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Pengantar Komunikasi Data (1)


TUJUAN
Berevolusi dan selalu berkembang sejak pertama kali adanya Computing
Mempelajari konsep-konsep dasar dan terminologi yang berhubungan dengan
komunikasi data dan jaringan komputer
Mempelajari beberapa teknik yang dipergunakan untuk melakukan transfer data
antara dua computer
e.g. dua komputer dalamsatu ruangan atau dibedakan dengan jarak dan terhubung
melalui jaringan telepon
Mempelajari bermacam-macamfungsi dan protokol jaringan berdasarkan referensi
dari ISO Reference Model
Mempelajari dasar-dasar teori yang berhubungan dengan transmisi digital
3
Pengantar Komunikasi Data (2)
KOMUNIKASI DATA
Pertukaran data antara dua perangkat (komputer)
Terhubung melalui beberapa macammedia transmisi
SISTEM KOMUNIKASI DATA
Kombinasi dari hardware dan software
Memungkinkan terjadinya pertukaran komunikasi data
KOMPONEN-KOMPONEN:
4
Komponen - komponen sistem komunikasi data
Pesan (Message):
Informasi (data) yang akan dikirim
Dapat berupa teks, gambar, suara dll
Pengirim/Penerima (Sender/Receiver):
Perangkat untuk mengirim/menerima pesan data (data message)
Dapat berupa komputer, kamera video dll
Membuat istilah end system atau hostyang mengacu pada keduanya
Medium:
Lintasan fisik di mana data/pesan bergerak dari pengirimmenuju penerima
Dapat berupa kabel, gelombang radio dll
Pengantar Komunikasi Data (3)
5
Komponen - komponen sistem komunikasi data
Protokol:
Peraturan-peraturan yang mengatur komunikasi data
Menggambarkan kesepakatan antara perangkat-perangkat komunikasi
Tanpa protokol, dua perangkat mungkin mungkin untuk saling terhubung, tetapi
tidak saling berkomunikasi
Sebagai contoh adalah dua orang yang berbicara dengan bahasa yang
berbeda, tidak dapat mengerti satu dengan yang lainnya
Hubungan antara perangkat - perangkat komunikasi
Konfigurasi sambungan:
Mendefinisikan bagaimana cara dua atau beberapa perangkat komunikasi
tersambung pada link
Mode transmisi:
Mendefinisikan arah alur sinyal antara dua perangkat yang terhubung
Pengantar Komunikasi Data (4)
6
2. Pengantar
J aringan komunikasi data: Beberapa tipe dari jaringan komunikasi data
Standar-standar: Evolusi, Beberapa badan international
3. Pengantar
OSI model arsitektur: Lapisan dan stuktur model, Fungsi setiap lapisan
4. Komunikasi Data Interface
Media transmisi: Beberapa macamtipe fisik media transmisi yang dipergunakan
untuk data transmisi, Karakteristik dan limitasi dari setiap tipe
Tipe-tipe sinyal: Beberapa tipe sinyal yang digunakan dalamkomunikasi data,
Sumber sinyal
Sumber redaman dan distorsi: Beberapa tipe redaman dan distorsi, pengaruh
redaman dan distorsi pada sinyal
Delay propagasi: Pengaruhnya pada sinyal
Standar interface lapisan fisik: Standar yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan
peralatan komunikasi
Materi Kuliah (1)
7
5. Transmisi Data
Dasar transmisi data: Beberapa tipe mode transmisi
Transmisi sinkron dan asinkron: Perbedaan dua tipe kontrol transmisi
Teknik deteksi kesalahan
Kompresi data: Beberapa tipe algoritma kompresi data
Kendali transmisi: Perbedaan dua tipe kontrol transmisi
Kendali komunikasi: Beberapa tipe perangkat komunikasi kendali
6. Dasar-dasar Protokol
Kendali kesalahan: pengertian-pengertian dasar dalamkendali kesalahan
Idle RQ: prinsip kerja, arsitektur, spesifikasi, penggunaan
Continuous RQ: prinsip kerja, arsitektur, penggunaan
Manajemen Link
Materi Kuliah (2)
8
7. Protocol TCP/IP
Karakteristik
Fungsi tiap lapisan
8. Data Link Control
Protokol character-oriented
Protokol bit-oriented
Standar interface lapisan kendali link
9. Multiplexing
FDM - Frequency-Division Multiplexing
Synchronous TDM (Time-Division Multiplexing)
Statistical TDM
10. Multiple Access
FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
Random Access
Materi Kuliah (3)
9
Point-to-point
wire link
other link: PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) & Modem
J aringanKomunikasi Data (1)
A B
modem modem
PSTN
A
B
10
LAN (Local Area (data) Network)
More than 2 computers involved in an application
A switched communication network facility used to enable all the
computers to communicate with one another at different times
If all the computers are distributed around single office/building, it is
possible to install one single LAN
Otherwise, a few LAN is connected through a link (site-wide
(backbone) LAN)
J aringanKomunikasi Data (2)
11
LAN (Local Area (data) Network)
More than 2 computers involved in an application
J aringanKomunikasi Data (3)
A
C
B
LAN 1
LAN 3
LAN 2
Mainframe or minicomputer, advanced workstation or personal computer
Bridge
Technical
and office
automation
Site-wide (backbone) LAN
12
LAN (Local Area (data) Network)
J aringanKomunikasi Data (4)
Manufactoringautomation
Manufactoringcells
Intracell LAN
Factorywide(backbone) LAN
13
WAN (Wide Area (data) Network)
when computers are located in different establishments
(sites), and then used public carrier facilities
Different types depend on the nature of applications
e.g.:
EnterprisewidePrivate Network: when computers belong to the
same enterprise and having a requirement to transfer some amounts
of data between sites by leasing transmission lines (circuits) from
the public carriers and install a private switching system at each site
PSDN Public Switched Data Network: similar as above, where
public carrier network is used
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Networks: similar, with ability
to transmit data without modems
J aringanKomunikasi Data (5)
14
J aringanKomunikasi Data (6)
EnterprisewidePrivate Network:
15
J aringanKomunikasi Data (7)
PSDN:
PSDN
PSDN =Public Switched Data Network
TC =Terminal Controller
=Interface standards
=Communication subsystem (hardware and software)
computer
computer
computer
computer
TC
TC
16
J aringanKomunikasi Data (8)
ISDN:
ISDN
NTE
NTE NTE
NTE
NTE =Network termination equipment
ISDN =Integrated Services Digital Network
voice handset
computer
voice handset
computer
voice handset
computer
voice handset
computer
17
Internetworkor Internet; where communication facility include multiple
networks such as LAN-WAN-LAN
Broadband MultiserviceNetworks
Connect workstations that support desktop video telephony,
videoconferencing and more general multimedia services
Broadband means of its high transmission bit rates
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)
An approach for transmission and switching within the networks
Used to distinguish data communication & speech and video
communication
J aringanKomunikasi Data (9)
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J aringanKomunikasi Data (10)
Worldwide interwork:
Site-wide
LAN
Site-wide
LAN
National
PSDN
National
PSDN
Site-wide
LAN
Site-wide
LAN
Ground station
Satellite
Ground station
=Gateway
19
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
