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MT-318-Topic E Weeks 3-4 P1


Numeric designations of figures, tables, equations, and text material are in reference to APPLIED FLUID MECHANICS, 6th Edition, by Robert L. Mott. Text material : Sections 6.6 to 6.11 E-1 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY : BERNOULLIS EQUATION A cylindrical element of fluid, having a mass m , weight w = mg , and volume V , flowing through a pipe, under an absolute pressure p , past a section with an internal area A , at an elevation z , and covering a distance equal to its length L , during a time interval t , thereby defining its average velocity of flow = L / t , will have three forms of energy.

(a) Potential Energy PE = Weight Height = wz (b) Kinetic Energy KE = Mass (Velocity) = m 2 = ( w / g ) 2 = w 2 / 2 g (c) Flow Energy FE = Work against absolute pressure = Force Displacement = ( pA)( L) = ( p )(V ) = ( p )( w / ) = wp /

The total energy of the element is E = FE + PE + KE = ( wp / ) + ( wz ) + ( w 2 / 2 g ) , so that if the element moves from Section 1 to Section 2 , with no energy added, lost, or stored in-between, the principle of conservation of energy requires that E1 = E 2 .



MT-318-Topic E Weeks 3-4 P2

When the sums of the energy terms at the two sections are equated, and the common weight w of the element is cancelled out, the resulting relationship, known as Bernoullis equation, is obtained, where each term represent energy per unit weight, expressed as an equivalent elevation, or head, hence each term has units of length.



+ wz1 +

2 w12 wp 2 w 2 = + wz 2 + 2g 2g

+ z1 +



+ z2 +


( m , ft )


p / : z : 2 / 2g : Sum of all three terms :

Pressure head Elevation head Velocity head Total head


Bernoullis equation is generally applied in the direction of fluid flow, from Section 1 to Section 2 , with the same reference level for the elevation z for both sides of the equation ; for a known difference in the two elevations, no reference level is required since one of the elevations can be moved to the other side of the equation, giving the difference in elevations, or the lower elevation can be used as the reference elevation.

MT-318-Topic E Weeks 3-4 P3

Bernoullis equation can be applied to successive pairs of sections, within the same pipe, where one reference level may be used for the elevation of all the sections, being chosen so that all elevations are positive ; the section with the lowest elevation may be used as a reference elevation. The pressure p may be absolute or gage, but it must be of the same type for both sides of the equation.
Unless otherwise stated, gage pressure, relative to standard atmospheric pressure, will be assumed in the present course.

Due to the energy changes associated with the expansion or contraction of fluid, Bernoullis equation is only directly applicable to essentially incompressible fluids (liquids and low-velocity gases) ; it does not include the effects of energy added, lost, or stored between the two sections, due to devices such as pumps or fluid motors, due to frictional resistance against the flow, or due to heating or cooling of the fluid.
Unless otherwise stated, a temperature of 20C , or 70F , will be assumed in the present course, approximating room temperature.

Example E-1-1 ( Example Problem 6.9 , Modified to Imperial units )

For a setup similar to that of Figure 6.6 , the pipes at Sections 1 and 2 are standard 1-in and 2-in Schedule 40 steel pipe, respectively. At Section 1 , water at 50F is flowing with an average velocity of 10 ft/s at a pressure of 30 psig . Section 2 is 6 ft above Section 1 . Calculate : (a) Pressure at Section 2 and change in pressure p 2 p1 (b) Total head of the system relative to the elevation of Section 1

MT-318-Topic E Weeks 3-4 P4

E-2 SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES FOR BERNOULLIS EQUATION When both sections, or points of reference in Bernoullis equation are at the same elevation z , the elevation heads are equal and will cancel out ; for this case, Bernoullis equation indicates that a decrease in velocity (increase in pipe section) will result in an increase in pressure, and vice versa.
For a fluid in motion, unlike a static fluid, the pressure may be different at points with the same elevation.

