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G Elektronii / N.


G Elektronii Dersi G Yariletkenleri ile Prtik Devre rnekleri

0-24V 5A Ayarl Regleli G Kayna - 0-24V 5A Ayarl Regleli G Kayna Devresi - 0-24V 5A Ayarl Regleli G Kayna emas 0-24V 5A Ayarl Regleli G Kayna Devresi emas

The VCR converter: 12V to 12 V! 2 "att Many modern pieces of home electronics, like video recorders, have switching power supplies that can accept any voltage from about 90 to 250V A , at fre!uencies of "5 through at least several hundred #ert$% &ut it is less known that most of these power supply can perfectly well accept ' voltage too( )hat ' voltage should be at a level of close to what the A peak would be, that is, typically this e!uipment will accept about **0 to +20V ' % , live in a place where sometimes we get power cuts% ,t does not happen really often now, but when it happens, , hate having to re-program the memories and timer of my video cassette recorder( ,t looses memory as soon as the power outage lasts for more than a few seconds% &ut , have a large storage battery in my radio room, under constant charge, and given the low power consumption of a V ., , decided to put it on the battery% , looked inside, and tried to in/ect a backup voltage into the 01 circuitry, but having no schematic diagram , missed the proper spots, and the machine always kept forgetting everything% 2o , decided to power the entire V . from the battery, through the A power input% )he most obvious approach would be to make a ' to A inverter, having **0 or 220V A output at 50 or 30 #$, but this re!uires a rather large and heavy transformer% 2o it4s better to use a high fre!uency, at least 25k#$, so a very small and cheap transformer can be used% &ut sending 25 k#$ into a power supply designed for 50 to 30 #$ is no good( )he input diodes are not fast enough, and the noise filter at the input would place a heavy reactive load on the inverter( 2o , decided to rectify the secondary voltage in the converter, and power the V . with ' %

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Practical #$itch Volta%e Re%&lator Po$er #&''l( Circ&it "ith Positive )ncentives Convertor *etho+

)he practical switch voltage regulator power supply circuit is shown in the picture% )he positive incentives convertor method4s main features are5*%)he transformer winding4s primary and secondary has the same polarity%2%6hen V)* is connected, the current i* would be through 7p% At the same time the output side has current i2 conducted, and the output current is ,o% Also the inductor 8 is cumulating the energy%+%6hen the V)* is disconnected, the 84s opposite 9M: would make the current conducted through V'2%"%)he output side rectifier circuit is inductor input type whose switching fre!uency is beyond *00k#$% )he picture shows the practical switch voltage regulator power supply circuit with positive incentives convertor method%


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The s(,,etrical +o&-le T circ&it to i,'rove the notch .ilter circ&it

:igure * is an e;ample of the symmetrical double-) circuit% 1nder careful observation, we found that it is circuit synthesis of low-pass filter and high pass filter% ,n this circuit, usually the ratio of components grounding into the earth adopts 2 and . < 2 method% )he reason for this is that the ratio can effectively make the attenuation fre!uency reach the spike values, but the = value of this circuit is also dropped to 0%25, $ero fre!uency )he composition of the circuit is e;tremely simple, accoring to the circuit, we can see 2 capacitors is needed% )he author4s approach improves the cost, we can adopt two capacitors connected in parallel to process%

)he principle of circuit)he irrigation motor automatic protector circuit is formed by the power supply circuit and the detection<protection control circuit, which is shown in :igure "-93% 0ower supply circuit is formed by the power transformer ), rectifier diodes V'*-V'" and filter capacitor *% 'etection<protection control circuit is formed by the detection electrodes A,&,start button 2,resistors .*-.", capacitor 2, optical coupler V8 , bi-directional trigger diode V, thyristor V), electronic switch integrated circuit , and A contactor >M%

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Di%ital lock /

)he digital lock circuit is composed of the power switch 2?, power transformer ), bridge rectifier 1., relays >l, >2, password buttons 2l-2l2, transistors V), 89' V8l, V82, diodes V'*-V'", resistors .* -.+ and capacitors l- 3, and it is shown in :igure +-*0+% .l-.+ use the *<"6 carbon film resistors or metal film resistors% l- " select ultra small aluminum electrolytic capacitors with the voltage in *3V@ 5 uses the monolithic capacitor% V'*-V'" are choose *7"*"A silicon switch diode@ V'5 uses the l7"00B silicon rectifier diode%