A new network with the interconnection of ATM LANs; and data-only
LANs are distributed around a town or city
J aringanKomunikasi Data (11)
ATM
WAN
ATM
MAN
ATM
MAN
ATM
LAN
ATM
LAN
Data-only
LAN
Data-only
LAN
Data-only workstation / server
Multimedia workstation /
server
20
Evolution:
1970s Mainframe, PSTN
1980s Network computing, separate data and voice networks
1990s Personal computing, workstations, LAN, ISDN, Internet
2000s Global integrated multimedia infomedianetwork
Provides a model for development
Allows a product to work regardless of the individual manufacturer
Developed by cooperation among standards organizations, e.g. ISO, ITU-T,
IEEE, IETF
Standards (1)
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Documented agreements containing technical specifications
To be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions of
characteristics of a system
To ensure that adhered systems are fit for their purposes
Standards contribute to
Making life simpler
Open systems
Ensure compatibility
Bring costs down by encouraging competition
Most telecom related standards are international
Standards (2)
22
Enhanced product quality and reliability
Simplification for improved usability
Increased distribution efficiency, and ease of maintenance
Ensure compatibility and interoperability
Encourage competition
Bring costs down
Ensure stable supply
Developed by cooperation among standards organizations, e.g. ISO, ITU-T,
IEEE, IETF
Standards (3)
23
ISO: International Standards Organization
A worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 100
countries, one from each country
A multinational organization dedicated to worldwide agreement on
international standards in a variety of fields
Established in 1947
Example of standards: ISO OSI Reference Model
Standards (4)
24
ITU-T: International Telecommunications Union Telecommunication
Standards Sector
United Nations organization that develops standards for
telecommunication
Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland
International organization whithinwhich governments & private
sectors coordinate global telecom networks and services
Activities include:
Coordination, development, regulation and standardization of
telecommunication
Organization of regional & world telecom events
Standards (5)
25
ITU-T: International Telecommunications Union Telecommunication
Standards Sector (cont)
Example of standards:
V-series: define data transmission over phone line
X-series: define transmission over public digital networks
IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
A non-profit, technical professional association of more than 377,000
individual members in 150 countries.
Largest national profession group
Example of standards: IEEE 802 series
Standards (6)
26
IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force
Standards body for the Internet itself
A large open international community of network designers, operators,
vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet
architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet
Develops and reviews specification intended as Internet Standards
The actual technical work is done in its working groups, which are
organized by topic into several areas (e.g. routing, network
management, security, etc.)
Most of the work is handled via mailing list, however, IETF alsoholds
meetings three times per year
Example of standards: RFC 2616 HTTP protocol
Standards (7)
27
ISOC: Internet Society
International organization for global cooperation and coordination for
the Internet and its internetworking technologies and applications
Its members reflect the breadth of the entire Internet communityand
consist of individuals, corporations, non-profit organizations, and
government agencies
Its principal purpose is to maintain and extend the development and
availability of the Internet and its associated technologies and
applications both as an end in itself, and as a means of enabling
organizations, professions, and individuals worldwide to more effective
collaborate, cooperate, and innovate in their respective fields and
interests
Standards (8)
1
Pengantar kuliah ke 2
OSI model arsitektur
Lapisandanstruktur model
Fungsi setiaplapisan
Komunikasi Data
2
ISO has taken a model to overcome difficulties to test and modify
softwares; since the software for a communication subsystem, were often
based on a single, complex, unstructured program, (written in assembly
language) with many interacting components
The communication subsystem here consists of a complex piece of
hardware and software
ISO Reference Model has taken a layered approach, where the complete
communication subsystem is broken down into a number of layers, each of
which performs a well-defined function
Conceptually, each layers can be considered as performing generic
functions:
Network-dependent functions
Application-oriented functions
ISO Reference Model
3
Three different operational environments:
Network environment: concern with the protocols and standards
relating to the different types of underlying data communication
networks
OSI environment; include the network environment and adds additional
application-oriented protocols and standards to allow end systems
(computers) to communicate with one another in an open way
Real systems environment; build on the OSI environment and
concerned with a manufacturers proprietary software and services;
have been developed to perform a particular distributed information
processing task
ISO Reference Model
4
Diagram environment:
ISO Reference Model
Application-oriented
functions
Network-dependent
functions
AP AP
Network environment
OSI environment
Real systems environment
Data network
Computer A Computer B
Application-oriented
functions
Network-dependent
functions
5
Network-dependent and application-oriented (network-independent)
components of the OSI model are implemented as a number of layers
Each layer performs a well-defined function in the context of the overall
communication subsystems; and has a well-defined interface with the
layers immediately above and below
The function of each layer is specified formally as a protocol that defines
the set of rules and conventions used by the layer to communicate
(exchanging messages, both user data and additional control information),
with a corresponding (similar) peer layer in another (remote) system
The implementation of a particular protocol layer is independent of all
other layers
ISO Reference Model
6
The logical structure of ISO Reference Model:
ISO Reference Model
Application layer
Presentation layer
Session layer
Transport layer
Network layer
Link layer
Physical layer
AL (7)
PL (6)
SL (5)
TL (4)
NL (3)
LL (2)
PL (1)
AP AP
Network environment
OSI environment
Real systems environment
Data network
Computer A Computer B
7
The network-dependent layers (three lowest layers) are concerned with the
