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Vol. I No.

2 April-June 2007
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Cover: Ishwarswaroop Swami Lakshmanjoo in Samadhi on birthday
Editorial 2
laaikndh; 3
Shiva Stras
Commentary by Ishwarswaroop Swami Lakshmanjoo 4
Conversations with Swami Lakshmanjoo
Alice Christensen 24
International Seminar on Kashmir Shaivism
at Jammu: Welcome Address
George v. Barsalaar 31
Ishwarswaroop: A Photo Feature Centre Spread
Why I Love Kashmir Shaivism
Shailendra Gulhati 38
The Conceptual and Textual Sources of Trika
Moti Lal Pandit 41
Jh f'koLrks=kkoyh
O;k[;k% bZ'ojLo:i Lokeh y{e.ktw 49
rkaf=kd f'kok};okn dk lexzrkoknh fpUru vkSj
vk/kqfud lanHkZ
MkW- ehjk jLrksxh 58
vk/;kfRed vuq'kklu nks;qe O;k[;ku d'ehjh izopu
Lokeh y{e.ktw 62
Calender of Events 64
ISSN 0973-7944
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arked by deep faith and devotional fervour; the celebrations of Ishwarswaroop
MSwami Lakshmanjoo's birth centenary are now approaching their conclusion. Of the
various programmes organized by the Ishwar Ashram Trust during the year-long
celebrations, three international seminars on Kashmir Shaivism seemed to have had
tremendous impact on the audiences, the last of them having been held at Jammu on
March 17-18, 2007. With some of the top scholars in the field making their respective
presentations, the seminars not only gave expressionto the immense reverence that people
have for Swamiji as the greatest modern-day exponent of the non-dual Shaiva tradition of
Kashmir, but also proved helpful increatinga greater awareness about its different aspects.
As we all know, Swamiji as a master of its scriptural as well as oral traditions directed all his
efforts during his life on this earth towards making the basic concepts of non-dual Kashmir
Shaivism comprehensible for everyone in the world. For decades he continuously
contributed towards this end throughhis numerous discourses, lectures, talks and exegetical
writings in Hindi, English and his native Kashmiri, sharinghis deepinsights and encyclopaedic
knowledge of its tenets and doctrines withscholars as well as laymen. As a result, today there
is a growing interest throughout the world in studying, analyzing and interpreting what
Kashmiri Shaiva philosophy has to say about basic existential questions that men and
women have asked throughout the ages. The philosophy, with its emphasis on exploring the
nature of reality as consciousness seems to be particularly suited to the modern man's
temper and approachto things.
Writing in 1989, Paul Eduard Muller-Ortega, eminent scholar of Kashmiri non-dual Shaivism,
says that there have evolved three foci of research on the tradition, in the recent
decades: India, France, and Italy. To these may be added with certainty names of the U.S.,
Germany, Britain and several other countries where scholars of eminence have been
devotingyears of study and research to the tradition. Much of this has come about due to
the role that Swami Lakshmanjoo played in its propagation and popularization. It is,
therefore, of great significance that audio and video cassettes of Swamiji's discourses on
various Kashmir Shaiva texts were painstakingly prepared by the Universal Shaiva Fellowship
(U.S.) and the Ishwar AshramTrust and released during the seminars. These expositions are
bound to further enhance the understanding of these seminal texts of the tradition. It will be
important to note that Swamiji delivered some of these discourses during the very last years
of his earthly life.
While these cassettes and publications will be greatly helpful is carrying forward the
greatlegacy that Swamiji has left behind, we have also reason to be encouraged by the
prospect of the establishment of a Chair devoted to Swami Lakshmanjoo at the proposed
Mata Vaishno Devi University. The announcement about the Chair was made inhis inaugural
address at the seminar at Jammu by the Governor of Jammu and Kashmir, Lt. General
(Retd.) S.K. Sinha as the Chancellor of the university. We at Malini welcome this development
inthis birthcentenary year wholeheartedly.
Jai Gurudev!
April-June 2007
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r| ~i-ii ~i ilniii -ii i ri ;- -i-| -i i - inili| -iir
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r| ri rini l ; ii i nii ilni | l, - -i-| -i i lii ini
ri r| ; l- -| i i lli nii -i-| | iii ~-|i l i
ili ~i ; ~i~- --- ,ii ~- ni l nii ~ -i l-i i i| -r-i
-ii i ni r| ii l ; ii - nii i -n - ri l, ri n|
r| ; in | ~i i| i i ~i r l ;- s ii -i-| | ~ iiln |
~ln- ii - l i|
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n r| ii r| r in i| i| -ir r l -niln -ini ii | llni - -i-|
-i i -ln lii |- | -iii | i r| r| ; in | iiiii -- | ni-| - ~
ii- iiii ii . (~iiin) .. lri | i l ; llni ln
r| -il| | ~i r- -i-| | | -inili| ~ ; in i ; -inn n
Tk; xq#nso!
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with commentary by
Swami Lakshmanjoo
First Awakening
Stras 2.1 2.09
n the second awakening of the iva Stras, the
Iauthor explains the second means of awakening, The first sutra is the explanationof mantra:
called ktopya. The energy with which ktopya
is concerned is not ordinary energy. This energy is
the expansion, the commentary, of mantra vrya, the
Mind is mantra.
commentary of I -consciousness.
At the end of the first awakening, the author
In this stra, there are two understandings of
introduced mantra vrya because he wanted the idea
the mind and both are divine. The first
to be fully revealed and explained in the second
understanding is that the mind is the thought of a
awakening. To illuminate the actual state of mantra
sacred word. The second understanding is that mind
vrya, the author first explains the reality of mantra,
is the thought of a sacred aspirant who is treading on
andthenthe power of mantra vrya.
the sacredpath.
citta mantra
Revealed to the Sage Vasugupta, the Shiva Stras form a seminal text of
Kashmir Shaivism. Swamiji's English rendering of the Stras unfolds their
inner secrets and mysteries, helping us to fathom the oceanic depths of their
meaning, aphorism by aphorism.
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The Sanskrit word citta means "the thought fromthe internal worldtothe external world.
of a sacred word." This thought is said to be the It is praava mantra when you come out from
exposition of mantra. "Mantra," therefore, means the internal world and travel to the external world
sacred word. Sacred word is also the rise of worlds and then travel again fromthe external world to the
and sentences in the internal mind of the aspirant.
internal world. So, it is said that this praava mantra
This is also mantra because this aspirant, like a
is truly a mantra, for the word "mantra" is made up
sacred word, is absolutely purified inside and outside.
from man and tra. Man from the word manana
So the aspirant's mind is mantra and a sacred word
means "causes you to reside in your own God
alsois mantra.
consciousness." Tra from the word tra means
"protects you from all the evils of the worJd." So The author now explains this stra in these
when you focus your mind towards God two ways. The world mind does not mean what we
consciousness, you are protected fromall the horrors ordinarily understand by the world "mind." Here, the
of the world. Here, this is the meaning of the word word mind means "that by which you become aware
"mantra." of supreme consciousness." So this mind is said to be
that by which your self is exposed in its fullness. It is
Nowthis expositionof mantra is explainedin
vimaraI consciousnessthought in two ways: in
another way. Because the mind of this yogi is always
prsda mantra and in praava mantra. Prsda
purified and never thinks absurd thoughts, thinking
mantra is "the mantra of external flow." Praava only divine thoughts and being focused towards God
mantra is "the mantra of external and internal flow." consciousness, it is mantra. Whatever comes into the
It is the internal flow in the external world and the mind of this yogi is divine. So, all of his thoughts are
external flowinthe internal world. divine andhence, his thought is alsomantra.
O padmni o Praava is the mantra where both mantras-
O nama ivya the mantra aha and mantra ma-ha-a-arise. When
svacchanda bhairavya nama
the mantra ahaarises, it is external, and when ma-
ha-a arises, it is internal. When aha occurs, it is
These sentences are collections of sacred
coming out from your supreme God consciousness
words. Collections of sacred words are not mantras,
and moving to objective God consciousness. This is
but just a waste of time for the aspirant. In a real
traveling to objective God consciousness, not the
sense, these two-the aspirant's mind and a sacred
objective world. When you rise from objective God
word experienced as prsda mantra and/or praava
consciousness to your subjective God consciousness,
mantra are mantras.
that is the rise of the mantra ma-ha-a. So in both
ways, these are the states of praava. The Sarvajnottara also explains this inthe
same way.
Prsda, on tile other hand, is the state of the
Those manntras which are recited with the lips and
sacred word sau. It is only external. It is rising from
with the mind are not really mantras. Devatas and
inside to outside. This is also rising. It is not falling
Gandharvas, all these great souls, have deluded
when you move frominside to the outside world, it is
themselves in thinking that these are actually mantras.
a kind of rise. But it is the supreme rise when you rise
And additionally, they are filled with tremendous pride
in coming out and when you rise in going in. And
thinking that they are verbally reciting the name of
this is the rise of praava mantra. Whenyou only rise
(Sarvajnottara 16-17) inone way, that is the rise of prsda mantra.
So in both ways, this is the state of citta Those so-called mantras are not actually
(thought). It is said to be mantra because it is secret mantras. Mantra is divinity inthe mind of the yogi or
(gupta). It is not written, it lives in a secret world. the flow of subjective God consciousness towards
When you recite this mantra, you are not reciting it objective God consciousness or the simultaneous
with lips, but with consciousness. When you recite flow of subjective God consciousness towards
objective God consciousness, and the flow of and you are aware of the prsda mantra sau, of its
objective God consciousness towards subjective God occurrence in your own self, you will understand
consciousness. that this whole universe is the expansion of yourself.
This is the kind of rise that occurs when you travel
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In the Tantra Sadbhva, this same thing is movement, gives rise to the union of the worshiped
alsoexplained: and the worshiper. Here, just begin with some
The life of all mantras is solely the energy of God movement, any movement, and stop. Hold the
consciousness. When that energy is absent, all those
beginning point of that movement with awareness.
collections of words are useless just like a mass of
In Sanskrit, this state is called anusadhits. By
clouds inthe rainless autumnsky.
holding the very beginning of that movement, the
(Tantra Sadbhva)
goal of uniting the seeker of God-consciousness with
the God-consciousness he seeks, the spiritual
Inthe rkahsaht Sstra, it is alsosaid:
aspirant with that to which he aspires, the one who
The one who recites mantra for the sake of realizing
recites mantra with mantra devat, that Lord for
God will never attain the reality of God
whomthe mantra is recited, is achieved.
consciousness. There is only one thing that a yogi
must maintainand that is awareness, awareness of the
union of objective God consciousness with subjective It is saidinr Tantrasadbhva:
God consciousness and, in one driving push, the flow
Just as when a vulture, flying in the sky observes a
of objective andsubjective Godconsciousness.
piece of meat in that sky and immediately, with
spontaneous effort, catches that piece of meat, so in
the same way the e1evated yog directs his mind to
This is not a flow, it is a push. If you force it in
that point of light (bindu praka) of God-
this way, with great velocity, it will be just like a ball
thrown against a wall. It will come to you again, and
Or just as when the archer, p1acing an arrow on the
bring you back to subjective God-consciousness. On
string of a bow and then pulling back on that arrow
the other hand, if you drive it slowly fromsubjective
and letting it go, where it flies swiftly, striking the
God-consciousness to objective God-consciousness, point at which it was aimed. It is in this same way, O
Devi, the supreme light of God Consciousness it will end in objective God-consciousness and that
(praka) is attainedby just one thrust of awareness.
is the state of prsda. When you push it with great
velocity, it will travel to objective God consciousness
If the yog is not successful in one push, he and then again return to your subjective God-
will not be successful at all. It must be attained inone consciousness.
thrust of awareness.
This is narratedinSpanda inthis verse:
Insome other place, it is alsosaid: Because these words are digested along with the mind
of the aspirant, they are said to be, along with the In its true sense, the knowledge of awareness is the
divinity of the yog, one with divine God- state of mantra.
(Spanda Krika 2.2)
The explanation of this stra is that your
effort must not be artificial (akita). It must be
2.2 //
absolutely natural, filled with intense desire and
(For such a yog)
fervent longing, and originating from the center of
pauseless effort brings about his attainment of your heart. By that force, this great yogi directs his
mindtothat point of supreme God- consciousness. God- consciousness.
This is narratedinSpanda inthis verse:
This yog's attainment of God-consciousness
The yog must first possess such a determined longing
is realized by his continued effort. His effort must be
that it will lead to the resolution, "I will sit until 1
pauseless effort (prayatna). That is sdhaka, the
attain the state of God-consciousness or I will leave
means for attaining God-consciousness.
my body." The effort must be filled with such
determination. It must not be passive effort, it must be
The mantra and its application, which was active effort. That active effort itself is God-
consciousness. explained in the First Awakening of this scripture
(Spanda Krik 2.6)
and which is carried out at the very start of any
prayatna sdhaka
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Nowthe Tantrasadbhva explains further: For such a great yog, the mantra, universal I,
and the splendor of that universal I is explained in
this next stra.
That Divine Mother, who is filled with
supreme light, has pervaded the whole universe up to
brahmaloka. Oh devi, just as all letters are found in
the first letter, the letter "a," in the same way, the
whole universe is foundinthat Divine Mother.
The secret essence of mantra is establishment in
the body of the knowledge of oneness.
Now I will explain to you some very essential
characteristics of this Divine Mother. She is
Here, knowledge means the supreme
supreme, subtle, not limited to any particular school
knowledge of oneness. It is, in the real sense, the
of philosophy or religion. This Divine Mother,
called Kualin, is placed in the center of the supreme God who is the formation of the collection
heart." There you will find that Divine Mother, just
of all sounds. It is fromthis point that all sounds are
like a serpent inthe sleeping state. Oh Prvati, there
created and stored. So, in another sense, it is the
she rests indeepsleep, not perceiving anything other
state of God-consciousness that is one with the
than her own self in a place called mldhra by our
universe andfilledwith supreme I-consciousness.
This is the essence of all mantras. By the
In addition, this goddess, places in her body
words "essence of all mantras" is not meant the
the moon (candra), fire (agni), the sun (ravi), all the
mantras such as o nama ivya, o namo
stars (nakatra) and all the fourteen worlds
bhagavate vsudevya, etc. These mantras are not
(bluvanni caturdaa) and still she is absolutely
mantras in the real sense. Mantra, in the real sense,
unaware that this is happening inher ownnature.
is that supreme I-consciousness. This is the secret
about mantras.
But how to awaken her? He now explains how this is
This is alsoquotedinr Tantrasadbhva Tantra.
This goddess cannot be awakened with force. She
All letters are actually one with mantra and those can only be awakened by (nda) supreme I-
mantras are one with mother, the energy of Lord iva, consciousness filled with supreme awareness. To
andthat mother is one with Lordiva himself. awaken her, the yog has to churn his point of one-
pointedness in the heart, without break, again and
Even though this explanation is secret and
can't be exposed or explained, it is revealed in the
He must churn it by inserting sparks of
Tantrasadbhva stra in this way. This is said by
awareness, one after another, again and again, in
Lordiva toPrvat:
unbroken continuation. The process is to insert one
Oh Prvati, there are those who are not maintaining
spark of awareness. Let that one spark fade. Again, the discipline as taught in the scriptures who do not
believe that our master is one with Lord iva, They
insert fresh awareness. Let that spark fade. Again,
are crooked, attached to worldly pleasures and are
insert fresh awareness. This process must be
not doing any spiritual practice. Because of these
continuedover andover againincontinuity.
misdeeds I have extracted the splendor from their
mantras. When that splendor is removed, these
Then, the body of energy, which is
mantras become useless. For him who would wield
these mantras, they are as good as letters. They have established in the body of the Divine Mother,
no value. You must have faith that the master is one
kualin, is churned by this awareness. Because of
with Lord iva. You must maintain discipline and
this churning, this yog will initially experience very
character. You must not be given to attachment or
intense lights seeming to come from all sides.
worldly pleasures. When you live in this way, then
Because of these lights and that (nda) supreme I
your mantra will be filled with splendor and will
consciousness filled with supreme awareness, this
kualin rises. Inthe body of that kualin, the yog
2.3. vidyarrasatt mantrarahasyam //
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finds bindu. This bindu, which is residing in the immediately comes out from his internal state
body of the Divine Mother kualin, has four because he cannot tolerate the joy he is
projections radiating fromits center. experiencing, which is the creation of that nectar.
there the Divine Mother is called tripath because
she takes the formation of the three centers. And
The first projection is that of subjective
then again the three centers, the subjective center,
awareness. The second projection is cognitive
the objective center and the cognitive center, rise.
awareness. The third projection is objective
And when all these three centers again rise from
awareness. And the fourth projection is digestive
kualin, the energy of kualin called raudr akti
because it is that energy that puts obstacles in the
way inthe journey of final liberation.
Subjective awareness is awareness of the state
of knower (pramt). Awareness of the state of
The yog must return inside again and again.
knowledge is cognitive awareness (prama).
He must not think that he has lost anything. He need
Awareness of the state of the known is objective
not wait for the master's direction. Because the way
awareness (prameya). These three kinds of awareness
of liberation (moka) is stopped, he must continue to
rise from that center of that Divine Mother
return inside again and again and maintain
awareness of that oneness.
The fourth projection is known as digestive
Then again she (ambik) takes the form of
awareness. This is that projection where subjective,
the half-moon, which is half inside and half outside.
cognitive and objective projections are digested in
And so, even if that supreme Divine Mother is only
such a way that they are not differentiated one from
one, yet she takes these three formations, one for the
the other. In the projection of digestive awareness,
inferior yog, one for the yog who wants to
all these projections are one without distinction. In
experience enjoyment andone for the superior yog.
Sanskrit, this digestive projection is called pramiti
bhva, the digestive state of thought.
By virtue of these energies of the Divine
Mother kualin, nine classes of letters have risen.
O Devi now you have to simultaneously put
The first is the class of letters from a to visarga
the churner and that which is to be churned in that
(avarga). The next is the class of letters associated
body of kualin. By doing that, kualin, the
with ka (kavarga). The third is the class of letters
Divine Mother, rises in a straight line. Here she is
associated with ca (cavarga). The fourth is the class
called jyehakti because she is absolutely
of letters associated with a (avarga). The fifth is the
established between these two points, the point of
class of letters associated with ta (tavarga). The sixth
subjectivity (pramt) and the point of objectivity
is the class of letters associated with ya (yavarga).
The eighth is the class of letters associated with a
(avarga). And the ninth is the class associated with
Then, when these two points (bindu) of
ka (kavarga). All these classes of letters have risen
subjective awareness and cognitive awareness are
fromthat Divine Mother kualin.
also agitated by the process of continual churning,
that kualin gives rise to real pure supreme semen
There are five sacred states of the self that
and that semen rises frombottomto top in the form
rise fromthis kualin and they are the five mouths
of kualin. That kualin is known as the Divine
of Lord iva: ina, tatpurua, aghora, vmadeva and
Mother Rekhin. Here you won't find either the
sadyajta. These mouths have appeared from this
subjective or the objective projection because these
kualin, so Lord iva can speak to the public,
are both diluted in the oneness of that supreme bliss
helping themand, by illuminating that which is to be
resulting fromthe rise of supreme semen.
known, teach them.
At this point, when this semen rises, this yog
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All mantras get their life from the Divine Mother
Twelve vowels also rise from this Divine
kualin. She is the center of all mantras.
Mother kualin and fifty letters also rise from the
(Spanda Krik 2.1)
same Mother. And now consider the three kinds of
speech: supreme, mediumandinferior.
Although the strength (vrya) of the mantra
is brought into existence by meditating on the
The supreme speech is the supreme sound,
supreme heart of I-consciousness, now and then, by
called payant. The throat is the center of
the opposite will of Lord iva, the will of concealing
madhyam speech and the tongue is the center of
(tirodhna) his nature, some unfortunate mendo not
vaikhar speech.
realize this I-consciousness and, on the contrary,
satisfy their minds with limited yogic powers. This
When something is to be said, it is first to be
next stra explains what will happen to these
taken from one's heart. In the heart, there is no
unfortunate yogis.
differentiation of letters or words; there is only
consciousness. There is some force of what is to occur
in the next moment. So in heart, it is just one point,
one atom (ekava), and that is called payant
When a yog's mind is satisfied with the expansive speech (vk). The next speech (vk) is called
body of illusion, then he falls in the world of madhyam vk. It is centered in the throat. And the
third vk is called vaikhar, and it is centered in the differentiated perceptions and his knowledge of
tongue. It exists whenyouspeakwords. being is just like that of ordinary living beings.
All these sounds appear in the tongue. So, this
Here, the Sanskrit word garbhe means that
whole universe resides on sound. This is the process
expansive body of the energy of illusion. That is
of sound and that sound is carried form that
mahmy, the great illusive energy of Lord iva.
soundless center kualin.
The body of illusion that is being referred to are the
limited yogc powers (e.g., creating divine incense or
So, the supreme energy of supreme speech is
the materialization of sacred ash to give to disciples,
the source of all speech. This is why all these letters
walking onwater, flying inair, etc.). All these powers
emerge from the supreme center of that energy of
are existing in the sphere of my. When the yog
God-consciousness, the Divine Mother. And all
exhibits the world of limited powers and his mind
mantras that are recited by spiritual aspirants
becomes satisfied and does not move ahead, then for
(sdhakas) get their strength (vrya) and splendor
him, his knowledge of Being is like the world of
from that supreme dev of God-consciousness,
dreams; it is not knowledge at all. His knowledge is
kualin. This is why it is said that mtk and
just the same as the knowledge held by ordinary
mlin both rise fromthis kualin.
worldly people. And so, like ordinary living beings,
he falls and is established in the world of
Because the iva Stras are actually the most
differentiation with various perceptions and
secret and essential thoughts of Lord iva, in
explaining themwe have referred to so many tantras.
You should not be worried about our giving so many
This is alsosaidinPtajali's Yoga Darana,
references. And if you still do not understand what
Those lights inthe center of the eyebrows anddivine
kualin actually is, even though we have given so
sounds in the center of heart are obstacles for
many references to aid your understanding, thenyou
shouldtake holdof the feet of your master. (Yoga Stra 3.37)
This meaning of the stra is narrated in The experiences that come in front of this
Spanda inthis verse, yog are called samdhau upasarga, obstacles to
attaining real samdhi. These are obstacles for that
2.4. garbhe cittavikaso'viia vidysvapna
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of khecar.
yogi. For worldly men, on the other hand, they
appear as great powers and they appreciate these
This state, described above, is not real
powers. They say the yog who possesses these powers
khecar mudr. It should be avoided. What is real
is a real person, a real yog. They applaud him, saying
khecar mudr?
that he bestows these powers onhis devotees.
When you are treading the way of totality
This is narratedinSpanda Krik inthis verse:
(kulamrgea), you must see the totality in a piece of
As soon as spanda is meditated upon, the yog
perceives some divine light emanating between the the totality. Take one part of the universe and see the
eyebrows, he hears divine sound resonating in the
whole universe existing there. That is the way of
heart, divine form appears in his sight and divine
totality, So, just as its said in the Tantrasadbhva,
taste is experienced on his tongue. These are all just
this khecar mudr is becoming one with supreme
a disturbance in the state of real being and are to be
avoidedby those yogs whowish tobecome fortunate
(Spanda Krik 3.10)
You must understand that everything is filled
with completion. If only one individual being is
Then what happens to this yog who puts
there, you must understand and you must feel that in
these limited powers aside, even though they have
that one individual being all individuals exist.
appeared to him, and who holds in his mind the
supreme state of I-consciousness?
Take, for example, one grain of rice. See the
power that exists in that grain of rice. This one grain
of rice has the power of producing not only a
hundred plants but thousands, millions, billions of
plants. Innumerable plants exist in that one grain of
The pure knowledge of God-consciousness effortlessly
rice. So, one part of the worldis complete initself.
rises and this state of iva is realized as one with the state
of khecar.
You must, when treading the way of totality,
feel the voidness of differentiated perceptions in
When this pure knowledge (uddha vidy),
each and every being. This, in the real sense, is
which has been explained in previous stras,
khecar. It is this khecar mudr that is tobe practiced.
effortlessly comes into existence and when, by the
supreme independent will of Lord iva, these limited
So, the reality of this khecar mudr is just as it
powers subside and that real state of Lord iva comes
is explained in the Tantrasadbhva, "becoming one
into being, thenthis yog flies inthe ether of supreme
with supreme consciousness. And when the
knowledge. This is the state of khecar mudr that
agitation of that differentiated illusion of Lord iva
comes into existence for him. The state of khecar is
fades into nothingness, thenthe power of all mantras
the state of Lord iva, who is the supreme
and all mudrs (states) appears an1 is experienced by
embodiment of consciousness. Here the aspirant
such a yog.
(sdhaka) becomes one with Siva. This is the rise of
one's ownblissful state. This khecar is not the khecar
This is saidinKulacumai stra:
describedinthese twoverses:
When, by one germ of creative being and one germ
When the yog is seated in padmsana, he must put
of existence, this khecar mudr is created (mantra
his mind, the master of all organs, in the center of
vrya) and then established (mudr vrya), and when
the navel. He must sit erect until the time when the
these two states appear to this yog, then he is
three ethers/voids, akti, vypin and saman, come
established in that supreme and peaceful state of
intoexistence for him.
Then immediately this yogi should infuse the
When that mudr is created, it is mantra
supreme void by taking hold of these three voids. By
vrya and when that mudr is established, it is mudr practicing in this way, this yog enters in the mudr
2.5 vidysamutthne svbhvike khecar
ivvasth //
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vrya. not discussed; however, in the last verse there is this
In the Spanda Kriks, mudr vrya is
I bow to that supreme and wonderful world of the
incorporated in the explanation of mantra vrya so
master that gives rise to manifold ways of supreme
there is actually no difference between mantra vrya
thought that carry the disciple across the oceanof all
and mudr vrya. Mantra vrya exists only at the
beginning of creative energy and establishment in
(Spanda Krik 4.1)
that creative energy is mudr vrya.
Some other masters think, because of the
Whenall these agitations end, then the state of Lord
teachings of the Mlanvijaya Tantra, that the master
iva comes intobeing.
is not a worldly being. For them, the master is, in the
(Spanda Krik 1.9)
real sense, the supreme energy of Lord iva. In this
regard, it is saidinMlinvijaya Tantra:
Even though there are other subjects that are
explained in this verse from the Spanda Krik, yet
That is the wheel of all energies and that is the
the subjects of mantra vrya and mudr vrya are also
mouth of the master where everything is obtained.
(Mlinvijaya Tantra)
For attainting these two powers, the power of
Inthe Triirobhairava Tantra, it is said:
creative energy (mantra vrya) and the power of
The great energy of that great Lord is said to be the
establishment in that creative (mudr vrya)... mouth of the master; hence, that energy, being the
cause of understanding, is the means (upya).
(Triirobhairava Tantra)
The master (guru) is the means.
Therefore, whenthe master is pleased,
These two powers can be attained only through
the master (guru), noone else. But whois the master?
(The disciple attains)
the knowledge of the wheel of the hidden mother
The one who demands that his disciples
donate money to himor who requires his disciples to
provide service to him, all in the guise of attaining
The disciple attains the knowledge of
enlightenment, is not the guru. Then who is the
Mtkcakra only by the grace of the master, and not
guru? The guru is that personwho puts before youthe
in any other way. What is mtkcakra? Mtik is
reality of God-consciousness. It is said that the guru
the mother who is unknown to the universe. She is
is the means here because only he can make you
the creative cause of all mantras and all knowledge.
realize the fullness of these two awarenesses, mudr
The word "cakra" means "wheel." So mtkcakra
literally mans the wheel of the hiddenmother.
It is declaredinMlinvijaya Tantra:
Mtkcakra is concerned with the theory
Lord iva tells Prvat, "That master whois the cause
of the Sanskrit alphabet from the letter "a" to the
of your attaining the creative energy of Lord iva
letter "ka." There are fifty letters. The fifty letters
and who then establishes you in that state is as good
as me." represent the existence of the whole universe. The
(Mlinvijaya Tantra 2.10) universe is composed of thirty-six elements and the
thirty-six elements are represented by the fifty
letters. The universe begins from iva tattva, the In other words, that master is one with Lord
element of iva, and ends in pithv tattva, the iva. InSpanda Krik, this point about the master is
2.6 gururupya //
2.7. matikcakrasambodha //
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element of earth. Rocks seem to us to be absolutely dead, without life.
But there is also life in a rock. In the course of time, a
rockundergoes change.
The representative letters of iva, the first
supreme element iva tattva, are the sixteen vowels
beginning froma and ending in (visarga). The The word anuttara means "unparalleled,
sixteen vowels represent, respectively, the existence where there is no similarity." The word akula means
of Lord iva, the thirty-sixth tattva. It is explained "where the totality is not differentiated, it is only
that in the thirty-sixth tattva there are five energies: undifferentiatedtotality."
cit akti, the energy of consciousness; nanda akti,
the energy of bliss; icch akti, the energy of will;
