297
Auomalous dispersion
it
is
1870, that
aniline dyes;
when
containing a solution of this substance, it was found that the order of the colours was" indigo, green, red and yellow, the indigo being
The amount
shown
in the following
Fuchsine solution
298
The preceding
refracted.
is
the least
the spectrum
blue, then
;
and and the orange is the most refracted. In the spectrum produced by permanganate of potash, there is a slight amount of anomalous dispersion between B and G; for Kundt found, that the indices of refraction for green and blue were 1'3452 and 1'3420 respectively, showing that the blue is less refracted, than the green in the neighbourhood of D. In
red and orange
so that the blue is least refracted, the green
some
and
several absorption
313.
By means
:
of his experiments,
follow
ing law
On
an absorption band,
the
upper or
more refrangible
side, it is
abnormally diminished.
to
the
D and F, that is in the green portion of the and on looking at the table, we see that the red and orange rays, which lie below the green in the spectrum produced by a glass prism, lie above it in the case of fuchsine whilst the violet rays lie below the green. The refrangibility of the red and
very strong between
;
spectrum
orange rays
violet is
is
abnormally diminished.
Selective Reflection.
314.
We
bodies arise from the fact that they absorb certain kinds of light
there
is
however another
which strongly
reflect
other colours.
is
these substances
315.
first
discovered
SELECTIVE REFLECTION.
299
by Haidingei'. It was subsequently studied by Stokes"; and the experiments of Kuudt, which have already been referred to', show,
that
it is
dispersion.
exhibited by most substances which produce anomalous In fact absorption, anomalous dispersion and selective
reflection are so closely connected together, that they must be regarded as dilferent effects of the same cause, and consequently ought to be capable of being explained by the same theoretical
considerations.
316.
reflection,
I.
The properties of substances, which exhibit selective may be classified under the following three laws
rays which are most strongly reflected, when light is the substance, are most strongly absorbed, when light
Tliose
incident
is
upon
When
When
sunlight
is
reflected,
and
the
reflected
is
light
is
parallel
from what
plane of incidence, the colour of the reflected it is, when viewed by the naked eye.
is elliptically
light is different
polarized,
it
follows that
reflection,
properties of substances, which exhibit selective resemble those of metals, as will be explained in the Chapter on Metallic Reflection. For in the first place, metals
The
and
in the
second
is
always elliptically
The
;
optical
und der Oberflachenfarben, oder des zuriickgeworfeneu Lichtes gewisser Kdrper. Proe. Math, and Phys. Class of the Acad, of Sciences at Vienna 1852, and the papers
there cited.
2
'
Phil.
Mag.
.inte, p.
297.
300
318.
little
chromatic
con
weakened by bringing them into optical contact with another having nearly the same refractive index; but in the case of quasimetallic substances, the colours which they reflect, are brought out more strongly by placing them in optical contact with
glass or water.
That there are certain substances, which strongly reflect same periods as those which they absorb, is strikingly exemplified in the case of permanganate of potash. Stokes found', that when the light transmitted by a weak solution is analysed by a prism, there are five absorption bands, which are nearly equidistant, and lie between D and F. The first band, which hes a little above D, is less conspicuous than the second and third, which are the strongest of the set. If however light incident at the polarizing angle is reflected from permanganate of potash, and is
319.
light of the
Nicol,
placed so
as
to extinguish the
is
and when
it
is
analysed by a prism,
dark
is
ones.
320.
Safflowerred or carthamine
another example of a
and that when red light polarized at an azimuth of 45 was incident upon this substance, the reflected light was sensibly plane polarized, but when green or blue light,
yellowish green light
polarized in the
reflected light
was
elliptically
further
incidence
for
when the
was of a very
but when
it
was yellowishgreen.
Similar results were obtained by using a
compound
of iodine
and quinine
called
Bristol,
'
Herapath of
Hag. Vol.
VI. (18) p.
293.
SELECTIVE REFLECTION.
321.
301
The
effect
of
bringing
transparent
medium
into
may
be illustrated
by depositing a
it
upon a glass plate, and allowing be found that the surface of the film which is in contact with air, is of a yellowishgreen colour; whilst the surface in contact with glass, reflects light of a very fine green
little
safflowerred
to
dry
when
it will
inclining to blue.
and platinocyanide
class
magnesium.
interest,
The
since
latter crystal is
it
is
one of a
of special
optical
doubly refracting,
substances,
dispersion.
The
light, when the latter is viewed with the naked eye and through a Nicol's prism, adjusted so as to extinguish the component polarized in the plane of incidence.
Substance.
302
was
first
was produced by chlorophyll, and also by fluor spar. Sir J. HerscheP found that fluorescence was produced by quinine, but the subject was not fully investigated, until it was taken up by Sir G. Stokes^ in 1852.
observed that
324.
of fluorescence
produced by
slit
quinine, Stokes
and a
it
prism, and filled a test tube with the solution, and placed
little
The
test
tube
was then gradually moved up the spectrum, and no traces of fluorescence were observed, as long as the tube remained in the
a ghostlike gleam of pale blue light shot right across the tube.
On
increased in
had been moved a considerable distance into the invisible ultraviolet rays. When the blue gleam of light first made its appearance, it extended right across the tube, but just before disappearing, it was observed to be confined to an excessively thin stratum, adjacent to the surface at which the light entered.
intensity,
the tube
325.
fluorescence
and
also
that
light.
it is
due
change
is
to
by which fluorescence
is
produced.
why
is
326.
The
is
effect
may
Quinine
The
FLUORESCENCE.
the spectrum
converted
into
is
STOKES'
LAW.
substance,
303
it
is
passed
through a fluorescent
rays,
luminous
eye.
which are
visible,
and can be
to
examined by the
a
By
this
make
map
327.
Fluorescence
substances,
is also produced by a number of other among which may be mentioned decoction of the bark
tincture
substances.
sists
Thus the
As
When
the refrangihility
of
lirjht
is
changed
hy flicorescence,
it is
law is absolutely general has lately been doubted; and there appears to be some evidence, that excepthis
Whether
it
tions to
exist.
329.
We
fact,
that the
phenomena
the ether.
Now
if
first
would follow
from
Herschel's
however the molecular forces depended upon the squares or higher powers of the displacements, Herschel's theorem would be no longer true, and under these circum;
that the forces are such, that powers of the displacements higher
than the
first
cannot be neglected.
We
Now
the
which
is
stable for
For
not
304
communicated by ultraviolet light to the molecules, and to the atoms composing them, of a substance like quinine, should be of such far greater magnitude, than those communicated by light of less refrangibility, that the molecular forces produced under the former circumstances cannot be properly represented by forces proportional
to the displacements.