protocols associated with the data communication network being used to
link the two communicating computers
The application-oriented layers (three upper layers) are concerned with the
protocols that allow two end-user application processes to interact with
each other, normally through a range of services offered by the local
operating system
The intermediate transport layer (4) masks the upper application-oriented
layers from the detailed operation of the lower network-dependent layers; it
develops the services provided by providing the application-oriented layers
with a network-independent message interchange service
ISO Reference Model
8
Function of each layer of the OSI model:
End-user application process
File transfer, access and management, document and
message interchange, job transfer and manipulation
Transfer syntax negotiation,
data representation transformations
Dialog and synchronization
control for application entities
End-to-end message transfer (connection management,
error control, fragmentation, flow control)
Network routing, addressing, call set-up, and clearing
Data link control (framing, data transparency, error control)
Mechanical and electrical network interface definitions
Data communication network
Distributed information services
Syntax-independent message
interchange services
Network-independent message
interchange services
Physical connection to
network termination equipment
Application layer
Presentation layer
Session layer
Transport layer
Network layer
Link layer
Physical layer
9
Each layer provides a defined set of services to the layer immediately
above; also uses the services provided by the layer immediately below it to
transport the message units associated with the protocol to the remote peer
layer
example: transport layer provides a network-independent message transport
service to the session layer above it and uses the service provided by
network layer below it to transfer a set of message units associated with the
transport protocol to a peer transport layer in another system
ISO Reference Model
10
Network-dependent layers
Physical layer
Link layer
Network layer
Application-oriented layers
Transport layer
Session layer
Presentation layer
Application layer
ISO Reference Model
11
Physical layer
Concern with the physical and electrical interfaces between the user
equipment and the network terminating equipment
Provide the link layer with a means of transmitting a serial bit stream
between two equipments
Examples: wires, connectors, voltages, data rates
ISO Reference Model
12
Link layer
Develop a physical connection provided by the particular networkto
provide network layer with a reliable information transfer facility
Responsible for functions such as error detection and retransmission
messages (if there is a transmission error)
Examples: physical addressing, network topology, error notification, flow
control
Two types of services:
Connectionless, treats each information frame as a self-contained entity
that is transferred using a best-try approach. If errors are detected in a
frame, then the frame is simply discarded
Connection oriented, try to provide an error-free information transfer
facility
ISO Reference Model
13
Network layer
Responsible for establishing and clearing a network wide connection
between two transport layer protocol entities
It includes functionality as network routing (addressing) and, flow control
across the computer-to-network interface
In internetworking, it provides various harmonizing functions between the
inter-connected networks
ISO Reference Model
14
Transport layer
Interface between the higher application-oriented layers and the underlying
network-dependent protocol layers
Provide the session layer (one layer above) with a message transfer facility
that is independent of the underlying network type; therefore transport layer
hides the detailed operation of the underlying network from the session
layer
It offers a number of classes of service to compensate for the varying
quality of service (QOS) provided by the network layers associated with the
different types of network
Five classes of services ranging from class 0 (provides only basic functions
needed for connection establishment and data transfer) to class 4 (provides
full error control and flow control procedures
ISO Reference Model
15
Session layer
Interhost communication: establishes, manages and terminates sessions
between applications
Allows two application layer protocol entities to organize and synchronize
their dialog and manage their data exchange
Responsible for setting up (& clearing) a communication (dialog) channel
between two communicating application layer protocol entities
(presentation layer protocol entities in practice) for the duration of the
complete network transaction
A number of optional services provided:
Interaction management; data exchange associated with a dialog may
be duplex or half-duplex (where each protocol here provides facilities
for controlling the exchange of data/dialog units in a synchronized
way)
ISO Reference Model
16
Session layer
A number of optional services provided:
Synchronization; for lengthy network transactions, the user (through
the services provided by the session layer) may choose periodically to
establish synchronization points associated with the transfer.
If a fault develops during a transaction, the dialog may be restarted at
an earlier synchronization point
Exception reporting; non-recoverable exceptions arising during a
transaction can be signaled to the application layer by the session layer
ISO Reference Model
17
Presentation layer
Concerned with the representation (syntax) of data during transfer between
two communicating application processes
Data security; encrypted/enciphered (using a key) data sent is (hopefully)
known only by the intended recipient presentation layer, and later the key is
used to decrypts (deciphers) the received data before passing it onto the
intended recipient
ISO Reference Model
18
Application layer
Provides the user interface (an application program/process) a range of
network wide distributed information services
examples: file transfer access and management, general document and
message interchange services (e-mail)
The layer provides other services as:
Identification of the intended communication partner by name or by
address
Determination of the current availability of an intended communication
partner
Establishment of authority to communicate
Agreement on privacy (encryption) mechanism
ISO Reference Model
19
Application layer
The layer provides other services as:
Authentication of an intended communication partner
Selection of the dialog discipline, including the initiation andrelease
procedures
Agreement on responsibility for error recovery
Identification of constraints on data syntax (character sets, data
structures, etc.)
