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The Journal of the Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors

Everest Scanning Sydney Biodiversity
October 2013
05. Presidents Column
07. ICES regions
08. Training dates
09. News
12. Events
13. Letters
13. Social network
15. Legal Q&A
47. Profiles
48. Classifieds/Where to buy
50. Recruitment
Features Regulars
16. Looking at the valleys
David Breashears of GlacierWorks talks to
Abigail Tomkins
21. The story of the Bristol Channel forts: 2
Hamish Mitchell FCInstCES
23. La Boisselle: Wartime history, bravery
and surveying
Jeremy Banning, Military Historian, and
Margaret Beach, Multi-Limn
28. Biodiversity offsetting
Matthew Grogan
Thomson Snell and Passmore
31. Tripods, cantilevers and ropes
3D scanning Sydney Opera House
Justin Barton, CyArk, and
Dr Lyn Wilson, Scottish Ten
37. Monitoring progress on Abu
Dhabis STEP
John OConnor, Byrne Looby Partners
39. Muddy waters
Chris Taylor, Zeus Renewables
41. An alternative to optical monitoring
Lucy Hamilton, KOREC
43. The CIC BIM protocol:
A critical appraisal
Mustafa Al-Shammari,
University of Portsmouth
Civil Engineering Surveyor is printed using PEFC-certified paper as part of the institutions commitment to promote sustainable forest management.
Printed by Buxton Press Limited, Palace Road, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 6AE. 2013 Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors. ISSN 0266-139X
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Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors
Dominion House, Sibson Road, Sale, Cheshire M33 7PP
United Kingdom
+44 (0)161 972 3110
President: Alan Barrow FCInstCES MRICS
Honorary Secretary: AH Palmer FCInstCES
Chief Executive Officer: Bill Pryke
Civil Engineering Surveyor is published monthly by the Chartered
Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors. Statements made and
opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect
the views of the institution, its Council of Management or other
committees. No material may be reproduced in whole or in part
without the written permission of the publisher. All rights reserved.
CES November 2013 will feature estimating and cost control.
Copy date: 14 October 2013. Please note that this date applies to
news, calendar items and letters. Articles, reviews and other
lengthier contributions inevitably require a longer lead in time.
Cover shot: Positioning a laser scanner upside
down along a cantilevered arm to capture Sydney
Opera House in 3D. Article pp31.
Image Justin Barton. >Chartered ICES
Capture geo-referenced
360 degree images
and point clouds with any
car in your eet

5 Presidents Column 10 2013
BIM will fail...
promised I was going to talk about BIM this month, so
now that I have your attention, I shall begin. Building
information modelling is set to become the biggest
marketing opportunity for surveying professionals, both
geospatial engineers and commercial managers, that we shall
see in our lifetime. There can be very few who havent heard
of BIM or who are not aware that BIM level 2 has been
mandated by HM government for all public sector projects
from 2016 onwards.
So what is it? Put simply, it is better information
management enabling everybody who may be involved in
the planning, designing, constructing, fitting out, operating,
maintaining, refurbishing and eventually the demolition of
an asset to be able to work together efficiently and in
harmony. The B in BIM (building) is an unfortunate part of
the acronym that we have inherited from the USA where
there it reflects the origins of the system. However, BIM is
not just for buildings. BIM will be equally applied to
structures, roads, airports, railways, ports and, in fact,
anything that is constructed.
What is so different about BIM is that it is an environment
of information management that will live throughout the life
of the asset. BIM is the enabler of collaboration. BIM is a set
of protocols and procedures for data exchange by which all
information required to develop and manage a project will be
available to everyone at the appropriate stages in the lifecycle.
BIM will be used by the assets developers, planners,
architects, engineers, contractors, outfitters and operators. In
short, everyone will sing from the same hymn sheet and there
will be no conflicts, no misunderstandings, no duplicity of
effort and, most importantly, there will be no disputes and
therefore no need for dispute resolution (!?).
Thats the theory. Putting theory into practice will require
that every BIM will be different and will need to be tailored
around and focused on the needs of the target asset. The
foundation for every BIM is a 3D model that will feature every
component, fixture and fitting that will collectively make up
the asset. Behind the 3D model, and possibly accessed
through it by hyperlinking, will be a series of relational
databases that contain everything of relevance concerning the
asset, its fixtures and fittings. It follows, therefore, that to
remain relevant the BIM must be continually updated as the
project itself develops and matures from design to as built.
The role of surveyor is the only role, apart from the
owners, that will contribute to the BIM throughout the
lifecycle of the asset. The roles of planners, architects,
engineers, builders and asset managers will all feature at times
in the project lifecycle but they are all transient in comparison
to the role of the surveyor that is central to maintaining the
6 Presidents Column Civil Engineering Surveyor
BIM database. Clearly, geospatial engineers
have a huge part to play but dont make
the mistake of thinking it doesnt affect
commercial managers it does.
From the moment of design, the BIM
will start to be populated with programme
and phasing of the works right down to
the fitting out and the bills of quantities
of the components that comprise the asset.
Progress will be mapped against the
BIM and monthly measures will drop
out automatically.
Throughout the lifecycle of the BIM it is
the geospatial engineers and the
commercial managers who will be the ones
who will keep the model and
underpinning schedules up-to-date and
relevant. The BIM will be tested
continuously during the project lifecycle. It
will be tested in areas of accuracy,
completeness and currency, and if it is
found to be wanting at any time, it will
inevitably fall into disrepute and fail with
the possibility that the ultimate test will be
in court.
The UK government BIM Task Group
recognises the central role that surveyors
will play in keeping the BIM relevant and
has agreed the formation of a new group to
formalise the role of the surveyor in the
BIM environment. Survey4BIM has been
formed under the auspices of the BIM Task
Group and is being chaired by the senior
vice president of this institution, Ian Bush.
We are determined that the composition of
the Survey4BIM committee shall be
inclusive and fully representative of the
surveying community, the solutions that are
available now and react to those that will
become available in the future.
To support this initiative, a Survey4BIM
management committee has been
established with representatives from the
Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors,
The Survey Association, Ordnance Survey,
Association for Geographic Information,
BIM Task Group and manufacturers and
clients joining ICES. We are determined
that the solutions that Survey4BIM will
propose shall best match the aspirations
of our clients and shall be the model for
best practice.
BIM will surely fail unless we, the
surveying community collectively, take
ownership of the surveying content of the
BIM model. As an institution, we will
continue to lead on this issue. The
success or failure of BIM and the standing
of the surveying community demands that
we succeed.
Alan Barrow FCInstCES, President
BIM will surely fail unless we, the surveying community, take
ownership of the surveying content of the BIM model.
7 ICES Regions 10 2013
ICES Anglia & Central
10 OCT 13: Suffolk energy from waste
SITA UK, Ipswich, 8am
Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100
Work started on the 180m Suffolk energy from waste facility in January 2012 and is due to
be fully operational by the end of 2014. The visit will include a talk on the process and
construction completed to date, followed by a tour of the site. It will be necessary for all
attendees to bring their own PPE (boots, high vis jacket, hard hat, goggles and gloves). If
anyone has difficulties providing their own PPE, contact John Elven at or 07958 102334 for assistance. Breakfast will be provided.