If this be the case, the period of the forced
330.
When
The
a molecule
is
by ethereal waves,
the ether.
must
necessarily
;
be the same as those of the molecules by which they are produced for Herschel's theorem applies to vibrations communicated to the
ether, although it does not necessarily apply to vibrations
com
And
of the
if
waves
will
provided their periods lie within the limits of sight, even though the periods of the impinging waves are too short to be visible. We can thus obtain a mechanical explanation of the way
is
in which fluorescence
make
The equation
under
of a
also
w''^y=^
The
complementary function gives the
arbitrary constant,
is
(!)
vibration.
The
deter
given as
is an would be difficult but as the above equation an illustration, and not for the purpose of constructing
F = Ae'P*,
where
a theory,
we
shall
is
represented by
The
2p
CALORESCENCE.
305
From
is
this result
we
see,
than
Galorescence.
the reverse of fluorescence, and waves of long period into waves of shorter period. Galorescence is well exhibited by the experiment of Tyndall already described under the head of spectrum analysis', in which the light from an electric lamp is sifted of the luminous rays, by passing it through a solution of iodine in disulphide of carbon, which only allows the infrared rays to pass through.
is
332.
This phenomenon
333.
In
order
to
illustrate calorescence,
(1).
we may
by
trial,
It can
be
verified
is
k=
2i
(2),
where a and a are the constants of integration. From this result it follows, that the amplitude of the free vibration is a, and its period is 4ir//xa, which is inversely proportional to the amplitude.
may still
provided
we suppose
that a and
are functions of the time, and their values might be found by the
method
of variation of parameters.
If now,
we suppose
that the
molecular forces are such, that a increases slowly with the time,
we may
of light.
When
and the
and
very large.
On
As
the forces continue to act, the amplitude increases, whilst the period diminishes, and the vibrations become sensible as heat in other
;
to get hot.
As
As
we must suppose
R n
306
of
Phosphorescen ce.
334.
When
light is incident
as
the compounds of sulphur with barium, calcium or strontium, it is found that they continue to shine, after the light has been removed. This phenomena
is
called phosphorescence.
is
Phosphorescence
is
inasmuch
as it
usually produced
by rays
bility of
by which it is produced. The principal distinction between the two phenomena is, that fluorescence lasts only as long as the exciting cause continues, whilst phosphorescence lasts some time
light after it has
been removed.
335.
cence,
we shall employ an acoustical analogue, which will frequently be made use of, and which will be fully worked out in  337.
Let plane waves of sound be incident upon a sphere, whose radius
is
and
Then
it is
known', and
will hereafter
effect of
If the
due
to it is propor
if
the law of force depends upon some power of the displacement, the
forced period of the sphere will
away
communicated
If the cause
to the sphere
by the incident
waves, and then communicated back again to the air in the form
of secondary waves.
will still
it
PHOSPHORESCENCE.
307
cannot go on vibrating indefinitely, because the energy which it possessed at the instant at which the incident waves were stopped,
be used up in generating secondary waves, and will be carried away into space by them hence the sphere will ultimately come to rest, and no more secondary waves will be
will gradually
;
produced.
Now
is
removed, yet the time during which they continue to be in motion is too short to be observed; but owing to the peculiar
molecular structure of phosphorescent substances, the molecules
remain in motion for a longer period. Hence a luminous glimmer exists for some time after the incident light has been cut off.
202
CHAPTER
XVII.
shall give
an account of some
on dynamical
made
to explain
This proposition
is
which
may be made
It
by the displacements from the action of may therefore be employed as the basis of
is
regarded, either as a
medium
is
capable of propagating electromagnetic disturbances as well as luminous waves. The difficulties of constructing theories of this
description arise, not only from the fact that the properties of the
ether are a question of speculation, but also because the forces due
to the action of
unknown.
During the last five and twenty years, numerous attempts have been made by continental writers to develop theories of this
description,
will be
found
in
Glazebrook's
It cannot, I think,
same time>
309
As an
we
shall
problem of the sphere vibrating under the action of plane waves of sound, which has been referred to in the last Chapter. The problem itself was first solved by Lord Rayleigh', and has been reproduced by myself^ in an approximate form but
discuss the
;
be the radius of the sphere let k = 27r/X, where \ is Then the the wavelength and let a be the velocity of sound. velocity potential of the incident waves may be taken to be
Let
c
; ;
^'e'*"',
where
^'
e"=*'
Now
6
if /t
= cos 6,
and^
= SJ^(c)P(^),
n,
^^"^
where Pn
"^
is
^'
I
''~1.3...(2nl)l
If
(^6'
2. 271
...1(1). ''
j"^
may assume^
= 24,iir,jP,j, = r fnitKr),
to the pressure of the air,
where
<^n
is
aud/
If
X be the resistance
due
{(j>'
X =  2Trpc Jo
I
<f)
CKae"""^ cos
sin Odd
=
2nrpKach""^ j
(</>'
+ <^) fidfi
(2),
pg.Ka
gives
dc
1
do
253.
iv. p.
2 3 *
Elementanj Hydrodynamics and Sound, 167. Lord Eayleigh, Tlieoiy of Sound, Ch. xvii.
Stokes,
On
atmosphere.
310
ETC.
dc
whence
A^. =
,
,
(VdFJdc) (2 + /t^c' 
iK^c')
We
shall
now
is
so small
and higher
powers of kc
of the sphere,
may be
neglected.
Hence
if
^ be the displacement
=  IM' [{(2 + kct) i + K*c'a^]  {iKa (2 + k'c') + ic'c'a] e"""" dF^jdc] (3).
(1),
ka
27r/T,
where t
is
we
finally obtain
due
to the spring
is
ment
equal to ^ttM^Jt'^,
{M + IM' (2 +
V)} ^
+ ir2t
M'lr
"C"^
iir^M'
+ ^pr^ = ^
To
integrate this equation, assume
,
W
^=
^e^"'/^,
then
(5).
M'T'{l\i,K'c')la
(t'= t")
338.
From
these results
following conclusions.
Equation
(4),
which
is
is
This
continually
the
energy which
it
receives
from
incident
waves, by
If therefore the
OPTICAL APPLICATIONS.
311
come
to rest.
neously
but
if
is larger,
continue for a sufficient time to enable our senses to take cognizance of them.
339.