The first movement of the state of
jna akti, the energy of knowledge; and kriy akti,
Paramaiva was anuttara, unparalleled, and
the energy of action. These five energies combined
incomparable. But whenParamaiva keenly observes
together formthe embodiment of Lord iva and that
his nature, his self, his reality again and again, he
is iva tattva.
feels the blissful state of his own self. Otherwise, in
this first move, he does not feel that blissful state at
all. In the first move, there is only all-consciousness. In Vednta, on the other hand, it is held that
there are only three energies that comprise the The blissful state is digestedinthat all-consciousness
embodiment of Lord iva. These energies are sat, cit inthe state of anuttara.
and nanda. Sat means all existent, always
existing, cit means always conscious and nanda is
And when He takes the formation of nanda,
always blissful. This is the way Vednta has
the blissful state, it occurs only when He wants to
explainedthe state of iva.
observe it. For example, when you want to observe
what you really are, that bliss comes. When you are
not keen to observe your nature, your nature is in a But aivism understands it differently.
natural way. You are who you are. When you do not aivism argues that sat is not needed. It is already
observe again and again, then you are only filled present. Sat is not an aspect of Lord iva. Sat is the
with all-consciousness. When you observe it again reality of Lordiva. Why, therefore, call it anaspect?
and again, thenyou feel the glory of your self. That is
the formationof nanda, the blissful state.
iva tattva is explained in Partriik stra and in
the Tantrloka:
The first movement (kal) of supreme I-consciousness iva's glory is already created in the internal
(aha vimara) is unparalleled (anuttara)
world of His being. In the next movement of iva,
undifferentiated totality (akula). And when it moves
when He has the intention of creating His glory in
forward with the intentionof creating His glory inthe
the external world, the blissful state appears and that
external world, it takes the formationof nanda.
is the formof nanda.
Here, the word kal does not mean part;
Anuttara, the unparalleled state of
here kal means first movement. It is the first
consciousness, is represented by the first letter inthe
movement of iva. You should understand that iva
Sanskrit alphabet, the letter a. The blissful state,
is always moving. iva is not stable, unmovable,
nanda, is represented by the second letter in the
unmoving, as Vedanta has explained. Vednta
Sanskrit alphabet, the letter .
postulates that anything that moves ultimately
comes to an end. So any movable object will, in the
Then after nanda, two more movements
course of time, expire. This theory of Vednta is
come forth, icch and ana. These two states of Lord
absolutely incorrect. iva is always in movement. He
iva come into existence after the existence of that
is the embodiment of movement (spanda). This is
blissful state nanda. The first state icch is the
why everything, even one small blade of grass, is in
subtle state of will. What does He desire in this state
movement. And, it is not only a blade of grass that
of will? He desires nothing. He only desires His own
seems to us to be living; even a rock is in movement.
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nature. So the energy of will exists here just to The final two movements are in the state of
treasure His own nature. It is the energy of will when establishment. First, He has the intention that this
he admires His own nature, expressed by, "Yes, I am flow, this movement, must be diverted towards
possessing this state." And in the world of vowels, internal being and not the external world. He must
that state is representedby the letter i. take His will back to His own nature. Then there is
the confirmation of that intention that it must be
taken back. So these are two states, one is intention
ThenHe takes another movement and that is
andthe secondis the confirmationof this intention.
the gross state of will. In the subtle state of will, He
only admires His own nature. In the gross state of
will, He not only admires His own nature but He Initially, there is only simple intention. This
wants to own that nature, He wants to have it, He is what you find in lightning. When bolts of
wants to possess it. And that desire of possessing it lightning are flashing forth from clouds, that is the
will carry himdown. Why? Because when He desires first state. And when that lightning is observed
to possess it, this means that He feels he is not already flashing forth, that is the secondstate. So inthe same
possessing the nature of his own self. This means He way, first there is the intention of taking this whole
is moving away fromHis ownnature. This is the state movement into the internal world of consciousness,
of ana. So, when He wants to possess the nature of and second, there is the confirmation of this
His self which is full of consciousness and bliss, He intention. This is represented by the letter and by
wants to possess it inthe state of ana, and that state the letter . The letter represents the intention of
is representedby the letter . diverting His will again into the internal world. And
is the confirmation of this intention. All this
happens inthe state of iva.
After that, He produces another movement
and that is jna. This first movement of jna is the
state of unmea, represented by the letter u. Here, He There are now two additional movements in
discovers that the universe is existing in His own this process of taking will into internal
nature which is full of all consciousness and all bliss. consciousness. First, there is the intention to return.
When he discovers this, then He begins another Then there is the confirmation of the intention to
movement into the external world. In this next return. Next, there is the establishment of this
movement, he observes, "I want to find out what is intention of again going back. And finally, this
existing in this self of mine." As soon as he desires to establishment is confirmed. These final two
observe the differentiated realities existing in His processes of establishment and the confirmation of
own nature, the splendor of all consciousness and all this establishment are represented by the letters l.
bliss begins to move away. He now has the The short letter l represents the establishment of
apprehension that this consciousness and bliss may carrying this entire process inside and the long letter
be diminishing. It is not actually decreasing, but only l represents the actual carrying of this whole
the apprehension that it will decrease. This is the process into his own nature so it rests in his own
state of nat, represented by the letter . The word supreme being. These are four states of iva and they
nat means "lessening." This state is the are in movement in one's own nature. Your state of
apprehension of the lessening of that supreme consciousness is also in movement. Everything is in
consciousness and supreme bliss that is His own movement. But here it moves in His own nature, He
nature. does not come out of his ownnature.
When He has the apprehension that his So, these four states are represented by the
supreme consciousness and supreme bliss will be four vowels l l. Here, in these four movements,
lessened, He then diverts His will again into the you get a glimpse of ra and la. The semi-vowel ra
internal world. He takes His will back again into His gives you a glimpse of the first two movements and
the semi-vowel la gives you a glimpse of the final two own nature and does not let it go out into the
movements of carrying this whole process back into external world. This takes place in four ways. The
your ownnature. first two movements are in the state of intention.
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action that is not vivid is the state of the triangle
(trikoa). Why is this state of non-vivid energy of Accordi ngly, the whol e process of
actionsaid to be the state of the triangle? You already universality is carried to one's own nature. Here, the
know that with the exception of the energy of whole universe is made one with His being of all-
consciousness and the energy of bliss, which are not consciousness and all bliss. Therefore, the four states
to be included because they are one with Lord iva, residing in iva are said to be "filled with nectar"
there are three energies. These three energies are
(amita rpea). These four letters are nominated by
also not separate but, because they existed after the
the great grammarian Pini as amta bja because
creation of the state of his nanda akti, they are
they reside in one's own nature, which is filled with
being explained as separate. These three energies are
bliss. Here, there is no indication of moving outside
the energy of will, the energy of knowledge and the
intothe external world.
energy of action. In the energy of will, only the
energy of will exists. In the energy of knowledge, two
At this point, there is no hope of creating the
energies exist-the energy of will and the energy of
universe. The creation of universe has completely
knowledge. In the energy of action, three energies
ended. Being completely inverted, this whole
exist the energy of will, the energy of knowledge, and
universe is carried back to his own nature. Nothing
the energy of action. Therefore, the non-vivid
canbe creatednow.
energy of action is said to be the state of the triangle
because in this energy of action there are three
The grammarian Pii also designated
points, one point of will, one point of knowledge and
these four letters, which represent these four
one point of action.
movements, as the eunuch states of iva. They are
called the eunuch states of iva because here iva
In this first movement, Lord iva infuses his
has the impression that the splendor of His supreme
creative power, anuttara/nanda, in will. Here,
state of being may be lessened. Fearing this, He does
consciousness (anuttara) and all bliss (nanda), the
not have the courage tocreate.
letters , or letter , are combined with the energy of
will, the letter i. This first state of energy of action,
Now what happens'? In reality, Lord iva is
the non-vivid energy of action, the state of the
always full, always blissful; nothing can diminish His
triangle (trikoa), is represented by the letter e. Now
nature. And it seems to Him a great shame not to
he infuses that creative power in knowledge. So
create this universe. So He takes another step to
anuttara or nanda, the letters a or are combined
create this universe afresh. Now another movement
with the energy of knowledge (jna akti), He
takes place. This time, however, He does not infuse
letter u, infusing their creative power in the energy
the power of creation in His will or in the will of His
of knowledge, and another state of the energy of
knowledge. This time He infuses the power of
action comes into existence and that energy of
creative consciousness in his own self, which is
actionis represented by the letter ai. This state of the
anuttara and nanda and then He infuses that
energy of action is vivid energy of action. The
creative power inHis will. Whenthat creative power
purpose of this state is just to confirm that it is the
again mixes in His will, He creates another internal
energy of action that Lord iva is going to create,
world of His being. That world is the world of His
that this universe of will be created in spite of the
energy of action. This energy of actionis represented
fact that the four states of the energy of will (icch
by four letters: e, ai, o and au. Not vivid (asphua)
akti) , , l and l, have entered into the state of
energy of action is represented by the letter e, vivid
eunuch. This is the power and the greatness of Lord
(sphua) is represented by the letter ai, more vivid
iva's energy of consciousness (anuttara) and all-
(sphuatara) is represented by the letter o and most
bliss (nanda).
vivid(sphuatama) is representedby the letter au.
And now, when anuttara/nanda are again to
The four states of the energy of action (kriy
infuse the creative power, it is infused not in will, as
akti) take place sequentially. First, the energy of
it was in the first movement, it is infused in trikoa.
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the most vivid energy of action (kriy akti) is no This infusion gives rise to the more vivid state of the
atkoa universe at all. In other words, it is the expansion of energy of action called . This sate is
represented by the letter o. akoa is the state where your own nature, nothing else. In reality nothing is
the whole universe is found in Lord iva and Lord created at all. It is only the glory of His own nature
iva is found in the universe. In this state, you won't that you will find in this so-called creation. This
find any difference between Lord iva and this state of knowledge and confirmation is represented
created universe. You may call it "created universe" by the letter "" (anusvra). Here, there is only a
point (bindu). A point cannot be created; it is only or you may call it "Lord iva"; it doesn't make any
H one-pointed. After accomplishing this expansive difference. If you want to see Lord iva, see im in
H state of activity, this entire active world is dissolved blades of grass, e is there, vividly existing.
H in one point. So, if you are created, if you grow up, if Therefore, in the letter e e was not vividly existing.
ai H o you become old, if you die, if you come again in this In the letter e is vividly existing. In the letter
He is more vividly existing. In the letter au Lord iva world, what significance is there inthis? It is only the
is most vividly existing. glory of your own expansion of being. There is no
creation, there is nodeath.
The final state of the energy of action,
represented by the letter au, will be found only inthe By if nothing is created, then what is it that
universal state. That state is called labja, where happens to make it seem that it is just like creation?
the triple state of the three energies-will, knowledge, After all, you do feel like it is being created. This is
and action-is consumed in one universal point. This explained by the next state of Lord iva, visarga "".
is why inthis fourth state of energy of actionall three In the previous state of knowledge and confirmation
energies of Lord iva-the energy of will, the energy represented by the letter "" (anusvra), we sawthat
of knowledge and the energy of action-are most the universe is just the glory of His own nature.
vividly found. They are not found as vivid in the first There is no creation. There is only one point. The
state of the energy of action, the letter e, or in the whole universe is dissolved in one point. So now,
second, the letter ai, or inthe third, the letter o. They after creating these five energies of His nature, He
are found most vividly existing in the fourth, the creates the state of visarga. This sixteenth letter of
letter au. It is in au that you will find Lord iva most the vowels is represented by the letter "". This state
vividly existing in the universe. So if you want to represents simultaneously the internal creative force
perceive the state of Lord iva as it ought to be and external creative force. Here, in this state of
perceived, in its real sense, you must enjoy this being of Lord iva, if you observe inone way, you will
universe. You won't find the real state of Lord iva in find that nothing is created. This is the internal
samdhi. In the state of samdhi, you will find His creative force. If, on the other hand, you observe in
non-vivid formation. You will find the exact state of another way, you will find that everything is created.
Lordiva inthe universe. This is the external creative force. So by observing in
one way, nothing is created, and if at the same time
you observe in another way, you will find that
Up to this point, all of Lord iva's energies-
everything is created.
the energy of consciousness, the energy of bliss, the
energy of will, the energy of knowledge, the energy of
his four eunuch states, along with his not vivid Here is a story that will help clarify this
energy of action, his vivid energy of action, his more teaching, which is the supreme truth. Inearlier times
vivid energy of action, and his most vivid energy of in this universe, there was a yog and his name was
actionare explained completely. But what is Macchandantha. He was considered to be a great
yog and he had many disciples. One day his chief represented by the next two vowels anusvra "" and
disciple Gorakhantha was traveling in a far off visarga ""?
country. There to his surprise, he saw his master
making love with a beautiful woman from a nearby
The whole universe, beginning from the
town. Gorakhantha was furious with his master for
energy of consciousness (cit akti) and ending in
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second visarga concerned with akti is called this unacceptable action. But his master had fallen
parpara visarga, his medium creative energy. The in love with this woman and he married her. Living
third visarga concerned with the individual is called together, this master and his wife had many, many
apara visarga, his inferior creative energy. These children. Gorakhantha observed that his master
three energies are represented respectively by three was absolutely giventohis wife andthese children.
letters. The supreme energy is represented by the
second vowel of the alphabet , which is nanda
Then after some time. Gorakhantha
akti. nanda akti is the supreme energy of
returned to his own country. He went to his master's
creation pertaining to iva. And the medium
ram. Upon arriving at the ram, Gorakhantha
creative energy pertaining to akti is visarga, , the
was dumbfounded to find his master there in perfect
sixteenth vowel of the Sanskrit alphabet. And
samdhi. He knewhis master was attached to his wife
finally, the inferior creative energy, which pertains
and children and yet here he was without his wife
to individual being (jva), is represented by the letter
and children. Here he was, alone, absolutely given to
ha, the last letter of the Sanskrit alphabet.
samdhi. In fact, his brother disciples told him, his
master had never left the ram. He has always been
ram In addition to this, it is explained that the here inhis . He hadnot gone anywhere.
supreme energy of Lord iva, which is the first
visarga, is called cittapralaya, because Lord iva
Gorakhantha was puzzled by this. Earlier he
does not have a mind. In place of mind Lord iva has
had seenhis master, along with his wife and children,
only supreme independent consciousness of self.
residing happily in that faroff place. Now he sees his
Because of this, the supreme creative energy is called
master residing in his ram absolutely given to
citta pralaya.
samdhi. "What is happening?" Gorakhantha
thought to himself. To answer this, he again, through
The creative energy pertaining to his energy his yogic powers, returned to the far-off country and
again saw his master totally given in love and (akti)is called citta sabodha, where the mind is
affection to his wife and his children. Then fully aware, because here the possessor of that
Gorakhantha was filled with awe and totally creative energy is akti. This is the second visarga.
surrendered to his master. His master thenexplained Here, akti means "all power." But power of what? It is
to him, "From one point, you will see that I have the power of maintaining complete awareness of self.
falleninlove and amattached to the world, and from Here, the mind is fully aware without any
another point you will see that I have not fallen in differentiated thoughts. Differentiated thoughts do
love at all, that I amLordiva." not arise. Here, there is only the awareness of one
thought. This is why it is calledcitta sabodha.
So, if fromone point you look to see what has
beencreated, you will see nothing is created. You will The third state of inferior creative energy is
see it is only the glory of your own I-consciousness called citta virnti. The state of cittavirnti is where
and nothing else. And yet, if you see from another one-pointedness is established. One-pointedness
point of view, you will see that everything is created. does not mean one-pointedness found in the
Such a state is represented by the Sanskrit letter , ekgrat state. Rather, it is the one-pointedness of
and written in Devangar as ":," two points in a thought called niruddha. In this state, you do not
vertical line, one above andone below. have to maintain one pointedness; one-pointedness
is automatically maintained. So, in niruddha, one-
pointedness is not maintained with effort. Niruddha
Visarga is classified in three ways in aivism.
is effortless one-pointedness. One-pointedness
The first visarga is concerned with iva. The second
maintained with effort is called the state of ekgrat.
visarga is concerned with his energy (akti). And
And one-pointedness attained without effort-one-
the third visarga is concerned with individual being.
pointedness already existing-is called niruddha. This
The first visarga concerned with iva is called para
thirdvisarga is calledcitta virnti.
visarga, the supreme creative energy of iva. The
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consciousness, creates the grossest element.
There is, therefore, the perception in the
state of iva of being introverted and the perception As we have seen earlier, in the energy of
inthe state of iva of being extroverted-internal and
consciousness (cit akti), the other four aktis exist.
external. When you perceive all these states of iva
Also in the energy of bliss (nada akti), the energy
internally, there youfindthe state of "" (anusvra).
of will (icch akti), the energy of knowledge (jna
akti) and the energy of action (kriy akti), all the
other four aktis exist. So ineach and every energy of And when you also perceive that state
Lordiva, all five energies exist. externally, thenyoufindthe state of visarga, "" or :.
Both external perception and internal So when perception from the external point
perception begin from anuttara (cit akti). But how of view takes place, perception from the internal
does external perception unfold? External point of view already exists in iva. The perception
perception begins from cit akti (anuttara) and from the external point of view will spread in the
nanda akti, the Sanskrit letters a and , which are body of the whole universe. This body of the
one and filled with the five energies. Fromthese two universe begins from the most inferior element,
energies arise the five consonants ka, kha, ga, gha and earth (pithv), and ends with the most supreme
a. These five consonants represent the state of the element, which is the element akti, not iva. Why
five gross to grossest elements: earth (pithv), water is the supreme element akti and not iva? Because
(jala), fire (agni), air (vyu) and ether (ka). Then iva is the source of all elements and pervades them
from icch akti, the letters i and , five consonants all.
arise and these are the consonants ca, cha, ja, jha and
a. These five consonants represent the states of the
And now, when you move to external
five tanmtras: smell (gandha), taste (rasa), form
observation, inthe world of the created embodiment
(rpa), touch (spara) and sound (abda). Then the
of Lord iva, to observe what is created, what has
twoletters and, which are anaitaiva, along with
happened in this creation, you will feel that five
five energies give rise to the five consonants a, ha,
classes of consonants are created. That creation is
a, ha and a. These consonants represent the five
composed of one class of five elements, one class of
organs of action (karmendriya). The five consonants
five tanmtras, one class of five energies of action
ta, tha, da, dha and na, which represent the five
andone class of five energies of knowledge.
organs of knowledge (jnendriya), are produced by
the same five energies through the letters l and lr.
As you know, iva has five energies: the
Jna akti, the energy of knowledge, the letters u
energy of consciousness (cit akti), the energy of
and , along with the five energies, gives rise to the
bliss (nanda akti), the energy of will (icch
five consonants pa, pha, ba, bha and ma and these
akti), the energy of knowledge (jna akti) and
produce the five elements manas, buddhi, ahakra,
energy of action (kriy akti). From the energy of
prakti and purua. So, from earth (pthv) to purua
his consciousness, the five great elements
there are twenty-five elements, because five energies
(mahbhtas) earth, water, fire, air and ether-have'
exist in each energy of Lord iva. Therefore, the
been created. Why are these elements created by his
energy of consciousness (cit akti), the energy of
energy of consciousness? Actually, these five gross
bliss (nand akti), the energy of will (icch akti),
elements ought to be created by His energy of action,
the energy of knowledge (jna akti) and the energy
not his energy of consciousness. These five elements
of action (kriy akti) are all filled with cit akti,
are the grossest created things in this universe. It has
nanda akti, icch akti, jna akti and kriy akti.
already beenpointedout that Lordiva does not fear
And therefore, these five energies are each filled
coming downinto the gross world. This is the glory of
with five energies and this calculates as five times
Lord iva, that by His sweet will He comes down and
five, which equals twenty-five.
He goes up again. So He rushes towards this extreme
end of creation and by his subtlest energy of
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The next four semivowels ya, ra, la, and va and the state of akti. These states are represented by
correspond to the six elements of kal, vidy, rga these four letters a, a, sa, and ha. The letter a
kla, and niyati along with my. These elements of represents the state of uddhavidy. The letter a
Lord iva are known as the six coverings (at represents the state of ivara. The letter sa represents
kacukas), which are reduced to four by combining the state of sadiva. And the letter ha represents
niyati with rga andkal with kla. the state of akti. Here ends the world of the
alphabet. This world is called mtikcakram, the
wheel of the mother.
From the master grammarian Pini's point
of view, the six elements of Lord iva, kal, vidy,
rga, kla, niyati, and my pertain to the individual In this world of the alphabet, when creation
being. They do not relate to the elements because all ends, it ends in its fullness of being, in absolute
these energies are found inside, not outside the supremacy, not in its fullness of inferiority. The
individual being. They are inside the thought and creative world is found in its supreme state in the
inside, the perception of the individual being. For state of sadiva which as we've seen above, is
this reason Pini has designated the letters ya, ra, represented by the letter sa. This is the reason the
la, and va, which represent these coverings, as author Kemarja tells us that in the end of all this
antastha because they remain inside the individual creation what is exactly what ought to be, and this is
being. filled with the nectar of supreme consciousness. This
is the state of sadiva. It is the state whose essence is
captured in the experience "aham idam," "I am this
On the other hand, in the tantras of our
whole universe." In our philosophy, this letter sa is
aivism, these five elements niyati, kla, rag, vidy,
calledamita bja, the seedof nectar.
kal along with my, are called dhra because
they give life tothe individual being.
And in the end of that amrita bja, pra bja
is created. This pra is the life of iva. What is life
The individual being lives in these five
for iva? iva's life is iva's akti. So pra bja is the
elements. Without these five elements, the
life of iva and that is akti. This state of akti is
individual being has no life; there would only be the
called anhata, the automatic energy of Lord iva. It
sphere of Lord iva. Therefore, in aivism we argue
is represented by the letter ha. This letter ha is not to
that these elements are not antastha, being inside
be recited; it is to be experienced. We, however, do
the individual being, rather they are dhra
recite the mantra "so'ha." In reciting so'ha, we
because they are what gives life to the individual
recite amita bja, pra bja and anusvra. The letter
being. The individual being is created and glorified
sa is amita bja, the letter ha is pra bja and is
by these coverings, for limitation is the glory of
anusvra. We recite it but this kind of recitation is
incorrect recitation. Actually, these three letters
cannot be recited at all; they are automatic. They are
When you subside these six coverings and
to be perceived, not recited. As long as you are
move ahead, crossing the bondage of these
reciting, it is an imitation of these letters. It is not
coverings, differentiated perception vanishes and
real. And yet, in the beginning, you have to recite
undifferentiated perception comes before you. Then
these letters. And then, when the reality comes in
your self is about to bloom into existence (unmea).
front of you, recitation ends. Then there is only the
This blooming of the self is represented by the four
experiencing of these three letters: what is, what
letters a, a, sa and ha. The grammarian Pini has
amita is andwhat pra bja is. This is why it is called
designated these four letters a, a, sa, and ha as ma
anhata. The Sanskrit word anhata means that
letters because the Sanskrit word m means that
which cannot be recited. Why? Because it is
the internal light, internal fire, internal warmth, has
impossible torecite.
again come forth. When this internal light, this
internal warmth, comes forth, it is the state of
So, this is the complete history of the
uddhavidy, the state of ivara, the state of sadiva
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universe that has beencreated fromearth (pithv) to subjective worlds. First, you have to extract
akti. This knowledge is the theory of mtikcakram subjectivity from subjectivity and insert that
which is referredtoby Pini inhis stra: subjectivity into objectivity. Then you have to
extract objectivity from the real objectivity and
insert that objectivity into inferior objectivity.
Put the first letter and put the last letter and
Supreme objectivity is found in ha and supreme
combine them.
subjectivity is found in anuttara, a. Because anuttara
has given rise to the five elements represented by the
In perceiving, you should not perceive things
letters ka, kha, ga, gha and a, inferior subjectivity is
one by one. See what is in the beginning and see
found in the letter ka. So you have to extract
what is inthe end. Take these two and combine them
subjectivity fromthat real subjectivity of the state of
and you have perceived the whole universe. This is
anuttara and insert that subjectivity into objectivity
pratyhra. To employ pratyhra, you take anuttara,
in the letter ka. That is pithv (earth); where we are
the first letter a and anhata, the last letter ha and
actually situated. And then you have to extract
combine them. But how can you combine them?
objectivity from that real objectivity of akti and
They can't be combined. You can. however, unite
insert that objectivity into another inferior
them by means of taking them in one point.. That
objectivity, which is sa. You must then unite that
one point is anusvra, the letter . So the letters a,
subjectivity-cum-objectivity and objectivity-cum-
ha andwhencombinedinone point become aha.
objectivity. This will create the letter ka which is the
This is ahaparmara, the perception of universal I
combination of ka and sa. The letter ka is the
and it is the essence of aha vimara, the supreme
objectivity-cum-subjectivity, because subjectivity
mantra inour philosophy.
has entered into that objectivity, and the letter sa is
objectivity cum objectivity because here supreme
The Kashmi r aivai te phi l os opher
objectivity has come into inferior objectivity.
Utpaladeva has also explained this state of iva in
Uniting themcreates another pratyhra of ka (i.e.,
this verse:
23 the combinationof ka andsa).
Whatever is perceived is praka. It is the state of
universal I. Carrying all that is perceived to your own
nature, to that point of the self, and establishing it This is the akti pratyhra. It is the
there is called svtantrya. It is called all action and it
combination of one object with another object, not
is calledthe universal glory of iva.
one subject and another object as was found in the
(Ajadapramtsiddhi, 22-23)
combinationof iva and akti found inmtik. This
combinationof akti andakti is foundinthis state of
Now, the author of this commentary,
individual being. It is the unification of akti with
Kemarja, reveals the secret of mtkcakra. In
akti, the unification of ka with the letter sa, that
mtk, there are three worlds, the subjective world,
creates the letter ka. This is called kabja, or bja
the cognitive world and the objective world. We are
that has arisen fromfemale energy. Here, there is no
situated in the objective world. Being in the
utilizationof male energy at all.
objective world, we are not aware of the cognitive
world or the subjective world. The question is, how
This philosophy of mtik is supreme. The
can we unite the objective world with the subjective
knowledge of mtk cakra is perceived by that
world? The subjective world is found in anuttara a
disciple who receives the grace of his master. What is
and the objective world is found inanhata, ha. How,
that cakra (wheel)? It is the wheel of mtk made of
therefore, can these two very different worlds be
the five great energies of iva, the energy of
consciousness (cit-akti), the energy of bliss (nanda
akti), the energy of wil1 (cch akti), the energy of
This question is answered by this precious
knowledge (jna akti) and the energy of action
secret of mtkcakra, which explains how to
(kriy akti). All these energies together are called