ICES Eastern & Midlands
08 OCT 13: CDM... the next move
Loughborough University, 6pm for 6.30pm
Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100
CDM its history, the likely changes into the future and responsibilities for civil
engineering surveyors.
10 OCT 13: NEC3 Key time and money issues
Birmingham, 9.15am for 9.40am
Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100
The ICES Commercial Management Practices Committee presents a half-day seminar in
conjunction with Weightmans Solicitors and DGA Construction Consultants. Lunch will
be provided.
ICES Northern Counties
24 OCT 13: The Great ICES Pub Quiz
Waterline Bar, Newcastle, 6.30pm for 7pm
Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100
The inaugural ICES NC pub quiz will feature general knowledge and surveying questions.
Prizes will be awarded to the winning team. Light buffet available. This is a joint regional
and ICES Network event.
20 NOV 13: Updates to NEC3 for 2013
Northumbria University, Newcastle, 6pm for 6.30pm
Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100
A seminar by Richard Anderson, partner at Pinsent Masons. Light buffet available.
ICES North West & North Wales
15 OCT 13: Committee meeting
ICES HQ, Sale, 6pm for 6.30pm
Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100
06 NOV 13: NEC protecting your entitlement
ICES HQ, Sale, 6pm for 6.30pm
Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100
Gary Blackburn, Mike Conway and Damian Savage from Hill International will talk about
identifying change and protecting your entitlement. This is a follow-on talk from the
evening seminar in September.
19 NOV 13: Committee meeting
ICES HQ, Sale, 6pm for 6.30pm
Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100
ICES Scotland
04 OCT 13: Forth Road Bridge site visit
Contact and Education Centre, Rossyth, 9.30am-12.30pm
Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100
Cost: 5. Full PPE necessary
This is an on-shore site visit to the new Forth Road Bridge, organised by ICES members
Glyn Hunt and Ronan Hayes. Presentations will be given by Ewen Macdonell, FCBC
community liaison manager, and the survey department before a site tour. Registration
is essential.
21 OCT 13: Top ten things to know about construction contracts
Maclay Murray & Spens, Glasgow, 6pm for 6:30
Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100
Helen Hutcheson and Sarah Scott from Maclay Murray & Spens will present this evening
seminar. Helen Hutcheson specialises in the drafting and negotiation of construction and
engineering contracts, diligence and risk. Sarah Scott specialises in dispute resolution.
Head Office
Dominion House, Sibson Road, Sale,
Cheshire M33 7PP, United Kingdom
+44 (0)161 972 3100
CEO: Bill Pryke
Membership Manager: Paul Brown
Membership Officer: Juliette Mellaza
Professional Development Officer: Serena Ronan
Administrator: Louise Whittaker
Administration Assistant: Tom Johnson
Legal Advice
A legal hotline is available free of charge to ICES members from the
institutions advisory solicitors.
Advisory Solicitors
Jeremy Winter +44 (0)20 7919 1000
Jonathan Hosie +44 (0)20 3130 3343
ICES committees and panels are available to receive member queries.
Commercial Management Practices Committee
Chair: Peter Schwanethal
Contracts & Dispute Resolution Panel
Chair: Steve Williams
Education, Professional Development & Membership Committee
Chair: Steve Jackson
Finance & General Purposes Committee
Chair: Chris Birchall
Geospatial Engineering Practices Committee
Chair: Ian Bush
ICES Network
Chair: Alex Maddison
ICES Anglia & Central
Chair: John Elven
Secretary: Tim Brennan
ICES Eastern & Midlands
Chair: James Hulme
Secretary: Lukasz Bonenberg
ICES Hong Kong
Chair: Michael Wong
Secretary: Ralph Leung
ICES Ireland & Northern Ireland
Chair: Ken Stewart
Secretary: Ciaran Bruton
ICES Northern Counties
Chair: Steve Aspinall
Secretary: Ian Cussons
ICES North West & North Wales
Chair: Peter Randles
ICES Scotland
Chair: Bob MacKellar
ICES South East
Chair: Eric Zeeven
Secretary: Nicola Boriel
ICES South West & South Wales
Chair: Mark Phillips
Secretary: Steve Lailey
Chairman: Dhammika Gamage
ICES Yorkshire
Chair: Neil Harvey
Secretary: Matthew Lock
8 ICES Regions Civil Engineering Surveyor
ICES South East
16 OCT 13: NEC3 subcontracting
MWB Paddington, London, 5.30pm for 6pm
17 OCT 13: Modern data flows and data collection
on site
UEL, London 6.30pm for 7pm
Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100
Topcon will give a presentation on how
communication methods on site are
changing. It will cover real-time
messaging, file transfer, machine tracking,
remote support and training, real-time
cut/fill mapping and acquiring and storing
real-time survey data on a desktop, tablet
or smartphone. It will also look at vehicle
collection of data for topographical
survey work, point cloud creation and as-
built surveys.
30 OCT 13: Anatomy of a procurement challenge
Union Jack Club, London, 5.30pm for 6pm
21 NOV 13: Bringing light to the dark art of
UCL, London, 6.30pm for 7pm
Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100
Tony Ciorra, partner at Edge Consult, will
explain the mysteries of contract delay
analysis, to allow delegates to understand
the different contractual entitlement
approach taken by NEC and JCT forms of
contract. He is co-author of the Chartered
Institute of Buildings Guide to Good
Practice in the Management of Time in
Complex Projects and has contributed to
the Association for Project Management
guide for planning and scheduling.
05 DEC 13: Professional negligence and the civil
engineering surveyor
UEL, London, 6.30pm for 7pm
Bookings: Serena Ronan +44 (0)161 972 3100
Mike Grant, head of professional risk and
construction at Weightmans, will talk
through the key points for surveyors in the
recent Technology and Construction Court
case of Igloo v Powell Williams.
ICES South West & South Wales
08 OCT 13: Buried services and GPR
Bristol, 6pm
Bookings: Serena Ronan
+44 (0)161 972 3100
Seminar from Peter Barker on buried
services and associated competencies.
Committee meeting to follow.
10 DEC 13: Handheld scanning
Bristol, 6pm
Bookings: Serena Ronan
+44 (0)161 972 3100
Free CPD seminar from Graham Hunter on
the Zebedee handheld laser scanner.
Committee meeting to follow.
For updated regional listings visit
Training Diary
Course Cost
AutoCAD 2D Essentials/Beginners (Autodesk Approved Training) (2 Days)
Delegates will learn the functionality and features necessary for creating precise 2D technical
drawings and designs using AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT. The course covers techniques for
creating and editing drawings, as well as setting up drawings for printing and publishing.
Skills such as annotating, scaling, layering and block creation are covered in detail. At the
end of the course, attendees will receive an industry recognised Autodesk AutoCAD
Essentials Course Certificate.
TO BOOK: Benchmarq,, Discount given if more than one person from the same company attends.
ArcGIS Desktop Part 1 (2 Days)
The course introduces students to ArcGIS and gives an understanding of the main functions
of ArcMap. This includes the creation and manipulation of a map document, geographic
(spatial) data management, selection and analysis of data and creation of a map for printing.
At the end of the course the students will utilise their new skills in a small project by creating
a map from start to finish.