Now
whatever
supposition
between ether and matter, it is practically certain that the motion of a molecule of matter will be represented b)' an equation, whose leading features are the same as (4), although the equation itself may be of far greater complexity.
mutual
reaction
We
structure of nonphos
phorescent substances
modulus
of decay is so
small as to be inappreciable;
phosphorescent substances
considerably larger.
340.
is
modulus
of decay
is
We
must now
is
consider, the
(5).
given by
The density
of all gases
is
exceedingly small, compared with the densities of substances in the solid or liquid state consequently M' is very small compared
;
with M.
in comparison with that of the incident waves (which has been taken as unity), unless t and t' are nearly equal. When t = t',
is
approxi
Under these circumstances, the amount of energy communicated by the incident waves to the sphere, is very much greater than what it would have been, if the difference
mately equal to 3/a.
between r and
t'
were considerable.
341. Let us now consider a medium, such as a stratum of sodium vapour. We may conceive the molecules of the medium to be represented by a very large number of small spheres, and
the molecular forces to be represented by springs. The medium The will therefore have one or more free periods of vibration.
interstices
filled
is
When
the medium, the molecules will be set into vibration, and a certain amount of energy will be absorbed by them but since the mass of
;
312
ETC.
a molecule
ether which
it
energy will
be
so,
equal, or nearly
But
in the case of
and forced
a great deal of energy will be taken up by the moleand of the energy which entered the stratum of vapour, The very little will emerge. Light will therefore be absorbed. may therefore be absorption bands produced by sodium vapour explained, by supposing that sodium vapourhas two free periods, which are very nearly equal to one another, and accordingly Hydrogen, produce the double line D in its absorption spectrum. on the other hand, has three principal free periods, which are
separated from one another by considerable intervals.
The occurrence
shows, that
of an imaginary
A
r.
now consider a theory, which was developed by W. Thomson, now Lord Kelvin, in his lectures on Molecular
shall
We
The molecules
hollow spherical
springs
;
of matter are
represented
by by
number
of
shells,
connected
shell is connected
is
rigidly connected
shells
is
with the
supposed to be a vacuum, and transparent and other substances are supposed to consist of a great number of such shells, which may be imagined
to represent the molecules.
The degree
contains
compounds
We
We
force
313
proportional to 
where
Xi is
may be
343.
Let
mil^tir^
i"^
ment, Gi the strength of the spring connecting the i* and {i 1)"' shells. Then the equations of motion of the system of shells will be
^2 i =
47J'
C^i
(f
 i)  ^2 (i  0
(6).
4.,
"^i
^i v^i
and
ai =
"^i)
^i+i (*i
^i+i)
If T be the period,
if
we put
mi/r'
(7;
Oi+i
(7),
(8).
is
C^^=aiX^ + G^,
so that
ether.
(9),
we may
regard
x^,
If
we suppose
that the
f^
shell is attached to
a fixed point,
JZa ^J
^i
('"ji
~ ^i) ~ ^j+i*j)
(10).
j"" shell
(j
whence
Although
is
it is
GjXj^^^ = ajXj
scarcely admissible to suppose, that the
if
1)"'
shell consists of
solid nucleus,
shells, its
be neglected.
There are j
by putting
(9)
i
2, 3,
. .
and (10) furnish altogether j equations, from which the j 1 quantities x^, x^ ... Xj can be eliminated, and we shall thus obtain a relation between Xi and f.
314
344.
ETC.
Ui=SOi
or
=
Then
(9), (8)
(11).
^=,, = 0,^^ lU
Ui^ai^'
Wi+i
(12),
(13).
Also since
a;j+i
Uj^^
oo
"j
and therefore
j
(14).
From
these equations
we
see,
M

= !
C'/_^_
cv^i
C^
(i5)_
Putting
for
moment
Sai
= mi
(14),
315
When
is
tt's
are exceedingly
= oo
it
(14) that
Uj
Cj
Gj^i,
so that Uj
please,
(1.3),
can always be made as large a positive quantity as we by taking t small enough whence it follows from (7) and
;
that
all
the
it's
is
small
But if Mj is positive, we see from (11), that the signs of accordingly when t is very small, Wi and Xi_i must be different each shell is moving in the opposite direction to the two adjacent ones also when itj is large, the numerical value of Xi^i must be
enough.
; ;
very
much
ajj.
These considerations show, that when the period is exceedingly and also those of the outer massless envelop, which is supposed to be rigidly connected with the
ether, are executed in opposite directions
;
we proceed inwards
It follows
whilst
from (7) and (13) that as t increases, dj diminishes, (7^i+i/i+i increases; accordingly when t has sufficiently
U; will
;
increased,
be zero. Now when Mj is zero, Mi_i = oo and have passed through zero, and have changed sign for some value of t, less than that for which m; became zero. It
will therefore
the
us
are positive,
sign,
Uj,
will
be the
first
and changes
346.
and that
u^ will
In the problem we are considering, the motion is supposed to be produced by means of a forced vibration of amplitude itj = but Mj will also vanish when ^, and therefore when ! = oo
, ;
^=0, hence
envelop
is
u^
vanishes
is
the least
when
the massless
As soon as t exceeds the first critical become negative and consequently the first shell and the massless envelop, will be moving in the same directions, whilst all the other shells will be moving in opposite directions. If now T be supposed to still further increase, u^ will diminish and
period, Mj will
;
finally vanish, in
critical case
;
which case
itj
= oo
= 0.
is
This
is
the second
when
lUi is fixed,
and
all
the
316
ETC.
this period
and
cases
can be
From
we have
From
this equation
is
we
t~^
see,
that 1/mj_i
is
a fraction, whose
is
numerator
a
or
quadratic function
therefore
is
follows
that
l/ttj,
xJGi^,
is
a {j
lij
1)"",
and whose
denominator
a j* function of t~\
Since
is zero,
when
is
equal to any one of the j periods of the free vibrations of the system, when the envelop is held fixed, it follows that the denominator of
';
l/j(i is
T^
where
,,
...
kj
The value
fractions,
of
I/mj
may
^1
gi
I
gs
/^s^
^
^'
Ml"
where
q^, q^ ...
G,^
iVt^1"^,Vt'1
for
are constants.
Writing
for a
moment Di
kVt=
1,
(18)
becomes
^
Now
i^'^mwiB^
Xi is the
<>
amplitude of the
x'i,
i"'
shell
if
therefore
we denote
we
shall
have
= Xi sin 2irt/T,
be measured from the epoch at which each shell passes through its mean position. The energy in this particular configuration will be wholly kinetic; whence remembering that the
provided
t
mass of each
total energy,
be the
E = ^^im,d>\' + m^7 +
St"
Xi^
dill
.2
J
(mii=
t
mjaJs''
27" d'
(20),
317
Let
so that R^ denotes the ratio of the whole energy of the molecule to that of the first shell ; then (19) becomes
m^
K
Hence
if
'
qi = Riic\/ini
and
(18)
becomes
Oif
348.