become successful in uniting the objective and the
cakras because they move like wheels. This yog does
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not feel that these energies inthat wheel are separate and that is all-pervading, It pervades the whole body.
from iva. On the contrary, he finds all these five For example, when an ant crawls on your foot, you
energies filled with the nature of iva. This is the are aware of it; that is the heart. That abode of
knowledge of mtkcakra. awareness is that heart.
Here, in the iva Stras, we have briefly The external heart is the universe. This
introduced the reader to the philosophy of entire universe is the external heart. The internal
mtkcakra. This philosophy is explained vividly heart is the heart abiding in one's own body and that
and in great detail by our distinguished master is consciousness, Then there is the heart of sound.
Abhinavagupta in his Tantrloka and in his All sounds are produced from that soundless sound,
commentary onthe Partriik. that sound is called nada. Nada is sound that is not
produced but which simply occurs. The fourth state
is the supreme state of consciousness and the fifth
InSiddhmita Tantra, it is said:
state is the supreme state of supreme void.
In fact, in this world of mtk, the supreme hero is
The qualification of a master is only this, he causes kualin. Kualin takes the roles of all these states.
you to realize what is first and what is last and howto Kualin is the real heroine. She is not only the life
combine it. That master is to be adored in the same of the world of mtk, but filled with consciousness
way people adore me (Lordiva). she is the germ of its root. And from that kualin
arise the three letters a, i andu.
(Siddhmita Tantra) Once you realize the reality of mtk cakra,
whatever you do and whatever you say in your daily
life will become divine and will be filled with that
In the beginning, in his system of the
supreme universal consciousness of I.
Sanskrit alphabet, the great grammarian Pini also
(Siddhmita Tantra)
established three letters. These three letters are the
letters, "aiu"; a-i-u" is the first stra of Pini. The
These are the sayings of Lord iva. You must
letters a, i and u are first because anuttara is first as
not consider this master as anordinary humanbeing.
the letter a, icch is second as the letter i and unmea
This master is beyondhumanity.
is third as the letter u. From these three letters all
other letters are produced.
This teaching is alsogiveninSpanda inthis verse:
This energy of action of Lord iva entangles Lord
Nowhe explains howthis takes place:
iva in the individual state of life. And when Lord
The letter rises fromthe letter a and so on, until the
iva realizes the nature of this energy of his own self,
flow of visarga arises. And fromthat visarga arise the
then it will cease to entangle him. It entangles only
letters fromka tosa andthat is fivefold.
when it is not realized. Once it is realized, you are
(Siddhmita Tantra)
freedfromall the bandages of life.
(Spanda Krik 3.16)
This awareness of I-consciousness pervades in all
the five supreme states. It pervades in the external
Here ends the theory of mtrk.
world, in the internal world, in the world of sound,
in the world of the supreme state and in the world of
For the yog who is fully aware of mtikcakra
the supreme void. If this secret of mtk is not
realized, all the recitations of mantras are useless
just like empty rainless clouds inthe autumnsky.
(Siddhmita Tantra)
The establishment of I consciousness on There are five supreme states of Lord iva.
There is the external state of iva and the internal the body becomes an offering in the fire of
state of iva. The external state of iva is the heart of
God consciousness.
universe. The internal state of iva is the heart of the
body. The heart of the body is not the physical heart.
When I-consciousness (pramti bhva) is
The heart of the body is in the state of perceiving
2.8 arra havi
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established onthe body, the experiencer perceives, "I
am this gross body in the waking state, I am this
It is alsosaidinBhagavadgt:
subtle body in the dreaming state and I am this The way of action of great yogis is to offer all the
actions of the organs of the senses and all the actions
subtlest body in the state of deep sleep." All worldly
of breathing completely in the fire of the one-
people have inaugurated (abhiikta) their I
pointedness of God-consciousness.
consciousness by insering their I-ness in these three
(Bhagavadgt 4..27)
bodies. When I-consciousness is established in these
three bodies, they are called the three veils, the three
The author Kallaa has explained the meaning of
coverings. You must remove I-consciousness from
agitation this way in his commentary of Spanda
these three bodily states, gross, subtle and subtlest,
because when I-consciousness is established in these
When all agitations end, then the supreme state of
bodies, thenyouperceive that youare these bodies.
God-consciousness is revealed.
(Spanda Krik 1.9)
I-consciousness on these three bodies is
called arra. For such a yog, all these three bodies,
In this verse, the word "agitation" refers to
including I-consciousness, become offerings (havi)
that state which exists when you put your I-
in the fire of God-consciousness. By these offerings,
consciousness on these threefold bodies. When I-
all these three states of I-consciousness become one
consciousness on these threefold bodies is removed
with God-consciousness.
and inserted in God-consciousness, then agitation
ends. There is nofurther agitation.
Because this great yogi offers these three
flows of consciousness, causing them to be digested
in the fire of God-consciousness, only God-
consciousness and no other consciousness remains.
This yog finds the kingdom of God-consciousness
(For such a yog)
everywhere, inthe gross body, inthe subtle body and
differentiated perception is his food
in the subtlest body. So in this way, he subsides I
consciousness onthese threefold bodies and he gains
knowledge of his own nature is his food.
entry inGod-consciousness.
This yog eats and digests differentiated
This is saidinri Vijnabhairava Tantra:
perception in his own supreme nature of
When all the five elements, all the organs and all the
perceptions of the organs, including one's mind, are
offered in the fire of the great voidness with the
sacrificial ladle (srukca) of awareness, that is, in the
Previously in the second stra of the First
real sense, the great fire sacrifice (havana).
Awakening of the iva Stra, we are told
(Vijnabhairava 149)
jnambandha, "bondage is differentiated
perception." And when that differentiated
InTimirodgha Tantra it is alsosaid:
perception is carried in God-consciousness by great
When, inthe fire of God-consciousness, you subside
aiva yogs, it does not live, it expires. Then, there is
the attachment to one whom you love, to the one
no residue of that differentiated perception. This is
who is your friend, to the one who is your close
why he has said in the present stra, "differentiated
relative, to the one who fills you with happiness and
perception is his food," because he takes it in and
to the one who is your beloved, thenyou are situated
digests it inhis ownnature of God-consciousness.
inthe courtyardof the supreme ether of voidness.
(Timirodgha Tantra)
Previously, this point was communicated in this
In essence, this is just to subside the oneness verse:
In that state, where he carries all differentiated of I-consciousness onthese threefoldbodies.
perception into one God-consciousness and digests
2.9 janamannam //
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Publishers Note
it, not only are differentiated perception digested but
It is alsosaidinVijnabhairava:
along with differentiated perceptions, death, time,
Take any one means, in this world of one hundred
aI1 actions good or bad, all changes of life, aI1
and twelve means (upyas), for entering in God-
perceptions good or bad, and all discussions of the
consciousness, and meditate according to that
question of monism or dualism are also digested in
means. The fullness you experience by practicing
that supreme oneness of God-consciousness.
consistently day by day on that means will give you
(Bhargaikh astra)
perfect satisfactionandperfect fullness of self.
(Vijnabhairava 148)
This is one explanation of this sutra. There is
Here, the author says that it doesn't matter
also another way to explain it. In this explanation,
which means you take out of these one hundred and
take the word jna to mean knowledge of your own
twelve ways. The fullness you experience through
real self, and not differentiated perception. Thus,
constant practice gives you perfect satisfaction and
the reading wouldbe:
fullness of self.
For such a yogi, knowledge of his own nature
This is statedinSpanda inthis verse:
is his food.
Always maintainawareness inall your activities.
(Spanda Krik 3.12)
So, in one way, because this yogi carries
differentiated perceptions fromthe differentiated to
If you lose awareness, then you are gone. You
the undifferentiated state, he has explained that all
have destroyedthe reality of life. Youmust, therefore,
kinds of differentiated perceptions are this yog's
be aware. If youare fully aware of your thoughts, then
food. This yogi carries these differentiated
you will not see any thoughts there. You can't be
perceptions from darkness to light, from sadness to
partially aware while thinking; this won't accomplish
joy. Everything for himis joyous, filled with light and
anything. Be fully aware of what youare thinking and
glory. This is one way of explaining the wordjna.
you won't think anything. If you are aware of what is
happening next, nothing will happen. If you are
The other way to explain the word jna is
aware that you are dying, you won't die. If you are
that jna is the real knowledge of your own nature.
aware that you are going from wakefulness to the
This is his food and he is satisfied with this food.
dreaming state, you won't go. On the contrary, by
Being always satisfied with this food means he
establishing this awareness, you will get entry into
doesn't crave for physical food. Of course he eats, he
God-consciousness. This is the greatness of
does not starve himself, but he is not attached to
awareness, that if you are always aware in
food. He is always intoxicated inhis ownself because
continuation, always one-pointed and residing in
the knowledge of his real nature gives himcomplete
the one-pointed state of God-consciousness, you
won't think anything. If, on the other hand, you are
unaware, youwill miss the reality of your life.
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after a short time he becomes unaware, missing that
awareness, then again after a fewminutes he is again When this yogi does not maintain awareness
maintaining that awareness, this is not the way to in continuity, then, although he possesses the
maintain awareness. Awareness must be maintained knowledge of God-consciousness, there are many
in continuity. And when this yogi doesn't maintain occasions when he lacks awareness. For example, if
unbrokenawareness, what happens tohim? this yog is aware of God-consciousness now and
1. The word ktopya refers to the "means" (upya) pertaining to energy (akti). mbhavopya, the first and supreme upya, is upya pertaining to
iva. And avopya, the third and inferior upya, is upya pertaining to individual being. mbhavopya is explained in the First Awakening of
the ivaStras, ktopya is explainedinthe Second Awakening, andavopyais explainedinthe ThirdAwakening.
2. Here the word "evil" does not refer to the commission of what we ordinarily mean by "sin." Here the "evil" we are protected from is that of
committing the greatest of all sinscoming out fromGod-consciousness.
3. Prsda is the highest elevated state. Whenyouare situated inPrsda-the highest state of God-consciousness-youbecome filledwith joy.
4. This is krama mudrinits real sense.
5. See stra1.22
6. She is not limited toany particular philosophy or religionbecause any-oneevena catcanrise if Lordiva puts some force inthat being.
7. She is called Kualin because she is internal power existing like a serpent in the shape of a coil. Actually, Kualin akti is the revealing and
concealing energy of Lordiva. This Kualin akti is not different fromthe existence of Lordiva, just as the energy of light andthe energy of the
heat of a fire are not separate fromthe fire itself. Kualin, therefore, is, in the true sense, the existence of iva. It is the life and glory of iva. It is
iva itself.
8. This heart is not the physical heart. This heart is the center of awareness. It is foundeverywhere inthe body.
9. Mldhra cakra is foundnear the rectum.
10. Here, bindu refers to the supreme semen (vrya) that becomes agitated there. The formation of kualin is of that supreme semen. It is not
individual semen. It is something beyond that, experienced only by yogs. Because kualin is formed with the body of supreme semen, which is
bindu, just imagine howjoyous her formationwouldbe!
11. This is a natural occurrence. He reaches this state of super intense joy and then he comes out fromit. This is the way it happens to everyone who
experiences this state.
12. This state is the real state of krama mudr, which is ultimately experiencedby blessedyogs.
13. Inthe beginning of satyuga, Lordiva appearedinthe formof Svacchandantha. As Svacchandantha, he hadfive heads andeighteenarms. His five
heads came into manifestation through his five great energies: cit akti (all consciousness), nanda akti (all bliss), icch akti (all will), jna akti
(all knowledge), and kriy akti (all action). These five energies appeared in his five mouths known as na, tatpurua, aghora, vmadeva, and
14. Because these five mouths rise fromkualin, Lordiva is dependent onkualin.
15. Mtik is the systemof letters of the Sanskrit alphabet that begins with the first letter a and ends with the last letter ka. In the English alphabet
this would correspond to the letters a to z. InKashmir aivism, there is another understanding of the systemof letters. Inthis system, the letters are
not in order; it is an orderless world of letters. Such a systemis one thing in all things and all things in one thing. In Kashmir aivismthis systemis
16. For instance, flying inthe sky, giving boons todisciples, etc.
17. She is unknown to her children. Why? Whenyou descend to the objective field, the creative energy is mother and this creative energy is unknown
inthe objective field. Whenyou ascend to subjective consciousness, thencreative energy is known. Inthe subjective field, she is not mtka; there
she in cit akti the energy of consciousness.
18. Kashmir aivism, there are two theories of the alphabet. These theorise are knownas Mtikcakra and Mlni. The theory being referred to here is
the theory of Mtikcakra, not Mlini. Mtik is the systematic reading of the letters of the alphabet froma to ka. Mlini is the combined, joined
reading of these letters. In Mlini, consonants are found in vowels and vowels are found in consonants. akti is found in iva and iva is found in
akti. When akti and iva aloe found separately: that is the systemof Mtk. When iva and akti are found together, combined to each other,
that is the systemof Mlini. The theory of Mlini is not explainedinthe ivaStras.
19. This is another movement of Lord iva. Whenthe two movements anuttara and nanda are reunited with the force trikoa-the letter e, which was
already created. And whenthese two energies, anuttara and nanda, come incontact with icch akti and iana akti, thentwo triangles are united,
creating twoshapes with six angles. This six-angled star is composedof three male at1gles andthree female angles andis shapedlike the Jewish star.
20. The kind of visarga existing in the state of nanda akti and represented by the letter , is called mbhava visarga. This mbhava visarga is
cittapralaya. Cittapralayameans "where your minddoes not function." It is the thoughtless state. Andso mbhava visargais the thoughtless flow.
21. The ekgrat state of mind exists whenyou are determined to maintain your mind on one point with concentration. Whenyou keep your mind in
the state of being one-pointed, it will occasionally try to move to another object. You must be attentive insuch a way that youprevent it fromgoing
tothat object. Whenit goes tothat object, youdrive it back toits original point. This is the state of mindknownas ekgrat.
22. My is the energy of illusion. Kal is the energy of limited action. Vidy is the energy of limited knowledge. Raga is the energy of attachment to
limited things. Kla is the limitationof time. Niyati is the energy of being situated inonly one particular place.
23. Whatever yousee, whatever youhear, whatever yousmell, whatever youtaste, whatever youtouch is praka. The sensationof touch, the sensation
of smell, the sensation of taste, the sensation of seeing anything, whatever you perceive, not only think but perceive, with any or all of your five
organs of perception, is calledpraka.
[To be continued...]
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Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
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n Alice Christensen
ALICE: Swamiji, let's talk about the three impurities, or malas. In your
book The Secret Supreme you say that" the three malas, or impurities,
reside in maya, not in swatantrya shakti. What does that mean?
LAKSHMANJOO: Swatantrya shakti is that freedom, that free will:
swatantrya shakti is transformed when the universal being goes down
from his position to play us his drama, the drama of the world. The univer-
sal being, he has got energy that is called swatantrya shakti, swatantrya.
And that is swatantrya, just freedom, everywhere freedom. In going up
there is freedom, in coming down there is freedom. When the individual
goes up, he has got freedom, but when he comes down, he has no freedom.
He comes down and he is destroyed. All glamour of God-consciousness is
destroyed when coming down. So there is a difference between the indi-
vidual and universal beings: that universal being can rise and come down,
with his glamour of swatantrya shakti. And that individual being, when he
rises, possesses swatantrya shakti, but when he goes down, swatantrya
shakti takes the position of maya, ignorance, and it entangles him.
ALICE: And maya is associated with the world, isn't it '?
LAKSHMANJOO: Associated with ignorance and the world, and indi-
viduality. Swatantrya shakti is associated with universal being and free-
dom. Absolute freedom, absolute God-consciousness.
ALICE: So when this huge, this vast consciousness comes down as you
have said, then the earth is there?
Alice Christenten came
all the way from
Florida, USA, to Ishwar
Ashram at Ishber,
Srinagar to learn about
Kashmir Shaivism at
Ishwarswaroop Swami
Lakshmanjoos feet.
The conversations that
she had with the great
Shaiva master provide
many illuminating
insights into his life as
well as various aspects
of Kashmir Shaiva
philosophy and its
praxis. We are grateful
to Ms. Christensen for
giving us the
permission to use this
material for the benefit
of our readers.
Ignorance and Freedom
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LAKSHMANJOO: Everything is there. appear. And anavamala is the subtlest impurity. The
subtlest impurity is when one resides in God con-
ALICE: And when it rises does the earth disappear?
sciousness, in the stale of samadhi There also he finds
LAKSHMANJOO: Earth does not disappear, earth
giddiness. This is due lo that subtle impurity. It is called
takes another formation. It appears divine. It appears
anavamala, it is pertaining to Self.
then filled with God-consciousness.
ALICE: It's due to having a physical body?
ALICE: It becomes God.
LAKSHMANJOO: Yes, it's because of physical body.
LAKSHMANJOO: Actually this is divine.
Everything is divine. Only there is a lack of our aware- ALICE: Because of a physical body you never really
ness. We don't observe it. God can observe it. So he lose that, doyou Swamiji?
does not feel guilty when he slaughters one individual.
LAKSHMANJOO: No. He does not feel guilty because it is not slaughter at all,
it is just a change.
ALICE: And do all three impurities stay with you for
you whole life? ALICE: So life and death and things such as war
LAKSHMANJOO: For the whole life, but at the time LAKSHMANJOO: It is a play. It's a drama of his. For
of samadhi, they are all gone. But you have to develop us it's torture. For us it is grief and everything.
it. You have to develop it by and by in our lifetime As
ALICE: It is torture. As long as it's a divine conscious- long as we have developed it, when the time comes
ness, it is a drama. when it is fullness, all malas are shattered And the body
also does not exist You have lo leave the body also.
LAKSHMANJOO: There is no drama when you don't
observe it as drama; then malas appear, these impuri- ALICE: While you are practicing, Swamiji all these
ties, in the scene. years that you have practiced Yoga while you are prac-
ticing you are trying to be aware of these impurities,
ALICE: Now, how can you describe the three impuri-
and dealing with them constantly?
LAKSHMANJOO: Yes. If you arc not dealing with
LAKSHMANJOO: Three impurities? Let us begin
these impurities you cannot teach, you cannot elevale
with gross impurity. Gross impurity is called
karmamala. Karmamala is when you feel, "I am fine, I
am great, I am nothing" the opposite also. When this ALICE: Because they're always there
kind of sensation resides in your brain, it is the outcome
LAKSHMANJOO: No, I mean if you go in the depth of that mala.
of God-consciousness, then you cannot teach people.
ALICE: The gross quality. You are above that. You don't find anybody ignorant.
LAKSHMANJOO: And mayiyamala is, "Oh, he is my ALICE: I see. You see divine qualities in everybody.
enemy, he is my friend. Oh, he is my life, he is my own
LAKSHMANJOO: Yes, You see from the angle of self. Oh. he is." This duality...
God-consciousness, that everybody seems to you
ALICE: The duality of differences... divine.
LAKSHMANJOO: This, duality of differentiation ALICE: So then you would lose you worldly outlook.
arises from the second mala, the medium mala. That is
LAKSHMANJOO: Yes, you have to do this. But that mayiyamala, where differentiatendness begins to
April-June 2007
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is the end of life. Till then you have to elevate people, Spiritual ignorance is that of your own nature. You
and you have to see that there is this kind of ignorance, don't understand what you really are. That is spiritual
so you have lo teach them, elevate them. ignorance. And that spiritual ignorance is removed by
spiritual knowledge, called paurusha juana. Paurusha
ALICE: And so you have lo be aware of those
jnana removes paurusha ajnana. Baudha jnana
removes baudha ajnana. Intellectual ignorance is
LAKSHMANJOO: No, yon have to be aware of these
removed by intellectual knowledge and spiritual igno-
malas. As long as malas are not there, you cannot
rance is removed by spiritual knowledge.
realize who is ignorant and who is elevated When
malas have vanished altogether, you'll feel everybody
Now, Abhinavagupta has discussed how this intel-
is elevated.
lectual ignorance can be removed. This intellectual
ignorance can be removed by going through those
ALICE: Absolutely divine.
spiritual books by realized masters, say Vedanta,
Tantra loka, Shaivism, all philosophies of thought By
LAKSHMANJOO: Some people pray to God for
studying and going deep and fully understanding them,
getting rid of all the malas, at once. They're fed up with
this intellectual ignorance is removed. But still there is
this world So they don't want to elevate Those elevated
a gap of that spiritual entity, spiritual understanding.
souls don't care for the world.
Spiritually, you can't understand unless you practice on
that. By practicing on that, spiritual ignorance is
removed. Spiritual ignorance, paurusha ajnana, is
LAKSHMANJOO: First, Abhinavagupta has
removed by initiation of your masters. And baudha
explained this himself, that ignorance is the cause of
ajnana is removed by going through those spiritual
bondage, and knowledge is the cause of liberation.
books. But there is succession in that. Some say it is
Ignorance and knowledge There are two kinds of
ignorances and there are two kinds of knowledge, also.
One type of ignorance is called paurusha ajnana -
Generally everybody admits this thinking, that
ignorance pertaining to spirituality This is spiritual
ignorance is the cause of repeated births and deaths,
ignorance And another ignorance is intellectual igno-
and knowledge is the cause of liberation. But still, what
rance, baudha ajnana Intellectual ignorance you know.
is real knowledge? What is real intellectual knowledge
There is intellectual ignorance first and there is spiri-
and what is real spiritual knowledge? It is to be thought
tual ignorance. And these two kinds of ignorances
about. Abhinavagupta discussed what intellectual
carry a man in the black side of the world.
knowledge is, correct intellectual knowledge. There
are so many intellectual knowledges found in various
ALICE: Darkness.
types of thoughts and schools. Sankhya describes and
explains this intellectual knowledge and spiritual
LAKSHMANJOO: Darkness. And so he becomes
knowledge also. But in Tantra loka, Abhinavagupta
part of the play of repeayed births and deaths. And this
says, "I'm not boasting that my knowledge is unique."
first ignorance, intellectual ignorance, comes from
He says, "I say this fire is hot, don't touch this fire, it
will, intellect, thinking, perception, understanding.
will burn. So this is reality, what I say. So my explana-
You can understand what God really is, you can under-
tion of spiritual knowledge and intellectual knowledge
stand what the means to attain that state are. You have
is correct, it is real knowledge. According to the way of
to understand those first, before you practice on them.
real understanding of the masters. So this is how you
Understanding won't carry you there, but this is impor-
should begin, by explaining what is ignorance and what
tant, to understand the means, the ways. So this under-
is knowledge.
standing, the reality of that, is pertaining to intellectual
knowledge Intellectual knowledge removes this intel-
And then you should consider, after this knowl-
lectual ignorance. Do you understand?
edge, who is capable of receiving this knowledge from
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Masters. Do you need some qualified student, qualified realizing and understanding the depth of monistic
shishya, disciple?Abhinavagupta explains that qualifi- shastras. This kind of practice on these monistic
cation concerns only devotion. Devotion towards shastras is the chief cause of the removal of this igno-
master. Devotion towards God. Devotion towards this rance. Whereas, the next, self-ignorance, is destroyed
philosophy. If there is devotion, towards philosophy, by meditating on one's own self without the support of
towards God, and towards his master, everything is shastras.
there. If he is outcaste, if he is not Brahmin, if he is not
It won't be out of place to mention here that if only
orthodox, it doesn't matter, if there is devotion.
intellectual ignorance is removed and self-ignorance is
Everything is there. There is no restriction of caste,
still there, nothing can reach it. On the other hand, if
creed and color. It can be purchased by any living being
intellectual ignorance is there and self-ignorance is
who is capable of purchasing these qualities.
removed by meditating, concentrating, and contem-
ALICE: That devotion. plating on one's own self, he will be liberated from the
wheel of repeated births and deaths. But only at the
LAKSHMANJOO: Devotion towards master and his
time of leaving his physical body -not in this lifetime.
teachings. Only these two. Nominate these two: devo-
But if by the grace of God and by the utmost effort of
tion towards master and his teaching. But real master
the individual, both ignorances are destroyed simulta-
You have to analyze your master first, you have to see,
neously then one becomes jivan-mukta, definitely. So
you have to examine.
here you find the greatness of removal of intellectual
ignorance, that makes one shine as jivan-mukta, liber-
ALICE: Question.
ated in his own lifetime. Hence one must understand
the greatness of the removal of intellectual ignorance,
LAKSHMANJOO: Question. Questioning within
but only when self-ignorance, paurusha ajnana, is also
you. You have to investigate before you surrender at his
removed. With the exception of the greatness of intel-
feet. You have to investigate him.
lectual knowledge, yet only self-knowledge is attained.
Still, there is the possibility of becoming liberated
LAKSHMANJOO: I have already explained that
from samsam. So one way attainment of self-
there is two-fold ignorance: intellectual ignorance and
knowledge is responsible for liberating one's self
self-ignorance. This two-fold ignorance carries away
without the adjustment of attaining intellectual knowl-
an individual from realization of God-consciousness,
edge, baudha jnana. But God forbid, if intellectual
and thus he is entangled in the wheel of repeated births
ignorance remains persisting and self-knowledge is
and deaths, samsara.
already attained there is possibility of degrees of self-
knowledge. That may become the cause of his self-
This two-fold ignorance, the intellectual, baudha
ignorance after some span of time if intellectual igno-
ajnana, and self-ignorance, paurusha ajnana, can be
rance persists throughout.
removed successively by intellectual knowledge,
baudha jnana, and self-knowledge, paurusha jnana.
So we have come to this conclusion in the end of
This intellectual ignorance which is destroyed by
explaining this two-fold ignorance, that the individual
intellectual knowledge makes one worthy of realizing
has to develop this two-fold knowledge, intellectual
God-consciousness. On the other hand, self-ignorance,
and self, simultaneously. So that there is no apprehen-
which is removed by self-knowledge, makes him
sion of falling down from realization of God-
capable of realizing his own nature, within himself.
consciousness at any place.
In addition, there is one more thing to be under-
Shaivism has laid down three means for the
stood regarding removal of this two-fold ignorance.
removal of this two-fold ignorance. The supreme
Intellectual ignorance is removed by practicing and
means is shambhavopaya, the medium means is
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shaktopaya, and the inferior means is anavopaya. The this shaktopaya, adoption of recitation of mantra,
supreme means, shambhavopaya, is explained for breathing process, meditation and all other things are
those who have the highest capacity for maintaining discarded altogether. The definition of shaktopaya is
awareness of self. The medium means, shaktopaya, is explained in Malinivijayottara as follows: "Where
explained for those sadhaks who have to some extent there is no recitation of mantra, where there is no adop-
elevated the condition of their maintenance of aware- tion of meditation, where there is no focusing of organ
ness. The inferior means, anavopaya, is meant for on one point, that really is called shaktopaya." The
those aspirants who have no capacity of maintaining inferior means, anavopaya, is that kind of means where
awareness at all. the sadhak has to lake support of breath, mantra, cogni-
tive organs, and all kinds of rituals. For instance, to
The supreme means, shambhavopaya, means just
illustrate it, breathe in and out, very slowly. Adjust
holding awareness in continuity without adoption of
mantra at the same time with this breath, under the
meditating, concentrating, or contemplating on any
directions of your master, and fix your thought on the
recitation of mantra. The yogi has just to hold aware-
point either between two eyebrows or throat or heart.
ness of self and remain there. He has not to adopt any
By doing so in continuity this breathing movement is
process of thought, remembrance, memory, and so on,
transformed in the subtle movement of breath. The
just remains vacant from all sides and void from every-
recitation of mantra is transformed in this subtle move-
thing but with awareness. This kind of means is called
ment of breath. The recitation of mantra is transformed
s hambhavopaya. The def i ni t i on of t hi s
in development of mantra devata. This means that the
shambhavopaya is explained in Malinivijayottara
deity whose mantra is recited and concentrated, taking
Tantra as follows: "Where there is no adjustment of any
point on which he concentrates, expands and melts in
thought, where there is no recitation of any mantra,
absolute pervasion of God-consciousness. And after
where there is no practice of breath, where by the
some substantial period of this practice, this sadhak
divine grace of master, one gets perfect residence in
gets entry in God-consciousness in the end. This is the
one' s own nat ur e, compl et el y, i s cal l ed
means by which the sadhak experiences the rise of
shambhavopaya." Hence, shambhavopaya is process
of thoughtless thought, which sentences him to the
point of God-consciousness in a flash without succes- It won't be out of place to mention here that by
sion. adoption of this practice also, one attains the final
realization of God-consciousness. In these three-fold
The medium means, shaktopaya, is absolute, pure
means, the aim of attainment is God, without the slight-
thought process. It just to hold any thought and associ-
est differentiation. Of course, the means are different,
ate it with this same thought without any slightest
but the meant is one.
adjustment of similar thought. To make it more clear, it
is the process in which an aspirant concentrates on one In shambhavopaya one gets attainment of God-