Introduction to ArcGIS for Server 10 (2 Days)
Delegates will acquire the skills needed to share GIS content on the web or across the
enterprise. They will learn a workflow to publish maps, imagery, geoprocessing models, and
feature templates for use in web applications that support visualisation, analysis and editing
of GIS resources. Features within ArcGIS 10 for Server are also explored. These include the
new feature service which is used as the foundation for editing; working with mosaic
datasets and learning how to publish them as an image service, and how time is enabled
within the web environment.
TO BOOK: Esri Training, +44 (0)1296 745 504,,
10% discount for ICES members. Quote name and membership number on booking.
Courses are held in the ICES Training Suite, on the ground floor of the institution headquarters in south Manchester.
The ICES Training Suite is available for hire, rates include promotion of the course in Civil Engineering Surveyor.
Contact Alan Lees, Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors, +44 (0)161 972 3123
For more details and a list of courses:
The ICES Training Suite is operated by the Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors information business, SURCO.
9 Institution News 10 2013
BBC stars for La Boisselle lecture evening
The La Boisselle Study Group, who use surveying technology to explore the underground
WW1 tunnels of the Somme, is holding a fundraising evening of lectures. The event will
be held on the evening of Friday 18 October at Reading University.
Peter Barton and Jeremy Banning from the La Boisselle group will talk about the latest
work around the Granathof farm complex. Tessa Dunlop from BBCs Coast will talk about
Marie of Romania during the First World War and the final talk of the evening will be actor
and comedian Hugh Dennis talking about his familys wartime experiences and what he
learnt whilst appearing in the BBCs Who Do You Think You Are? family history show.
Tickets are 20 (including a glass of wine on arrival). Doors open at 6.45pm with the first
lecture beginning at 7.15pm. Full details are available at
[Read more about the La Boisselle project on pp23-27 of this months issue of Civil
Engineering Surveyor.]
Professional bodies join HS2 in standards guidance
Professional institutions are working with the British Standards Institute and HS2 to update
infrastructure design standards. The work is part of HS2s efficiency programme and aims
to harmonise current design codes and standards and address overlaps and duplication.
The Institution of Civil Engineers, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Royal Institute of
British Architects and Rail Industry Association are joining the Health and Safety Executive
and BSI in the review.
CYT young achievers scheme open
The Construction Youth Trust has launched its Young Achievers Scheme for 2014.
Nominations are open for young people (under 30) who have achieved excellence in their
careers, worked within the community or promoted the profession.
The categories include construction delivery, design, engineering, project management
and surveying. Winners will be presented at an awards dinner in London in spring 2014
and will receive a cash prize as well as mentoring and development opportunities through
the trust. Application details are available at
Applications open for FIG Kuala Lumpur fellowships
The International Federation of Surveyors will be awarding eight young surveyors
fellowships to cover the costs of attending the FIG congress from 16-21 June 2014 in Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia. The fellowships will be given regionally to one applicant in Africa, Asia,
Europe, North America, Oceania and South America, with two further places being given
to applicants from developing countries.
Applicants should be under 35 or have completed a bachelor or masters degree after
1 December 2003. Details are available at
ICE calls for dam safety
The Institution of Civil Engineers and the British Dam Society have urged the UK
government to impose statutory safety checks on smaller reservoirs. The bodies are calling
for changes to be made to the Reservoirs Act 1975 so that reservoirs capable of holding
over 10,000m
of water are subject to the same safety checks as those holding over
. The safety provisions currently provided for larger reservoirs involve a 10-yearly
inspection and an annual check by a supervising engineer.
The Pitt Review recommended that the 1975 act was updated to ensure appropriate
safeguards are in place to protect the public, and most of the amendments were
subsequently included in the 2010 Flood and Water Management Act. ICE President,
Professor Barry Clarke, said: Residents, commercial and residential property, and
infrastructure remain at risk, and this is especially concerning given the increase in heavy
rain and flooding we have been experiencing in recent years. We urge Defra to set in
place swift enactment of this important phase of the new legislation.
Law conference discount for ICES
ICES members are eligible for a discounted
rate of 295 to attend the Construction Law
Conference on 17 October 2013. The
conference, featuring a keynote speech by
Mr Justice Akenhead on the direction of
the Technology and Construction Court,
will be at Church House Conference Centre
in Westminster.
Book via
American honour for Scottish Titan
The Titan Crane at Scotlands Clydebank,
has been designated an international
historic civil and mechanical engineering
landmark by the American Society of Civil
Engineers. The 106-year old crane is one of
only 13 in the world and has become the
14th landmark in the UK to have received
the ASCE accolade.
Constructed in 1907, at a cost of 24,600,
the crane was designed by Adam Hunter, a
Scottish engineer and member of both
ASCE and the Institution of Civil Engineers.
It included a fixed counterweight and
electrically operated hoists, mounted on a
rotated beam, to make it faster and more
responsive than its steam powered
predecessors. On completion, the Titan was
tested to lift loads of up to 160 tons and
made a major contribution to Glasgows
shipbuilding industry.
ICES to lead Survey4BIM
The institution is to chair a new working group to represent the surveying community to the UK governments
BIM Task Group. Ian Bush, ICES senior vice president, is to chair the group as a representative of the joint
Institution of Civil Engineers/ICES Geospatial Panel. Other members of the Survey4BIM group include the Royal
Institution of Chartered Surveyors, The Survey Association, Ordnance Survey, Association for Geographic
Information, BIM Task Group and client and manufacturer representatives.
The aim of Survey4BIM will be to share knowledge, produce best practice guidance and case studies,
coordinate and promote industry events, and act as a partner to the Cabinet Office BIM Task Group. Ian Bush
(pictured) said: The new Survey4BIM group will provide leadership in establishing how surveying plays an
integral and continuous role in the BIM process and will promote the importance of geospatial information.
10 News Roundup Civil Engineering Surveyor
Credit for Myddleton
The life of Sir Hugh Myddleton has been
celebrated by the Worshipful Company of
Water Conservators. Sir Hugh Myddleton
was an entrepreneur and self-taught
engineer who developed the New River
scheme that used gravity to transport fresh
water from the River Lea in Hertfordshire to
Clerkenwell in London in 1613. New River
had a gradient of just 8cm per mile over its
whole 38 mile course.
The worshipful company held a church
service and procession in Myddletons
home town of Ruthin in north Wales. Ivor
Richards OBE, the master of the company,
said: Sir Hughs New River scheme was
one of the most remarkable feats of civil
engineering in British history. Without it,
thousands more Londoners would have
died of water-borne disease over the last
four centuries. Why he's not as famous as
Bazalgette or Brunel I have no idea.
Painting of Sir Hugh Myddleton by Cornelis Janssens van Ceulen.
Offshore wind contract
East Anglia Offshore Wind has awarded a geophysical survey contract for the development
of its offshore cable corridor to Coastline Surveys. The contract includes a series of
bathymetric and sidescan sonar surveys, sub bottom profiling and high resolution MBES
surveys. The scheme will develop up to 7,200MW of wind capacity off the coast of East
Anglia as part of the Crown Estate's offshore wind programme.