ISO Reference Model
20
Data Encapsulation
21
Data Encapsulation
22
ISO vsTCP/IP Reference Model
23
The importance of TCP/IP
Although the OSI model is universally recognized, the historical and
technical open standard of the Internet is TCP/IP (Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
The TCP/IP model and the TCP/IP protocol stack make data
communication possible between any computers, anywhere in the
world
Four layers in TCP/IP model:
Application; Transport; Internet; Network
TCP/IP Reference Model
24
Application layer
The designer felt that the higher level protocols should includethe
session and presentation layer details
They created this layer that handles high-level protocols, issues of
representation, encoding and dialog control
The TCP/IP combines all application-related issues into one layer,
and assumes this data is properly packaged for the next layer
TCP/IP Reference Model
25
Transport layer
It deals with the quality of service issues of reliability, flowcontrol
and error correction
One of its protocols, the transmission control protocol (TCP), is a
connection-oriented protocol that provides excellent and flexible
ways to create reliable, well-flowing, low-error network
communications
It dialogues between source and destination while packaging
application layer information into units called segments
TCP/IP Reference Model
26
Internet layer
It governs by the Internet protocol (IP)
Send source packets from any network on the internetworkand have
them arrive at the destination independent of the path and networks
they took to get there
Best path determination and packet switching
Example: when we mail a letter, we do not know how it gets there
(various possible routes), but we do care that it arrives
TCP/IP Reference Model
27
Physical layer
It also called the host-to-network layer
Concerned with all issues that an IP packet requires to actuallymake
a physical link
This includes a LAN and WAN technology details, and all the
details in the OSI physical and data link layers
TCP/IP Reference Model
28
TCP/IP Reference Model
29
TCP/IP combines the presentation and session layer issues into its
application layer
TCP/IP combines the OSI data link and physical layers into one
layer
TCP/IP appears simpler because it has fewer layers
TCP/IP protocols are the standards around which the internet
developed, so the TCP/IP model gains credibility just because of its
protocols.
Comparing TCP/IP with OSI
TRANSMISI DATA &
TRANSMISI DATA &
MEDIA TRANSMISI
MEDIA TRANSMISI
TERMINOLOGI (1)
Network Devices
Terminologi (2)
Terminologi (3)
Frekuensi, Spektrumdan
Bandwidth
Sinyal-Sinyal Kontinu dan
Diskrit
Sinyal Periodik
Gelombang Sinus
Keragaman Gelombang Sinus
Panjang Gelombang
(Wavelength)
Frequency Domain Concepts
Add Frequency Component
Frequency Domain
Analog And Digital Data
Transmission
Data
Acoustic Spectrum
Signal
Data & Signal
Media on PC
Ethernet
Modem
PC Card (WLAN)
DVB
Ethernet - Architecture
Ethernet IEEE 802.3
10Base5 Thick wire coaxial
10Base2 thin wire coaxial / cheaper
net
10BaseT Twisted Pair
10BaseF Fiber Optics
100BaseT Fast Ethernet
Ethernet 10Base5
Ethernet 10Base2
Ethernet 10BaseT
NIC Connector type
Coaxial Cable
Bayonet Nut Connector (BNC)
Twisted Pair Cable
RJ -45 (8 wire)
Fiber Optics
SMA connectors
Modem
Allows modems of different vendors to
operate together
Define How modems operate:
Modulation techniques
Data compression technique
Error detection strategy
Modem Analog vs Digital
Analog
Infinite number of levels
Conform to voice pattern
Times from highest to lowest and back to the
highest point in one second is the frequency
Can be transmitted over long distance
Digital
Only two levels (high and low)
Conforms to how computers operate
Cannot transmitted over long distance
Modem - Connection
Modem Internal/External
PC Card WLAN (802.11)
Bypassing last mile
PC Card (WLAN) - 1
PC Card (WLAN) - 2
PC Card (WLAN) Indoor
Antena
DVB DVB/IP Tech
The Digital Video Broadcast over Internet
Protocol (DVB/IP) system is functionally an
IP-over-Ethernet simplex satellite service
that incorporates frame-relay type traffic
management. At its core, DVB is a modem-
on-a-chip, plus an intelligent multiplexer.
The antenna is typically a CATV dish, 2.4 -
3.8 meters in diameter (for C-band), or 0.6 -
1.8 meters (for Ku-band).
DVB DVB/IP Routing
DVB - Adaptability
DVB DVB Card
Media Transmisi
Wired
Twisted Pair UTP
Coaxial
Fiber
Wireless
Microwave
Satellite
Twisted Pair
Two wired wrapped in
a twisted fashion
Designed to reduce
cross-talk due
inductance
Still subject to
interference from stray
signal
Primarily used for local
loop connections and
LANs
Comparatively narrow
bandwidth
UTP Unshielded Twisted
Pair
Pair 1
White/blue
Blue
Pair 2
White/Orange
Orange
Pair 3
White/Green
Green
Pair 4
White/Brown
Brown
RJ 45 Connector
UTP Straight Cable
Wo/O Wg/B Wb/G Wbr/Br
UTP Cross Cable
Wg/G Wo/B Wb/O Wbr/Br
UTP - Category
Category Maximum Data Rate Usual Application
CAT 1 Less than 1 Mbps Analog voice (POTS),
Integrated Services Digital Network Basic Rate Interface in ISDN
Doorbell wiring
CAT 2 4 Mbps Mainly used in the IBM Cabling System for token ring networks
CAT 3 16 Mbps Voice and data on 10BASE-T Ethernet
CAT 4 20 Mbps Used in 16 Mbps Token Ring
Otherwise not used much
CAT 5 100 Mbps 100 Mbps TPDDI (100BASE-T or Fast Ethernet)
1000 Mbps (4 pair) 155 Mbps ATM
Gigabit Ethernet
CAT 5E 100 Mbps 100 Mbps TPDDI (100BASE-T or Fast Ethernet)
155 Mbps ATM
CAT 6 200-250 MHz Super-fast Broadband Applications.