thought without any other interruption. This one consciousness in a flash, instantaneously. Shaktopaya
thought may be interrupted by another similar thought leads to successful achieve-spirant slowly and by and
but that has to be checked. This process is not process by to the same end. That is God-consciousness.
of thought in chain form. Take one thought and concen-
In conclusion, one must know the supreme means,
trate upon it in perfect content. By doing this a Yogi
shambhavopaya, is called monistic means; medium
feels this thought going on without the wavering move-
means, shaktopaya, is called mono-dualistic means;
ment of breath. So automatically the movement of
and inferior means, anavopaya, is called dualistic
breath also comes to its standstill position.
means. In other words, shambhavopaya is upaya
To make it more clear, when there is only one pertaining to Shiva. Shaktopaya is upaya pertaining to
thought, the breathing movement ceases altogether. So Shakti. And anavopaya is the upaya pertaining to
by this one gets entry in God-consciousness. Here in individual, jiva. Moreover, shambhavopaya is con-
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nected with will, shaktopaya is connected with knowl- is centering, but with some support. Shaktopaya is
edge, and anavopaya is connected with action. So it is without a support.
well said, that this philosophy is called trika, three-fold
ALICE:An object.
science: nara, individual; Shakti, energy; and Shiva,
energy whole.
LAKSHMANJOO: Yes, shaktopaya is supportless
centering. For instance, you look at one thing, then look
So this is the explanation of shambhavopaya,
at another thing. This sensation of looking on this part
shaktopaya, and anavopaya. But there is one more
and this part -through these two sensationless areas -
point to be discussed regarding these three means. In
and finding out what is the mediator, what was in
addition to this, Kahmiri Shaivism has explained that
between. What was the sensation in between these two
shambhavopaya deals with three predominant sub-
objects. These sensations.
jects; shaktopaya deals with six predominant subjects;
and anavopaya deals with five predominant subjects.
ALICE: Where one began and the other left off.
In shambhavopaya, the first subject is the theory of
LAKSHMANJOO: That is shaktopaya. To fix aware-
reflection and its purpose. The second is the theory of
ness there, without support of these. When you take
alphabets and their purpose. The third subject is the
support of these, again and again, that is anavopaya.
theory of I-consciousness.
That would go to anavopaya. When you take only
support of these two objects -not these two objects, two In shaktopaya, the first subject is beautification of
sensations of these two objects -only once and get entry thought, the second subject is the treatment of mind
in and are fixed in that center, that is shaktopaya. And through logic, and the third subject is the explanation of
shambhavopaya is just jump in that center. the limbs of the body of Yoga, and the difference
Shambhavopaya is without support. You have to take between limbs described in Shaivism and limbs
support only once in shaktopaya. You have to take described in Yoga Darshan, with their purpose. The
support every nowand then in anavopaya. fourth subject deals with the rise of the wheel of super-
organic centers and how these organic centers are
ALICE: Continuously.
focused to one female energy, Kali, in twelve-fold
ways. The purpose of the fifth subject is howthe power
LAKSHMANJOO: Continuous support. Then you
of mantra is acquired, and the sixth subject deals with
can maintain awareness in the junction. For instance,
the point that when a Yogi masters all the other five
take support of inhaling and exhaling, and mantras; so-
ways, for him nothing is pure, nothing is impure. And at
haum, so-haum, so-haum, repeatedly, in continuity,
the same time, nothing is right and nothing is wrong.
and seeing the center. That is anavopaya. But in
shaktopaya, you have not to recite these mantras. Just
In anavopaya, the first subject is the intellectual
only once to begin. Take support of this thing. Leave
meditation and how it is done. The second subject in
them aside and get centered in that center, that which is
anavopaya deals with the six centers of vibrating
between the two. It is neither this, nor this, it is some-
breaths. The third subject clarifies how the rise of
thing, some sensation in between. It is nothing. It is
consciousness is breathed out and breathed in. The
void. You have to catch it. That is shaktopaya. And that
fourth subject explains how a sadhak gets entry in
is why it is very unacquainted with that voidness. Then
supreme consciousness and what are the signs experi-
we jump in that voidness, at once, without taking sup-
enced by him therein, so that one can understand that he
port of these two objects.
has entered in the kingdom of supreme consciousness.
The fifth subject deals with what actually is word,
ALICE:Any object.
LAKSHMANJOO: Or two thoughts, or two move-
ments, two steps when you walk, one foot there and
LAKSHMANJOO: Everywhere in anavopaya there
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another foot there. One foot is over, one foot is done, shambhavopaya. And we place this centering in enve-
another foot is to be done, in between. That movement lope of anavopaya to that where is not so much capac-
in between, which is not in movement. ity to learn how to dive deep in that centering, without
support. So we keep support also with that. And
ALICE: It is still.
shaktopaya also we keep support. In shambhavopaya,
we don't keep support.
LAKSHMANJOO: It is still. But it is centered. It will
happen. Movement will take place. It has not taken
ALICE: Direct.
place. First movement is over. Next movement will
take place. But it has not taken place yet. There, in that LAKSHMANJOO: Is direct.
center, that is shaktopaya.
ALICE: Is free.
ALICE: Like music.
LAKSHMANJOO: Free, yes. You see this whole
LAKSHMANJOO: Yes. [Laughing] universe, so many things have developed -trees,
houses, roads, motor cars, planes, everything. But still
ALICE: Like the pause in music.
Vedanta calls this maya, because it is not true. But we
don't call it maya. We feel this is true. It is only com-
LAKSHMANJOO: Yes, pause. And shambhavopaya
mentary of that voidness. This differentiated manifes-
is without doing these two movements. That is
tation of universe is the commentary of voidness.
shambhavopaya. Shambhavopaya is just to dive deep
Voidness is put in various envelopes just to make you
in that void center.
understand. For example, red color and blue color are
ALICE: Shambhavopaya would come from long
practice of shaktopaya. Shambhavopaya would come
ALICE: Then you could have invisibility.
LAKSHMANJOO: Yes, invisibility. Because redness
LAKSHMANJOO: Yes, naturally, yes. It is just to
and whiteness are only phases of its appearance. In the
maintain acquaintance. When you are acquainted more
background there is only one thing. And that is percep-
and more with Mother Alice, Mother Alice will be with
tion, thought. And this thought is individual, undivided
you always. Just to confirm this acquaintance you have
thought. Formless thought, timeless thought, space less
to go to Mother Alice every nowand then, to see her, to
thought. There is no space. There is no thought. There
talk to her, to touch her, to do all those things. But
is no time, in real sense. That. is what we have to expe-
afterwards, when you are fully acquainted with that
rience in these three upayas.
being, then there is no need, they are there already ...
ALICE: We will write it, like we have talked.
ALICE: It's just a thought.... No, it's more than that, it's
a sense, it's like the pause in between music.
LAKSHMANJOO: You have put my experience also
in this.
LAKSHMANJOO: Yes, pause. So centering is a thing
which is developed in these upayas. Not in shaktopaya.
ALICE: Oh, yes, if you like.
You see, this is our shop, our provision shop. There is
no different sale; sale is one. But the way of sale is LAKSHMANJOO: Yes? I like to be exposed. [Laugh-
different. We sell only one thing, one point. That is ter]
centering. Centering is to be sold. But in three different
envelopes. One envelope is anavopaya, and one enve-
lope is shaktopaya, and another envelope is
[To be continued...]
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Ishwarswaroop Swami Lakshmanjoo Birth Centenary Celebrations
JAMMU, 17-18 MARCH, 2007
By George vanden Barselaar
n behalf of the Ishwar Ashram Trust I would
like to welcome your Excellency, seminar
A fewcenturies after Abhinavagupta, the Shaivism
speakers, seminar participants, devotees and O
particular to Kashmir once again took an introverted
all well wishers of His Holiness Swami Lakshmanjoo
turn and became hidden from view, only to emerge
Maharaj on this most auspicious occasion of the third
around the mid-eighteen hundreds. At that time
Seminar on Kashmir Shaivism in this "The Birth
Shaivism saw the emergence of Swami Manakak and
Centenary Year of our belovedSwamiji."
his illustrious disciple Swami Ram, a personality that
most of this audience are familial with. It was Swami
Ram who once again picked up the thread of this
During these two days of this seminar it would be
eternal sampradya. Swamiji tells us that the Maharaja
easy to get lost in the high philosophical principles and
Pratap Singh, the then ruler of Jammu and Kashmir
concepts of the unique teachings of Kashmir Shaivism,
state, was very devoted to Swami Ram and when he
But, I pray that we should not lose sight of the
asked what he could do in humble service to his Guru
underlying reason we have all come together on this
Swami Ram requested that he collect all the lost
occasion, i.e., to celebrate the life of one of Kashmir's
manuscripts of Shaivism and publish them. Though it
great treasures, a true Master in the lineage of ancient
is well known that this work was entrusted to J.C.
masters of the highest and richest philosophy existing
Chatterji, there are few who realize the initial impulse
intoday's world.
came fromSwamiji's grand-master, Swami Ram.
Swamiji tells us that the Sampradaya of Shaiva
With his vast vision Swami Ram saw into the
masters is eternal, constantly concealing and revealing
future, and 25 years after that request, all the texts of
itself throughout the ages. Somananda, the founder of
the Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies were
Pratyabhijna system, records in his iva Driti that in
completed. It should not seem strange that, this
the beginning of this present age of Kali yuga (more
coincided precisely with the time that our own Swami
than 5,000 years ago) the charge of Shaivismwas given
Lakshmanjoo, still in his late teens, was eager to imbibe
to the great Rishi Durvasa. Even today it is said that
himself with the teachings of Kashmir Shaivism.
Durvs still sits on Mount Kailash in his subtle body.
From Durvs flowed out nineteen generations of
mind-born sons, masters who carried the tradition
So complete was Swami Ram's commitment to the
forward. The nineteenth, Swamiji tells us, was not so
continuation of this chain of knowledge that in 1930
introverted that he could create a mind-born son. He
(16 years after he had left this world) he appeared to
therefore married and carried the traditionthrough his
Swami j i and requested hi m M re-publ i sh
own son. From that time on historic records of Shaiva
Abhinavagupta's Kashmiri rendition of the Bhagavad
Masters was more complete. Lord Shiva's revealing of
Gitrtha-sra-sagraha, which though already
the ivastra to Vasugupta is well recorded. Then came
published in the Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies,
the flourishing of masters from Ananda, Somananda,
had numerous mistakes. Swamiji fulfilled that request
Utpaladeva, Lakshmanagupta, Shambunatha and the
andthe bookwas publishedin1933.
illustrious Abhinavagupta and his disciple Kshemraja
During the next three decades Swamiji remained
andhis disciple Yogaraja.
practically aloof, known only to a few cherished
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disciples, many of whom are here seated in this On finishing his tea he simply bowed at Swamiji's feet
audience. The natives of his village at Ishber and declared Swamiji the winner." The well known
"Gurustuti", cherished among Swamiji's devotees as a affectionately gave himgiventhe name Lal Sahib.
befitting tribute to the master, manifested as a result of
this meeting.
Though Swamiji tried his best to remain aloof, it
appears Lord Shiva had other plans. In 1965, he wrote a
Kundalini Vijna Rahasya Throughout his life Swamiji intentionally paper entitled " ", which he
latter presented at a Samellana conducted at the remained hidden fromthe masses, in fact, it could only
Sanskrit University in Varanasi. Swamiji's paper, read have been by his own svatantrya that he managed to
in fluent Sanskrit, was so well received that the remain somewhat hidden even from those who were
Chairman, the renowned Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit close to him. But, occasionally and unsuspectingly, the
Gopinath Kaviraj had Swamiji sit on the dais. It was truth of his underlying existence would leak out, giving
fromthis date forward that scholars came to realize that a glimpse at least, of the majesty of his being. On the
the tradition of Kashmir Shaivism was alive and well, surface one saw in Swamiji the full dignity of human
and fully embodied in the person of Swami existence; beyond that one could only sense the
Lakshmanjoo. The rest is history, and up to the time of oceanic life of a God-realized soul whose very purpose
his leaving this world a throng of scholars and seekers in being on this earth was beyond our limited
foundtheir way tosit at Swamiji's feet. comprehension.
In the western world some major scholars of today, I would like to relate two brief incidents, which give
like Alexis Sanderson from Oxford University, Andre validity to Swamiji's hidden greatness. In 1986, I took
Padox from the Paris research institute, Professor R. one of Swamiji's gardeners to visit the renowned Sufi
Gnoli from Italy, Lilian Silburn from France, and saint "Sultan Sahib" who lived in a small village in
numerous others have all sat at Swamiji's feet and Anantnag district. I was told that Sultan Sahib was
considered to be the highest among the Sufi peers of sought answers totheir ownperplexing questions.
Kashmir at that time. The whole valley was shrouded in
heavy clouds that day but it did not deter the throng of
In India we have works of Baljinnath Pandit,
eager visitors who had come to seek special favours that
Nilkanth Gurtu, Jankinath Kaul 'Kamal', Paramahamsa
Sultan Sahib was accustomed to give. Sultan Sahib
Mishra, and many others, all of whom give specific
eventually entered the small room, and without even
reference to Swamiji's invaluable contribution to not
looking in my direction, he cryptically addressed the
only their work, but to Kashmir Shaivism as a whole.
audience with the words, "Why has the English Sahib
They all held Swamiji in highest esteem. Jaidev Singh
come to Anantnag when the .Sun is shining in its full
Thakur, a prolific writer on Kashmir Shaivism,
glory in Ishber." Such was the hidden recognition
dedicated all of his works to Swamiji. His dedications
betweengreat souls.
speak for themselves: "To Lakshmajoo who unsealedmy
Once again, inthe summer of 1990, whenthe valley
"To Lakshmanjoo, to whom I owe whatever little I
was practically bereft of its Hindu population, an old
knowof Pratyabhijna Philosophy" andfinally...
Muslimgentlemanarrived at the ashramgate. As he sat
"To Swami Lakshmanjoo...the doyen of Shaiva
at Swamiiji's feet, he began to press Swamiji's legs and
repeatedly requestedfor a chit which was to be signedby
When I first saw the word "doyen" I had to refer to
Swamiji. Swamiji gave no chit, but simply patted his
the dictionary. It' translates as: 'One who is the most
head and the old man left satisfied. Later it was
experienced and respected member of a group or
revealed that the man lived adjacent to the famous
tradition'. That certainly applies toSwamiji.
Baba Rishi shrine near Gulmarg. During that brief
meeting he conveyed to Swamiji that Baba Rishi had
As a repercussion of Swamiji's earlier talk in
appeared to himin a dream, and he had requested Baba
Varanasi, in 1970's Rameshwar Jha, renowned Varanasi
Rishi to help him with a serious problem which was
scholar and poet traveled to Kashmir. When he arrived
weighing heavily on his head. Baba Rishi's reply was
in the ashramhe stated his purpose before Swamiji, i.e.
clear and unambiguous, "You will have to go to Lal
to enter into debate on the subject of Kashmir
Sahib, and receive his chit, as he is in charge of all of
Shaivism. Swamiji casually agreed, but said "first let's
take tea". Rameshwar Jha sat insilence and took his tea.
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and we now have a word search programme where you
canpick any word inShaiva literature and find out how
Even today we are still unable to comprehend the
many times Swamiji has usedit, andthe relevant text in
vastness of Swamiji's hidden role in this infinite play of
which that word appears. This takes approximately 30
Lord Shiva. What we can say is that on the obvious
seconds and will no doubt be of immense value to
level, he lived and breathed the teachings of his
serious scholars of the future.
cherished tradition of Kashmir Shaivism. Throughout
his life he gave freely of his knowledge to whosoever
expressed a genuine interest. This he did independent
What of the future?
of caste, creed, colour or gender. Swamiji also took
Over the two days of this Seminar, we should
great care to ensure that after leaving this world his
seriously consider what we can achieve with the legacy
knowledge would live on for the benefit of future
of knowledge Swamiji has left behind. Already it is well
generations. This is now evidenced by the numerous
known that the possibility of the establishment of a
publications, audio and video recordings that are
chair "dedicated to Swami Lakshmanjoo" at the Mata
available toall whoare interestedinthis vast subject.
Vaishno Devi University is a realizable goal. We would
like to thankyour Excellency, as it was your greatness to
It would not be out of place to mention that the advise the Vice-Chancellor of Mata Vaishno Devi
majority of these books and publications are the result University to report on this chair, as was earlier
of efforts of John Hughes and his wife, who many here announced. On behalf of the Ishwar Ashram Trust, I
are familiar with. John and his family spent 16 years in further request your Excellency to give the necessary
Kashmir, studying and recording, and thereby directions so that this befitting tribute is implemented
preserving Swamiji's teachings for future generations. in this, the birth centenary year of His Holiness Swami
As was statedinthe previous Seminar heldinDelhi last Lakshmanjoo.
year, JohnHughes intends to release all the teachings of
Swamiji, not only in book form, but also as original
As was also announced at the previous
audio and video recordings, which in total constitutes
International Seminar held in Delhi last October, the
over 600 hours of material. This present Seminar will
Ishwar Ashram Trust proposes to establish a research
see the release of the original audio recordings of
center for Kashmir Shaivismbased on the teachings of
Swamiji's translation of Vasugupta's ivastra
Swami Lakshmanjoo. This center, to be located at
Vimarin, also, the video recordings of Swamiji
Ishwar Ashram, Ishber, Gupta Ganga, Srinagar, will
translating selected verses from Abhinavagupta's
serve to promote the teachings of Kashmir Shaivismto
Paramrthasra, (both of these are inEnglish), and last
the masses.
but not least, a set of 42 CDs of Swamiji's translation of
Utpaladeva's ivastotrval inKashmiri language.
Keeping in viewthe contribution made by Swamiji
of spreading the message of true love and brotherhood
These are a real treasure, and I amreminded of an
among the masses, we again appeal to your Excellency
incident when a recognized western Sanskrit scholar
to help Ishwar AshramTrust achieve this laudable goal
questioned Swamiji on a point where he differed from
through the assistance of the Jammu and Kashmir
Kshemraja's translation of one of Utpaladeva's verses.
Filled with devotion, Swamiji replied, "Listen carefully
to my words, as I have entered the heart of
Once again, I would like to extend a note of thanks
to your Excellency for having spared your precious
time, inspite of heavy engagements, to be with us today
While recording the Bhagavad Gita video inNepal
to pay tribute to our Gurudev, Swami Lakshmanjoo.
in 1990,Swamiji was asked how people would be
Also I extend my thanks to the speakers, participants,
initiated in the future. He straightaway pointed to the
devotees, and to all who have come to attend this
videocamera andsaid, "through this it will happen."
Seminar in honour of His Holiness Swami
For these past 22 years, slowly and steadily, work
has been going on, transcribing and documenting
May Swamiji's blessings be with youall.
everything Swamiji has said on these original
recordings. The bulk of this was completed last year
Jai Guru Dev!
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he ability to think is ability of thought and shifted intuition-it was a state of being.
what makes man stand their focus to man himself. They In this state the knower, the
at the crest of all began to develop an "inward knowing and the known all T
creation. And man used this thinking". Some of these rare became one. The seer, the seeing
ability in two ways. He observed individuals discovered that and the seen became one. This
the world around him, And kept there is a faculty greater even non-dual state of oneness, in
records of his discoveries and than thinking and rationalizing, which the whole universe, all of
these records became studies for the higher knowledge that creation, was actually felt within
further thinking, giving way to comes by intuition. Intuitively, one's own self was obviously a
the circle of inventions and they began understanding state of tremendous bliss and it
came to be called samadhi, and more discovery. various phenomena about not
its expression was cid-ananda, only themselves, but the entire
I n I ndi a , f r o m t i me
bliss of the Self. When one arose cosmos. They became keen to
immemorial, there appeared
from this samadhi, one was back enhance this subtle way of
great thinkers, who came to
to the outside world as before, knowing, and with interiorized
understand that though this
b u t wi t h t h e ma s s i v e eyes, they started developing
cycle of outward discovery was
transformation of knowing that systems of yoking themselves to
fascinating, as well as rewarding,
all is one. And this phenomenon the intuitive state by will. They
it, however, was endless, as the
of having been in that state of were the yogis, and their yogas
Universe itself was too large.
Oneness was termed as darana. were what we now c al l
They became keen to know who
meditation. When the most The possessors of darana, were
they themselves were, what was
determined of these meditators called the dristas, the seers or the
their purpose in life, who had
dwelled on the inner Self with Ris. Even from the Everests of
created life, and why? Whether
unwavering awareness, they their spiritual attainments, out
there was a higher power that
reached the very core of life of their compassion the Ris
governed this immaculate
itself. This core was beyond gave pointers for others of the
Universe? They used the second
mind, beyond even flashes of outside world of samadhi, so that
Why I love Kashmir Shaivism
Shailendra Gulhati
Shailendra Gulhati is a young Jammu-bated poet and writer who prefers to call
himself a Shaiva Mystie. This recent collection of poems, Nam Roop, so beautifully
illustrated by the reputed artist Arpana Caur's paintings, has been widely appreciated
in literary circles. Here, is this paper which he presented at the international seminar
on Kashmir Shaivism held recently at Jammu, he tells us about the great appeal that
Kashmir Shaiva philosophy holds for young spiritually inclined intellectuals like him.
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they too may realize it for wanted us to subscribe to this children can move in their
themselves. So cidananda, or the harmony of both the inner and motorbikes and cars, go to gyms,
meditative climax of finding outer divinity. And as this pursue great professions and
that the whole universe was, in d a r a n a ma t u r e d , t h e aspirations, go anywhere, and
fact within one's self was outstanding feature that started still see Shiva, in the temples, or
thought to be man's greatest developing was its pragmatism. in the discotheques, He is
achievement in the inner The love for the reality of the everywhere, and the ability to
journey, the greatest blessing j agat made our foundi ng see it like this is the essence of
that divinity could give by spiritual fathers work tirelessly Kashmir Shaiv darana. The
revealing itself. But, the ris of to uphold all of life in the world ability of confluencing the two
Kashmir wanted to pursue even they redefined renunciation, abilities of outward thinking and
the state of samadhi more. They they did not want for us to leave inner intuition, the ability to
were not content with just cid- our homes, they wanted us to harmonise caring for outer
beauty and inner divinity, the. ananda, of being blissed only renounce the sense of duality
wi th God. They di d not ability to perfect working during samadhi. Perhaps it was
advocate monkhood, though in efficiency and inner surety. This the greater design of divinity
their task, they may have had to is Kashmir Shaivism. This is our itself: that the ri of Kashmir
go on long hours, days, even great inheritance. And I entreat could not ignore his beautiful
lifetimes, of retreat, the fruit all of youto learnour darana for outer landscape for even the
which they wanted to give us ourselves. When and where does divine mountains within. And
from their amri trees, was for us one begin to learn'? When the he beganto seek for evengreater
to see God everywhere, in mind is resolved, now is always blessing, working dexterously on
everything, They started leading the best time. And, as many harmonizing the twobeatitudes.
u s f r o m c i d a n a n d a , t o great teachers will be giving out
And this, to me, was the real
jagadnanda, bliss of the world, I beautiful facets of the darana,
advent of Kashmir Shaivism,
am sure that in their days they this right here, is a great place to
given to us by Vasugupta,
loved their baghs, the shikaras in begin! For my part, I will just try
Utpala, Somananda, Abhinava,
their terrylanes, the dainty to give you a very basic idea of
Lalleshwari and of course,
embroideries on their phirans, how rich and supportive of
Swamiji Lakshmanjoo, they
pragmat i s m s ome of the the warmth of the kangris, the
were all adept yogis, they were
advanced ancient Kashmir singing alongside with the
siddhas, and yet they retained
Shaiva texts are. chinars with the tumbak rs
their tremendous love for the
and the santoors, all was Shiva!
In the Vijna-bhirava, manifest beauty of Kashmir.
So too, our children are
which loosely translated would
engrained with divinity and
'Kashmira prvat paroksha,
mean the applied knowledge of
pragmatism, it is in their DNA!
tat swami cha Mahewara", my
Lord Shiva, the Devi asks the
They are a proud people
favourite aphorism from the
Lord to teach some methods that
renowned for their efficiency in
Puranas of Kashmir, quoted even
will help an aspirant reach high
work, their amiable and warm
by Kalhana, emboldens me to
levels of Shivahood for himself.
natures and customs. Only the
suggest that even Lord Shiva
Now Shivji comes out with 112
outer ti mes change. Our
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yoga dharans, which can be of our excellent preceptors, the
A yogi should fix his mind on
practised. Its wonderful to note, para patras, as many of Swamiji's
any phenomenon that brings
that not all the yogas are of the devotees would be feeling during
delight, because the repose in
same grade, but they all lead to this celebration, know that to be
delight is the nature of the Lord.
the same summit. And Shiva has the oneness with Shiva himself.
been thoughtful enough to Whether even it is the eating of
But to ensure that we are
prescribe so many different good food,(which is of course
bonafide yogis and not self
methods to tune into the higher another great inheritance) the
deceiving bhogis, we will have to
frequency of vibrant divinity. delight that one gets, know that
begin where we began, to make
to be the delight of Shiva
sure that we end where our
Do you remember, when, as
enjoying his owncreation.
normal state becomes a flow of
children, or sometimes, even
divinity, we must train as yogis
accompanying our children to a I will repeat that, Shiva
with the introverted, meditative
magic show, we used to be enjoying his owncreation, this is
eye. For these sections of the
amazed at the conjurer's tricks, t he es s ence of Kas hmi r
Vijn-bhairava that I have say of making things disappear Shaivism! Kashmir Shaivism
chosen are only to illustrate how or appear? While most spiritual tells you in the most direct of
a matured yogi can reach the systems may tend to rubbish this words, that you are the God you
level when all is yoga, so if you as hoax, Lord Shiva is far kinder, looked for, you, are Shiva! You
can already do that, great! It and in his advanced meditative are Shiva every moment, even if
means you have strong anugraha technology, tells us, to mature you don't know it, and it helps
already, you may take the high
that amazement (vismaya) you only to re-cognise, that you
path, but even if you cant
which you feel at the show of are and have always been Shiva,
straightaway do that, your Guru
magic, into a meditation, make it because, All is Shiva. And this is
will tell you which upaya suits
a bhumika (base) for yoga. For why I love Kashmir shaiv. It is by
your present disposition and
those of you who love music, the design that Kashmir speaks of so
lead you up the same mountain many things which can be sadavasantam(evergreen) Shiva
of Mahadev where the stras of delighted in our own culture, as says, that ananda (ecstasy) you
Shiva are revealed by Shiva, for pathways to divinity, to abiding feel while listening to, or
Shiva to knowthat He, in fact, is happiness, provided, of course, hummi ng al ongs i de your
Shiva!! This is why I love we do everything with the favourite tune, let that ecstasy
Kashmir ShaivismI love and live remembrance of our Shivahood, lead you to know that it is your
it, and again entreat upon you to when every act has become a right as Shiva to be happy, Not
know it for yourself, and then, ritual dedicated to the divinity just your right, this is your actual
like good shaivites, share it with that abounds everywhere, and nature, you only have to re-
those who devotedly wish to thenthe Lordsays cognize it, pratya-bhj. He goes
on to say that even the literally
Yatra yatra manas tuir, manas
hair raising arousal we get when
tatra aiva dhrayet,
we see our favourite land, Dea
Tatra tatra param-nanda
Dri, or when we are reminded
svarpam samparvartate
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tion, is referred to as the Trika cum-non-dualistic (bhedbheda), rior to the appearance of the
stra, Trika sana, Rahasya and the monistic (abheda). (2) Each foundational text of Trika
ai vi s m, namel y, t he P S a mp r a d y a , Tr a i y a mb a ka section of the canon is given a
Sampradya ivastras , etc. (1) The aivismof specific name. The texts that are of Vasugupta, we do not
Kashmir is also giventhe nomencla- dual istic are known as the know, much as to what kind of
ture of Trika on account of its aivgamas, and their total number aivism existed in the valley of
acceptance of many trinities, which is believed to be not more than ten. Kashmir. Most probably the kind of
are constitutive of its ontology. As (3) The texts that explain reality in aivism that existed prior to the
avastras the aivism of Kashmir is generally terms of dualism-cum-non-dualism appearance of the wes
spoken of as the Triadic aivism, so are known as the Rudrgamas, and mainly dependent on the canonical
to counterbalance this appellation their total number is said to be texts, known popularly as the
it is also referred to as the School of eighteen. (4) The texts that are gamas or Tantras. Since this form
the Half-of-the-Six (aardha- through and through monistic are of aivism derived its sustenance
stra). It is within the framework spoken of as the Bhairavgmas, and from the canonical texts, so its
of triadic ontology that the general are believed to be sixty-four in orientation was more theological
philosophical and religious orienta- number (5). This classification of than philosophical. However, the
tion of the aivism of Kashmir, or the canon indicates the evolution- kind of aivism that developed
what otherwise is called the Trika ary development of aivism from from 8 century AD onward was
aivism, has tobe pursued. dualismtomonism. more philosophical than theologi-
cal, and so had to give rise to such a
These gamic texts have been philosophical outlook that would General Features
given the canonical status on respond to the needs of people. One The aivism of Kashmir, generally
account of them being considered of the features of the Trika aivism speaking, is oriented towards and
of divine origin, which in terms of is characterized by the fact that outlook that is Tantric, and so such
theological belief is explained as from the 8 century to the end of canonical texts, known as the
having issued from the five mouths 12 century a long succession of tantras, constitute its religious base