Superlift for superspan
The first superspan gantry has been lifted into place on the M25 managed motorway
scheme near Potters Bar. The gantry, weighing 36 tonnes and measuring 40m across, is the
first of five which will be installed during the project being carried out by Skanska Balfour
Beatty. The 188m upgrade scheme will see improvements to the M25 between junctions
23 and 27.
Happy ending for stolen total station
A total station has been returned to its owner two years after it was stolen. In early 2011,
Survey Solutions had several instruments stolen in the London area. Over two years later,
Interpol contacted the survey firm to say it had recovered a Leica TCRP1205 total station in
Poland and it was being held as evidence in a criminal trial.
Following court proceedings, the total station was returned to its owners, where it has
been serviced, calibrated and is now back on site.
Breathing new life into old tunnels
A network of tunnels underneath
Birmingham New Street train station has
been opened up for the first time in 10
years for a fire service training exercise.
West Midlands Fire Service used the tunnels
to test new breathing apparatus.
Situated 4m below the stations 12
platforms and spanning 132m in length, the
tunnels were previously used for Royal Mail
postal trains to transport mail from the
station out to regional sorting offices. They
were closed in 2004. Crew commander
Mark Clifton, of Highgate Fire Stations
White Watch, said: We were extremely
grateful to Network Rail for the chance to
test ourselves and our methods in this
unusual environment.
When redevelopment of the station is
complete in 2015, the tunnels will be used
to access staff accommodation and
CrossCountry Trains catering centre.
11 News Roundup 10 2013
In brief: A Mott MacDonald and JN Bentley joint venture, has been awarded a five year
framework extension by Yorkshire Water. The design and construction JV will help deliver
1b of planned investment throughout the AMP6 period from 2015-2020. Fugro and
KOAC-NPC have won a multi-year contract to carry out highway condition surveys across
most of the provincial road network in the Netherlands. The contract covers around 6,000
lane kilometres per annum. John Holland has been awarded a 150m contract from
Samsung C&T to construct nearly 350km of heavy haulage railway track for the Roy Hill iron
ore project in Western Australia. The new track will traverse remote terrain from the mine
site to Port Hedland. AECOM is to provide electrical, mechanical and architectural
consultancy for Singapores proposed North-South Expressway. The 13.4 mile expressway
will connect towns along the north-south corridor, such as Woodlands, Sembawang,
Yishun, Ang Mo Kio, Bishan and Toa Payoh, with the city centre. The Aibot X6 UAV
from Aibotix is now integrated into EnsoMOSAICs software. AMEC and Morrison Utility
Services have been awarded a five-year contract extension by Wales & West Utilities to
replace 420km of gas mains each year. The extension is worth 40m per year and will run
until 2018. Irish survey firm Coastway has opened a new office in the UK in Hartford,
Cheshire. The UK arm of the business will now operate as Coastway Surveys. Topcon
Europe and FARO Europe have signed a new three-year agreement covering the distribution
of the Focus3D laser scanner and software through Topcons Europe, Middle East and
Africa distributors. Europa Technologies viaEuropa hosted map service now supports the
British National Grid system in addition to the spherical Mercator projection. Balfour Beatty
has been awarded a 22m SSE contract to construct a replacement overhead electricity line
in north Scotland. The project involves the construction of 26km of 132kV power line
connecting substations at Beauly and Mossford in the Highlands.
Added SWIR for WorldView-3
The high-resolution WorldView-3 imaging
satellite is on track for its mid-2014 launch
with the completion of its telescope, sensor
and shortwave infrared system. The
DigitalGlobe satellite will supply imagery at
25cm resolution.
It will be the first time shortwave
infrared (SWIR) capabilities have been
included on a commercial satellite. SWIR
bands penetrate haze, fog, smog, dust,
smoke, mist and cirrus clouds and allow
clearer identification of materials not visible
to the human eye.
Hong Kong Landslip protection
The Hong Kong government is to continue
its landslip prevention and mitigation
programme. The special administrative
regions Civil Engineering and
Development Department (CEDD) awarded
a contract to Jacobs in September to
provide studies, detailed design and tender
supervision for hazard mitigation works on
natural terrain hillside catchments. Jacobs
scope of work also includes stability
assessment of manmade slopes.
CEDDs landslip prevention programme
has been in operation since 1995.
Autodesk buys into UK BIM expertise
Autodesk has acquired technology assets
from two UK companies to integrate into
its BIM portfolio of software products.
From Cheshire-based Bestech Systems,
Autodesk has bought the rights to the Sam
software suite for loading, analysis and
design of small and medium span bridges.
It has also bought AutoTrack software from
Kents Savoy Computing Services.
AutoTrack provides vehicle swept path
analysis and is used in the design of
parking areas and roundabouts.
Amar Hanspal, Autodesk senior vice
president, said the company was now
positioned to offer a much more
comprehensive portfolio of infrastructure
software that will accelerate the adoption
of BIM in transportation design.
Rock art joins the CyArk 500
Aboriginal rock art at a national park in Australia has been laser scanned
as part of a digital preservation project. The rock art, at Kakadu
National Park in the Northern Territory, was scanned as part of the
CyArk 500 challenge to document 500 cultural heritage sites using 3D
technology over the next five years.
Three locations were scanned over one day, with 17 areas of art
captured. Mapteks I-Site Studio software was used to process the 74
million points of data collected by the scanners. Laser intensity data from
infrared signals was then used to match points in digital photos with points
in the 3D scene, and enabled full photo-registration.
How high is high?
Vanity height is the new term given to an increasing number of supertall
skyscrapers (300m plus) with extreme spires instead of usable space. The
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat has coined the term as the distance
between a skyscrapers highest occupiable floor and its architectural
top. Without their vanity height, 44 of the worlds 72 supertalls would
measure less than 300m and would lose their supertall status. The
worst culprit is Dubais Burj Al-Arab 124m (39%) of its 321m is
devoted to non-occupiable space
above the highest floor.
The vainest of them all CTBUH.
Zoo contract for ORourke
Laing ORourke has begun work on a new Indonesian jungle house at Chester Zoo. The
largest indoor zoo exhibit in the UK will feature replica islands and rivers to house
Sumatran orangutans, Sulawesi macaques and sunda gavial crocodiles that visitors will see
from boat rides. The new centre is due for completion in 2015.
12 Events Civil Engineering Surveyor
Apprentice and Trainee Behavioural Safety
2 October 2013: Paignton, UK
ICE NI: Attitudinal Change to Transport
3 October 2013: Belfast, UK
BIM 4 Civils Isnt It All About Just Building?
7 October 2013: Cardiff, UK
8 October 2013: Swansea, UK
17 October 2013: Llandudno, UK
Intergeo 2013
8-10 October 2013: Essen, Germany
Flood and Water Management Conference
10 October 2013: Edinburgh, UK
HSE Mock Trial
10 October 2013: Stoke-on-Trent, UK
17 October 2013: Telford, UK
30 October 2013: Liverpool, UK
UK Passivhaus Conference 2013
15 October 2013: Milton Keynes, UK
16 October 2013: London, UK
FIG Young Surveyors European Meeting
17-18 October 2013: Lisbon, Portugal
WW1 Uncovered: La Boisselle
18 October 2013: Reading, UK
GNSS and Network RTK
21-23 October 2013: Newcastle, UK
CyArk 500 Conference
20-22 October 2013: London, UK
Collaboration, BIM & Information Management
24 October 2013: Bloomsbury, UK
High-Precision GNSS using Post Processing
24-25 October 2013: Newcastle, UK
Occupational Health Safety Awareness Day
29 October 2013: Cornwall, UK
Digital Hydrography on the Maritime Web
29-30 October 2013: Southampton, UK
Flood Risk Management: Extreme Weather
30 October 2013: Leeds, UK
6th Mediation Symposium:
Mediators Fit for Purpose?