OT,
.2 t"'
Ka'
T
o "T"
(21).
is
number
we
have been considering; and let us suppose, that the interstices between the molecules are filled with ether, which is assumed to.
be a medium, whose motion
those of an elastic
solid.
is governed by the same equations as Then if we confine our attention to a the medium, which contains molecules and ether
small element of
the propagation of
of motion of a
waves
parallel
to the axis
of x, the equation
be
dhu'
dp
=n
dW
dx"
ment, we obtain
(22).
is
to be taken
over the outer boundary of the element, whilst the second is to be taken over the boundaries of each of the molecules. Let w be the
mean
points
value of
li/
x + ^Sx and
x ^Sx
will
be
w+
so that the
first
^jSx and
dx
w ^
j~ ^^' dx
integral reduces to
n^SxBySz.
dw
318
ETC.
The second
and
if
we represent
it
4!7rC{^'
w')dx'dy'dz',
all
we may
the
molecules within the element by 4<Tr'C{^w)SxByBz, where f is the mean value of the displacements of all the molecules. The
equation of motion therefore becomes
^$=S+*'*)
349.
(^>>
To
solve (23)
assume
Substituting in (28),
we obtain
Now (n/p)i is the velocity of light in vacuo, whence the lefthand side is equal to /i^, where is the index of refraction. Hence if we substitute the value of Wi/^ from (21), and write q^ for
/j,
CiRiKi'/mi,
we
^^Ti^^^^P
350.
)
()
This equation
To apply
to ordinary dispersion,
we
shall
=! +  ?...(150t^+S^ + ^.+
P
...
[..(25).
it
From
in
follows that ], K^
Now
increases
as
the period
;
whence we must have t > /Ci and < k^ also the quantities q^, q, must be inappreciable, and qi must be very slightly less than unity. Under these circumstances, we approxidiminishes,
mately obtain
^==
F^ \q,K^(l
q,)T^
+ ^^ +
^V
...}... (26).
as
If we omit the term (1 qi) r'\ this expression is the same Cauchy's dispersion formula, which agrees fairly well with
for certain
sub
term
(1 qi) t'
is
required.
BISPERSION
AND ABSORPTION.
319
351. In order to apply (24) for the purpose of illustrating anomalous dispersion, it will be sufficient to confine our attention to the terms involving k^ and Ks.
fi%
we obtain
When
= 0,
dfj^/dT" is
qi
negative
but when t
oo
it will
not
be negative unless
diminishes,
related, that
+ q^Kl;
is
since
however
/a
increases as r
we may suppose
dfi^/dr'
is
spectrum, which
g'l
And
if
we suppose
is
q^<lqi
t.
small,
Let us further suppose that k2> Ki; then when t will be less than unity as t increases, /a" fj?
;
is
excessively
will
diminish
fj.^
to zero,
and
will
When
is
medium, and absorption will take place. and as soon as t>Ki, fi^ becomes a very large positive quantity, and regular refraction begins to take place. As T further increases, ij? diminishes, until it vanishes and changes sign. A second absorption band accordingly commences, and continues until t > k^, when regular refraction begins again, and
of being propagated in the
When
= Ki,
^^
= co;
so continues until t
= oo
will
fi^.
352.
The
t^,
following figure
The
t
abscissae
represent the
lines
The dotted
1,
AG, BD,
EF
Ki,
kj,
/i
Qq represent the
spectrum produced by a prism filled with a substance, which produces anomalous dispersion, and has an absorption band in the
green.
The
portion
Ee may be supposed
to consist of
waves whose
commences.
The
H in
the spectrum
may be supposed
commence
visible,
at P; and a band of light accordingly becomes which continues through the indigo to the blue, and in
320
ETC.
the most refracted and the blue the least. figure, this ought to be followed by a region of
/^'
An
and
is
orange
corresponding to Qq, in which the red is the is the most refracted. Since the value of
and the
is
when t
is
slightly greater
is
than
is
that
when there
an
absorption band in the green, orange and red are more refracted
than blue
353.
will
If
we compare
p.
297,
it
be seen, that they give a fairly satisfactory explanation of the anomalous dispersion produced by fuchsine and cyanine. The five
absorption bands produced by permanganate of potash, could be
321
Dispersion.
is
a theory
mutual action of ether and matter, of somewhat the same character as Lord Rayleigh's theory of double refraction but instead of following Von Helmholtz' method, we shall give the theory in a somewhat extended form
relating to the
;
'\
Let
Ui, Vi,
u, V,
We
the ether
When
of the mathematical
;
a question of speculation
and the
first
hypothesis
we
shall
make
and
W3
= i (^ih" + aSfi^ +
...
ePwi'
...{!),
where ^,33
are constants.
ments of ether and matter. This portion of the potential energy, which we shall denote by W^, is supposed to arise from the mutual reaction of ether upon matter and if we assume that the corresponding forces are linear functions of the relative displacements, Wi will be a homogeneous quadratic function of the relative
;
displacements, so that
V,)
(w
w,)
(2).
which we shall denote is ether by Wi, the potential energy of the alone, and is of the same form as that of an elastic solid. The total potential energy of the system will therefore be
W= W,+ W,+ W,
1
(3).
B. O.
21
322
ETC.
(4)
In order to introduce Lord Rayleigh's theory, we shall suppose upon the ether, is to cause the latter
energy Tj of the ether
is
T.^iiPu'+Qv' + Rw')
355.
(5).
The equations
//// S{T,
of
+ T,W,W,
W,) dxdydzdt
and
will
be found to be
^d^ = ^+'^^'"dif
with two similar equations, and
d?iH
(^)'
P^~d~
with two similar equations.
_ _dW^ _dW3
du,
1^
^^^
When
the
medium
is
isotropic,
P = Q = R = P, A = B = G = a?;
A'
B'
C=
0,
dS
&c.
&c.
/'i5^
= n^*x)^^J*.
&c.
(9),
&c.
356.
Von Helmholtz
by
Lord Kelvin^ I think however that this term may be justified on two independent grounds. It is an experimental fact, that when vibrations are set up in any material substance, the vibrations are gradually damped by internal friction, and the motion ultimately
'
323
may be
represented mathematically,
by the introduction of a viscous term into the equations of motion of the matter. If however we do not wish to introduce the h3rpotbesis of internal friction into our equations, the viscous term
may
still
be accounted
for.