or faces (pacamukha) of iva (6). outstanding teachers came fromthe that has a monistic orientation. It is
These five faces of iva are known Valley itself, and who, through their withinthe ideological framework of
as na, Ttpurua, Vmadeva, intellectual acumen, enriched it monism that the teachers of the
Aghora and Sadyoja. This both philosophically as well as Trika aivism have divided the
anthropomorphic concept of iva theologically. The aivism of canon into three sections, namely,
as having five faces, and thereby Kashmir, from the point of tradi- the dualistic (bheda), dualistic-
The Conceptual and Textual Sources of Trika
Moti Lal Pandit
A noted scholar of Indian spiritual and philosophical tradition, Moti Lal Pandit has been
regularly sharing his deep insights into Trika Shaivism with the readers of Malini. In this
article we find him throwing some invaluable light on the, tentual sources on which this
school of philosophical thought particularly draws for its basic concepts.
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five mouths, is, at the philosophical deals accordingly with it exten- classification of the scriptures,
sively. The Vamaka-tantra deals level of thought, seen as represent- there are three most important
with such religious themes that are ing the five aspects or powers of the texts that the Trika School cher-
either theological or philosophical. Absolute. These five powers or ishes and believes that their
Insofar as the Siddha-tantra is aspects of the Absolute are con- emergence has occurred through
cit nanda concerned, it deals with the sciousness ( ), bliss ( , will the mysterious mouth of iva and
icch jna practical aspects of religious life, ( ), knowledge ( ), and the texts are the Vamaka-tantra,
action (kriy). As representations, such as, ritual, ethical discipline, Siddha-tantra and the Mlin-
these five faces or aspects of the tantra. and with the practices of medita-
Absolute, called technically tion. The last canonical text,
Ml i n - Tant ra 2. The entire cosmic manifestation, Paramaiva or Mahevara, are namely, the ,
from Sadiva category (tattva) concretized, at the iconographic expresses at its best the synthesizing
down to earth, is said to be consti- level, by Svacchandantha. At the spirit of the Trika. In this text an
tuted by a trinity of principles, popular level or religiosity, it is attempt has been at synthesizing
namely, iva, akti and Nara: iva believed that the na face of iva the themes oft eh first two texts,
Vamaka-Tantra representing the principle of namely, of the and looks upwards, whereas the other
Siddya-tantra transcendence, and akti embody- the , by integrating four faces are directed towards the
ing that supreme power by which theminto the general philosophical four quarter of space, which, when
iva becomes practically the frameworkof the Trika (10). interpreted mystically, symbolise
manifest universe, and so should be the inclusiveness as presence of the
The aivism of Kashmir, technivally seen as denoting the principle of Absolute. This interpretation of
divine immanence. Insofar as Nara the Absolute as being inclusive or speaking, should be referred to as the
is concerned, it is the principle that pervasive would mean that nothing Trika aivism rather than as
represents iva as bound being in the universe, including the Kashmir aivism. It is J.C. Chatterjee
(bandha) in the world (loka). In universe itself, has any ontological who, for the first, invented such as
significance apart fromParamaiva. appellation as Kashmir, aivism, short, Nara denotes the finite
If this is the case, it would mean condition of the Absolute. It is a and since then Trika aivism
that the Absolute is not only doctrine of emptiness in terms of Kashmir aivism. The aivism of
transcendent, but also is immanent. which the Absolute is shown as to Kashmir is given the technical name
It is in the context of this view of how, by assuming the condition of of Trika on account of its triadic
the Absolute that the divine origin finitude, empties himself, as it were, ontology (11). Some of the most
of the gamas should be under- of his own divinity. It is exactly this important triadic principles of Trika
stood. The theologians of the Trika doctrine which St. Paul expounds are the following:
School are of firm belief that the in the context of the doctrine of
mysterious mouth of iva has Incarnation. There it is assumed 1. The begin with: The aivism of
uttered particularly the monistic that whenGod as Word has become Kashmir has classified its scriptures
scriptures, and if so, it would mean finite by enfleshing himself as Jesus, into three main branches, which
that these scriptures are higher in he thereby empties himself of his are the aivgamas, Rudrgamas
merit (7) to the non-monistic divinity. Thus God as Jesus emp- and Bhairavgamas. This classifica-
gamas (8). The gamic texts that ties himself, as it were, of his tion is made in accordance with the
are givenalmost the transcendental divinity. Thus the Trika doctrine of theological or philosophical line of
Vamaka- the Absolute as becoming the status by the Trika are the
though each group of scriptures
tantra, Siddha-tantra and the universe has its parallel in the enunciates. The philosophical
Mlin-tantra Pauline doctrine of divine empti- . Collectively these ideas that are respectively found in
ness. important canonical texts are them are either dualistic, or
spoken of as Half-of-the-six dual i s t i c- cum- moni s t i c and
aardha It is inand through Nara, maintains ( ) (9). Each text has a monistic. Apart from this thematic
the Trika, that space-time bound special theological concern, and
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limitations are experienced by the perceptually or conceptually, they
4. The yogi, upon realizing the Absolute, or what we call the state occur onaccount of extroversionof
trinity of powers of will, knowledge of unfreedom which the human consciousness. This very fact may
and action, recognizes the three condition represents. Insofar as be explained in this manner. The
aspects of his divine nature interms akti is concerned, She, as the absolute purity of consciousness,
of luminosity (praka), recognitive principle of Energy, is seen as an which is characterized by sameness,
reflection (vimara), and the intermediary between iva and is disturbed when the outside
experience of the resultant bliss of Nara, in that it is in and through content, in the formof perceptions
unity (smarasya). These three her that Siva descends to the and mental ideas, invade the realm
positionof Nara. It is this very akti of consciousness. The purity of aspects of the divine nature of
that enables Nara to ascend to the consciousness, thus, is tainted by Paramaiva are referred to as the
position of iva. akti, from a the contents it receives, in the form transcendental triad (para-trika).
theological perspective, is viewed as of ideas or images, through percep- The concept of luminosity explains
being innate Energy of iva, and it tion from outside. This blemishing that the Absolute as consciousness
is by virtue of this Energy that iva of the purity of consciousness is pure light, and it is one account of
manifests himself as Nara, viz., as a results in experiences that are light that the manifest is revealed.
finite being. It is this very Eenrgy dualistic. It is upon freeing con- It is in the context of this explana-
which enables Nara to recognize sciousness from its contents that tion that consciousness as light is
himself as to what his essential primordial purity is restored to it, interpreted as constituting the iva
nature (svarpa) is, which, within and thereby is experienced the aspect of the Absolute (anuttara).
the Trika framework, means it is nature of Being in unitary terms. It Insofar as the reflective aspect of
non-different fromthat iva (12). is in terms of sameness that the the Absolute is concerned, it
luminosity and the reflectivity are explains the phenomenology of
consciousness as simply not being a 3. The Trika aivism, in its dog- viewed as being two aspects of
witnessing consciousness, but a matic formulation, has postulated consciousness, which denotes their
parpara- consciousness that knows itself as an intermediary trinity ( identity.
trika I through reflection, which ) in terms of the three absolute
denotes the dynamic nature of the powers of the Absolute, and they 5. There are other types of trinities
icch jna Absolute. It is through this self- are will ( ), knowledge( ) like the Trika yoga, or what may be
vimara kriy apprehending power ( ) that and action ( ). A yogi who, termed as the soteric methods or
the objective world outside one's through contemplative introver- ways (upya) of salvation. The
subjectivity is experienced as being sion and absorption, realizes three Trika has devised mainly three ways
non-different from one's own- powers within recognizes thereby of salvation, which are the Way of
being. As Ego, it is spoken of as the that he is essentially non-different iva (mbhava-upya), the Way of
power ( akt i ) of l umi nous Energy (kta-upya), and the from the Absolute, which is
(prakamay) consciousness (citi). Individual Way (ava-uppa). Paramaiva. At the level of religious
The absolute identity of light and There is a fourth way, but it techni- sentiment, these three powers are
reflection of consciousness is cally is no way, and so appropriately depicted as representing the three
spoken of as the bliss of ontological is spoken of as the Null Way faces of iva. These powers are
unity (samarasya). It is this ontolog- (anupya). There is also a trinity made use of as a principle of
ical unity which is accomplished by that is ontological in nature, and verification with regard to the
a true yogi in terms of his submer- therefore has a direct bearing upon sanctity of a yogi as to whether he
the meaning of existence itself. The has realized them. Thus verifying gence (samvea) in the Absolute.
Trika holds a hierarchical view of the sanctity of a yogi in terms of the Thus is established experientially
existence in terms of diversity, acquirement of these powers that the nature of the Absolute
diversity-cum-unity, and unity. authenticates the spirituality of a inherently is non-dual, and what-
These stages of existence corre- true yogi. ever dualistic experiences we have
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spond to my, vidy and akti, of the iva-stra, it were the ered purely from a doctrinal
My is conceived to be such a gamic texts that formed the viewpoint, to give the appellation
power by which the Absolute doctrinal basis of the Trika. As of Kashmir aivism to the Trika
actualizes the manifestational canonical texts, the gamas are aivismthat developed in Kashmir.
diversity, whereas vidy as knowl- considered to be revelatory in This nomenclature was, for the first
edge terminates in the experience nature, and so non-human in time, made use of by J.C. Chatterjee
of both diversity and unity. Insofar Kashmir origin. In the commentary on one in his book, namely,
as the stage of akti is concerned, it Mlin- Shaivism of the gamas texts the . As already pointed out
is no-different from the Absolute, vijaya-vrtika Abhinavagupta has elsewhere, the aivism of Kashmir
and so accordingly is considered as this to say concerning the eternal is both philosophically andtheolog-
the embodiment of unity. There is originof the gamas: ically known as the Trika on
Creation, of, to be more specific,
also a trinity with regard to the account of it dealing with a variety
manifestation, is of two kinds.
existence-in-the-world. To the of conceptual trinities. The dif-
One relates to speech and the
extent an individual being remains fused state of philosophical ideas
other to substance (vcya-vcaka-
tied to the peg of the world, to that and religious practices were
tmaka). Speech is also repre-
extent he is considered as being in ultimately brought into the
sented two kinds, divine and
bondage and one of the three embrace of the Trika by one of the
human. The aivgamas are the
impurities (mala) or all of them greatest aiva thinker, namely,
divine speech and as such are the
determine together the bound Abhinavagupta. The Trika, thus,
grossest manifestation of the
condition of the individual. The has integrated into its ambit such
Supreme self-reflection (vimara),
impurities are of the nature of philosophical ideas and religious as different from the individual
self-reflection, which is the cause action (karma), or are atomic pr act i ces as t hos e of t he
of ordinary human speech.
Pratyabhij, Spanda, Krama and (ava), or delusory (myya) (13).
Speech, has an eternal exis-
Kaula. Even the worship of the Goddess is
tence ina state of identity with the
offered in three forms. The
Transcendent (para). The gamas
Goddess, at the stage of transcen- The Trika aivismof Kashmir, inits
are but divine speech, and as such
Pratyabhij, Krama, Kaula forms, dental unity, is worshipped as para-
they also have similar eternal
beganto take a coherent shape from dev, and at the stage of unity-in-
existence. According to the Trika,
the eighth century onwards, which diversity, She is worshipped as
thus, there can be nothing like the
is the time when Vasugupta com- parpara-dev. When it comes to
originof aivgamas. There is only
posed the fundamental text, appearance or reappearance of the phenomenal stage, She is
themat the divine will. namely, the iva-stra. It is a text in anthropomorphized, and so is
which such basic religious themes worshipped as apara-dev. Even the
Traditionally it is believed that the have been presented that are three powers of iva, namely, will,
gamic texts, upon their disclo- constitutive of the maintheological knowledge and action, collectively
sure, consisted originally of nine framework of the Trika. With the known as amb, correspond to the
crore verses. Initially iva disclosed emergence of this text a large three divine Energies, which, are
these verses to one of his own number of philosophical and Jyeta, Raudr, and Vma (14). It is
manifestations, called Bhairava. It religious texts were composed and through these divinities that the
was from Bhairava that the various the ideas and practices that were three powers of iva are actualized,
accomplishedpersons (siddhas) and presented in these texts remained or should we say that iva, while
yogis received this divine lore. in the state of diffusion till the time assuming the forms of three
Since this lore could not be of Abhi navagupt a. I t was Energies, expresses himself through
divulged to non-initiates, so a Abhinavagupta who synthesized all them.
competent Guru or spiritual master the scattered ideas and practices of
imparted it in secrecy to those the Trika in his magnum opus: the The gamic Sources
disciples whomhe considered to be Tantrloka. Prior to the emergence It is absolutely erroneous, if consid-
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qualified for its reception. In the Seeing the miserable and pitiable of himself as being the twentieth
process of this impartation from condition of mankind, Lord iva, descendent of Traiyambakditya,
Guru to disciple a considerable out of compassion, incarnated who, as pointed above, is consid-
number of verses were lost. The himself as rkahantha who, in ered as the historical founder of the
total number of verses that were turn, asked sage Durvsas to revive Trika. Somnanda adopts complete
lost in the process of impartation the gamic knowledge so that silence with regard to the first
from Guru to disciple are said to mankindmay nor completely be lost fifteen preceptors. He begins his
have beennonless thaneight crore. to spiritual darkness. Sage Durvsas account fromthe sixteenth precep-
Whatever gamic lore remained, it accordingly revived the gamic tor. According to him, the sixteenth
was at last imparted by Guru, one of knowledge into three classes, descendent of Traiyambaka was
the preceptors, to his eight disciples namely, dualistic, mono-dualistic Sagmditya, and then followed
in accordance with their mental and non-dualistic texts. The sage, Varditya, Aruditya, nanda
and spiritual capabilities and the upon this classification of the andSomnanda.
eight disciples are Daka, Samvarta, gamic lore, imparted this knowl-
Somnanda was the contemporary of Vmana, Bhrgava, Bl, Simha, edge to his three mind-born sons,
Kallaabhaa, who lived during the reign
Vnatabh and Vukinga. There namely, Traiyambaka, rntha and
of Avantivarman (855-883) (17). As
is an another traditional belief Amardaka. The non-dualistic
Somnanda lived during ninth century
which thinks that some of the knowl edge was imparted to
and was the twentieth descendent of
verses had remained hidden in the Traiyambaka, whereas mono-
Triyambaka, it would not be wrong to
heavenly abode from where dualistic knowledge was given to
assume that Traiyambaka must have
Rvaa, the demon-king, retrieved rnatha. Insofar as Amardaka is
lived in the beginning of Christian era.
them. These verses somehow concerned, he is said to have been
What happened from the time of
reached bibhaa who, in turn, taught those gamic texts that
Traiyambaka to the time of Vasugupta,
gave themto Rma. FromRma the contained dualistic knowledge. the author of the ivastra with regard to
verses passed on to Lakmaa, from There is, however, another gamic the development of aivism in Kashmir is
difficult to tell.
Lakmaa to Siddhas, fromSiddhas school known by the name of
to Dnavas, from Dnavas to Ardhatraiyamabka, which means
It is probable that amkara, who is
Guhyakas, and from Guhyakas to half-of-Traiyambaka. No definite
supposed to have lived inthe eighth
Yogins. information concerning this school
century, must have exerted some
is available. This school most
kind of influence upon the forma-
The above explanation concerning probably must have descended from
tion of non-dualistic philosophy of
the origin of the gamic lore gives the side of Traiyambaka's daughter.
the Trika. It is believed that he
us the traditional history from the
visited the valley of Kashmir (18),
time of the Golden Age (satya- As the Trika aivism of Kashmir
and during his visit (if it ever took
yuga) to the time of our own age, traces its historical lineage to
place) he must definitely have left
which is known as the 'Degenerate Traiyambaka itself, so it is also
some marks upon the local religious
Age' (kali-yuga) (15). This divine k nown a s t he Sc ho o l o f
milieu, amkara, being the first
lore of the gamas is said to have Traiyambaka. Insofar as the other
systematic expounder of Vedntic
disappeared upon the emergence of two schools are concerned, we
monism, must have found a ready
the Degenerate Age on account of know very little about their histori-
audience among the aivites in the
the retirement of the accomplished cal antecedents. There is a tolerable
valley who, too, were inclined
people to the solitude of the forest. account to be found inthe ivad
towards a philosophy of non-
Upon the disappearance of the (16) of Somnanda concerning the
dualism, Moreover, amkara
gamic texts, there followed a preceptorial line of the Trika. In
himself accepted the authority of
period in the history of mankind this text Somnanda, the first
the sixty-four monistic gamas and
that was totally enveloped by the exponent of the Doctrine of
refers to them in his Saundarya-
spiritual darkness of great density. Recognition (pratyabhij), speaks
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lahar. Whatever be the truth with as spanda and pratyabhij (20). theology (26). The earliest gamic
regard to his visit to Kashmir, there Vasugupta along with his disciple texts contained such religious
remains the fact that the Vedanta Kallaabhaa inserted the princi- viewpoint that were dualistic
ple of (vibration) as the of amkara as well as the Trika spanda through and through. It is only in
fundamental or basic nature of the aivismof Kashmir firmly adhere to some of the later gamic texts that
Absolute. Another contemporary the notionthat it is the all-inclusive the non-dualistic thinking with
of Kallaabhaa was Somnanda Absolute that is the source of all regard to the nature of the Absolute
who, in his ivadi (21), prepared phenomenal entities, This does not is givenprominence, and some such
the ground for the development of however mean that both the texts are the Mlinvijaya, also
what has come to be known as the known as the , Schools have similar or identical Mlinvijayottara
etc. p h i l o s o p h i c a l S c h o o l o f understanding concerning the Svachanda, Vamaka, Siddha
Whatever philosophical thinking is Recognition ( ). ontological status of phenomena, pratyabhij-vda
Both the savants, while giving birth contined in these gamic texts There exists a vital difference
to newer forms of philosophical received new vigour with the between the two Schools on
appearance of the . The thinking, assert that they followthe matters of ontology and epistemol- ivastra
, being the foundational basic religio-pl1ilosophical frame- ogy. One of the basic differences ivastra
texts of the Trika, has been com- workof the Trika (22). concerns itself with the nature of
mented upon profoundly by the Absolute itself. For the aivites
Bhskara and Kemarja in their The (23), on account of of Trika persuasion the Absolute is ivastra
respective commentaries called the its importance, has been given the not only pure consciousness, but
canonical status, and as such is also is I-consciousness, which Vrttika andVimarin (27).
considered by a believing aivite as denotes that its nature is character-
being of revelatory nature. In order ized by aninward throbbing. Unlike Textual Sources
to enhance the revelatory character the Advaita Vednta of amkara, The texts that constitute the
of the text, the aivites have the Trika aivites view the objec- theological basis of the Trika are
resorted to such a formof myth as a tive world as the real manifestation known either as the gamas or
mode of explanation that would (bhsa) of the Absolute, which Tantrasand these canonical texts
establish its supernatural character. means that the world, though an are vast, varied and complex and
According to Kemarja, Vasugupta appearance, is a real reflection of quite a number of them, due to the
hada dreaminwhich iva informed the Absolute, Thus the Vednta exigencies of time, have been
him that he would find the text theory of illusion (vivarta) is totally completely or partially lost. The
inscribed on a big boulder on the rejected. It is this kind of revolu- texts that are no more extent are
Mahdeva mount ai n ( 24) . tionary view of the Absolute that known fromquotations which later
Vasugupta went to the said moun- distinguishes the Trika aivism commentators made use of in their
tainand, according to the tradition, fromthe monismof Samkara (19). seminal works. The most important
found the text of the ivastra such texts that are constitutive of
inscribed ona big slab of stone. May Even though the essential features the Trika are the Vmaka-tantra,
be on account of this supernatural of Trika thought may be traced to Siddha-tantra and the Mlin-
origin that the text is considered as some important gamic texts, yet it vijaya-tantra. The first two texts are
anAgama (25). developed a vast philosophical no more available. Jayratha has
literature of its own independent of extensively quoted from the
It is not far from the truth to say the Agamas, The first and the mort Siddha-tantra in his Viveka on the
that aivism in Kashmir, prior to important such independent text is Tantrloka. Insofar as the Mlin-
the , was more theological the of Vasugupta, which ivastra ivastra vijaya-tantra is concerned, it is
in orientation than philosophical lays down the basic philosophical availabie partially. The present
on account of its dependence on principles of the Trika, and which printed text seems to be a part of a
such gamic texts that were, for all ultimately find their appropriate larger text. This conjecture is based
practical purposes, treatises on expression in such technical terms
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uponthe fact that a large number of remained incomprehensible. As the as is Rmakaha's commentary,
namely, the Vrtika. Vardrja, verses of this text have been quoted later commentators have not
Tantrloka being the disciple of Kemarja, has in the , and quite a commented upon this commentary
number of themare not to be found nothing new to say; he rather of Abhinava so the text of this
in the text that is available at repeats verbatimhis teacher. commentary is quite abstruse to the
present (28). It may safely, there- one who has not been initiated
Another important commentary of fore, assumed that printed text that within the sacred tradition of
Abhinavagupta is the Vivaraa on is available may have formed the Tantricism. The esoteric signifi-
Partriik uttara-bhaga the , which is believed to end-portion ( ) of the cance of certain Tantric terms is
Rudraymala Mlin-vijaya-tantra be a chapter of the . text calledthe . also un-understandable due to the
lack of a reliable glossary. This This text deals with such esoteric
practices of Tantricism as, for Next in importance to the gamic commentary is one of the most
important works of Abhinava that mlin, mtk ivastra example, and texts is the of Vasugupta,
has come down to us. It is believed mbhava-yoga. Prior to this who most probably lived during the
t ha t p r i o r t o Ab hi n av a , commentary of Abhinavagupta, it eighth century. The necessary
Kallaabhaa, too, composed two spanda is believed that Somnanda had philosophical ideas, like and
commentaries on the Mlin- pratyabhij written a commentary upon this , are potentially found
v i j aya- t ant ra, namel y, t he text called Vtti, which however is in this text. It is this text that is
Madhuvhin Tattvrtha- no more available. Even though the responsible for giving rise to the and the
Vivaraa Spanda cintmai has beenwrittenina lucid literature, and the first, and . Unfortunately both
style, even then some esoteric the most important, text of this these works of Kallaa have not so
far been found. It goes to the credit Spanda-krik practices remain as obscure as they genre is the of
of Kallaa who, for the first time, Kallaabhaa. Upon the emer- have always been.
collected the essential lines of gence of the ivastra and the
thought of the ivastra in his Spanda-krik came into existence The treatises that are contempora-
Spanda-krik and Spandasarvasva. a vast amount of commentorial neous to the ivastra, and have at
The line of interpretation that literature. Most of this kind of the same time survived the histori-
Kallata initiated concerning the literature is of formal type and the cal oblivion, are the two texts of
nature of Reality was later on taken Kallaa, namely, the Spanda-krik important commentaries of this
up by Bhskara in his commentary Spanda-sarvasva ivastra-vrtikam and . The former class are the of
called Vrtika onthe ivastra. The Varadarja, ivastra-vrtika of work explains the basic doctrines of
commentary of Bhskara on the Bha abhs kara, i vas t ra- the ivastra, particularly the
ivastra is quite difficult to follow v i ma r i n o f K e ma r a j a , doctrine of vibration (spanda).
on account of it being quite P r t r i m i k a - v i v a r a a o f The purpose of the doctrine of
abstruse and complex. This com- Abhinavagupta, Vijnabhairava- vibration is to explain that the
mentary, in comparison to the uddy o t a o f i vop a dhy ya , Absolute is of the nature of vibra-
commentaries of Kemarja and vacchanda-uddyota and Netra- tion, which philosophically speak-
Vardarja, does not engage in ing, means that cognition is the tantra-uddyota of Kemarja. The
fanciful interpretation, and so basis of recognition. When this important commentaries that are
follows authentically the spirit of principle is applied to the Absolute, informal are the Spanda-krik of
the ivastra. This commentary of it means that the Absolute is not Kallaabhaa and the Mlin-vijya-
Bhskara, moreover, agrees with simply consciousness, but a con- vrtika of Abhinavagupta. The
the views of the Spandasarvasva of sciousness that knows itself. The latter commentary throws much
Kallaa Spanda-vivtti Absolute, thus, is seenas having two and the of interpretative light on the most
Rmakaha. Though the commen- aspects: Light (praka) and important esoteric doctrines of
tary of Kemarja, namely, the Cognitive Reflection or what is Tantricism, which, in the absence
Vimarin, may be much more called I-consciousness (vimara), of such a commentary, world have
popular, it however is not as reliable which, at the level of theology, are
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a smaller work on the Spanda- expressed by such terms as iva and b e u nd e r s t o o d c o r r e c t l y,
krik, namely, Spanda-sandoha. akti. Insofar as the latter work is Abhinavagupta himselt composed a
concerned, it is a paraphrase of the shorter version of it, namely, the
Apart from the above texts, there Tantrasra. There is an another philosophical verses that Kallaa
are number of other important work whose authorship is ascribed himself composed. The line of
texts that deal with the Trika to Abhinavagupta, namely, the philosophical interpretation that
doctrines extensively. The most Tantra-vaa-dhnika. Whether this Kallaa enunciated concerning the
such important work is the work is by our Abhinava or by his Absolute in these texts was later
encycl opaedi c Tant rl oka of cousin of the same name is an followed by such writers as
unsettled dispute among the Rmakaha andBhskara. Abhinavagupta. The Tantrloka
itself cannot be understood. It is scholars. This work, however, is a
Tantraara Spanda-krik need of such a commentary that summary of the . The of Kallaa has
will enable the reader to under- many scholarly commentaries to its
stand the secret aspects of Trika The other important work in this credit. One such commentary is the
Spanda-prad pi k aivism. Fortunately we have such a direction that has come down to us of Utpal a
commentary in the form of Viveka after Abhi navagupta i s the Vaiava. This commentary of
of Jayaratha. In the absence of such Mahrtha-majar, along with the Utpala contains many quotations
a commentary it would not have c o mme n t a r y Pa r i ma l , o f from another work of Kallaa,
Tattvrtha-cintmai been possible to understand the Mahevarnanda. Also should be namely, the ,
various Tantric traditions with included such works inthis genre of which is no more available.
literature as the Mahnaya-praka which Abhinava has dealt. It seems Whatever gaps, if there are any, may
of itikaha, the Vmakevar- that Subhaa Datta, the teacher of be found in the commentary of
Jayaratha, had also written a Utpala, have been bridged by mata of Jayaratha, the Kmakal-
Tantrloka Vivtti commentary on the . Rmakaha in his . Another vilsa of Puynanda, and the
Unfortunately this commentary extensive commentary on the Yo g i n - h d a y a - d p i k o f
Spanda-krik Spanda- has been lost (29). Realising that is the Amtnanda.
Tantrloka niraya the text of the may not of Kemarja. He also wrote [To be continued...]
References: 11. TA, 1.35, 1.7-21, 1.3; 2.81-96; 2.186; 2.33.
12. A real Siddha, according to Abhinavagupta, is a person who is in 1. J.C. Chatterjee, Kashmir Shaivism, Srinagar, 1918, pp. 1-2
possession of the following qualities: (a) he should have control over 2. While the various branches of Tantricism were either dualistic,
the external phenomena, which denotes the possession of occult dualistic-cum-non-dualistic or non-dualistic, it was the endeavour of
powers; (b) he must be a devotee of iva; (c) he must be well-versed in Abhinavagupta to interpret these different Tanric viewpoints insuch a
the scriptural lore, and (d) he, as a possessor of occult powers, must be manner as would be religiously theistic and philosophically monistic.
able toperformoccult powers for the goodof all. The Trika, thus, is both theistic and monistic. It is theistic in the sense
that the Absolute is not as impersonal as is the Brahman of Advaita 13. TA, 9.65-66; 6.9-10; 9.139; varapratyabhij (henceforward IP),
Vedanta. The Absolute as God is active and functions like the personal
God of theism. At the same time this God as Absolute is interpreted in 14. Tantrloka-viveka (TAV) 4.50
monistic terms, which means no other reality exists apart from the 15. TA, 36.381-88
Absolute. In ontological terms it implies that no essential difference 16. ivadi (SD), 2.12; 7.10; 3.12; 2.118-19
exists between the Absolute and the multiple diversity that is 17. Rjataragn, 5.66
constitutive of the world. Since reality is one, so it means that the 18. amkara-digvijaya, 16.54-80.
experience of diversity cannot be said to be ultimately real. Thus the 19. K.C. Pandey, Abhivagupta, Varanasi, 1963, p.143. This is what
Trika advocates both theism and absolutism. See for further details Charles Eliot has to say concerning the content of Kashmir
Moti Lal Pandit, TrikaSaivism of Kashmir, NewDelhi, 2003, p. 5-6 aivism: In Kashmir it was chiefly philosophic, in Dravidian
3. Moti Lal Pandit, The Trikaaivism of Kashmir, p.38, n.16 countries chiefly religious. Inthe south it calls onGod to helpthe
4. Ibid., n. 17. sinner out of the mire, whereas the school of Kashmir, especially
5. Ibid., n. 18. in its later development, resembles the doctrines of amkara,
6. Concerning the five faces of iva, which are also known as the pentad though its terminology is its own. Hinduism and Buddhism,
of Brahman (brahma-pacaka), see Moti Lal Pandit, in: Identity in reprint, NewDelhi, 2004, 2.224
Conflict, NewDelhi, 1998, p.3, n. 29 20. R.G. Bhandarkar, Vaiavism, aivism and Minor Religious
7. Tantrloka (TA) 22. 40-41 Systems, Poona, 1928, p.129.
21. Ibid., p. 130. 8. See Mlin-vijaya-vrtika, (MVV) 1. 160-66
22. See MadhusudanKaul's IntroductiontoSD, p. Iii. 9. Ibid.
10. Ibid.
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z|||-|n ~l z||
|l+-ln|= -|n+ -||| -||
l||- n ~l-+|
+|--n nt|< <| -<| ~l