31 October 2013: London, UK
Cutting Edge Megaprojects
3-5 November 2013: Seattle, USA
GSDI 14 World Conference and AfricaGIS 2013
4-8 November 2013: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
GeoDATA 2013
7 November 2013: Edinburgh, UK
21 November 2013: Belfast, UK
28 November 2013: London, UK
SPAR Europe/European LiDAR Mapping Forum
11-13 November 2013: Amsterdam,
Subsea Survey IMMR
11-13 November 2013: Texas, USA
Hydromorphology and Hydropower
12 November 2013: London, UK
CITA BIM Gathering 2013
13-14 November 2013: Dublin, Ireland
Be a part of history as CyArk formally
launches the CyArk 500 Challenge and radically
changes the eld of heritage preservation.
Learn the latest technologies and see
how they are impacting the heritage,
documentation, and survey elds.
Connect with fellow practitioners, site owners,
diplomats and governmental decision makers
within the heritage and survey communities.
Launch and Conference
October 20 22, 2013
Tower of London
Space is limited
h l L
he eld of her hanges t c
k 500 Challenge and he CyAr hes t launc
t of hist Be a par

h l i
ation. v eser age pr it he eld of her
y all adic r k 500 Challenge and
y mall or k f as CyAr y or t of hist

In the Field
In the Office
From the Field to the Office... and back again!
For more information Call David Loescher 07775 772780,
or visit us online at
13 Letters-Social Network 10 2013
A credit to ICES
It was with great interest that I read the remarkable obituary for
Alan Wright in the September 2013 edition of Civil Engineering
Surveyor. Alan was not only a credit to our institution, but a real
asset to whoever he came into contact with. My wife, as a lifelong
scouter, was particularly impressed that he somehow found time to
be a leader in that particular organisation, notwithstanding his
obvious commitments (not least his professional activities)
It is people like Alan who have brought the institution to the
position it now has in the professional institution ratings; if not by
actively engaging with the institution, then by setting the example
and standards to be aspired to by others.
Reading also the CEOs update, the executive is also to be
congratulated in the way it has taken our institution forward (and
continues to do so) in recent years and indeed from its inception.
I almost wish that I was still a practising civil engineering
(commercial) surveyor rather than retired, given the institution's
continuing development even through difficult economic times!
Derek Millington MCInstCES (retired)
RPAS photogrammetry is no panacea
I am writing as chair of The Survey Association technical
committee regarding the article on remotely piloted air system
(RPAS) photogrammetry in the July/August 2013 edition of Civil
Engineering Surveyor. You may recall TSA held a successful one
day conference on the use of small unmanned aircraft (i.e. RPAS
but using the term preferred by the Civil Aviation Authority) in
survey. We are also about to publish a client guide on this subject.
As a result of the conference, and indeed the research needed for
the guide, the members of the technical committee do have some
knowledge of this subject. A number of them have been in touch
with me since reading the article.
We were pleased to see CES publishing an article on the topical
subject one we agree is likely to have a marked impact on the
survey industry. However, it is important that the reader is given
accurate information. It was generally felt the article could be very
misleading for someone who was looking to commission a survey
and had no experience in this area. The main area of concern
relates to the nature of the ground cover and the impact this will
have on accuracy and the detail obtained. For example, at this time
of year with dense foliage over much of the country it is not
possible to get accurate ground surface detail unless you are
surveying bare earth sites. In areas of occlusions, such as under
trees, (as with traditional airborne camera surveys) accurate detail
is only possible with traditional ground survey techniques.
There is an obvious comparison with laser scanning ideal for
some jobs, helps on others but will never complete every
surveying task which is what the article suggests will happen.
In the concluding discussion, the article states: Like all
disruptive technologies, RPAS photogrammetry will take a couple of
years to become mainstream but when it does it will almost fully
replace current methods of engineering survey. This might be the
case in the desert, but in most countries that are fertile, the
prediction we feel is overstated.
In areas of occlusions, such as under trees, (as
with traditional airborne camera surveys) accurate
detail is only possible with traditional ground
survey techniques.
The (CES) social network
Met an @OrdnanceSurvey surveyor outside the
house this afternoon, doing a sweep of minor
change for OS Mastermap - nice chat.
Are owners killing their BIM?
BIM Experts
ABB Ltd v Bam Nuttall Ltd (2013)
Why, oh why do neutrals forget the simple rule of Natural Justice - audi
alteram partem? And it isn't laymen who keep going on frolics of their own
although an observer might expect them to make mistakes of law.
Chartered Institute of Arbitrators
Congrats to the engineering team that raised the
Costa Concordia upright yesterday. We are glad
that we could help a little.
Leica Geosystems
Such was its popularity that this place became known as the Brighton of
Ireland. It was actually up until over a century ago, two separate villages.
Where is this? OSi Map Viewer coordinates X:581988 Y:859004. GPS
coordinates: Easting:-8,16,40 Northing:54,28,45
Ordnance Survey Ireland
This must be one of the best summers to be a
Land/Utility Surveyor in the UK for years Sept &
more sunshine!!
Fantastic night at the Gala Dinner and 45
Centenary Awards presented. The night ended
with a fabulous birthday cake & firework display.
Need to produce a Risk Assessment for working
near cattle; not taking any risks with these guys!
Why do they never
consult a QS at the
start of the project
#GDoh #granddesigns
Back from holiday
& off to the
Lithuanian Embassy
this afternoon to
discuss recognition
of professional
qualifications in
the EU
Membership Application and Upgrade Surgeries
Are you thinking of upgrading your membership?
Do you know anyone interested in applying for membership?
Do you want your employees to develop their professional skills?
If you answer yes to any of the above, then these free half-hour surgeries are designed to make applying
to upgrade or applying directly for membership as simple as possible.
Surgeries cover eligibility, application documents and the membership review interviews. They are
equally suitable for applicants wishing to become technical members, members or fellows. Surgeries
are informal and the aim is to ensure that you understand if you are eligible to apply, how to write-up
your documentation and interpret the competencies. Plus, find out how to make the most of your
review interview.
Surgery Calendar 2013
14 October 10am-4pm Sale
17 October 10am-4pm London
23 October 10am-4pm Cambridge
6 November 1pm-5pm Birmingham
11 November 10am-4pm Sale
9 December 10am-4pm Sale
Bookable 30-minute sessions
with the ICES membership team.
To book visit
Enquiries: Membership Coordinator
Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors
+44 (0)161 972 3100
*For UAE workshops contact
The Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors is a registered educational charity.
15 Legal Notebook 10 2013
ENERALLY, the obligations in
your appointment are absolute.