Electronic -allast circ&it +ia%ra, .or .l&oresent la,'

)he electronic ballast circuit for fluorescent lamp is composed of the rectifier filter circuit, high-fre!uency oscillator circuit and output circuit% ,n the circuit, the rectifier filter circuit consists of the rectifier diodes V'*- V'" and filter capacitors *, 2@ high-fre!uency oscillator consists of the transistors vi, V2, resistors .*-.B, capacitors +, ", 3, diodes V'5- V'A and high fre!uency transformer ) C6*-6+ are wound on the same magnetic ring to form a high-fre!uency transformerD@ output circuit is composed of the chokes 8*, 82 and capacitors *- *0%

G Elektronii / N. Abut

Gro&n+ control electric .an circ&it +ia%ra,


)his circuit shows a triac motor-speed control that derives feedback from a magnetcoil tachometer that is placed near the motor fan C:igs% A-*B& and A-*B D% Motor speed is controlled by the 5-kE pot% )he MA 2*0-" triac is capable of handling motor loads up to *0 A%


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)his figure shows the basic control circuit for 2 .s that use 2&2 triggers, and is preferable to that of :ig% A-2" CtriacD, where high power must be handled, or whore rapidly rising voltages are encountered Chigh dv<dt,D% Although the circuits of both :igs% A-2" and A-25 were designed as incandescent-lamp dimmers, the circuits are well suited to control of universal and shaded-pole motors% 2uch motors have higher tor!ue at low speeds when open-loop controlled by these circuits, rather than with rheostats or variable transformers Cbecause of the higher voltage pulses appliedD%


#$i% &i'ure %$o(% t$e ba%i) )ontrol )ir)uit &or tria)% t$at u%e *+* tri''er%. #$e line volta'e an,

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loa, )urrent ,e-en, -rimaril. on t$e tria) )$ara)teri%ti)%. /n t$i% )a%e0 t$e 1A22"!34 a))ommo,ate% loa,% u- to "! A.


)his circuit provides positive protection of e;pensive electrical or electronic e!uipment against e;cessive supply voltage Cresulting from improper switching, short circuits, failure of regulators, etc%D% )he circuit is used where it is economically desirable to shut down e!uipment, rather than allow the e!uipment to operate at e;cessive voltages% )he circuit !uickly places a short across the power lines Cac or dcD, and thereby drops the voltage to the protected device to near $ero and blows a fuse% 6ith the values shown, the crowbar operating point Cset pointD can be ad/usted over the range of 30 to *20 Vdc or "2 to A" Vac% )he values of .* to .+ can be changed to cover different supply voltages, but the triac voltage rating must be greater than the highest operating point that is set by .2% 8amp ,, Cwith a voltage rating that is e!ual to the supplyD can be used to check the set point and operation of the circuit, by opening the push-to-test switch and ad/usting the input or set point to fire the 2&2% An alarm unit such as the Mallory 2onalert can be connected across the fuse to provide an audible indication of crowbar action% 7otice that this circuit cannot act on short, infre!uent power-line transients%

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)his circuit uses a

A+093 or

A+093A transistor array to control a triac%


#$i% )ir)uit u%e% a 2A 24!E to %en%e %mall )urrent% &lo(in' bet(een )onta)t -oint% on a tou)$ -late0 ($i)$ )on%i%t% o& a P2 boar, metali5ation 'ri,. 6$en t$e 7n -late i% tou)$e,0 )urrent &lo(% bet(een t$e t(o $alve% o& t$e 'ri,0 an, )au%e% a -o%itive %$i&t in t$e out-ut volta'e 8-in 79 o& t$e 2A 24!E. #$e%e -o%itive tran%ition% are &e, into t$e 2A !790 ($i)$ i% u%e, a% a lat)$in' )ir)uit an, 5ero3)ro%%in' tria) ,river. 6$en -in7 o& t$e 2A 24! i% -o%itive0 t$e tria) an, lam- are on. #$e o--o%ite o))ur% ($en t$e 7&& -late i% tou)$e,0 an, -in " o& t$e 2A 24! i% -o%itive.