-nnl= <l n|-= -||l n|= -| |=

: -|
z|||-|nl z|| l||-nl-+|+|--n
n|-= <l -nn
- ll<- =||-+nnlz|-||-
~l= -||l n|= -
~|l>|--| |ln -||l l-|n-|ln :
: -|, -|+| +i |i, -|| +- |n,
-i-| |-| +, |ni ~|, |-i +,
:-- -|| +| <=| -|n '==|,n' |i t := z|< + -i- |
l, : nt|< i +||, ( -
t '=-=--,n', :- || +| -| := +| t 'n-||-
|i|, |-| t
=-|| = =||' lr: ti := -|| n -| n-n <,
n n-: ~l- -n :||z|| --n ti t| -| |i
nln- <|ni, =-n|l-=-n || ~| -ni --| z|ni :|l<
z|=| +| || - t|, +|| t t l+ -n z|| <- |n <-|~|
| +n |+--| + ti -ti l-+ ==||| |a+| + |i
+| |i z|| <- |n ~| -i-| |-| + , n|-| <-|
r<| +| <l- +- +i -|n-| |- t =-| n ~ := -|| +|
:|z|l-|| + ~l-=-< |ni +| :+|i+||| |- +-
n|--< = +| || ti +t| |( -| +|: ~l-| -ti t|i|
t- t|
l< +|: l--- - +| l+- |i, ||i < + ln(
ti =ti, z|z || ( =--i >z||l+- + =|| ||- +| |-
+ -| -=+| |i ||- i n=<| l-l- + <- t
n|-= <l :| -nn ~l= -||l n|= -
:| z|||-|n ~l z|| l||-n ~l-+|+|--n :nt|<|
l||--i- |-|-, --, =|l-- la|-|+n|,
:<|-<|~l| |=
--|--| -|| =|l-- |-- :|ni i| ~-
gs :n| n-:, l, : -|, -~|n,
t, -| |i, z|=-i t, +|l+,
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
ll <- =||-
+nn -|- -
lz|-||- ~|l>
lz| lz| z|-|| z| z|||-=n|z| + +||n
~l ~tn ~|l ~-|
- -|+nnnn| lt =-<|:< :
|ln - --|ln :l- -
lz| lz| z|-||
z|+ z|||-
=n ~|z| +||
+ lt - -|+nn
n n| n
=-< ~< + l-n|- -|nl|nn|+-l-|l-
|<||ln |- =l< =<|l<-| <|=
|- |- ~t -
=<| -l<- <|= =l<
||ln -|-
l-n ~|- +
- ~l|n n|+-l-|l-
-|n |
+- lt(, ~| ==| n|| +| ti =- |n l|- +| |
|- +il( ll<-=||-+nn - -lz|-||-
~-| n| :z|l-|n||
~|l> ~l :~tn| ~|l ~-| |ln - --|ln ::l- -|
l+=i ~-l-|- | -|l- t-|- |ni || +|
+ =n + ln( l-||i- |-|
yksdpfjrkful-|--, ll-|--, n, (+| -| +| +
l|-l|-, <-|~| +, =||- +,
n|+ t| t
+n +|, -|- ++ :-|||, |-- +-
|, lz|-|| +|, =t|| n+,
|i, : n|, ~|i |i, ~-- -i-,
~|| +|, -ti, |-|, : t -||,
| ~|z- t
lz| lz| z|+ z|||-=n ~|z| +|| + lt :t ~|--<|- |ni:| :n|, l|, < :|l<| <-|~|
- -|+nnnn| :n| =-< ~< +i =il| = --||-| |ln+|~| -- + -| +| (+<n
n||+, ~| |-- l+( |- + | ||- lz| + -|+nn|
t +-|| lz|:, t z||l-<|+:,
+| ~|> n- |i |- +| n ~|i |i := ~-- l---+|l +
t +-||+|+, t z|||-| + l-,
|-n +| -ti | t| t, ~- t t- ~- +| l| t
+|n |:, :n | z|i| ti, &<|,
~- |ln == l---+|l +| |-n ~||- |-
+il(, +|l+, ~|+, -|+nn|
+|n n =t=| -| ~|- |n <tn|-|| +i |ln+|
+, | +|, |- +- n, n t(, : sn
=|, :n|-| i| =<|(, < -ti :t =+-i|
t ||-, =| +| +-|| +- |n lz|, nn + -;n
z|-|, ~|<|~| +| z|n- +- |n z|+, ~| z|||-| + -ti:
|- |- :~t| - =<|-l<- <|= =l<
n -<i <| +il(, t |- l-lz-- t l+ ~|+
||ln :-|-| l-n ~|- + :-| ~l|n
-|+nn| +i |i +|, --| =, n| +- |n :|+-|
n|+-l-|l- -|n |
-| + ln( l< l|l-| < -ti t =+-i t
t ||-:, -+, : n|, --t||,
+nn = -|| +i |i:zi a|--|
=<, :=| n| -, =+, z|i| ti
+| +--| ~||- a|-l+|nil- ,n
:~||- z|l-||- =|, - |-, : - -+ ti|,
~-|, :--|n| n|, + +,
-|+|l|+nn|=-ni-| ||l- <-l--
: ~||, =|i, n|+t|| +|,
- ll~|nl+|nn-|ln--nz|niz| t=l--
| n, ~|-|l<- +
:z| -|+~l|+nn ~|=-ni-| ||l-
t ||-: -+ n t- -<i :~||- -i z|l-||- t|-
--l-- - ~l+|nn- ~|ln--n :~- (| ~z|
ti| ~|+ l- ~|a|+|i <|=|| i -t l-la- t| |-
lll~| t=l--
- -+ ~- |= t-- + =ti n| :z|l-|n|| +| -|n|
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
:z| -|+ ~l|+nn
||l- --l--
- ~l|+|nn-
ll~| t=l--
+|z||| - ll|-, l+-- |l- l-||-n
-=< |- ln|:=i | +l--|:l l<
|- - -
+|z|| ll|- l+--
~l l-||- - |l- --
:z |+l-- l<
t :z:, | |+--, ~|+,
~-|| +l-- |<l|-l-|n --| -
-|i +nn| +, ~|=- a t(,
|<+= =l-- :l+--| +--|l = ||-n ~-|-
~-i l- + ~-=|, - +| l-n||
,z|- :=l--|
+- t, , ~l+| + l+| =,
|| t ||- :, + l-- + n| , | < f n|i , t=- t
:~|-|n+| |< i, l|-|=i :~||- -i=|,
t :z: | |+-- ~|+ -|i +nn| + ~|=-
l-|n l-| = , - -| -| t| +, -~| + ,
-i- n<| n a+, ~-i --| :-| + ~-=|, lz +|
|<+-|+nn| +|, =~|--<=, =l---|- t,
l-n|| +- t- t, :=l+-| t|- +| ~l+| + nn =
:l+--l+--|, +--|l+ ln :~|+ |+- -||,
ln t(, ~| |i-|| n ti t( n| i +| n||n -|-
=(+|i, ||-n+ - t(, ~-|-l--- l|-,
t- t
|n, ,~| |<|| =, z|-alt- ~|+
-|+nn| +| ~|--<=, :=l---|- t ~||- n- t|
:t =n |:| |<|=-| + |ni =| = <-|
:~||- +l=-| l-| ti l+ t- |n +: n| ~|+
|- :-| -+|z|| ll|- l+-- -|+nn| + |=i = +| ti |- +- t- t, l+ -n n
:~l| l-||- - |l- -- :z +l-- l< ~l :| +: :||z||ni| n| '-+|n ti +- t(, ~||- =n|z| <z||
:n|| =< ln ~l= n l t|- + -+|n ti ~-|l- +| l| -- |n, -
-|l-- - - t( ~| ,- ti lnn| = lt- = +| -| +-
t ||-:, : -l+|, ~| +,
t- t
+|z| =, al|-, +,
: |i|, -n+, -ti =+-|, :=ln(, =+- -+ =|+ +| n- ,-|| + ~l- ~- <||
t |ni:, || =, < ~||- ~|-, = |i +- t| - -+, +|: n|| -|t, l-<|--<|| +i ~-|l-
t|- t( |i, :a~||, :n|n|, =<=<| ti, |-- -ti + =+-| t ~- := l| n | =-- t- +i
ln|--, ~l=t ~|z+-| t|-i t
t ||-: ~|+ +|z|n = ln + +|: |i -|| ll< ||l- l|| - | +<|-- nn|n-l<|
<|| :--|-|+| 'l-||-'~||- lz<| n l-ll--
=| l< l|- |-|- l-|:l= lll+n-|--
t| ti -ti =+-| t, ~- l ~| :|-|n+| ||
= '<'~||- ~-- -- |n ti t, -| |i :|, , -in
~--|| ~n-l<| | - l|| +<|-- nn ll<
:|l< ~--- n+|z| + n| =<| tn| |= ti t
||l- =| l< l|-| ( |- -- :| ll|- l- ~l=

|<= - +l-< |<l|-l-|n-|
-||:t ~l|n||i| |:, ~n-n|--< =, l<|=-i
+--|l =l-- - =| ||- n-|-,z|-n t:, ||, -~| +i, l||||, +<|--+|i :~||- l+=i
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
=n|l+|n n|, nnn, ll<lni +i ||l- :-|| n|| + |i + t| |:(
ln(|, ||l-+|lz|- t|-i t, =|t :~| +i n+|,
- |l-n| +|l- <nt || l<l<, l|-| (~| ~l+ l|, |-~- |-i, ---|
-+| -< -|ln <|l--nln - l+l-- l, :a~|n =|, ll-ll+, l-l-,
~l=t|-, l+n--~--~:== + ~| |n| +| :n ln(
~-|- :|-|| ||| ( -| ( ~t
|~-i t|-||
l-n| < +|l- -- +| -< -|ln -<-l-- l+l--
- ~ln t -||: ~|+i <il-- +i | +|: ~|-i ( ~n- + =
= -- n+ n '+|i+||'~||- l+=i =n|l +i
|-t ||-:, :|-|~||, |||| -, (ti,
~|| n ~||||l=- t| |-i t, ti ~ l-||l-i - |-i
-| (~-i ti :-| = :~||- l--| ~-tz|l+- =|,
-| ni | ll- =- t| |-i, ~| n ln( -== + ~|
~tan, l-n|~- :a|- +| n| , <,
+ |i |-i -ti t |-|
+|l-||| t, ---|, +|+| |- t l+ :n|,
-< -|ln -| =|=|l+ n|| +i ||l- ti, t| +-| t, |+- -n< |- +i ~|| n |i
-~~| ~| +i, <<i +, -l--a| :~||- ~|+i =n|z|+|ni- +|z|n-| +i l|-| +i |-~|| + t t
<i t-+ |-- ||, l+l-- -+ |i -ti,
=nnl- - l+l-< - l< l- nt| ~ln|--| t
a| l=-|:| | -| | =+| n
t ||-: :<= l+=i - -ti -| ~| |ni -
ti ~| ~-i ti :-| = n ~- n| :z|l+-n| |
~-:||| - l< | ~- =n ~l= ~ ll~|-
||| t, -- - |- n +|+ ~|i |i -nn|z|in z|-|
- ~l- :l- nt| a| || ( ~| :n|| l=- -||
+ ~- ~|-| + | n +| +| +|| ti t`
( :| n =+ |
+|:l < rl< -| -|+| -|- =||| --|n :||st |ni:|, -=- <||, l< |~||,
+||-<l--|<-|-+| - -:l =|i+-|l |n ~-~=- <||, =n= +, ~l=~| ti t,
~:~| + l-|| ~|, ll~|-+ |i, - ~l--ti t,
~-< -|+ +|:l --|n =||| -| tl<
:l-:= +|, nt|i, a|lz =, || (= ti,
-|- - - -+|| ~-<l--|<-|-+| ~l l- =|i+-|
~|:= - n, :n|n-|, &~| + +|,
l|-l-z- l+| t, -|| (= ti, :~||,
nn, =+~-i -t +, |t| |
<t <-|:, -|+~|+ +i, +|:l(+
~n|l++, --|n~| -+, =|||~|--<<z||, -|--
:t =|i <:| -|t || <||| +| | ~||
:|+-|| +, rl<r< n, -|-sl+l=- t|-i t, -l==,
<||| +| ~|n| t| =| +| =|| +n ~| +| t, ~|+
-s, -~| +i, +||+|| i, ~-<n|| +i,
= :- | ~l-l+- ~| + |i -ti t, n- t-
l--|<|t :+| -|t- |n|, -|-+|:~|+ |+- i|
= = n- ~|+ = +| l-|| ~- lnz| n +
-|-+, ~l|i, l-l- +|n -+, =|i+-|
|| t, ~| ai+ -=i n 'n =|n-'~||- ||-+|n n
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
:=n|z| +| ~|--< n ni-, :|l--t| |- t|