Except in the face of specific
circumstances (such as force majeure) you
and the employer must carry out these
obligations. Failure to do so will be a
breach of contract. However, obligations
are often watered down by using
endeavours wording. This can be done in
respect of any obligation, such as an
obligation on you to retain records, procure
warranties or adhere to budgets. Using
endeavours wording reduces your
obligation to endeavouring to carry out the
requirement in question. As long as you do
that, you will not be in breach of contract if
you ultimately fail to comply.
So how hard are you required to
endeavour? This depends on the precise
phrase used. Common phrases are
reasonable endeavours, all reasonable
endeavours and best endeavours. The
courts have looked at these terms a number
of times. However in a recent case,
Jet2.Com Limited v Blackpool Airport
Limited (2011) EWCA Civ 417, the court said
that particular phrases will not always mean
the same thing in different circumstances.
So previous case law will, at best, be
guidance as to what might be required and
your exact obligation will be a matter of
fact and circumstance. Generally speaking:
Reasonable endeavours is the least
onerous here. It requires you to take a
reasonable course of action but not to
sacrifice your own commercial interests.
What is reasonable is considered from
your point of view and allows you to
balance your own commercial interests
against the obligation.
Best endeavours is the most onerous
(although not as onerous as an absolute
obligation). It requires you to follow all
possible courses of action, whether they
are reasonable or not. This can include
incurring costs and acting against your
own commercial interests, but not going
as far as financial ruin or illegality. This
term is generally viewed from the point
of view of the employer and what steps
the employer would have taken acting in
its own interests.
All reasonable endeavours lies
somewhere in between, but probably
towards best endeavours. It is the most
vague in terms of what is required.
Cases have suggested it would require
you to take all the reasonable courses
you can in order to achieve an outcome,
but not courses of action which are
unreasonable. This might require some
expenditure on your part, but probably
not to the point of sacrificing your own
commercial interests.
Whichever wording is used, it is important
to be clear which obligation it relates to. In
the recent case of Ampurius NU Homes
Holdings Ltd v Telford Homes (Creekside)
Ltd (2012) EWHC 1820 Ch, the builder was
required to use reasonable endeavours to
procure the completion of the works by a
specified date. The builder did not
complete the works because it could not
obtain funding. It argued it was not in
breach of contract because it had used
reasonable endeavours to try and obtain
the funding.
The court disagreed and held the
reasonable endeavours wording applied
only to the physical conduct of the works
(for example, if there was a shortage of
materials) and the obligation to obtain
funding was absolute. So the builder was in
breach of contract.
Care is therefore needed when agreeing
to endeavours wording. Make sure you are
content with the level of endeavours
agreed to. Ensure that it is clear which
obligation is being watered down. If there
is something you specifically dont want to
include as part of your obligations, then a
sensible approach is to state this specifically
in your appointment.
Helen Jones, Solicitor, Dundas and Wilson
Legal Q&A:
Endeavours obligations
Helen Jones, Solicitor, Dundas and Wilson
Q. If your appointment
requires reasonable
endeavours to do
something, what does that
actually mean? How is
that varied if all
reasonable endeavours or
best endeavours are
required instead?
16 David Breashears Civil Engineering Surveyor
OW can you top climbing Mount Everest? By meeting the
man who climbed it first. In 1981 David Breashears was
returning from an expedition to the Kangshung face of
Mount Everest, when he met Sir Edmund Hillary. Exhilarated by
the climb and excited to meet his hero, he couldnt stop talking.
Hillary listened patiently and told him that one day hed learn to
take his eyes away from the summit, and look towards the valleys.
It was cryptic advice for a 26 year old. It took another 26 years
for it to be fully understood. But in those 26 years, there were films
to work on; the first live broadcast from the summit of Everest, the
Kilimanjaro and Everest IMAX movies, Cliffhanger, Seven Years in
Tibet and television documentaries. In those 26 years there were
four Emmy Awards for cinematography to be won. In those 26
years there were five successful summits of Everest from all
sides. There was the guiding of oilman millionaire Dick Bass to the
top where he became the first man to climb the seven summits of
the highest mountains on every continent. In those 26 years there
were the deaths of friends. In 1996 he was there when Everest had
its deadliest season and a storm left eight people dead in one day.
He was there for the accusations and recriminations, and ten years
later he allowed the survivors to speak for themselves in a
documentary he made.
Looking at the valleys
David Breashears, Founder and Executive Director of GlacierWorks, talks to Abigail Tomkins
How ultra-high resolution photography is
being used to raise awareness of the
changing face of Everest
David Breashears GlacierWorks
17 David Breashears 10 2013
It took 26 years, but David Breashears is
finally looking at the valleys. And hes
making us look at them too. He set up
GlacierWorks in 2007 to use ultra-high
resolution photography to show how
climate change is affecting the Himalayan
glaciers. It is an online initiative that
compares the photography of today with
that taken by pioneering mountaineers,
photographers, surveyors and cartographers
decades, and in some cases over a century,
ago. In December last year the organisation
released a gigapixel image of the Pumori
Base Camp at Everest. It featured thousands
of images stitched together and presented
as a fly-through, where you can zoom in
on a single tent, and then fly high above
the summit. It achieved something few
photographs can do in that it gave a sense
of scale to Everest. What I thought was
litter, turned out to be the base camp tents.
So many brightly coloured specs against a
summit that looks unreachable. But we
arent interested in the summit, we are
going to follow the words of a man who
was told to look away. We are going to
turn our eyes to the valleys.
What inspired you to start GlacierWorks?
In October 2007, I was sent by a film crew
to the north side of Everest to get a match
photograph to compare how the mountain
looked then with how it did over 80 years
ago. I chose an original photograph from
the Royal Geographical Society taken by
George Mallory in July 1921, during the
British reconnaissance expedition. I saw
the change. I had Mallorys black and
white photograph in my hand. I looked
out and recognised the Main Rongbuk
Glacier. I thought, why didnt I know more
about this?
We have these two data points and there
is a big story between them. This story is
defined by good science, good research
and good data. I became very curious. How
much is natural melt rate? How much is
caused by anthropogenic gases? In my
world, as a communicator, filmmaker and
photographer, the way you get peoples
attention is with imagery. The public isnt
interested in a graph. What they want is
something that explains it viscerally and
dramatically. I thought I should put the
skills Ive gained from high altitude
mountaineering and turn them into
something that has more impact. And thats
how it started. A single photo. Standing in
the exact same spot as George Mallory.
Looking at the film work you've done, and the
gigapixel image from the Pumori base camp, it
seems obvious, but I was struck by how vast the
area is around Everest. How do you decide where
to begin?
Initially, we based all our shots on match
photography in partnership with the Royal
Geographical Society. All of the early
locations, including the Pumori image, are
photo stations weve re-occupied. These
are the spots the pioneering
photographers used. In the case of
Pumori, it was based on an image from a
Swiss expedition from 1952.
Later on, we decided that we wanted to
be part of the continuum. The glaciers
will continue to lose mass, mainly due
to atmospheric brown clouds and
increased warming, so we thought wed
be the pioneers and create our own first
data points. We now take more images
from vantage points we choose, creating
data points for others to compare in years
to come.
What equipment and techniques do you use?