When
a molecule of matter
is
set into
vibration
by ethereal waves, the physical characteristics of the motion will be much the same as those of the spherical pendulum vibrating in air, which has been discussed at the commencement of
;
is communicated to the molecules, and the equations of motion of the latter will therefore contain a viscous term. In the place of (9), we shall accordingly assume
(10).
357. Let us now consider the propagation of waves of light, which are travelling through the medium in the positive direction of the axis of z, and let the displacements be parallel to the axis of
X.
''df='^d^ +
To
solve (10)
"(^'">
^''^
^ .0.6
A = .0.16
9+2'Wt.(2/F).
,
Ml
!^>_/3.^+tf^}A = ^
Now
if
(13).
K?
Pi
whence from
(13),
we obtain
(t=
A,
A~
477^/3i
K'")
(14).
212
324
ETC.
From
pendulum we infer, that much smaller and accordingly a" must be very small
If
compared with
pi
however
n^
in
absence of
This conclusion
is
contradicted by experience,
Let
J)
denote the real part of the denominator of (14) (13), and equate the real
(^^+'^)^+^^^
(i=S +
(),
^_^_^)i_^ =
;
(16^
Now q is the coeiEcient of absorption of the medium and since the absorption is slight for most transparent substances, it follows
that
q,
and therefore
h,
must be
small.
Let
we
obtain
whence
P=l^ + (.?*I^j'}^.
P = a^/D,
we
when
g'
= 0.
radical,
obtain
D
Now
where
/
jj.
a^FV
;
^^'''
if Pa is
= p^jj?
4nf\^fp
a^
ngV
o^
^'V
{pjiir^p,
r,
gv
1
325
is
small,
we may
becomes
put q =
0,
and (18)
.P_
Let
^^'
\i
w
{
P=aV47r'/)o,
Q=aV47rVi,
...(20),
t^whence
= o^rr^^?^;^^K? + Qv}
dfjpjdT' is negative; it therefore follows that
fj?
decreases as
T^ increases.
Since p
is
matter,
it
/j,^
follows that p>P(,', hence when t = 0, /u. > 1. diminishes to unity; it then becomes less
As
t
t increases,
than unity,
until t
which makes
/i
= 0. When
> T3,
y:*''
is
negative;
and consequently at this point an absorption band commences, which continues until t = Tj, where t^ is the value of t which makes the denominator vanish. When t=t2, jj? co; and when T>T2, jtt^ is a very large positive quantity, and regular
refraction begins again.
As t
still
further increases,
/i^
continues
;
/x^ is
again zero
when T>Ti,
values of
x.
/u.^
The medium
is
therefore absolutely
Tj
;
opaque
to
waves whose
it
is
whose periods
lie
and greater than t^ it is opaque for waves between Tj and T3, and is transparent for waves
Tj
of shorter period.
If
line
we now suppose
t,
that
Tj
D, whilst
we
shall obtain
a mechanical representation of a medium, which has an absorption band in the green ; also the dispersion is anomalous, since the
value of
iJ?
when t
is
little
T3.
greater than
t^
is
greater than
it is
when T
band
is
little less
than
medium
360.
is
To
we
greater than k
then
if
we put
6=
V(i
+ <2=).
326
(19)
ETC.
is
of the
With the exception of the term involving same form as Cauchy's formula
IM'
t'',
this value of fJ
= a+cl\' + dl\* +
....
is
required
361.
When
a more complicated character is required and it has been suggested by Von Helmholtz, that a theory might be constructed by a hypothesis, which practically amounts to assuming that TFj and W3 consist of a series of terms of the form
w, = i2a,2
{(u
Selective Reflection.
362.
We
surface of a
must now consider the reflection of light at the medium, which produces anomalous dispersion.
of Least Action,
In forming the equations of motion by means of the Principle we observe that there are no surface integral terms, which arise from W, and W^ it therefore follows, that the
;
common
surface of
two
different media,
These conditions
the ether.
With regard
shall provisionally
latter is to
compression
Under
yx
and
so long as
glas.s.
> 1,
however the incident light is white, and k lies within the visible spectrum, say between D and F, it follows that for certain rays of the spectrum fi<l, in which case there will be a critical angle.
If
SELECTIVE REFLECTION.
327
Hence those rays, for which im < sin i, will be totally reflected with a change of phase. There will also be another set of rays, for which /x" is a negative quantity, and we shall now show that these
rays are also totally reflected with a change of phase.
363.
Let
cos r
= v~^ (y^ +
r)
sin"
i)^.
Now when
the light
is
^,
^_A _ =
.
sin (i
Ae^^'fl'',
where
which shows that the
of phase, whose value
tan tt/ZX
(21),
reflection is total,
is
a change
determined by
light
is
Similarly
when the
plane of incidence,
'_tan(i0
B
where
tan tt/JX
tan
{i
+ r)
(22).
= ^'"fi/'^
= 77
.,
which shows that the reflection is total, and is accompanied by a change of phase which is determined by equation (22).
Since the change of phase
is is different,
364.
We
Let
Ta
for
which
fi
= 0,
and
let Tj
t,
be the
as
Then
if
we suppose
and F,
;
that
and
Tj
it follows
that there
be an absorption band in the green accordingly the substance will transmit the blue and red rays, and some of the yellow, hence the colour of the transmitted light will be red or reddish blue.
Since
/4
is
manner
fi is
328
ETC.
imaginaxy, will be totally reflected with a change of phase hence the colour of the reflected light will be green, and the light will
;
be
elliptically polarized.
In fuchsine the order of colours going up the spectinim is F, G, H, then there is an absorption band, and then come the lines A, B The absorption is very strong between D and F; accordG, B.
ingly fuchsine
is opaque to the green portion of the spectrum, ought to reflect green light strongly. This agrees with Now although fuchsine is not absolutely opaque to observation.
and
blue and yellow light, the prevailing colour of the transmitted light is rose ; accordingly this substance must possess a tendency
to transmit red light to a far greater extent
and consequently ought to reflect the' latter colours more strongly than the former one. This is also borne out by observation, since
the reflected light
365.
light
;
is
green.