| ll-|==+l- z|l- z|-z||:-<il-
t <: :~-t + || - t(| |+--| + r< n (=i
z|< ~|lz|l- l-|z|- --|-
+|: ~|-i ( -+ +|l +i ~|--<ni ~|| -l<- t|
|-i t, l=+ || = ~|+i --| + |ni n|n|n| +i
- l-- n|nn |n- ~l- | l-- lz|l-
|t = tl|- t|- |n |+-i -|-+ l-+|n -+
z|z|i =-|:n-|z||- |< ==l- -|n-n:
~-- l>|l-- +i ~|| n -i- t| |- t
~-ll-|==+l- z|-z| ~l -<il- ~n
-|| l +|l nin| | (| l||n|-
z|:l- z|< l- ~|z|| ~l --|- :=-|
l,||l =|| -|| =nl- nl- =n|=n:
~|lz|l- - z|z|i : ~n-|z||- =- |< - nn-
==l- :=| lz|l- | n|nn l-- |n- ~l- -
~-:|ln-| -|| l (| | +|l nin|
:(| l--
l||n ~|- - :-||| l| |l -|| =+|| =nl-
:-| =n -= nl-
ll-|: =n|z| +| ~-a, =~|--<= +,
=+=i-- =, l-lz +| |-- t~|, z|-z| ~l~|
:|ln-t |ni:|, -||~| + |+-| +|,
=+| |, -<il----|| n ~|| t~|, |, ~nt,
l~| + l-, (|t :~=|n|-|, |~-|,
z|:l-'lz|' 'kCn%z|<, l-z|~| + =n|- :n| n||
+|l:~| +i| ~n|l++, nin|&vuqxzgnin| =,
+|, ~|z||r<| n, ~l|i, --~ :-n+| +|,
l||n~::--|| , ~|-|-| t, -l+, :-||--
|- = +-, :=-t|+|, ~|lz|l-l- t|-| t,
|+--| +|, l|l| :~||- ||-| +i, |l<z|| n
-~| | :t 'lz|' z|<|, z|z|i :-<n| +i -|:,
|i, -||t :~| + +i|, =+||--| :~||,
~n-|z||-~n-n +n| =, =-=|l- t|-| t~|,
=nl-nl-, :-~| +|, =n&Lo:i=n|n +,
|<qn, -~|, nn--+ ~n-, ==l-| t|-|
-=-= +|, nl--- +-i t
t, :=|ti :~l-- nltn| = +-|, lz|l-
lz|l-, |ql- :|+-|| +, n|nnsn|nn n,
:t nz:| n- = ~|+i =| +- |n |+-| +|
l--l-z-- n, |n-|n-i, ~l-t-i t, -,
~|+ l- :~=|||| ~-|, l+=i :zi nin| = ti, (=i
:(ti|, l--- t
-n=in| t- |-| t l+ ~|= ln- +i ~||
:||- ~||| n |i, +n ~|+i --| | n| n|| +-
= ti ~|+ =|| lnn- +| -= n-|- n- t
:t z|+ nt|<:| ~l-ln+|i l-<|--< = +
l+| = l -|| t~|, ~| =|=| | n| = --||
=+- :+| =| +| =| lnn- +i ~|| n ti ~-|
|-| t~| 'z|+'t z|< ~lz| -| + |i r< n l-n -
l+| | =+-| t, l| +i ~|| n -ti, -- -- n+-+
ti - '|-'~||- n|+|-| -n+| +| =|| n+, ||
n -||+| - | l|<z|| n ti lnn- + ~|--< +| |- l+|
= ti, l<- t|-| t-| t, ~| | 'lz|' z|< '~n-|z|
t -== n|nn +i ~n|l++-| ~l|l- t|-i t
='~||- ~n-ni ~n|+n| = --<n| +i ||l-- |lt- t|-|
:|| +|l nin|-:zi z|l-||- =
t~|, -|| ~| =, ~l- |l< ( n|+|-| ~n-= + l- +|
:| l||-||- +i ~||
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
--ln- +-| t-| t, -=i :z|+ z|<| +i ~- l- l+nl -+ -|| n-|l l= -
:ln| |+-| + n|nn l--- -i t-i t, --+i
+| t|
~--|| =-- |- n| -< ln|+-
=+--- n+-+n n -||+| - z|| +i l=
n|n=--= nn n-|+ : -- l+nl + - ~l|n|l|l-
---- |ln+| +| =|+l-+ |- -- l+| t, -=+| z|||i
=- l=
z|<| n lnn<| +t- t =|+ +| := |ln+|
=|-||+| l+=i (= n|+|-| n t|-| t l+ t -||t |ni:, =--=<|, l|n t(, |-~| +,
|i lln- t| |-| t :=i +|| = := ~|| +| z|||| n n|n|+nn +, -<n|| +|, ln|+-<|- +
lnn<| +i =a| <i : t -- n+-+ n := ln +i ln(, n|n=n|n|l- - t(, --=n- |n, nnn ,
~l|-| nn n|+ n + ll-| z|< = t|-i t n-|+ :| =|, --t, l+nl~n|l++ :~-t|,
++il(, -l== l+, ~l|n|:n| =|n-, l|l-
l=n|--ln||ln< < lln-|:ln| n-=| nn
=-at t( n, l=~| + t| |
-<l -|l- |||n+|l|-nl
t -||: tnz|| l|n| t~| t- |n ~|+ n|i +nn
~-:||| :<n - - l=n|--n : :-| n-= + '-<' ~||- +l|+| +| <|- + ln( -=- t( n- |n n
~ln nn lln- -<l |-|~n+|l|-n ||| =| 't +' ~||- ~-|z|l+- z|l+-|-, +il( l=+
~| ~l -|l- n ~| ni ~| n| ++ at t( n n =|n-
l- t| =+
:||t |:|, :<nt, -|+, --,
l=n|--n :=n|-- t|- +| t, :-~||, n-=:n| n- n|+nn-+nn + =n|- n| ~||- z|l+- + |n|
+|, ~lnt- |, nnnn :l+||, lln-- t~| n| z|= n n| z|< = z|l+- +| ~l|| ln| |-|
t, -<l-| |i, |-~| +i, ~|--<i +, ||+ t'z|i n|lnt|--' mnj-+nn + i-|ni +l|+| ~||
+, ~n ~n|+-, +|l+|, f|-n ~| ~l| i+|| -- = n +l|+|i z|l+-ia
n-|+~ -|l- - -l-+ =| |i, -ti |n-|
:t tn |:| t |-| ==| -| ~ =n|-- =|
<l|<n- - l+ =|lnt|l- l|l-||| t~| | t| t, n- || t- |n| =|- nn |i n -+| t,
(=i l|l- t|- |i ~|+ - :l-<|--<||| + l=t ,| + -l<t -|+<|=- l+ +|nl- n- lr-|n
~n n l+| -n|| |i -ti |n t t
~- | ::z|| :t < ~l|<n- l+ - ~ =|n ~l- -~|+| -, l--ni
|-l=t,|, - n z| +- +| n |+ ~| ~| l|l- -- -|+ <|=- n- -| lr l+
~n-+|a +i l=l+-i, ~|l- +| ~||
+|n (l-
::z|t |:|, :t:= ==| n, <~| +i,
~l|<n- ~|<lz +| |+, l+ -|n| +|- =|,
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
~<=|, =|n=|, ~l-(t| =+-|| t, ~|~|,
- l+n |l- =n -- ,<lnnin= ~|(+|- =i| <=i, l-|l- =<| (t| =+-i| t, ---|
(l (=| t|- t( -|i|, -|+~| +, <|=-<|= +|, -<l =l<|l>-=n l+ln<n|l- - |||l| n
n-n-, -|:= (~,|--<| lz| +|, lr| +,
~-(-||| = ,<lnnin= ~ - l+n - l+a+|, +|n~(||-i| +l=- n| +| ti, (l-t|
- l- -<l (| =l- ~|l>-=n (=-| :< n +- n-| t
~|l- l+ - |||l|
(t n <:| ~|+i ~-|<-||-| = c+ := ==| n
(-||t :|, ==n, ,<l-|<<l =, ~| +|- =| =| | +|- | -| t| =+-| t`-| l ~|+
nnin= nln- -| t~|, ~t, -i, l+nl-l- <|=- +| ~||- n| n- := ~-|<-||-| = nt n|+ +l=-
n, -~| +, l<|n| +|, - l--ti <| n|| +i ~| +| -|+-| | t| t`
|-| t, -<l -| -|i, (~||, =l-=a ~|,
-||nit - -|+<|=-| l- -|nt l+n -||-n vkfJr-|+-| + l-, =n~-+n, (=-t|- t(|, :<
n:= ni, ~|l-+| +|, l+ -+| -ti, |||l|=-- -|<-|<=|=n|<|<l- =nt - -
(t =a <:| t |- l-+n =-i t l+ -|<<l = nn
~-(-||| - ~t ~|<|- (| ~l- -|<~-|<=
- t( l|| |n |- ~|+ |-l+ (l+||n|
~|=n - =n (-lt| ~t :t -|+<|=-| l- -||- -||nl
+| <| -ti |- t, -| -|i ~| = +z |-- |n ~|
l+n - -|n
|||-| + -ti t|- + -|- ni := n-t| -|i t| +| +|
-ti =- t t` (-||t |ni:|, -l<, ~tn, ~|<|- ~|< =,
(~||, ~l-n|-|, -|<~| +, ~-|<=
-|||| <= n| n l-| ~|+ +| -ti <| =+-
~,|--<= i, ~|=nnl<| +|, - =n|< - n-|
t +|l+ -|<<l = nln- - t( t l -|i ~|+| =
t, (-ltZ-| l|, ~tn, :tt|, -|+~| +, <|=-|
+z n|nn t l+ n l+-- |-i n t ~| t l+ := =n
l-<|=-|| +|, -||-||, -||nl-|| -| + ln( -|i,
~|- nn -|i :-ti n|| + =|| +| ||`(|ni i ~-
l+n+<|l, - -|n- - |:
(t +||n|- n:| ~ n ~|+i ~-|<-||-| +
nl= -|| +<|l<ilt- l|=|n||l n|l|-n
=i ~|= (nl<|| +|, | =, ~||< - n-| t, -|
=--n -|,i-||| n-n-|inn nn <lt --: l- = := ==| n n n-| + ln( -|i ~|+| <|=- --
+ ln( :+- || -ti - =+-| t
~--|| l+ nl= (-| n| +<|l- ~l
-|||| := ==| n (+ -|| + ln( -|i nn ~||| -ti |i l|=|n :lt-n ~||l -- ~|l|- nn (-| (+n|
l+ n ~|+| <|= - =+ n- (+ ~-z| +|n l+| || l+ -|,:-|| ~n-n ( =--n ~nn ~-|in -- ((| nn|
~|+ ~-|< = +| |< in continuity n- l+| || ~| t -|i <lt
~|< + =|| l= t = n ~| +| <|= -| (|ni i
-||t |ni:, l+ +| ~| +|, nl=|< t, nt|| ~- |
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
(-~ l +|, n| n - , +<| l - +-| i , ~l -| i , ~|= n| n`
l|=|nl|=| +i, :lt-n| +i t, ~||l
| =|:-nnl- l| |-<n|-|l-l-| =t = --~~|| (t l|=||, ~l|-n|| t`(= -| t t l+|,
+|l =| l- l||l| -||=-|||:: nn(-|nn -|, (+n+n|, -|, ~| + +|,
:-||=|-||+| i, ~n-n~n-, (ti, =--n=<,
~-| = l|- -<n| -|l-l-| = =t ~nn~--, ~-|inl t, -- ((|ti (ea) <ltnn
~-nn (l- =| -|| = -||| +|l l||l| <il(
t -||: +| ~|+| |< t l+ +| n- +-|i l| =| +|
|l= (~||| n, =t, l|-(|| i| = ~-|- +i ~-|| +i t ~|| (~| =| +-|i :=+i |-|-| +i
-||-, -<n|(~|- i| -<n|, -|l-l-|~|l<, t`nn -|, =, tn|| ~|+ ~=ni +| =|-||+| +- +
==-|i (l+- i -||||| +, =t=lt-, |n| ~n-|- +-| ti, |-- n||| n, l+ t| t, ~-
~-nn~-, (l-t| |-| t, =|t, -||~-i nn ti <il(
(l<l|i| +|l- +, == =, -|||<<i-n|-
-|||| t -||: | ~| |< + l+ +| n- ~- =|
|ni, +|l~n|l++, l||l| l||l|, l-- t
Life time n +-|i ~| = l| =|| +| n|| t, | +-|i
(t ni- l|:| l= ~|| n '='~||- =|=|l+ problem solve +- + ln( +t| t, +|l+ n- t
|||t ~| '-<n|'~||- ~|-|t =| '-||nn'~||- =n ~|+ n|-| + +z -ti n||
l+-|~| + =n- ~- t| |- t, :=i ~|-i (
l+n < l||l- -|+ +-<|:ln nt| --z| ~-i ti l+||ni ~|-|| + l| = n+-i t: l||l|
|-||-|-l<-|l- -< n l+n n -|- -||: +i +| t|
~-|l-nt l|| n|+|lnn n- ~-nt| l+n <| ( (~t| - :-z| -|+ l|
-i= -<l|n -|<l||-|n-=- lti-n: ~l- +-< ~ln -<| ( n |-| |-|l- :l<-|l- (:-|
-|| (~t| -|- ~ l+ n
~-~n ~t -|- ~l||- ~n-=- lti-
nt|t n:, l+n=n, <| (-| ti,
:|l- l|| n|+| -- ~l|nn ~|ln ~l -i= n-
(~tan-|, -~| +i :-z|:-z| =, -|+~| +,
~nt <:, ~tn, -|-~| +, ~l||| f'ko+-||n, ~l-n| , +-< ~ln<|| l+|,
+, |-| i, ~n-=-~n-= +, lti-l-|, -<| (| ti, nsn, |-||-|l-=+| (+| +| +-||
:|l-|-- l+( (, l||-i-|, n|+|n|+| +, --:=, +|, :l<-|l-:< t~|, (:<:= ln(|, -||t -|:,
~l|nn=|, ~|ln|ln +|, ~l-|i, -i==ti- (~tn|, -|-~| =, ~~|, l++|, nn|`
~||- --z, n-=nn-| t
t nt|- :: l- = l=i n n-, ~|+i ti :-z| =,
t <|l<: ~ ~|+ || +| z- + |n ~n-= ~|+ nnn n| | t, :=i n = n =+| +-|||
+| |- +- + l-| nn -i-| +i -|-| +| |ln -|i :n +| n :l<- t~| t, ~- t -|, :== c+ ~| +| t| | n
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
t|, t =|| ~| (+<n -i= n| ~---|i- -||, lt|t =, <n|-l<||: <- t(,
~l-|i, ||-=<, <|i<| ~||- <|- |n +
l|| n|+|--| -| ~| , ~|| -|, ~-|, ~|
n, (l=+ t|- t
t ~n|: (<l-+ t| n| n|-| |- t( (~||-
- -|| <c|:n|n-| -|<|l-n +n-- n -|ln+| :- + | + l| -|( |- t(| -|i ~|
< |n|-n n |ni n|- - n|-|:l:: 'nt|||'~||- =- -|+--| + ln( +n '+'~||-
| +- |n n|-| + n ti |n|| t- t, =|| ti :=
~--|| - | ( +n-- -|- ~|l-n ~n ==| n lt n | ~- n < t|- t( -|i tn||
~|n- <c (~l-| < ~ |n|-n ( |n ~i '<|'~||- <|- |n n|-| + n ln- t|- t- t
n|- ~l - n|-
-| ~t ~|nnt l+-| = t|- + +||
-||t |ni:, -~t|:, |~| =, (ti, +n-- =<| n|--|| ti ~ln - t- t l+=i -|i ll|l- n
-|: : (~||, -|-~|+ ( +||, ~|l-nz| n -ti - |- t =| -||+| - tn -|i =nn|| t l+
|- |ni, ~nt, ~|nn|-l=+, -|a, <c((=i| || n - ( +, < ( <| <|-| +| =n=|n+ (+|
n-, (~l-t|, <l+, ~t, |n|-n (-||=n|- t| |-| t :-+|l + -|+-, l-+| n- |,| -|<|=-|
t|- |n, |n~| +i, ~i:-|| (| ~tn-|| ++, :|l< +| +i |- l-|| = ||| n ~| i -t n+- -
n|-| =i, ~l-|i, - n|-cini -ti t|-i | t|, =n|| +i <|| n := - ( + +i =|-
(+|+|-| +| ~--| + n- t =|- (+|+| +i <|| n =n|
t -||: ~|+ +i ~+i |-+|i + |ni
n~| n|--|| n ti lni- t| |-| t ti +|| t l+
n|-l=+ +a| ~|- ti n ~--= n :-- +i t, t :--i
t t( -|+--| + ~--ln| n -||- tn|| n|| n|-
n- t l+ =n|| +i ~|| n -||=n|- t|- |n ~|+i
n |n|| t- t l=z -|+-| +i n|--| t t l+ -||- +|
:-|| ++, n|| -|i cini -ti ti t
n n|-+ | ti -ti t|-i t ~-, l---lnl|- -||+ +|
~-=-|- +-| =|+ + ln( n ~|+ t
nt-|nn| -n|-|:-l-| l-al= ++
'| -|n - || nl- l+- <c|
lt--it <n|- l= <|i ( || |-: l-l+- nt||l-- =| | n|<|'

'~|niln< -|| l|- nl|n|l-|+ ~-~n| (| ~l-| -n|- ~l nt-|
~- >i<< -|-||-|~||l i- +(+ l-al= (| :t ~-- lt <n|- ~l ||
||| -|| =n|--
|- <|i ( l=
. |.. -||l:l- |a
~n|t <-|~| + |ni:, (a~||, ~l-|l---,
:. |.. -|-n:l- |a
-n|- |- t(, ~l-|i, nt-|nt||| ~||- -|+--|
. |.. ll|=:l- |a
:. |.. l=-|:n-|||-:l- |a + ln(, +&,d&:i%+n + + n ti,
l-al=(+|l|-| t|- t, (~||, :t:= - n,
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
n-|| +| ln|| +- a|- t|-| t
l+ ==| n <||| +i =-| +| n|| t
a|- + ,|| :-+| t| ~- =-| ~|
a|- | t, :=i +| t| +|| +i

|<|ni = -- l+| | t +|l+

<|| =- t:=+| ~l-|| t, <||

+|l|- t| t| t := +| ~l-, a|-

~| +||- | t ~ <=|
-| t ln| | a|- n l| + ln

:-<|i t ln| +| ||l<+ ~| t

l| | --| +|| t| =- +|
l-l-l t|+ -|||-|| || +| --
+-| t, ti ln| +: -t + +|
+-| t t <| <||| +| =|l- +-|
| -||-i =+l- +| ~l-||- :=i ~|-| = |-| +i ~| ~|- +i t, l|l- +-| t, ~-=|- -|i +-| t
~ t := -|l|+ -| n | l+| t | :-n = +z -|i -ti +-| t ~-|<-,
-|| +| ll| ||- t t| -|<- -|<|-|<- =-|i +| + || :=i
t| t | -- ~-i :-z| =
l| -|| |l+- +| +-< n |+ =|| +| +|-|| t := ln| = ti (+ ~-
~-i |-| +| lz|+ ~- +| ll
l--- l+l=- t~| :- | -|| + l-- t|-| t |--| -- :=
~||| = c+-| t ~| -|-| +| +
~,|<i n n-| ~|ai |-|<i n |-| +| ~||<+ t |--| ~| :=
n|-| -|| n | n +|l|- t|-| t
+ni n (+ <||l-+ =-<| +| :<-| |--| +| ~||<+ t ln| t
ti - ~- | +| |--
t~| :=i +| -|n | +|ni |--| (+ =n-|t|i t | :=
+-| |t-| t -| :- ~||| +| +n =
l||,|< := =-<| - ||,- +i =-<| + -- +| ~l-| -|| t
: | l-| l+=i +n + --- t| + :=
ll| <l +| l-|<- l+| t |-| t +|| ln| +| =nl-- t
|-| +| |-- + n-| t := +| t|
+i ||| t| =n-|+ t l=n =|i -- :- <|-| |||~| + nn n -|i t
:= (+ |-- +i :-z| + <| -<| +
=-||-| l=ni t: t ~|-|, -|<, <| n| ln+ -z-| -||
n ti =l n-i -|i t -|| l=ni -|i
l||-||= = := |-- + ti ~ t -z-<-| l-| +||- ti =-| t

:= +| t| =n-| +| ~| t = +z t| -n- t, = <| n l-l-- --|i
+|ni l||,|< +i --nin|=|
~- n =n n-| :=i +|| t| ~| =-| t|-| t t -z t|, ai+ :=i
|<i t t| = +z a|- + -
+| | +| ~ -| + ti |-| +| ||| +| n|n| -|i | l-nn t :=i +||
ti |l- t||- t t| =- +| l-||l|- :
l+| | t =|| - := | -- +| t l+=i -|i n +|l|- t| =+-| t
+- |ni |<|ni -|i ll| t
ti =+| ~| l+|= t (+ ti | -- <| n l-l-- + ln -| |ti l-
:l-|<| +i =ll- |<|ni=- l-
~- +| lz|+ -|-| | n +i ~|+-| t|-i t, t| (= l+=i
~| ln| t l--~|--< -- :=
-||l=- t|-| t ~| := ==| +| t| l- +i ~-|| + l-| :=i ln||n+
-|l|+ l||,|< +| =n-||<i
l--- ~| ~|l-+ =-<-|
|. ni| -|i
=r= ||or + =+n |-rrn = =q =r.
=|r nrn| +=| r r +| ==rn |r ;|
nn =r = +=| |rrr +| ==nnrr|
|c +| r=r|+ =-r = =rr+nr =-r
|rr = ;= nn +r ;| ;|
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
|--| + n l-l-- |l- t|-| t l=n l- t|- -|i := nn -- n t

==| + =| ||i :=i | -- +i

t := +| =|i l+| := ln| -| +|: |-l+ l-- |l- -ti t|-|
-z| = lt- t | ~|- t| |- =
+| ti +- t :=i +| := <|- +i |<|ni n -<
:= |-| +| |+ |l+-|l+-n|- ~- |-l+ +| -|n t ~|
+t| | t
+| + -|i t =|| l := ~, -- |nn|| +i l+| t| n|| :=i +|| ==| + --| n |+ <||
: :
+| ti | t, ~- :== |l+- n ti |nl-|a|- t l=n +z -| -ti + -||i t t l< ||||- =, +
~l-- t|-| t +|l+ --|i := ~,-| +i |-- t|-| - n|| ln- +| :<| = ~|| ~-i l--|| = :-t ~-
-|| +- t( ll| +i || l-|a|- t|-| t t ln| -|i l+=i ln- +| l-|a|- t| | -|
=-| t =| <|| =-||-| n :=n |ti +|| = -n -ti n-| - ~-i |-| + ~||< = -| | ~|
ln|- t, ti l| |l+- +i +--| n + ,|| - ~||l- t t -| ==| + +| = :-t nl+- lnn |i