We use fairly simple tools. Initially we used
film-based medium format cameras. In
2007, film provided higher resolution than
some of the digital sensors that were
available. However, as technology
improved we quickly switched to digital.
Its much less expensive, we can use
memory cards to hold thousands of images
and we dont have to process them.
I saw the change. I had Mallorys
black and white photograph in
my hand. I looked out and
recognised the Main Rongbuk
Glacier. I thought, why didnt
I know more about this?
The Kyetrak Glacier.
Photographed by EO Wheeler (left) in 1921 Royal Geographical Society and by David Breashears (right) in 2009 GlacierWorks.
18 David Breashears Civil Engineering Surveyor
Our aerial shots involve eight cameras fixed
to a helicopter in a single array, giving us a
250 degree panorama. These present a
totally different view of the terrain. One of
the most important things the aerials have
shown is the flow of water down the
mountains. Weve looked at four of the
worlds highest mountains, K2, Everest,
Kangchenjunga and Cho Oyu, and been
able to follow the water course from 200ft
in elevation, all the way up to their source
in the ice accumulation zone at 22,000ft.
How do you put the gigapixel images together?
It depends on the images. Some are
stitched in Photoshop, some in PTGui a
powerful stitching software. The files soon
become difficult to work with due to their
size up to 10GB!
We colour correct the images and
sharpen them for screen display, but that
is all. We dont want to glorify the
mountains. There are no extra colours
added. We wont have sunset mountains
on our website because it is detracting
from the science and the change that is
taking place. The change isnt beautiful. In
some cases the change is devastating. We
stay away from beauty and focus on the
images that offer the best match to the
original pioneer photography.
For the gigapixel imagery, we store the
image as tiles on our server. It works in
much the same way as Bing or Google
Maps. As you are looking at the image and
zooming in, it is building it up from tiles off
the server. There is no single file that
would be too much for a server to handle.
How do you think your job compares to the
pioneer photographers?
I have tremendous admiration for their
work considering the gear and limited
opportunities they had. Digital
pressing your eye against the eye-piece in
high winds and extreme cold can make the
camera vibrate and blur the image. In these
situations we use a Rodeon robotic head
managed by a PDA. The camera is pre-
programmed to cover the rows and builds
in the overlaps we need. It operates with
much more precision at very high shutter
speeds. In 30-40mph wind at 20,000 feet
the camera and the lens are going to shake!
We generally get up to 1/6000s shutter
speed which freezes the image. This was
the technique we used to get the Pumori
gigapixel image and its what has given us
the wonderful zoom functionality.
However, we rarely shoot at that
resolution. The equipment is heavy to carry
and it requires power. What we use
depends on our resources; how many team
members we have, how much time we
have. Essentially, it is all down to
manpower the sherpas and the team. We
download the memory cards at night, back
them up to hard-drives twice and then
delete and re-use the cards. And then we
move to the next location...
At all our locations we run a GPS unit
for at least 30-40 minutes to get an accurate
horizontal position. Many of the focal
points from the original photographs are
hard to find. The terrain has changed over
80-100 years. Sometimes we find the same
rock with the same lichen and we know
were standing in the exact same spot as
the pioneers. At times with terrain that isnt
solid rock, there has been erosion and its
hard for us to get within a foot of the
position. But we usually achieve accuracy
within a 30-40cm diameter.
For most image capture we use a Canon 5D
Mark II with a variety of lenses and focal
lengths depending on our proximity to the
glacier. The shortest focal length we use is
21mm with a full-size 21MP sensor. The
longest focal length is 300mm.
We have two basic systems for image
capture. We either use a manual panoramic
tripod head with different settings for
different focal lengths. You set up the
tripod, level it, put on the head and begin
to shoot. We shoot in rows, starting in the
top left corner and we manually move the
camera to the next click-stop. We always
build in horizontal and vertical overlaps so
we can stitch the imagery together. I also
keep a handheld 35mm pano head that I
use if I come across something unplanned
that I want to take.
When we are using a very large focal
length, like the 300mm lens, it is too
difficult with the small image area were
capturing to be assured of the correct
overlap if we operate manually. Just
Main: Mount Everest and Base Camp the gigapixel image taken by David Breashears in 2012 from the Pumori viewpoint.
Left: Mount Everest and Base Camp, tents detail shows the level of the detail when you zoom in on the same image.
Both images David Breashears, 2012 GlacierWorks
The change isnt beautiful.
In some cases the change
is devastating.
19 David Breashears 10 2013
photography is very forgiving. We can
delete a scene if we havent got it right.
Glass plate negatives were very heavy,
they required great care. I am deeply
awestruck when I think of the laborious
process of sliding these glass plates in and
out of a camera, and getting a dark piece
of cloth to get the plate out and into its
holder. Yet, although the image capture
process was much more laborious, these
men had tremendous support. The Duke of
Abruzzis Karakorum expedition in 1909,
which Vittorio Sella took part in, had
hundreds of porters. They even had dark
rooms at the camps. So they would process
on site before moving on. And these
resources were, at that time, relatively
inexpensive. Expedition costs have gone
up hundredfold at least since the 1920s.
We have to deal with much smaller
teams and much less time in the mountains.
The original expeditions went out for two,
three, four months at a time. Sometimes we
are covering the same amount of terrain in
less than a month. I often work with just
myself, two sherpas who Ive worked with
for years, and some local Tibetan support.
The pioneer photographers didnt have
the communication devices we have
although I find these a distraction! They
didnt have the medicines we have access
to to treat simple infections. But what they
did have was the tremendous thrill of
exploration. Walking off the map and
seeing something that no Westerner had
seen before and recording it on
photographic plates for the rest of the
world to see.
Sometimes I get quite weary. Some of
the climbs to our photo-points are long
hard 18-hour round trips. Sometimes we
dont always get our image first time and
we have to return three or four times
before we get clear weather. Its truly
something to find a point someone stood
on 80 years earlier, or in the case of Sella
110 years, and you know youre in the
exact same spot but I do miss that thrill
of being the first one there.
Is there one pioneer you particularly admire?
There are two. Vittorio Sellas photographs
are some of the most awe-inspiring you
will ever see. We used a lot of his work
from the 1899 Kangchenjunga expedition
with Douglas Freshfield, and from the
Karakorum in 1909.
Weve followed Major EO Wheeler all
around Everest. He was the cartographer
on the British 1921 expedition. While
the rest of his group were checking out
the climbing routes, he was doing the
Has anything surprised you about your findings
to date?
Yes, my level of ignorance of what had
been happening to the glaciers Id been
walking on for 30 years. I first went to the
Himalayas as a 23 year old in 1979 and
Ive been on over 50 different expeditions
to Tibet, India, Nepal and Pakistan. But
with being there so often, I didnt notice
any change.
Another surprise is the complexity and
variety of the change. In some places you
can see glaciers within a few miles of each
other, with the same exposure to the sun
and with the same amount of precipitation,
and yet they are changing and ablating in a
completely different manor and at a
completely different rate. The glaciers in
the far west in the Karakorum are much
more stable than the glaciers in western
and central Nepal. People speak globally in
terms of glaciers and glacier melt its like
all the glaciers are melting. But they are
not. Weve learned to be careful about what
we say and to treat every region in a
different way.
