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OSCILLATOR An oscillator is a circuit that produces periodic electric signals such as sine wave or square wave.

The application of oscillator includes sine wave generator, local oscillator for synchronous receivers etc. RC PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR RC phase shift oscillator is a sinusoidal oscillator used to produce sustained well shaped sine wave oscillations.

The main part of an RC phase shift oscillator is an op amp inverting amplifier with its output fed back into its input using a regenerative feedback RC filter network, hence the name RC phase shift oscillator.

By varying the capacitor,the frequency of oscillations can be varied. The

feedback RC network has a phase shift of 60 degrees each, hence total phase shift provided by the three RC network (The feedback network) offers 180 degrees phase shift at the oscillation frequency and the op amp is configured as an Inverting amplifier, it also provide 180 degrees phase shift. Hence to total phase shift around the loop is 360=0degrees. This condition is essential for sustained oscillations. Working of RC Phase shift oscillator The energy storage capacity of capacitor in this circuit produces a noise voltage from the power supply noise which is similar to a small sine wave, it is then amplified using op amp inverting amplifier. By taking feedback, the output sine wave also attenuates 1/29 times while passing through the RC network, so the gain of inverting amplifier should be 29 in order to keep loop gain as unity. The unity loop gain and 360 degree phase shift are essential for the sustained oscillation. RC Oscillators are stable and provide a well shaped sine wave output with the frequency being proportional to 1/RC and therefore, a wider frequency range is possible when using a variable capacitor. Why it uses 3 RC stages?

Number of RC stages help improve the frequency stability. The total phase

shift introduced by the feedback network is 180 degrees, if we are using N RC stages each RC section provide 180/N degree phase shift.

When 2 RC sections are cascaded, the frequency stability is low. For 3 sections

cascaded the phase change rate is high so there is improved frequency stability. However for 4 RC sections there is an good phase change rate resulting in the most

stable oscillator configuration. But 4 RC sections increases cost and makes circuit complexity.

Hence phase shift oscillators make use of 3 RC sections in which each section

provides a phase shift of 60 degree. The latter is generally used in high precision applications where cost is not much regarded and only accuracy plays a major role. WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR Wien bridge oscillator is an audio frequency sine wave oscillator of high stability and simplicity. The op-amp used in this oscillator circuit is working as a noninverting amplifier mode. Here the feedback network need not provide any phase shift. The circuit can be viewed as a Wien bridge with a series RC network in one arm and parallel RC network in the adjoining arm. Resistors Ri and Rf are connected in the remaining two arms.

Working of Wein bridge Oscillator The feedback signal in this oscillator circuit is connected to the non-inverting input terminal so that the op-amp works as a non-inverting amplifier. The condition of zero phase shift around the circuit is achieved by balancing the bridge, Zero phase shift is essential for Sustained oscillations.

The frequency of oscillation is the resonant frequency of the balanced bridge and is given by the expression fo = 1/2RC At resonant frequency ( o), the inverting and non-inverting input voltages will be equal and "in-phase" so that the negative feedback signal will be cancelled out by the positive feedback causing the circuit to oscillate. From the analysis of the circuit, it can be seen that the feedback factor = 1/3 at the frequency of oscillation. Therefore for sustained oscillation, the amplifier must have a gain of 3 so that the loop gain becomes unity. For an inverting amplifier the gain is set by the feedback resistor network Rf and Ri and is given as the ratio -Rf/Ri.

Applications It is used for different applications such as local oscillator for synchronous receivers, musical instruments, study purposes etc. DIFFERENTIATOR The differentiator produces a voltage output proportional to the input voltage's rate of change. The formula for determining voltage output for the differentiator is as follows:

Operation Input signals are applied to the capacitor. Capacitive reactance is Xc = 12fC. Capacitive reactance is directly proportional to the rate of change of input voltage applied to the capacitor. At low frequency, the reactance of a capacitor is high and at high frequency reactance is low. Therefore, at low frequencies and for slow changes in input voltage, the gain, RfXc is low, while at higher frequencies and for fast changes the gain is high, producing larger output voltages.

If a constant DC voltage is applied as input then the output voltage is zero. If the input voltage changes from zero to negative, the voltage output voltage is positive. If the applied input voltage changes from zero to positive, the output voltage is negative. If a square wave input is applied to a differentiator, then a spike waveform is obtained at the output. The active differentiator isolates the load of the succeeding stages, so it has the same response independent of the load. At high frequencies this simple differentiator circuit becomes unstable and starts to oscillate. This high frequency gain of the circuit is reduced by adding a small value capacitor across feedback resistor Rf or a resistor in series with the capacitor. APPLICATION

It can act as a high pass filter. It can generate a square wave from a triangle wave input, produce alternating-direction voltage spikes when a square wave is applied.

Differentiators are an important part of electronic analogue computers and analogue PID controllers.

A passive differentiator circuit is one of the basic electronic circuits, widely used in circuit analysis

Used as the derivative calculus function inside of an analog computer, Used as rate-of-change indicators for process instrumentation. (eg: might be for monitoring (or controlling) the rate of temperature change in a furnace)

INTEGRATOR The integrator produces a voltage output proportional to the product of the input voltage and time.

Capacitance can be defined as the measure of a capacitor's opposition to changes in voltage. The greater the capacitance, the more the opposition. Capacitors oppose voltage change by creating current in the circuit: that is, they either charge or discharge in response to a change in applied voltage. So, the more capacitance a capacitor has, the greater its charge or discharge current will be for any given rate of voltage change across it. i=C dv/dt The dv/dt fraction is a calculus expression representing the rate of voltage change over time. If the DC supply in the above circuit were steadily increased over a time span of 1 hour, the current through the capacitor would most likely be very small, because of the very low rate of voltage change (dv/dt = small). If steadily increased the DC supply over a shorter time span, the rate of voltage change would be much higher, and thus the charging current would be much higher.

As before, the negative feedback of the op-amp ensures that the inverting input will be held at 0 volts (the virtual ground). If the input voltage is exactly 0 volts, there will be no current through the resistor, therefore no charging of the capacitor, and therefore the output voltage will not change. If we apply a constant, positive voltage to the input, the op-amp output will fall negative at a linear rate, in an attempt to produce the changing voltage across the capacitor necessary to maintain the current established by the voltage difference across the resistor. A constant, negative voltage at the input results in a linear, rising (positive) voltage at the output. The output voltage rate-of-change will be proportional to the value of the input voltage.

The formula for determining voltage output for the integrator is as follows:

APPLICATION Used to keep a "running total" of radiation exposure, or dosage, if the input voltage was a proportional signal supplied by an electronic radiation detector An integrator circuit would take both the intensity (input voltage magnitude)

and time into account, generating an output voltage representing total radiation dosage. Used to integrate a signal representing water flow, producing a signal representing total quantity of water that has passed by the flowmeter. This application of an integrator is sometimes called a totalizer in the industrial instrumentation trade.