When both points of reference are inside a pipe of the same size, the continuity equation ( Equation 6-5 ) indicates that the velocities are equal, hence the velocity heads are equal and will cancel out. When a reference point is exposed to the atmosphere, the fluids gage pressure at that point will be zero, giving a pressure head of zero at that point ; for any other ambient (prevailing) surroundings, the fluids gage pressure will be that of these surroundings. When dealing with a tank, which is usually much larger, in cross-section area, than any connecting pipe, the continuity equation ( Equation 6-5 ) indicates that the velocity of the fluid within the tank will be very small, so that the velocity head for any reference point within the tank may be assumed to be zero.
Reference points with known velocities, known pressures, or both, such as a point at the surface of a tank, or a point exposed to an ambient pressure, are very useful when applying Bernoullis equation.

MT-318-Topic E Weeks 3-4 P5

Example E-2-1 ( Example Problem 6.10 , Modified requirement )

The siphon system shown below is used to draw water, at 15C , from a swimming pool, using a pipe that has an inside diameter of 40 mm , with a 25-mm diameter nozzle at its end. Calculate : (a) Volume flow rate through the system (b) Pressure at point B


MT-318-Topic E Weeks 3-4 P6

E-3 VENTURI METERS The venturi meter is a device for measuring the velocity of flow of an incompressible fluid in a pipe, by utilizing a reduced section to increase the velocity of flow, relative to the main section, thereby decreasing the pressure in the reduced section, relative to the main section ; by measuring the pressure difference between the two sections, and applying Bernoullis equation, the velocity of flow can be determined. Example E-3-1 ( Example Problem 6.11 )
The venturi meter below carries water at 60C . The specific gravity of the gage fluid in the manometer is 1.25 . Calculate : (a) Pressure difference p A p B between sections A and B (b) Velocity of flow at Section A (c) Volume flow rate through the meter


MT-318-Topic E Weeks 3-4 P7

E-4 FLOW FROM TANKS : TORRICELLIS THEOREM For fluid flow from the side of a large vented tank though a smooth, rounded nozzle it is noted that for Point 1 at the surface, p1 = 0 and 1 = 0 , while for Point 2 at the nozzle, p 2 = 0 , thus simplifying Bernoullis equation into Torricellis theorem.


z1 = z 2 +


, where z1 z 2 = h

2 = 2 gh


MT-318-Topic E Weeks 3-4 P8

Torricellis theorem ( Equation 6-16 ), which indicates that the velocity flow at the nozzle is proportional to the square root of the height of the fluid above the nozzle, also applies to a nozzle at the bottom of a tank, noting that the velocity of the fluid jet decreases as the tank is being drained, hence the rate of draining (volume flow rate), which depends on both the velocity and cross-section area of the fluid jet, continuously decreases.


For a smooth, rounded nozzle, the jet will have a diameter essentially equal to the nozzle diameter, but for a sharp-edged orifice, the jet will have an effective diameter significantly smaller than the orifice diameter (with reference to Section 6.11 ), so that the rate of draining will be slower if the nozzle is replaced by an orifice of the same diameter, although the jet velocity at both openings is the same.


MT-318-Topic E Weeks 3-4 P9

Bernoullis equation can be applied to a fluid jet pointing vertically upwards, where both the pressure and velocity at the top of the jet ( Point 3 ) will be zero, which is identical to the situation at the surface of a connected, vented tank ( Point 1), so that the two elevations will be identical ; this will not be the case for a pressurized tank, but in both cases, and for any other system, the total head of the system may be visualized as the height reached by a vertical jet.



E-5 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT Problem E-5-1 : For Example E-2-1 , determine the pressure at points C to E . Problem E-5-2 : Text Practice Problem 6.67 Problem E-5-3 : Text Practice Problem 6.69 Problem E-5-4 : If the system shown in Figure 6.35 is used for medium fuel oil, at 77F , calculate the volume flow rate and the pressure at point C .