Coaxial
Center lead conducts the signal
Protected by insulation and braded wire
Used mostly for television and connections to
antenna
Larger Bandwidth but large in size
Fiber Optical
Signal transmitted by photos rather than electrons
Dramatically higher bandwidth
Used mostly for backbone communication
connections, very high speed LANs and fast
network connections
Fiber Optical
Wireless Transmission
Microwave Antenna (1)
Omni
2.4GHz 8dBi
Microwave Antenna (2)
Sectoral
14dBi 180deg
Microwave Antenna (3)
Sectoral
17dBi 90deg
Microwave Antenna (4)
Direct (Grid)
2.4 GHz 24dB
Microwave Power AMP
Satellite - Broadband
Media Comparison
Multiplexer
HUB
Switch
Bridge
Router
Hub versus Switch
Hub provide connection to all ports (i.e. in
one port and out all other ports).
Passive hub no signal regeneration
Active hub provide signal regeneration
Switch direct the message from appropriate
port (directs a message from the input port
to the desired output port).
More expensive but better bandwidth utilization
Hub versus Switch
LAN Hub device
Hub
LAN Switch device
Switch
Bridge Access Point (WLAN)
Router
Connecting different segment
Have different interfaces (Ethernet,
WAN-Serial, Fiber, etc)
Table Routing
Router
1
Interface Komunikasi & Transmisi Data kuliahke4
Interface komunikasi
Sumber redamandandistorsi
Beberapatiperedamandandistorsi
Pengaruhredamandandistorsi padasinyal
Delay propagasi - pengaruhnyapadasinyal
Transmisi Data
Dasar transmisi data: beberapatipemode transmisi
Transmisi sinkrondanasinkron: persamaan& perbedaan
Teknik deteksi kesalahan: beberapametodependeteksian
Kompresi data: beberapatipealgoritmakompresi
Komunikasi Data
2
Various attenuation &
distortion effects that affects
any signal carried on a
transmission medium:
Attenuation
Limited bandwidth
Delay distortion
Noise
Attenuation & Distortion
3
Attenuation
Signal attenuation - if a signal that propagates along a transmission
medium (line) gets an amplitude decreasing
A limit is set on the length of cable that can be used to ensure that
receiver can detect and interpret the received attenuated signal
correctly
If longer cable is needed, one or more amplifiers (=repeaters) are
inserted at intervals along the cable to restore the received signal to its
original level
Attenuation & Distortion
4
Attenuation
Signal attenuation increases as a function of frequency; since signal
consists of a range of frequencies
Solutions:
By designing amplifiers to amplify different frequency signals by
varying amounts
By using equalizers to equalize the attenuation across a defined
band of frequencies
Attenuation & Distortion
5
Attenuation & Distortion
Attenuation
Measurement of attenuation and amplification (also known as gain) is
in decibels (dB)
dB log 10 n Attenuatio
2
1
10
P
P
=
dB log 10 ion Amplificat
1
2
10
P
P
=
where P
1
is the transmitted signal power level & P
2
is the received power;
both in watts.
Therefore, decibels are dimensionless and simply a measure of the
relative magnitude of the two power levels
The use of logarithms means that the overall attenuation/amplification of
a multisectiontransmission channel can be determined by summing
together the attenuation/amplification of the individual sections
6
Attenuation & Distortion
Attenuation
Each signal element can represent more than a single binary digit; e.g.
when binary informationsare transmitted over a limited-bandwidth
channel such as the PSTN, we often use more than two signal levels.
If the number of signal levels is M, then the number of bits per signal
element m, is given by:
M m
2
log =
The rate of change of the signal is known as the signaling rate (R
s
);
measured in baud.
M R R
s 2
log =
7
Attenuation & Distortion
Limited bandwidth
Any communications channel/transmission medium has a defined
bandwidth associated with it; which specifies the band of sinusoidal
frequency components that will be transmitted by the channel
unattenuated
Therefore, when transmitting data over a channel, it is needed to
quantify the effect of the channel bandwidth on the transmitted data
signal
From the fourier analysis, it is known that any periodic binary sequence
is made up of an infinite series of sinusoidal signals includingthe
fundamental frequency component, f
0
, and its harmonic components.
8
Attenuation & Distortion
Limited bandwidth
When a binary signal is transmitted over a channel, only those
frequency components that are within the channel bandwidth will be
received
From the figure: the larger the channel bandwidth, the higher-frequency
components are received and the closer is the received signal tothe
original (transmitted) signal
The maximum information transfer rate of noiseless transmission
channel C, is given by Nyquist expression as:
Where Wis the bandwidth of the channel in Hz, and Mis the number of
levels per signaling element
M W C
2
log 2 =
9
Attenuation & Distortion
10
Attenuation & Distortion
Limited bandwidth
In practice, with binary data, extra bits are added for transmission
control purposes; therefore the useful data rate is often less than the
actual bit rate
When information are transmitted over a communications channel,
three rates are involved: the signaling rate, the bit rate, and the data
rate; all of which may be the same or different
Since the duration of each bit, T
b
(in sec.), is the reciprocal of the bit
rate, R, (in bps), then the bandwidth efficiency of a transmission
channel, B, that defined as R/W, can be derived as:
1 -
Hz bps
1
b s
WT WT
m
W
R
B = = =
11
Limited bandwidth
From the expression, it can be assumed that the higher the bit rate,
relative to the available bandwidth, the higher bandwidth efficiency
Typical values of B range from 0.25 to 3.0 bps Hz
-1
where the first corresponding to a low bit rate relative to the available
bandwidth, and the second a high bit rate that requires a relatively high
signaling rate
In general, the higher the bandwidth efficiency, the stricter are the
design parameters of the associated equipment and hence the higher
cost
Attenuation & Distortion
12
Delay distortion
When a digital signal is transmitted, the various frequency components
making up the signal arrive at the receiver with varying delays. This
results in delay distortion of the received signal
The amount of distortion increases as the bit rate of the transmitted
data increases, since some of the frequency components associated
with each bit transition are delayed and start to interfere withthe
frequency components associated with a later bit
It also called intersymbol interference, since the received signal, that is
normally sampled at the nominal center of each bit cell, can lead to
incorrect interpretation of the received signal as the bit rate increases
Attenuation & Distortion
13
Attenuation & Distortion
Noise
Line noise level, a random perturbations that present on the line even
when no signal is being transmitted
Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is the ratio of the average power in a
received signal S, to the power in the noise level N; normally
expressed in decibels; given as:
dB

=
N
S
SNR
10
log 10
14
Attenuation & Distortion
Noise
High SNR means a high power signal relative to the existing noise
level, resulting a good-quality received signal; on the other hand, a
low SNR means a low-quality received signal
Shannon-Hartley law is the expression to determine the theoretical
maximum information (data) rate of a transmission channel related
to the SNR ratio; given as:
where C is the information (data) rate [bps], Wis the bandwidth of the
line channel [Hz], S is the average signal power [watts] and N is the
random noise power [watts]
bps

+ =
N
S
W C 1 log
2
15
Noise examples:
Near-end crosstalk (NEXT) or self-crosstalk, caused by the strong
signal output by a transmitter circuit being coupled and interfered with
the much weaker signal at the input to the local receiver input
Impulse noise, caused by impulses of electrical energy associated with
external activity or equipment being picked up by a signal line. Ex:
switching circuits in old telephone exchanges (loud clicks on the line,
etc)
Thermal noise, caused by the thermal agitation of electrons associated
with each atom in the device or transmission line material.