Let us now suppose, that the incident light is common and that the reflected light is examined through a Nicol's
is
Then
of
incidence
cannot get through the Nicol, and may be therefore left out of Now the reflected light consists of three portions; (i) account.
the portion for which
(i?
is
negative,
(ii)
little
above
IJ?
is positive,
bourhood
spectrum.
of
F;
than unity, and which lies in the neighthe portion for which ^^ > 1, which is
constitutes the remaining portion of the
is
regularly reflected,
and
The
first
;
portion
by
far the
is
most
for
reflection is total
whilst
critical
which the
reflected.
angle
is less
and those
if
it
for
which
greater, will
is
be regularly
Now
most of
which
and will therefore be unable to get but the green, and also a portion of the blue The colour of the in the neighbourhood of F, will get through. light, when viewed through a Nicol, will accordingly change from
incidence
reflection,
;
by
CHAPTER
XVIIT.
METALLIC REFLECTION.
366.
reflection
(i)
The may
be
classified as follows.
to light,
When plane
polarized light
is incident
upon a polished
light
is
plane
is
perpendicularly
(iv)
plane of incidence
is
a minimum.
When
for which
plane
polarized.
Whatever the character of the incident light may be, it can always be resolved into two components, which are respectively in
and the above experimental results show, that metallic reflection produces a change of phase in one or both of these components. and perpendicular to the plane of incidence
;
367.
The angle
called
the principal
azimuth.
The
of
principal
azimuth
usually
measured
from
the
plane
incidence
330
METALLIC REFLECTION.
who
it
is
looking at the
the course
Since
may be
supposed to
be reversed,
is
and
it
medium
metallic reflector.
Although a plate of metal of sensible thickness is and opaque, yet a very thin film of metal is semitransparent if white light be incident upon the film, the transmitted light is frequently coloured. Thus, if sunlight is passed through a piece
369.
;
of gold
leaf,
is
green.
The experiments
of
Quincke^ show, that the phases of both components of the refracted light are accelerated by transmission ; and Sir John Oonroy' has
shown, that when light
of the film.
is
That a thin
plate
is
from a thick
to be expected.
surface
whilst
when the plate is thick, no second owing to the refracted wave being extinIf a perfectly
would be
no theoretical
all
difficulty in explaining
the same
way
and refractions from both surfaces of the as is done in the ordinary theory of the
The
by
but
a complex quantity
'
IS
COMPLEX.
331
it
Let the
axis
of
x be the normal
to a metallic reflector in
contact with air; and let the displacements of the incident and
refracted waves be
"=^^;
(1).
we must have
sini
(say)
^
''
(2). ^
^
medium were
/i
properly speaking no
/it,
would be
consequently
/i is
cannot be
We
complex.
For these reasons it is often said, that the index of refraction is a complex quantity. The expression is not however very happily chosen, since there is no such thing as an index of If however we regard the index refraction in the case of metals.
of metals
of refraction as a convenient
name
for the
mathematical quantity,
which
is
defined by
fi
(2),
Putting
= i2e'% we
Fi
obtain
and
therefore,
when
the incidence
K^ sin a
is
normal, so that
cos a
?i
1,
Wi
= A e^"""
cos
{Rx
27r
first
Vt),
medium, which
is
supposed
Now
must be
increases.
is
rapidly as the
332
Since
METALLIC REFLECTION.
/*"
= i?^ (cos 2a +
sin 2a),
positive, it follows that a naust lie between must be a complex quantity, whose imaginary part must be positive, but whose real part may be either positive
and and
sin a
must be
^TT.
Hence
/a^
or negative.
We
must be nega
lie
between
Jtt
and
^tt.
371.
and although these theories in on a satisfactory physical basis, yet the formulae of Cauchy furnish results, which agree fairly well with experiment, and may therefore be regarded as an empirical representation of the facts. We have shown in the previous chapter, that it is possible to construct a dynamical theory, such that for certain rays of the spectrum, /i' shall be a real negative quantity but from 370, it follows that in the case of a metal, fj,^ must be a complex quantity, whose imaginary part must be positive. Following Eisenlohr", we shall first show how Cauchy's formulae may be deduced by transforming Fresnel's formulae for transparent media; and shall afterwards discuss a
original form cannot be said to stand
;
may be
Cauchy's Theory.
372.
When
is
_ sin (i r) ~ ~ sin (i + r)
_
2 sin r cos
sin {i
i
^^''
'~
in
+ r)
^^>'
which the amplitude of the incident light is taken as unity. have now to transform these formulae, by supposing that /i is a complex quantity of the form iZe'*,
We
'
''
i.
p. 2.
and 1839.
vol. civ. p.
'
Fogg. Ann.
368.
cauchy's theory.
Equation (3)
333
may be
written
.,
It
r"
where
Since
^i
,_,
(5),
(6).
complex,
it
follows that
ce'"
;
shall therefore
put
c^
it
equal to
cos
sin
c=
^'
Equation (5)
,_
cosii2ce'(''+>
+ Rce'(''+") RV cosH + 2iRc cos i sin (a + it) iJV + cosH + 2Rc cos i cos (a + u)
cosi
^
= ^6
,
(8),
where
*^^
^2 _ fi^c'' + cos^ i 2Rc cos i cos ( + m) i^  jjsgs + cosH" + 2Ec cos i cos (a + m) 2776 2Rc cos i sin (a + u) = E^c'cos^t
reflected wave,
^'
., _.
(1>'
whence the
which
is
a
is
2/
sin
iVt + e),
which shows that reflection is accompanied by a change of phase, whose value is given by (10).
If
that
R'c'
cos (a + u) + cosH
= cos (a + m) sin 2
(9)
(tan"'^ j
(11),
a= = tan(/7r)
tan
(12),
^ = sin (a + u) tan 2
tan"^
^
(13).
for light
Equations (11), (12) and (13) are Cauchy's formulae polarized in the plane of incidence.
334
373.
METALLIC REFLECTION.
To
find
from (4)
2 cos i
cos
I
+ fi COS r
i {Re Bl'd^
_ ~
2 COS
^ j_  ^.^^ where ^j
2^61
4 cos' z
_^ ^^^^
^.
^^ ^^^
;
^.
^^^ (
+ ^j)
'
tan
=
\
is
((cosr+KSiii Ft
is
g{j6r^*("+">
cos^
{i2ca!cos(a
+ )2/sini+
is
+ ei}...(14).
accordingly
We
it
follows
that
u must
also
be positive
since
is
distance of a few
It
wavelengths from
reflecting surface.
also follows
from
(14), that
of the refracted
wave
in the metal at
normal incidence
equal to
VjR cos a.
374.