G Elektronii / N. Abut


)his circuit shows a controller%

A+09"& and triac that are connected to form a temperature


)his circuit shows the basic 1F) building block C:ig% 9-*D, which is used in a light dimmer with soft-start operation that applies current to the light slowly enough to eliminate high surges Chigh inrush currentD% )hese current surges, found in most cold-filament light dimmers, shorten lamp life% 6ith this circuit, the lamp is heated slowly by a gradually increasing voltage so that inrush current is kept to a minimum% ." controls the charging rate of 2 and provides the means to control or dim the lamp%

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)his circuit shows a 1F) used as a thyristor trigger Cwith feedbackD, where the average load voltage is the desired feedback variable% .*, .2, and * average the load voltage so that the voltage can be compared with the set point that is determined by . %


#$i% )ir)uit %$o(% a 4N2; ,rivin' an *2<0 ($i)$0 in turn0 i% u%e, to )ontrol an in,u)tive loa,. #$e *2< i% a %en%itive3'ate ,evi)e 8 " mA o& 'ate )urrent9 an, t$e 4N2; $a% a minimum3 current transfer ratio of 0%2, so the "723 input current C,:D must be 5 mA% )he *-kE resistor prevents the 2 . from triggering with small input changes, and the *7"005 prevents the 2 . from triggering with the self-induced voltage when the 2 . turns off%

G Elektronii / N. Abut

Ti,e6Var(in% Di,,in% Circ&it

)he picture shows the time-varying dimming circuit%As shown, it uses the uni/unction transistor C1F)D trigger circuit, whose function is that it could make the lamp4s brightness light up gradually and automatically, or light out gradually and automatically Cwhich means the so-called soft starting or soft stoppingD% )his circuit could be used to control street lamp, home lamp, film-playing place, film-playing room and so on, and these cases would be very ade!uate% )his could make people4s eyes adapt to the photometric re!uirements gradually, so that it is good for eye4s health%)he working principle5 when the 2+ is connected, the circuit would get power supply% ,f the 2* is switched to upside, the *, 2 would be charged% &ecause the 24s two ports4 voltage is advanced than the *4s two ports4 voltage, the *4s charging voltage would be increased firstly and the 2 voltage would follow it to be increased% )he 2 .4s conduction angle would be wider and the lamp4s two ports4 voltage would be increased, so the lamp would be light up gradually%

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27 " #CR )nverter Circ&it

0ulse ' 9lectronic :ishing 'evice ircuit C+D

#$e Pul%e D2 Ele)troni) =i%$in' Devi)e 2ir)uit

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3ne kin+ o. electron -allast circ&it 'rinci'le +ia%ra,

#anhe #on%shi 17" vi-ratin% ,assa%e stick circ&it


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P"* ,otor s'ee+ control circ&it

,ia'ram? P61 motor %-ee, )ontrol )ir)uit.


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89" controlle+ silicon DC s'ee+ %overnin% s(ste, circ&it

Electric .an ste'less s'ee+ re%&lation circ&it +ia%ra,

Ele)tri) &an %te-le%% %-ee, re'ulation )ir)uit ,ia'ram i% %$o(n in t$e ,ia'ram? 8>ie(9 >ie( &ull 2ir)uit Dia'ram @ 2omment% @ <ea,in'8" ;9

engine oil pressure switch water temperature sensor braking smoke and air condition system circuit diagram
Publi%$e,?2!""343"! 2!? 9?!! Aut$or?muriel @ Ae.(or,? en'ine oil -re%%ure %(it)$0 (ater tem-erature %en%or0 brakin' %moke 0 air )on,ition %.%tem


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=i'ure en'ine oil -re%%ure %(it)$(ater tem-erature %en%orbrakin' %moke an, air )on,ition %.%tem )ir)uit ,ia'ram 8>ie(9 >ie( &ull 2ir)uit Dia'ram @ 2omment% @ <ea,in'8"979

Air-condition front and back control assembly and ambient temperature control circuit diagram
Publi%$e,?2!""343"! 2!?2:?!! Aut$or?muriel @ Ae.(or,? Air3)on,ition &ront an, ba)k )ontrol a%%embl.0 ambient tem-erature )ontrol

=i'ure Air3)on,ition &ront an, ba)k )ontrol a%%embl. an, ambient tem-erature )ontrol )ir)uit ,ia'ram 8>ie(9 >ie( &ull 2ir)uit Dia'ram @ 2omment% @ <ea,in'8449

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The application circuit of EXB851

Publi%$e,?2!""3438 2?2;?!! Aut$or?ma.