- present in all electronic devices and transmission media
- all transmission media experience this noise at all temperatures above
absolute zero
Attenuation & Distortion
16
Noise examples:
- this noise is also known as white noise, since it is made up of random
frequency components (across the complete frequency spectrum) of
continuously varying amplitude
In practice, it is important to determine the minimum signal level that
must be used (relative to the noise level), to achieve a specific
minimum bit error rate ratio
bit error rate ratio is an acceptable low probability that a single bit
will be misinterpreted by the receiver over a defined period
ex: a bit error rate ratio of 10
-4
means that, on average, 1 bit in every
10
4
received will be misinterpreted
Attenuation & Distortion
17
Attenuation & Distortion
Noise
The energy per bit in a signal, E
b
is given by:
where S is the signal power [watts] and T
b
is the time period for 1 bit
[seconds], R is the data transmission rate that is equal to 1/T
The noise power density [watts Hz
-1
], the level of (thermal) noise in a
bandwidth of 1 Hz in any transmission line is given by:
where k is Boltzmannsconstant (1.3803 x 10
-23
joule K
-1
) and T is the
temperature [K]
From these, to quantify the effect of noise, the energy per bit E
b
is
expressed as a ratio of the noise energy per Hz, N
0
:
second] - [watt [joules]
R
S
ST E
b b
= =
] Hz [watt
-1
kT N =
0
18
Attenuation & Distortion
Noise
The effect of noise, the energy per bit E
b
is expressed as a ratio of the
noise energy per Hz, N
0
:
Or in decibels:
It can be seen that, to achieve an acceptable E
b
/ N
0
ratio (hence
minimum bit error rate), the signal power level S is needed with
increasing of the temperature T and bit rate R
kT
R
S
N
R
S
N
E
b
= =
0 0
( ) kT [dB]
10 10
0
log 10 log 10

=
R
S
N
E
b
19
Attenuation & Distortion
Noise
Since N
0
is the noise power density [watts Hz
-1
] and a channel of
bandwidth is W Hz, the noise power in a received signal N given by
N = W N
0
then
Or in decibels:
R
W
N
S
N
E
b
=
0
R W
N
S
N
E
b
10 10 10
0
log 10 log 10 log 10 +

= [dB]
20
Propagation delay
There is always a short but finite time delay for a signal (electrical,
optical or radio) to propagate (travel) from one end of a transmission
medium to the other; known as the transmission propagation delay, T
p
of the medium
Round-trip delay is the time delay between the first bit of a block being
transmitted by the sender and the last bit of its associated
acknowledgement being received
The function is not only of the time taken to transmit the frameat the
link bit rate (known as the transmission delay, T
x
) but also of the
propagation delay of the link T
p
The relative weighting of the two varies for different types of data link
and hence the two times varies for different are often express as a ratio
a:
21
Propagation delay
The relative weighting of the two varies for different types of data link
and hence the two times varies for different are often express as a ratio
a:
second per bits in rate bit link
ed transmitt be to bits of number

and
second per meters in n propagatio of velocity
meters in separation physical

where
R
N
T
V
S
T
T
T
a
x
p
x
p
=
=
=
If a <1: the round trip delay is determined primarily by the transmission
delay
If a = 1: both delays have equal effect
If a >1: the propagation delay dominates
22
In data communication, the term data is reserved for describing a
set/a block of one/more digitally encoded alphabetic and numeric
characters that being exchanged between two devices
When a data communication facility is used to transfer this typeof
data, the two communicating parties (DTEs) must also exchange
control messages (i.e. to overcome the effect of transmission errors)
within the communication facility
Data Transmission
Keyboard
Encode
Coded bit patterns:
codewords
- EBCDIC (Extended
Binary Coded Decimal
Interchange Code)
- ASCII (American
Standards Committee for
Information Interchange)
Decode
Printer
23
Transfer modes:
Parallel transmission mode: multiple wires connected to each
subunit, and separate wire carries each bit of data; results in
minimal delays
Serial transmission mode: use a single pair of lines; the data is
transmitted in a single bit of time using a fixed time interval for
each bit
Data Transmission
24
Communication modes:
Simplex: used when data is to be transmitted in one direction only;
i.e. in a data logging system in which a monitoring device returns a
reading at regular intervals to the data gathering facility
Half-duplex: used when the two interconnected devices wish to
exchange information (data) alternately; i.e. if one of the devices
returns some data only in response to a request from the other. The
two devices must be able to switch between send and receive
modes after each transmission
Duplex/full-duplex: used when data is to be exchanged between
the two connected devices in both directions simultaneously; i.e. if
for throughput reasons data can flow in each direction
independently
Data Transmission
25
For the receiving device to decode and interpret the pattern correctly, it
must be able to determine:
The start of each bit cell period (in order to sample the incoming
signal in the middle of the bit cell): bit or clock synchronization
The start and end of each element (character or byte): character or
byte synchronization
The start and end of each complete message block (frame): block
or frame synchronization
Transmission modes: synchronization method determined whether the
transmitter and receiver clocks are independent (asynchronous) or
synchronised(synchronous)
Data Transmission
26
Two different transmission modes:
Asynchronous transmission: each character (byte) is treated
independently for clock (bit) and character (byte) synchronization
purposes and the receiver resynchronizes at the start of each character
received
Synchronous transmission: the complete frame (block) of characters is
transmitted as a contiguous string of bits and the receiver endeavors to
keep in synchronism with the incoming bit stream for the duration of
the complete frame (block)
Data Transmission
27
Error control:
Need mechanism to detect when a bit is in error (parity bits, block
checksums, etc)
parity bit: used in an asynchronous transmission, where a binary
digit (bit) is added within each transmitted character
error check sequence: used in a synchronous transmission, where
possible transmission errors on the complete frame, as the basic
unit of transmission is in frame
Another schemes are exist to enable the receiver to obtain another
copy of the original transmission when errors are detected
Data Transmission
28
Flow control:
The receiver may not be able to handle all the information sent due
to limited processing power, buffer space, etc.