When
B'
is
polarized perpendicularly to
= tan (t
tan
(i
r) + r)
i
'
2 sin r cos
sin (i
whence
fj,
+ ce "'(") _ R" cos" i c' + 2i,Rc cos i sin (o u) R^ cos' t + c' + 2Rc cos i cos (a u)
jBcost
2tffe'
.RcosiC6^<''"> _ ""
where
W  ^'
^'
^^^'
R'coa''i
(U) ^'
^
cauchy's theory.
27re'
335
whence the
reflected
23 cos
A/
( cos
+ y sin i
Fit
+ e'),
which shows that, in this case also, metallic reflection is accompanied by a change of phase, whose value is given by (16). Since the changes of phase are different, according as the incident light
is
it
follows that
when
is
we
introduce an angle
g,
such that
.
W=
tan(gin)
i)
(18), (19).
tan
Equations (17), (18) and (19) are Cauchy's formulae for light
polarized perpendicularly to the plane of incidence.
From
these results
it
follows,
contact with
aniline dyes
by
375.
We
be
shall
now
but
for
we
shall
Let
B and A
^^^ ~
ZiM'
^ j^
sin (i
r)
'
sin(i+r)
tan (i  r)
= i
Bcos{i + r)
whence
'
^e^
A cos (I r)
^^
r.
,_. (^0).
336
METALLIC REFLECTION.
We must now transform the righthand side of (20), in the same manner as we have done in the case of Fresnel's formulee and we shall find that
^
^
^^e'e)_B jRccosie'^'+^'sinH"
~ A Re cos i6'(''+") + sin= i _ B B?c^ cos^ i sin* i + 2iRc cos i sva? i sin (a + u) ~ A Rc' cos^ i + sin* i+2Ro cos i sin^ i cos (a + m)
'
'
whence
^_^ ^= ~
J.''
Rc" cos^ i
J and
+ sin* i  2Rc cos i sin cos (at + ) iJ=c= cos^ I + sin* i + IRc cos i sin'' i cos (a + m) ^TT 2i2c cos i sin^ i sin (a + u) i ' . tan(e'e)= At. ^7^ ' X ^ Rti' cos'' I sm* I
^^
''
,, (22). ^
'
is
circularly polarized,
A=B;
also if the
angle of incidence
is
such that
Re cos i =
it follows
sin^ i
(23),
= e + JX,
If /S be the azimuth
obtain from (21) and (23)
whence the
reflected light
is
plane polarized.
we
tan= /3
,0 =
whence
/3= J(
is
+ w)
(24).
have therefore established the fourth experimental law, enunciated in 366, by means of Cauchy's theory. Accordingly (23) and (24) combined with (7) determine the principal incidence, and the principal azimuth. It also follows from the formulae, that if light which is plane polarized in the
We
which
principal
We
shall
denote the
principal incidence
by
/.
376.
These
results
and
a.
Let the azimuth of the plane of polarization be defined to be the angle, which this plane makes with the plane of incidence, measured to the right hand of an observer who is looking at the
reflected light through an analyser. Let the light polarized at an azimuth Jtt undergo two reflections at two parallel plates of
jamin's experiments.
metal
;
337
and
let
incidence.
After undergoing two reflections, the component displacements perpendicular to and in the plane of incidence will he
fV2 = a^
7)^/2
cos
^

A
2ir
( sin
7 + 2/
sin
cos
( sin
7+
2/
sin
2e
+ X)
be plane
whence the
light
reflected, will
= V^ = 3BV^' = tan=/3
7,
(25).
and the azimuth p^;, can be determined experimentally, whence by (23) and (25) the values of Rg and /3 can be found; accordingly from (24) and (7) the values of 72 and a can be calculated.
the principal incidence
377.
Now
and has found that they agree fairly well with experiment. His method of procedure was as follows. The quantities 7? and a were first determined by experiment, and the amplitudes ^ and iB were then calculated for different angles of incidence by means of (9) and (15). This process gives the theoretical values of the ratio of the intensities of the incident and reflected light.
To obtain the
in the
same
plane.
fall
on
the compound reflecting surface, so that part was reflected by the and the two portions of the glass, and part by the metal
;
reflected light
were passed through a doubly refracting prism, whose principal section was inclined at an angle 7 to the plane of
incidence.
on emerging from the prism, thus consisted of four images, two of which were produced by reflection from the Let ^\ metal, and the other two by reflection from the glass. ^'^ be the intensities of the light reflected from the metal and the
The
light
glass,
when the
1
incident light
et
is
Ann. de Ghimie
B. o.
22
338
METALLIC REFLECTION.
will
be
Glass
ia=cos=7,
^'="003=
7;
a^sin^Y,
gl'^sinsy.
For a certain value of 7, the intensity of the ordinary image of the metal, will be equal to the extraordinary image of the glass. For this value,
^''cos2 7
= gl''sin2 7; r) sin'' (i + r)
sin' {i
'
^2 = tan^ 7
The
value of 7
is
.(26).
^' can
be found by
(2U).
plane of incidence,
r)
(27),
glass,
W=i&a''>f
when
i is
The
Jamin's
paper, shows
how
far theory
steel.
Angle of
Incidence
jamin's experiments.
339
378. Jamin also made experiments upon the difference of the changes of phase of the two components and arrived at the following laws.
;
(i)
is
polarized in the
increases
is zero at
normal
incidence,
and
we
see that
iQ,
e' e'
= I, i = ^ir,
i
> e, and
= \ir.
Experiments on the difference between the changes of 379. phase were made by Jamin by the method of multiple reflections.
When
two
light polarized in
any azimuth
is
reflected
m
is
resulting light
(e'
e)
and
quantity
This
is
such that
(28),
least
e'
angle of incidence
;
is
given by
e= X/2m
and the
by
e'
e = (m
1) X/2m.
Hence there
are altogether
m1
results
place,
angles of incidence.
Now
ought to agree.
and
let
is
i^,
i^,
and compared with (28), and the two For example, let three reflections take the least and greatest angles, at which
(22),
polarization
we
e'
substitute
the values of
of
corre
sponding to
ix, ii
ought to be ^\ and
We
there
phase experimentally; and the experiments of Jamin show, that is a fair agreement between experiment and theory.
380.
It
368,
and principal azimuth, depend not only upon the nature of the metal, but also upon the medium in contact with it. The values
222
340
of these angles
for silver,
METALLIC REFLECTION.
have been determined experimentally by Quincke^ and by Sir John Conroy^ for gold and silver, when
certain other
media are substituted for air. The following table shows the results obtained by the latter, when the incident light was red.
Medium
KUNDTS EXPERIMENTS.
381.
341
air
The
ratio
to
that in
The
values which
Kundt
and blue
light.