+| =|n- :l|- +-| t ~| =|i ~- |--| = -l- t|+ ti l-n| := l-|a|- + ln l+=i +a| =|-|
=-||-|~| +| =n (+ | -- ti t| ~| :-n| +i +i| +-| t ~- l= +i ~|+-| -ti t - n|| ~- n
=+-| t t |l+-|l+-n|- +| + -|i n t -||l=- t|-| |-| t -+ ==n-|| +i <l l+l=- +- +i
==| +i || n -|i n -|ln+| -||l=- t|-| t ~| |t l= n ~-|| t +|l+ - + =| --
l--||-| t =|| ti ~|nn|-| +i l+| n ~-t ++ := t ~- = (+ + ||i :=i | -- + =+l- ~|-||= t
-|i :=+i n -|ln+| t :=iln( t| n-| t ~- l-||-, =l, l|l-, =t| t =+| -|i := n=-| +i :-z| +|
|l+-| + n|n = |l+-n|- +| ~| ~-t :=i + |--| +| ti ti l||n t ~| := =+| +| t|+
~|l+| ti n|-| +| n- t +||- t :=+i |-| + ti | = -||l=- t|- + ln -|i
n +i -t ti =iln- n|-| -|i -|-| |+ t :-ti + n|n = t -- :-<|i t ~- n=- +i <l = -
|l+-| +| =n t ~| :=+| + ~-i |-| + ~||< = -l- t|+ - - t - n|-| = +z := -| |
|| := :=+i n-| +i ~| n +i -t +i| +-| t~| |n-z|<- -- +i -|-| +| ti +||- t ~

|- |n| +<n ti t -|| |nn|-| + -<| = l-<- t|-| tn|i =|i l+| :=i |-- +
:=i +| t| a|- l+| + =|n
t l-|a|- +| =|- - |-i t :=n t
+i +--| + ,|| -|i :=i |-| +| ti :=i --nin|=i <l +| n+ l<
- n|| t l+ tn|| =|| || ~|n|
=+-- l+| | t =| <|| -|| =|i ~|l-+ =-<-| n l| l+| | -| t
+ ti =-<-| n |l- t|-| t ~| :-
l+| := | -- +| ~ t :=i l--- ~| | ti |=l+ t ~|
l+|~| + ,|| l-|-- +| ~l-|-- -|- +i
+|| t nt t :=i +| n|--| =|=|l+ <|| = nl+- +| n|
l+| ~|-| = |-| +i ~| |- +i
<|--| -|| n|=-| || ti t <| l< |t = ~||l-
l<|| n (+ +<n t n|-| +| n +
-|i :=i |-| + l-|<+ + t t| t -| :-= nl+- +la- +|n t l<
=|| -|<|--|| +i |l-- -|< n ~-|< +i

<|--| :=+i ~|-||=- l+| tn|i -z| = ti ti- t -| :-= n+-

||-| +| |= t -|< <l t|

+| =+-+ t ti n|=-| (+ t|-| =n t :=i <l = t| +t| | t

~|-| +i |+ t ti ~-|< |-| +i
ti -- n -|-| || +i =|n +| t| +z -|i z|- | t| +- +i
l-<|+ t tn|i =|-<t| +i =|i
+-| t :=i +| ~|+-| -ti t, n|| |n| n
l-| :=i ~|nla|l--- --ni-||
=|il-| := l- +| l-<| +-| ~l|- t| |-| ti <|| = =|| nl+-
+i ~|| +| |-- +|-i t: := |-|
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,

+ l-|a|- n =|-||- n|| t =-|i :=i t- || + =-<-| n l|n-|~|, ~--l||, n-

:= +| := l--- + ~-=| =||
=l+ t ~ - +|: =|| t|| ~| - ~|l< +| nn +|| t tn|| (+-|i
t| ~|-| = |-| +i ~| ~|- +i
+|: +| -+ + l+- =| |- n i- + =| -| (+ <=
||| t l+=i -|i <|| = tn -||l-
~-~- l-i lt-| +i | n =n- + + t ==| +| t <||, t l|
--|i t|- t := ~- = |- t :=
t --|i -+ =|i =n|, =| +| +i (+ | || +| ~ t|+ ti =||+
nn | ~t-|| +| t| ||+ <|--
l|l- =-| t l< + ~- +| (+ t z|iz|i ||~| +|, i :==
~|= +| l||n n|-+ l-+- +-|
=n || + ~| n ~--| + -|i i +| := +| = (+ |
t ti t --nin|=| := := ~|n--
-| - | l< t|| ~| (+ || +i ti ll :+|:| + n
+ l-|a|- +| +|| n|--i t t -|
|+ =| :-- t|| l== i ~l-- t (+ n |- + ln ti
~|||| +| |-| +i ~| n |- +i
n|--| +| +-|| t|| ==| + =| <|| =l+ t ~--l|,
l<|| n (+ =||- t :=iln( ~|| +|, ,|, :|, n- = :=i
+| =|| +i l|l- --|i
~l-|--- t| +z -|i |- -ti n|-- (+|i =| = :- t l< =|i
:-- t|-i t tn l+-- lt-| +
:-+| =<| t l+ ~- n =n-| +i || ~|= n (+ <= = ~l-- t
ln =l+ t|+ =|nlt+ lt- +i |-
<l :-- +|, +z -|i t -ti t|, -|| (+ t- |- = =|ln- t|
-|n |- t ~ tn =< t |- |<

+z -|i |- -ti t|| t ~-z| t | ti l--- l+l=- +-| +|ni

t l+ ==| +| + || := |
|, = -| =|-| ||| t, ~- l||,|< +| n- t ~| :=iln t|
|| + ~-< |l- t| t| t ~|
l+=i l-|-- l+- + =-<-| n ti |l- +i =|-| +| :<< t (+ | i-
:=+| n- := n |- +i l=lz
t|i l< (+ ti =-| t | -z| = <l <-| :=i <l = t| -|| ~| n|-|
+-| t - - +|: l| t|| - +|:
-|-| | n -||l=- t| ti t -| tn l+=+ <|-| = ti :=i ~|n-- +| n|-|
=|| ~| - +|: ~|| ~ =|
=-<-| n ~-z||, :l-~-l- ~|l< l-|l<- t t| |l-+ -|| = |--
l-| -|i :-- ti ~|=+ t| l--

||||~| +| | + = +z t|- |n| ~|--< = ti n|-| +|-

l-<| l+- lt- =nl lt- +| lt=| t|
~|n-|| = t| +- :|, ,|, n =n| t = n|-| +i ~|| n |--
|| ~| -+ (=i =n|<i --| +|

n-, +| ~|l< l+|| +i l-l- |n|-| +| ~||< :=+| :<|t| t

l+|= t|| | i n|--| + ln(
t|+ l= =n --| +| ||| t|| +n||< l=n +n| + n|n =
lt-+ t|i
ti := ~,|<i <l +i ~|l-+ =+|||+ --| = nl+- t|+ t <l += l+l=- t| :=+ ln(
=-<-| n |=l+-| t n|+|- -|| +i |l-- t|-i t ~- ~|+ t l+ ~-i =iln- <l = |t
:=i +| ~| + -| +t =+-
~|n|--|l- + ln t| ==| + | +i l-+n + := | l- +| t|-,
t l+ ~| +i =n- =n|~| +| nn
~|+-| -ti t - ==| +i |-| + := n :<< +i ~-||~| =|n|
+|| t tn|| (+|i =| -- ==|
l-|a|- +| =|- -|- +i ~|+-| +| i+| t ||||- =, l--||

n (+ |- l--- =l+ t l=+i

t = | +| = =-| t l+ tn| ~-<
l- + ln ti =-| || =-- ~ l< :=i =n-||<i <l +|
(=i n|-l=+-| :-- t| (=| t|-
-n|- t =|i =l ~- ~| n (+ =|=|l+ i- n| l+| | -| ~|
l+- ~- +| := | -- +i (+
| :+|: t, (+ t- || t ~- + =n| +i t- =i =n|~| +| tn
:+|: + n nt== +|, :=
= || :=i +i n| :+|:| t ~|=|-i = ||| | =+-| t =n| +i
=|l+-n|- +i n-l=lz n ~- +|
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
n|| (+ n|n i+||, - :=+ =| =| +, =|i l|n-|, =| n-|n|ln- t| =| l-|, =| l-n, =|i -|
+|, - +i + |-| :=i || =n|-- t| | ~| + =n| + ln := | || + ~ n ti t|
+i |-| + ~ n l=z t| ~| - :=i -|n+ l--- +i ~|+-| t l+ | l
. | =nl-, =| |nl-, ~-|| |- - |- -||n|+l+ (-.l.| |, -||n|+ (-.| ~l-|---, -||.: .:
:. = :-|| ~|n| +||- -|< ....-| ~+|||n-|l +||- +|||n-|l ..... :l-|a|lnl|-i (:..l.| ~l-|---, -||+i (-||.| -||. .
. l-||n|-||l- -|||-l-|n+
~|-|-|-| -||l- t|-|<=n|- -./
:. ....= ( |--||- ~|n|- =+l-n-||=- ~|ll- :-- -l |n|- --|-| +||l- - ~-l-z--+||l - +||- -||l |--|||- ~-|n |n|-
+||l- =|| | .... -|=| (-.=|.|, ~l-|---, .
. :-n|l-n||<|-| -<l-l--|n :-z|n||n+ |+=-l- l-|-, = - l-| n -||-|-, - l-| n -||-|-, - :-n|l-n||<|- l, :||-
z-+|l+|ll- (.+|.l.|, |n+a, .:
. <-| l+ =-| <-| +||n|--| .......... +||n|--| l+ +|||-|< =l-a| n|| l|<ll- (l|.<..| l|<l (l|.<.|, :n, .:
. :t -||-| - =-|=-- =-n, ~|+|< ~-||l<<|||- - ~|l+| --|- - -+|l =<| -<|||<|-|- :l- +||n|-- ~--n-n|--||l-ln|l-<| -||
=-n :l-|a|ll-lnl|-i (:..l.l.|, ~l-|---, -||.: .
. :t -|- -|||l|| ln- -|| ~l-, ~l-- +|| ||i+- :..l., -||.-||., .:
. ln|- lt +|| -|||-| || -|l-, -| l-la--<| +|||| -||n-||= :l- -|- l||-<| -||||... -||.-||., .:
. ln|| lt ==t nl ~|ni+|l-, ~|n|- i+|l-, :-|nl (+i+|l-, (+i+- ,nl --||l- :-|| ti, .::
. -n|<--t-i+|||ln||n| =l-|| nl| -||- |--|nlt--| +||- :l- ~ |--|<... :..l.l. -||. .
:. ~l-<|+|l |n-| l|- l l-|---| -||=- -|l=- - - |n-||- ln|-lnl- l,ln -||.-||., .:
. :..l. -||..
:. |l+- |l+-n| <||,n--
|+-| = |l+-n|- nt ~|n|+, l|.<.. |<l-|i n :<-
. -n|<-+-|||l-| |l+-l-|-<-|<- (+ ( l|- |+- l| ( -|| -|| l|.<.:/
. l+-- n|t||<ln-< --nl-|- |+|l+|- l-|a|<- :l-|a|+|l+| (:..+|.|, :n, //
. ~|n =-||| l---l, ~l-z-z|= =<<+l+ l| :..l., -||. .:
. ~--l-||l- =+n <|n-it ,< ll|-| n+|--|n | -l-ln|-=|+| l |n|l- -| n+-|| - -.=|./
. -||-|l- l-|<n||-lil- -| iln|-- - n nn-- - -||- il+|n l-|l|-| l|.<. /
:. n|-|| lt -|n -|- |- lt = -./
:. n|-| - l+l< |n|l- - |l n-n-| ~a|-l-|l-|<| |+l-|+--| n|-| n||=| +|l+| ~l-|---
::. = +l--|+|l+-|n++nl-| -||n|-nt |--||l<l- l|-n |--|nltn| < <=| - l|z |-|-|n -./:
:. l||l<l-|l--- l <- +nt|-|l=+ +il- -| ~--+|||l|+| :
::. nlnt|-| =<| <i =<| || -||=- -<l-| -|n|, .:
:. n ||- - ~|--<|l|----|--|<|nl-| +|n-=<| +il- t||-=|i -< +i| l|.. .:
:. | n|t-=|| -, -<-|nl -|- ( l--||n|| - - ~l+ l+l- :..l. -||. .
:. ==|| l- - --- ---|-| -| |- +|, -| - |- - l-| n+- nl+-l+| ln|n|t+<| --|-z||l||-|n|, n| l+l< n| t|| ln= ||
||l|- ~--|l+|, ~l-|---, :
:. n||-| ln|lt- ~-( +n|l| |n-| -+|-l-|n-n|- (| :l- +|n|l<l- |-|l<n|-| ==l- :- ==|i :..l. -|.: .:
:. (+| n||- ||||,| |+- a|- l| =| l-| <c|n-| +|- -|l- + +|l -||-|l | l|.<. /
. +n (-| -n|-||l<+--| n|||l+-||- ~|n - - l<,-|n||in la|--|ll- (l.-|.l.| -|n| .:
. < -||l< +|||n| -|- -z|<-+i|||<|-++ -. /
:. -n+- |-| -||| ~-||=-- -.-||. .::
. :<ln ll-z--ln| +-||-| | la|l--ln| =| tlnn ~n|-l=lz, :n
:. ~t-|| (+| =| l>|l-- --||| - n|-|, ~- ( | - n||-| =+|+n| ~| +|l<||| = ~| ~tn|- :..l.l. -||. .
. -- ( =n-| n|--<=l-|n -||lt n i- | | -<-|l<+ n|ln |=| t< -<n|--| ~|--<|l+- |=| t< -<n|--| ~|--<|l+- =|+-| - =t<| - -.
. = <=n-tn l- - l- - -n||nln- <|nlnn l<<| |- - ln|=l<<|< +|||n+
a|| |--|lcnltn| l -| ~--|l+|
. +l=- ~+l=- |+n-n|-l- - =|=-| lt--nl+-n- +|+|l+-l||l--+n| - l-ln-|-|n|| + n||n l|.<. /:
. +n (-| -n|-||l<+--| n|||l+-||- ~|n - - l<,-|n||in l.-|.l. .:
. --<-||=|- l-|+|-|-||<|- |nn||l>|-| | :| -.l.-||. : .
:. |,|=||=||<n|t+|<-|<| -||| l-||l-- l|| l-|---||| - - l+- l= =t=| --<+|n-| l<n- l+ - n= -<-||-|l--|
|-||-|l+| lt =t=| -||| =<| ln- -| n|+|l+|=+-| -|| +- =-| l-= n l- ---|n |n |+|-++n+l+-+n--i- z| -| ~--|l+|
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
vk;kfRed vuq'kklu
|n ||-
(n: , |
||||n+ =~| ||i - +|<
bZ'ojLo:i Lokeh y{e.k tqou vksL; 1980 ls eat+ vk/;kfRed vuq'kklul I;B O;k[;ku
dksf'k;Z ikB~; fnR;eR;A frfgna; HkDr r t+kU;eR; r ekU;eR; O;noku Lo- tkudhukFk
dkSy deyu vkL; f;e O;k[;ku yhf[kFk FkO;eR;A f;ganh lqiq= Lo- vuqie dkSy dksj
f;eu gqan ladyu ;ql t+u bZ'oj vkJe VLVuA 1993 l eat+ fdrkfc :il eat+ NiksoA
f;e O;k[;ku fN vL; ;N+ku okfj&okfj ekfyuh gan~;u ijuokY;u fr okrukoU;A
~ln - ||||n'|||l< |n-|| -
+| =-n||-- =-n|-i- - n -<- n-|- -
||||n = l-l<| n|---- -'
nn ||n|l> ||||- ||--n
~|n- a|-|l-| -| |=- n-|-
'~- ~- |- |n= =|t -| |n=
| |-nl ~| n|n= n- + - -|'
~-=-|- |t| ~=n ~|=- ~-+ ~-|= lz
=|- z ||l |= l= t-< l| |a
=nn|n- l z ,l +|
~| ~| ||i ||||n~| n lz - +-= +-
l- |< z- ||t ||-= - |n-= n lz - l= ~ln
t+- | ~-+ |< ll+l -- -l-= |-= l- lz - -|t
n- - lz l |n ~|=- - |=|- l ~ln= z - -l-=
|-= l- | ||- ~ z -| n|--< l- |-n-
= '||||- ||-- nn ||n ~|n-' +|-l+|
|a`'~|n- a|-|l-| ' ln n= ~|l= ||= - ~|-=
n = n--n || =|n +--|+ z n -a z n= =|- at- =
l z - '|| |- nl ~| n|n=', ~< +|t`l z '|
~|=- ~|=- - -|<|=-, l-+|=- ~|l< ln n= |l
|- nl ~| n|n=' l ~| ||i ||||n | - n
ln z- ~--+| =| - z= -| -|- l ~|
z l- l lz n|-| - n= = n|- |- ~| ||t l- lz
~l+=-< ~|- |- lz - +- | lz - |- |--
- ~-|| z-
lz a| n =|- |- ln (||||- ||--| || - ~|-l
'|||l< |n-|| - +|' |- -| l- l- l || ~|-
l- n l=l nn ||= -a n= |l '-<|-=-|-n' =
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
z- - |- l~|, lt-< |n-||, |<=|- |=- - =- lz - ~|=- |'- lz ||||n +-
l-+n |- - l lz a| |'n ~|=- -|n- ln l
a| |'n l- ln z -< |-- =<|- |t| '|||l<|n-|| - +| =-n||--n
||||n -+ ~-|= <c =l<| z - - |- |- | ==|= =-n|-i- - n -<- n-|- -'
n = z - l|-
~l+ +|' l+- ~|=-= -a lt- |t n l ||||-+ || ||- || |n- l t== |-
~| ||i ||||n z a| =- l nl+ - =tn =tn ln = |'lln ||- |'n n-< n-|- l|- z |t
+'l| <|n ||||n +|< +|< ||||n= -a ~-|= +-
a't'- n= =|- l- ~|=- 'l+~<-- -|-' (|ni l- |- l =+- -||||l
n- |- |-- l|- l +|t -| +t ll+l`ln =|'l
--||n|+(| ln t|n lt z|- il|| - |-||
t| + ~| ~|=-= -a lt - ln ~ ~| =|= ~| t|
|t| = ~---n, ~-< ||- ~-<n n= z 't - +|t- l- l- l ||||n +l l+lt -= - =| lz
+lln |- - - l+lt +|- +|l = | -l- awareness z l|in-i-~-=-i ll - t= =|-
= lz ~| ~|=-= -a lt- -- +| +l - l+lt- ~-|= +- |t| z +|<+ ~--| |||<l l+- |-n-
~ -- ~|l= - | |l=a= n z t' +| l-n |~| ~| ||i - +|< ||||n= n +|t +
z ~|||i ||||n z a| nl+n ~| n lz +<n
'- |||-|l || <- n --<n - ll n|- | l<|- l<|- z -|- -= l
<- |n-|n| | =-|| l|' tl+ - -t-< l- +'l| nt| lz |-| +|<
||||n+ ~-|= +- ln l <c lz - lz (in the
||| - +l - l+lt- |- -|n - =|+ =' z ~|l= end| ~|||i t'l-< ||||n +l|| +'~| -- lz
|z =-||= n atn, ~-- |z - -nn -n nt| +l-ln |~| ~|||i t'l-<= ~|=-= -a ~|= +|+-||i
~|=-= -a |- |t| nn -||= -a a't- l |z - llt| ~| ~|=-= -a
|| +- |- +|t |- +l-= +|n= z= l-
|+||- lz 't' +| | n|+= n l-n (l +|
n z |-n- l llz =-n|n=|
'=<-||--| |l--|<|<| ||-- l=a -||- z -|-ti |n: ~|||i ||||n ||'-
~-- = l| |-n-|- -<,|--<n' lz |-| n-+ =<- ~| ~|=-= -a lz ~l+ ~|
| =|+ = l= ~|= i -, i| l<- <-< = z- <-< i-
-- ~ = lz --- ~- =+| +- like
--<l t'l-<= | z-= -a - |-l+= ~--= -a ln
tortoise l| |'a +'z < -- ~ |-= n |n||- -
|z (l-l|| -||+ ~--| z =<|- = t|t ~--+|= n
l| |'a lz |-| -- n- -- |t| ~|=- -
|l, = z a| +n= +|n= a't'|- -lnl+ a't'|-+
~|||i t-< ~|=- z ~' -a =<|- l| |'a
~-|= lz +|- |- ln = -|| lz -ln = lz
+|+-||i l= ~|'= =<n-
~,|--< |l-- =<|- |t| '||||n = l-l<| n|- -
nt| lz - ~|||i ||||n |-| +l- lt-
-- -'
|- -|n - n- - -l -|- -|n lz +|< ~|=- +-
~< +|t ||||n ~ |n
~-z|, |- ln ~|||i +l | +|< +l, l
:| =-n ln|-|in-i +|<|--||||<|| n|-|
't- t-- =i <--<--| i-
~|-=n|+- <|<| + n-'
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Ishwar Ashram Trust
(Founded by Ishwar Swaroop Swami Lakshman Joo Maharaj)
Srinagar: Guptaganga, Ishber (Nishat)- 191 021 (Kashmir)
Jammu: 2-Mohinder Nagar, Canal Road, Jammu-180 002
Delhi: R-5, Pocket D, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi-110 076
Calender of Events
March19 (Monday) Navreh(New Year)
April 14 (Saturday) Bi r t h Jyant i Swami Laks hman Joo
Maharaj May 9 (Wednesday) Var s h Swami
Lakshmanjoo Maharaj
July 29 (Sunday) Sri GuruPurnima
August 28 (Tuesday) Shravana Purnima
September 3 (Monday) Janma Ashtami
September 28 (Friday) PitrapakshJaghSwami MehtabKak Ji
September 29 (Saturday) NirvanJayanti-Yearly Jagh
His Holiness Swami LakshmanJoo Maharaj
November 14 (Wednesday) Janma Jayanti Swami MehtabKak ji
January (Saturday) Janma Jayanti Swami Ramji Maharaj
Febuary (Tuesday) Annual JaghSwami RamJi Maharaj
March5 (Wednesday) Maha Shivratri
March9 (Sunday) Annual JaghSwami MehtabKak ji
April 7 (Monday) Navreh(New Year)
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Srinagar Ashram: Jammu Ashram: Delhi Ashram:
Ishber Nishat. 2, Mohinder Nagar, R-5, Pocket 'D'
P.O. Brein. Canal Road, Sarita Vihar,
Srinagar (Kashmir)- 190 021 Jammu (Tawi)-180 002 New Delhi-110 076
Tel.: 0194-2461657 Tel.: 0191-2553179, 2555755 Tel.: 011- 26958308, 981000995
To, Date .....................................
The Secretary
Ishwar AshramTrust, Delhi
I, hereby request you kindly to enrol me as a member of the SRINAGAR/JAMMU/DELHI/MUMBAI
Kendra of the Trust inthe category indicated below:
Donor one time donationof Rs. 1.00 Lakh.
Patron one time donationof Rs. 10,000.00
Life Member one time donationof Rs. 3,000.00
Associate Member Annual Rs. 300.00
Enclosed please find Draft/Cheque/Cash No. .................................Dated................................. drawn on
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My particulars are as under:
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I pledge to abide by the rules &regulations of the Trust and will be delighted to contribute and work fro
the Trust inthe areas of followingareas:
(a) Organisationof conferences, seminars, lectures, study circles etc.
(b) Audio-video presentations.
(c) Publications
(d) Sale of books/cassettes, photographs, CD's etc.
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(F) Publicity
(G) Medical, charitable & social welfare activities.
(Please tick mark () the options)
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
AQuarterly Publication of Ishwar Ashram Trust
Subscription Form
To, Dated..............
The Circulation Manager
Kindly enroll me as a subscriber of Malini
For 4 issues For 8 issues for 12 issues
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2. For subscription and correspondence, please contact (i) the Circulation Manager, Ishwar Ashram Trust;
R-5, Pocket-D, SaritaVihar, NewDelhi-110 076 (for outside J&KState) and (ii) Circulation Manager,
Malini, Ishwar Ashram Trust, 2-Mohinder Nagar, Jammu (for J&KState)
E-mail: Tel. 011-26958308, 9312264789, 9810549976
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
S.No. Prefix Surname Middle First 37 Mr. Montano Earnest
1 Mrs. Bhan Leela 38 Mr. Jalali J.L.
2 Mr. Mirakhur C.L. 39 Mrs. Jalali Raj
3 Mrs. Kak Sharika 40 Dr. Jalali Sheilender
4 Capt. Kachru M.K. 41 Dr. Jalali Reema
5 Mr. Raina Suresh 42 Miss Jalali Jyoti
6 Mr. Raina P.N. 43 Mrs. Dhar Marlene
7 Mrs. Munshi Sheela 44 Miss Dhar Preeti
8 Mr. Munshi M.L. 45 Miss Dhar Sulochana
9 Mr. Kaw Krishan Hari 46 Miss Mishra Suchita
10 Mrs. Kaul Pramila 47 Miss Mishra Shaivi
11 Mrs. Vishan Neena 48 Mr. Kaul Nath Brij
12 Mrs. Dhar Nita 49 Mr. Sadhu R.K.
13 Mrs. Kaul Sunita 50 Mr. Bhat Vijay
14 Mrs. Bhan Rakesh 51 Mr. Sadhu Rajeev
15 Mr. Dhar Vijay 52 Mr. Kher R.K.
16 Mrs. Kaul Dulari 53 Mr. Sumbley R.L.
17 Mrs. Vijay Lakshimi Dhar 54 Mrs. Zutshi Renu
18 Mr. Dhar J.K. 55 Mr. Jalla Niviesh
19 Mr. Kak G.L. 56 Mr. Kaul Sanjeev
20 Mr. Krak Yoginder 57 Mrs. Kak Rajni
21 Mr. Kak Anshu 58 Dr. Toshkhani S.S.
22 Sh. Dhar S.P.
23 Mr. Qazi M.L. Patron (10,000)
Col Kuda SN
24 Mr. Munshi Devinder
Mrs. Kaul Rama
25 Mr. Kachru P.N.
Mr. Dhar Manmohan
26 Mrs. Kaul Chetna
Mr. Dhar J.L.
27 Mrs. Nehru Abha
28 Smt. Bhat Lalita
Donor (1,00,000)
29 Smt. Tapilu Dulari
30 Mr. Zutshi S.N.
Mr. Bamzai P.N.
31 Mr. Zutshi Lal Kundan
32 Mr. Kaul R.K.
Note: This list is being published for the first time. In
case there are some omissions. Please bring
33 Mrs. Dhar Asha
the same to the notice of the publisher
34 Dr. Warikoo S.K.
mentioning all relevant particulars including
details of payment made. 35 Mr. Dhar Vijay
36 Mr. Hughes John
Life Members Ishwar Ashram Trust (Delhi Kendra)
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
April-June 2007
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,
Trial version of ABC Amber PDF Merger,