the control of the flow information between two DTEswhen the
two devices operate at different data rates; i.e. control of themean
output rate of the faster device, to prevent the communication
network becomes congested
need when two devices are communicating through an
intermediate network, as often the network will buffer only a
limited amount of data
method to control the flow data transfer to ensure that the receiver
does not lose any of the transmitted data because the receiving
device has insufficient storage
Data Transmission
29
Data link protocols
protocol: a set of conventions or rules that must be adhered to by
both communicating parties to ensure that information being
exchanges across a serial data link is received and interpreted
correctly
defines: error and flow control;
data format (number of bits per element and type of encoding
scheme being used);
type and order of messages that are to be exchanged in order to
achieve reliable (error free and no duplicates) information transfer
between two communicating parties.
Data Transmission
30
Asynchronous Transmission
Use when the data to be transmitted is generated at random intervals;
i.e. a user at a keyboard communicating with a computer
Each transmitted character/byte is encapsulated between an
additional start bit and one or more stop bits
The polarity of the start and stop bits is different; to ensuresthat
there is always a minimum of one transition (101) between each
successive characters
31
Asynchronous Transmission
Baud: the number of line signal transitions per second; if each
transmitted signal can be in one of two states, baud and bits per
second (bps) are equivalent.
In general, signaling rate is more general to use, since it avoid
confusion. The data or information transfer rate represents the
number of data bits per second (bps).
I.e. a signaling rate of 300 baud with 4 bits per signaling element
would yield a data rate of 1200 bps.
To achieve bit and character synchronization, the receiving
transmission control circuit must be set to operate with the same
characteristics as the transmitter in terms of the number of bits per
character and the bit rate being used
32
Asynchronous Transmission
Bit synchronization
The receiver clock runs asynchronously with respect to the incoming
signal. In order for the reception process to work reliably, a scheme
whereby the local receiver clock samples the incoming signal as near
to the center of the bit cell as possible
33
Asynchronous Transmission
Bit synchronization
Since the receiver clock (RxC) is running asynchronously with
respect to the incoming signal (RxD), the relative positions of the
two signals can be anywhere within the single cycle of the receiver
clock.
The higher the clock rate ratio, the nearer the sampling instant will
be to the nominal bit cell center.
The maximum bit rate normally used with this transmission is 19.2
kbps.
34
Asynchronous Transmission
Character synchronization
The receiving transmission control circuit is programmed to operate
with the same number of bits per character and the same number of
stop bits as the transmitter.
After the start bit has been detected and received, the receiver
achieves character synchronization simply by counting the
programmed number of bits.
It then transfers the received character (byte) into a local buffer
register and signals to the controlling device (e.g. microprocessor)
that a new character (byte) has been received.
It then awaits the next line signal transition that indicates a new start
bit (and character) is being received
35
Asynchronous Transmission
Frame synchronization
Here, the receiver must be able to determine the start and end of
each frame
Example of transmitting blocks of printable characters encapsulated
by the complete block between two special (nonprintable)
transmission control characters: STX (start-of-text; indicates the start
of a new frame after an idle period) and ETX (end-of-text; indicates
the end of the frame)
In transmitting binary data, the two transmission control characters
STX and ETX are each preceded by a third transmission control
character DLE (data link escape)
36
Asynchronous Transmission
Frame synchronization
Character/byte stuffing: On receipt of each byte after the DLE-STX
start-of-frame sequence, the receiver determines the next
character/byte. If it is a DLE, the receiver processes the next byte to
determine whether that is another DLE or ETX. If it is a DLE, the
receiver discards it and awaits the next byte. If it is an ETX, this is
taken as the end of the frame.
37
Synchronous Transmission
Use in transmission of large blocks of data at higher bit rates; the
complete block or frame of data is transmitted as a contoguousbit
stream with no delay between each 8-bit element.