342
METALLIC EBFLECTION.
Metal
LORD RAYLEIGh's
tion of motion within the metal,
CRITICISM.
elastic solid theory,
343
upon the
may
be written
P^W'^'W = ''W+d^)
where h
is
(29).
The equation
(Pw
dt'
{(Pw
\dx'
d^w\
dfj'
2t7r
.
To
assume
, ,
_^,.
Tri>
^ {x
COS
Substituting in (29),
we
^
it
;
Under
and
\iT.
these circumstances,
is
follows that
/a^
is
a complex
between Lord Rayleigh's investigation accordingly shows, that for silver and all metals for which a>\'rr, reflection cannot be accounted for on the elastic solid theory, by the introduction of a
positive
lie
hence a must
viscous term.
385.
it will
When we
be shown, that
we attempt
we
shall
be
same form. Hence metallic reflection led cannot be completely explained, upon the electromagnetic theory, by means of this hypothesis.
386.
We shall now
may be
part
is
negative,
Von Helmholtz'
theory.
axis of
in the direction of propagation, and the X in the direction of vibration, the equations of motion (11) and (10) of 357 and 356, are
d'u
dhi
,
,,
>
344
Since
METALLIC REFLECTION.
we
require a solution in which
jj? is
a complex quantity,
manner some
Assume
= j^gSiir/rWFo
then
\^(p^\iAA = a?A^,
h^
4>(^.^.)
whence
u'+
4<nrh

Aj,
= a.^A,
Pi
{?(f.)}K(^^)^'^'}=(^')
If
(Oo
U the
velocity of light in
IP
pseudoindex of refraction of a
metal
is
we obtain from
(30)
^~^~4^ot
of
P_
fi' is
"*"
47r^p, (=
f
4i7r/t/<;Vj ^
^'
_ ^V
47rV
387.
'r''c'
,
[in^pi ('
a')
V^}

167r=/tVT^
'^"
reflection,
shall
suppose that A
we may be
which we
denote by
'''
v^,
becomes equal
to
^^^^'
" p ~
4^
is
^ "^
I
47rVx (^
T^)
 a=VJ
This expression
may
In the
and
Ta is
the value of
t,
the least value of t for which v^ = 0, which makes the denominator of the
third term zero, the real part of p? will be negative for values
of T lying
between
T,
Ti
and
is
j/^
t^.
is
another
value Tj of
all
which
greater than
is
which
v'^
= 0;
and
for
values of
t>
Tj,
negative.
We may
therefore explain
345
from silver ia two distinct ways. In the first place we suppose, that the period of the free vibrations is such, that throughout the luminous portion of the spectrum, and some
may
distance beyond
or in
it
and on either
side,
lies
between
Ti
and
t^;
we may
suppose, that
throughout this
range t > T3. Now metals reflect rays of dark heat' in much the same way as they reflect light; accordingly if we adopted the first hypothesis, it would be necessary to suppose, that k
lies below the infrared on the other hand, we adopted the second hypothesis, it would be necessary to suppose, that k corresponds to a point in or above the ultraviolet portion of the
if
spectrum.
To
we must suppose
that
is
is less than Ti, or lies between t^ and from copper, we must suppose that either Tj or t, corresponds to a point of the spectrum intermediate between the red and yellow, since in going up the spectrum, the
To explain
reflection
/a^
But in the case of zinc, the real part of /m" begins by being positive, and then passes through zero to a negative value at a point between the blue and violet. The theory in its present form is therefore not applicable to zinc. It is however necessary to point out, that the theory which has been developed, only
applies to a
there
is
no a priori reason
absorption band
whereas
apply to a
there can be
by an expression
Kelvin's theory.
of
much
The investigations of the last two Chapters, will give the reader some idea of the various theories relating to the mutual
388.
between ether and matter, which have been proposed Further inforaaation to explain dispersion and metallic reflection. upon this subject, will be found in Glazebrook's Report on Optical Tlieories', where a variety of theories due to Lommel, Voigt, Ketteler and others are considered. It must however be conreaction
'
"'
346
fessed, that
METALLIC REFLECTION.
most of these theories are of a somewhat teatative and unsatisfactory character and depend to a great extent upon unproved hypotheses and assumptions made during the progress of
;
The fundamental
wards more
fully
hypothesis, first suggested by Stokes \ and afterdeveloped by Sellmeier", that these phenomena
some of the
is
development.
sitions,
This hypothesis
which
may
the ether;
since
is
capable of propagating
embedded
cussing.
in
it,
same kind
as those
we have been
dis
389.
We
shall
see
and that the general equations of the electromagnetic medium is governed by equations, which aire nearly identical with those furnished by the elastic solid theory. When electromagnetic waves impinge upon the molecules of a material substance, the latter are thrown into a state of vibraor ether;
field
tion,
reaction of ether
tigations based
and by making additional assumptions respecting the mutual and matter, we may translate many of the inves
upon the
the electromagnetic
theory.
We
conductors of electricity and and nickel are strongly magnetic. expect, that there would be a marked
between the propagation of electromagnetic waves in on the one hand, and in metals on the other hand. Unfortunately the electromagnetic theory, in the form in which it has hitherto been developed, does not readily lend itself to an explanation of dispersion and metallic reflection and it must be
difference
dielectrics
;
for.
Phil.
p. 196.
'
Fogg. Ann. Vols, cxlii. p. 272; cxlv. pp 399, 520; cxlvii. pp. 386, 525.
CHAPTEE
XIX.
The electromagnetic theory of light, which was first 390. proposed by the late Prof. ClerkMaxwell, supposes that the sensation of light is produced by means of an electromagnetic disturbance, which is propagated in a medium and we cannot
;
do better than
Maxwell's
to give the
:
own words^
" To fill all space with a new medium, whenever any new phenomenon is to be explained, is by no means philosophical, but
if
if the properties which must be attributed to the medium in order to account for electromagnetic phenomena, are of the same kind as those which we
medium
phenomena
medium
will
be considerably strengthened.
properties of bodies
"But the
measurement.
disturbance
is
are
capable of quantitative
We
some
which can be calculated from electromagnetic experiments, and observed directly in the
propagated through
it,
case of light.
If
it
gation
of
electromagnetic
velocity of light,
and
an
the
a
ii.
combination of
Electricity
p. 383.
348
391.
We
shall
now proceed
field,
the electromagnetic
an electromagnetic disturbance.
The equations
P=
dF_(if\

dt
dx
r^__dQ_d ^~ dt dy }
ij
dH = _:^_'ix
dt
dz
The equations
dH
dy