8>ie(9 >ie( &ull 2ir)uit Dia'ram @ 2omment% @ <ea,in'8;"9

Application circuit of EXB8 !

Publi%$e,?2!""3438 2?"!?!! Aut$or?ma.


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>ie( &ull 2ir)uit Dia'ram @ 2omment% @ <ea,in'8";!9

" type #$% structure and #&BT e'ui(alent circuit

Publi%$e,?2!""3438 2?!"?!! Aut$or?ma. @ Ae.(or,? D t.-e0 /P10 %tru)ture0 eBuivalent

8a9 D t.-e /P1 %tru)ture 8b9 /G+# eBuivalent )ir)uit 8>ie(9 >ie( &ull 2ir)uit Dia'ram @ 2omment% @ <ea,in'8"!29

Typical application wiring diagram of )*+1!A

Publi%$e,?2!""3438 "?:7?!! Aut$or?ma.


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8>ie(9 >ie( &ull 2ir)uit Dia'ram @ 2omment% @ <ea,in'8;:9

$ower module unit diagram of #&BT and fly-wheel diode

Publi%$e,?2!""3438 "?!7?!! Aut$or?ma. @ Ae.(or,? /G+#0 &l.3($eel ,io,e0 Po(er mo,ule

8a9 i% %in'le %(it)$ mo,uleC 8b9 i% t(o unit 8$al& bri,'e9 mo,uleC 8)9 i% D bri,'e 8%in'le -$a%e bri,'e9 mo,uleC 8,9 i% a%.mmetri)al D bri,'e mo,uleC 8e9 i% t$ree -$a%e bri,'e 8%iE unit or inverter bri,'e9 mo,uleC 8&9 i% )$o--in' mo,ule 8'9 i% )$o--in' mo,ule 8$9 i% t$ree -$a%e bri,'e GD a,, )$o--in' GAF 8brakin' )$o--er )ir)uit9 mo,uleC 8i9 i% t$ree unit mo,ule0 )on%i%t% o& t$ree 'rou- %(it)$C 8G9 i% %in'le %(it)$ a,, )olle)tor en, %erie% ,io,e 8 ne'ative ,ire)tion ,i%)onne)tin' %(it)$9 mo,uleC 8k9 i% %in'le %(it)$ a,, emitter en, %erie% ,io,e 8ne'ative ,ire)tion ,i%)onne)tin' %(it)$9 mo,uleC 8l9 i% t(o unit mo,ule0 (it$ %erie% ,io,e 8ne'ative ,ire)tion ,i%)onne)tin' %(it)$9. 8>ie(9

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>ie( &ull 2ir)uit Dia'ram @ 2omment% @ <ea,in'8:8;9

,-* electron ballast circuit composed of %$#,.151$ and $ower*u/T% #&BT

Publi%$e,?2!""3432 ?2:?!! Aut$or?ma. @ Ae.(or,? ele)tron balla%t0 Po(erFuE#1 /G+#

8>ie(9 >ie( &ull 2ir)uit Dia'ram @ 2omment% @ <ea,in'8"499

The package of %itsubishi #$%

Publi%$e,?2!""3437 2!?48?!! Aut$or?ma. @ Ae.(or,? 1it%ubi%$i0

/P1 i% a,van)e, $.bri, inte'rate, -o(er ,evi)e. /t i% inte'rate, $i'$3%-ee,0 lo( -o(er )on%um-tion /G+# )$i- an, o-timal 'ri, ,rive )ir)uit an, kin,% o& -rote)tive )ir)uit in one

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mo,ule. 2om-are to or,inar. /G+#0 /P1 $a% &urt$er in)rea%e in %.%tem &eature% an, reliabilit.. Al%o0 be)au%e it% )on,u)tion lo%%e% an, %(it)$ lo%%e% i% Buite lo(0 t$e %i5e o& ra,iator i% %mall0 %o %i5e o& t$e ($ole %.%tem i% more %mall. 1oreover /P1 internal inte'rate, lo'i)0 )ontrol0 ,ete)t ion an, -rote)t )ir)uit0 t$e u%e i% )onvenient0 it not onl. ,e)rea%e t$e volume o& t$i% %.%tem an, t$e ,evelo-ment time0 al%o 'reatl. a,, reliabilit. o& t$e %.%tem. 8>ie(9