To enable the receiving device to achieve the various level of
synchronization:
The transmitted bit stream is suitable encoded so that the receiver
can be kept in synchronism
All frames are preceded by one or more reserved bytes/characters
for byte/character synchronization (to ensure the receiver reliably
interprets the received bit stream on the correct byte/character
boundaries
The contents of each frame are encapsulated between a pair of
reserved character/byte synchronization
38
Synchronous Transmission
During the period between the transmission of successive frames,
either synchronous idle characters/bytes are continuously transmitted
to allow the receiver to retain bit and byte synchronism; or each frame
is preceded by two or more special synchronizing bytes or characters
to allow the receiver to regain synchronism
39
Error Detection
The concept behind error control is the prevention of delivery of
incorrect messages (bits) to a higher level in the communication
hierarchy
Two factors that determine the type of error-detection techniques:
Bit Error Rate (BER); whether the errors occur as random single-
bit errors
Burst Error; whether the errors occur as groups of contiguous
strings of errors
The BER is the probability P of a single bit being corrupted in a
defined time interval. BER of 10
-13
means that, on average, 1 bit in 10
3
will be corrupted during a defined time period
40
Error Detection
Two approaches to achieve a copy of (hopefully) correct information:
Forward error control; each transmitted character/frame contains
additional (redundant) information so that the receiver can not only
detect when errors are present but also determine where in the
received bit stream the errors are. The correct data is obtainedby
inverting these bits. In practice, the number of additional bits,
required to achieve reliable forward error control, increases rapidly
as the number of information bits increases
Feedback (backward) error control; each character/frame includes
only sufficient additional information to enable the receiver to
detect when errors are present but not their location. A
retransmission control scheme is used to request that another copy
of information be sent
41
Error Detection
Widely used error detection schemes: parity, check sum, cyclic
redundancy check
Parity
Extra bit at the end of a character (5-7 bits) specifying how many of
the bits are 1s
The parity bit is said to be even if it is set to make the total number of
1s even, and oddif it is set to make the total number of 1s odd.
Can detect all odd numbers of bit errors in the message
Can not detect even numbers of bit errors error cancellation
Hamming distance: number of bits in which two words differ
Typically used in asynchronous transmission, since timing and spacing
between characters is uncertain.
42
Error Detection
Typically used in asynchronous transmission, since timing and spacing
between characters is uncertain.
43
Error Detection
Parity
44
Error Detection
Block Sum Check
Block error rate: the probability of a block containing an error
Block (sum) check character check the error by using a vertical parity
check that calculates parity over the same bit of multiple characters.
Used in conjunction with longitudinal parity check.
Overhead is related to number of bits and can be large
45
Error Detection
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
Parity bits still subject to burst noise, uses large overhead (potentially)
for improvement of 2-4 orders of magnitude in probability of detection
CRC is based on a mathematical calcilationperformed on message.
The following terms will be used:
M message to be sent (k bits)
F Franecheck sequence (FCS) to be appended to message (n
bits)
T Transmitted message includes both Mand F (k+n bits)
G a (n+1) bit pattern (called generator) used to calculate F and
check T
46
Mainly done in applications that involve public transmission facilities,
such as PSTN, where charges are based on time (duration) and
distance. If the time to transmit each block of data can be reduced, it
will reduce the call cost
In practice, a range of compression algorithm can be applied, each
suited to a particular type of data
Some modems (intelligent modems) now offer an adaptive
compression feature which selects a compression algorithm to suit the
type of data being transmitted
Some common types of data compression algorithm:
Data Compression
47
Packed decimal
Used to compress a frame contain only numeric characters
It reduces the number of bits per character from seven (ASCII) to four
by using a binary-coded-decimal (BCD); all have 011 in their three
high-order bit positions
Data Compression
48
Relative encoding
Send only the magnitude difference between each value together with
a known reference value
Effective for data logging applications; ex. monitoring the water level
of a river
In general, binary values with a bit-oriented protocol produce the
largest saving
Data Compression
49
Character suppression
A variation of the relative encoding scheme; use in a more general way
to compress other character types
In transmitting frames contain printable characters, there are often
sequences in the frame when the same character repeats; e.g. thespace
character. The control device at the transmitter scans the frame
contents prior to transmission and, if a contiguous string of three or
more characters is located, replaces these with the three-character seq.
Data Compression
50
Huffman coding
Exploits the property that not all symbols in a transmitted frame occur
with the same frequency e.g. in a frame comprising strings of
characters, certain characters occur more often than others.
Instead of using a fixed number of bits per character, a statistical
encoding scheme is used, where the most common characters are
encoded using fewer bits than less frequent characters.
The character string to be transmitted is analyzed and the character
types and their relative frequency is determined. The coding operation
then creates an unbalanced tree with some branches (as codewords)
shorter than others. The degree of imbalance is a function of the
relative frequency of occurrence of the characters; the larger the
spread, the more unbalanced is tree huffman code tree
Data Compression
51
Huffman coding
Huffman (code) tree is a binary tree with branches assigned the value
0 or 1. The base of the tree (at geometric top), is known as root node,
and the point where a branch divides is a branch node. The termination
point of a branch is known as a leaf node, where the symbols being
encoded are assigned.
The theoretical minimum average number of bits per codeword to
transfer message string is known as the entropy, H, of the message.
The formula to calculate H is derived by Shannon:
(bits per codeword)
Where n is the number of characters in the message and Pi is the
probability of character (i) occuringin the message.
Data Compression
i
n
i
i P P H 2
1
log

=
=
52
Huffman coding
It is most efficient when frequency distribution of the characters being
transmitted is wide and long character strings are involved; it is not
suitable for the transmission of binary-coded computer data since the
8-bit bytes generally occur with about the same frequency
Data Compression
53
Dynamic Huffman Coding
Problem with basic Huffman encoding is that transmitter and receiver
must know the code tree; here, updates Huffman tree dynamically.
With this method, if the character to be transmitted is currently present
in the tree, its codeword is determined and sent in the normal way. If
the character is not present (its first occurrence), the character I
transmitted in its uncompressed form.
The encoder updates its Huffman tree either by incrementing the
frequency occurrence of the transmitted character or by introducing the
new character into the tree.
This means that the savings in transmission bandwidth start onlywhen
characters begin to repeat themselves; I.e. in transmitting the text files
Data Compression
54
Fascimile compression
Effective for data logging applications
In general, binary values with a bit-oriented protocol produce the
largest saving
Data Compression