How do you feel about the future of the glaciers?
Concerned. Even in the period from 2007
to 2013, I can see the pace of change is
accelerating for some areas. Current
research shows that atmospheric brown
cloud (ABC), a combination of carbon
aerosols and dust mostly emanating from
India to the north, may be having a greater
effect on the melt rate than global warming.
We see the same amount of
precipitation in the mountain areas, but
warming and ABC may affect the timing of
its release. If it is released too soon it is
harder to store, it causes more erosion and
more flooding. The glaciers are the canary
in the mine. We need to give them the
attention they deserve.
What has been the reaction of the local
Himalayan people to your work?
They know change is happening. Ive been
in the field with Tibetan nomads and they
talk about streams drying up, about less
The glaciers are the canary in
the mine. We need to give them
the attention they deserve.
20 David Breashears Civil Engineering Surveyor
snow in the mountains, the changing size of their grains, of more violent weather and of
having to move their animals to shelter at different times of the year. Yet so many of these
people are poor and almost live in poverty. They dont have enough education to
understand how carbon in the air affects global warming.
Were launching a large exhibit in Kathmandu with the International Centre for
Integrated Mountain Development because we want to encourage Nepalese people to find
out more about the science behind our images. Without science you cant become a
problem solver. Without science you cant influence a policy maker.
What do you want the lasting legacy of GlacierWorks to be?
I want us to compile an archive of irrefutable photographic evidence. The change is
there. It cant be denied. It cant be doubted. Why the change occurred is very
complicated. But I want to encourage scientific research and make sure that people want
to study it in the future.
Because of the resolution of our imagery, scientists can find subtleties in the glaciers
that they could never visit themselves. They dont have the capacity, the mountaineering
skills or the budgets to go off on 14 expeditions like we have done. Remote sensing
doesnt have the resolution of our imagery, and what we do complements that work. Its a
form of ground-truthing.
I also want our photography to start conversations. I want to encourage people to study
science, to want to be a glaciologist or a geologist or an atmospheric scientist. We want
the same people youre after in the surveying profession! Its hard. These sciences are not
the glamour sciences. There are no cuddly creatures. Its not oceanography. There are no
colourful fish. There are glaciers and rocks. And its remote.
In film and mountaineering, what's been the most challenging project you've worked on?
It was when I was director and leader of the 1996 IMAX Everest film expedition. It was a
very hard year because of the storm on the mountain and the deaths it caused. Some of
the people who died were my friends.
We carried on and produced the film but it was immensely challenging. Technically, we
were dealing with a 42lb camera that used 500ft of 65mm film in 90 seconds. Its
something no-one had even attempted before. Yet, it was this experience, along with the
first live broadcast from the summit of Everest in 1983 that I directed, that taught me the
value of working with small efficient teams. Those experiences help me every day.
What's been the most rewarding?
By far, its been everything Ive done since
2007; my 14 expeditions with GlacierWorks.
I love how a website can react to change.
All science has errors and we fix those
errors. Its the progress of knowledge.
Better tools come along; better sensors and
better modelling. On a website we can
keep track of that progress, whereas a film
goes out and it cannot be changed.
You've seen first hand the devastation that
Everest can bring through your involvement in
the 1996 disaster, and also the elation with Dick
Bass's successful completion of the Seven
Summits, not to mention reaching the summit
yourself five times, what is it that keeps drawing
you back there?
The Himalayan region is a part of my life. It
has been since 1979 when I climbed Ama
Dablam with a film team. The mountains
and people get into your heart. They get
into your soul.
Most of my expeditions to Everest have
been for filming. Ive had the pleasure of
being there as a climber and the intellectual
challenge of being there as a filmmaker.
And Ive been paid to be there!
Any plans for a sixth summit?
No. When I first climbed Everest in 1983 I
was the 136th person to do so. It had taken
30 years for 136 people to climb Mount
Everest. Now 135 people can reach the
summit in a day.
It is so overcrowded now and its a
different type of person on the mountain.
I dont want to spend six weeks at a base
camp trying to climb one route. It is very
tedious and very boring. When we go out
into the field on expeditions for
GlacierWorks, we have the pleasure of
feeling like the 1921 reconnaissance
expedition did. We travel. We move camp.
Were not stuck in a base camp
performing the same rituals and crossing
the same terrain for six weeks. Its much
more thrilling.
What next?
My plans are to keep fighting. I have to
face fundraising challenges for a very
determined and resourceful non-profit
organisation. We only have 5% of our
imagery online and with the proper funding
well have hundreds more images and
stories up there for people to see.
David Breashears, Founder and Executive
Director of GlacierWorks, was talking to
Abigail Tomkins, Deputy Editor, via Skype.
The GlacierWorks website can be found at
Major EO Wheeler Royal Geographical Society
When I first climbed Everest in 1983 I was the 136th person to do
so. It had taken 30 years for 136 people to climb Mount Everest.
Now 135 people can reach the summit in a day.
21 Military History 10 2013
N the first part of our story, we
looked at the background to the
development of the Bristol Channel
forts, let us now look at their armament.
The guns
On 23 July 1860, Lord Palmerston had 9m
approved for the building of forts on
Brean Down, the islands of Steep Holm
and Flat Holm, and at Lavernock Point.
Before looking at their layout and
construction, we first need to understand
the artillery that was to be installed at
these locations. The job of these gun
batteries was not only to defend the Welsh
coasts principal ports of Newport, Cardiff
and Penarth, but also the ports of the
Severn Estuary, such as Portishead,
Avonmouth, Bristol and Gloucester. Some
of the docks, including Barry dock which
could not be adequately protected, were
not completed until after the construction
of the forts. The defence was planned
around the position of the guns at each
location, with the arcs of fire providing
cover within the range of each battery.
So what was special about the guns
installed in the batteries? Remember that a
change in naval construction had happened
in the mid 1800s steam power and
stronger hulls. These new ironclad hulls
travelled much faster than before, resulting
in a complete reassessment of artillery
requirements. Up until this time, guns on
British warships and on shore batteries
were smooth bore cannon which, since
their conception, had used the round
cannon ball as projectile. This was
ineffective against an ironclad hull.
Weapons went through a
metamorphosis from medieval to modern
times rifled ordnance becoming a
necessity for everything from carbines to
cannon. The 1800s saw more changes
since the arrival of gunpowder.
Smoothbore weapons began to change in
1808 with the introduction of the Baker
rifle, which readers may remember was
issued to the fictional Sharps section in the
TV series of the same name. It had a rifled
barrel, as its name suggests, but was still
muzzle loaded and was issued to Sir John
Moores riflemen in Spain and Portugal.
However, it was not until 1854 that the
Royal Arsenal at Woolwich started
experiments with rifled artillery. At this time
William Armstrong, an English lawyer and
engineer, found that rifling caused
increased pressure and, coupled with the
need for the elongated and heavier shell to
fit snugly into the tube projectile, split
traditional cast iron barrels. In 1861, a West
Point graduate, Robert Parrott, now
involved with armaments, perfected a
method of strengthening existing cast iron
guns by shrinking wrought iron hoops onto
the breech. Armstrong continued his
experiments and when the toolmaker
Joseph Whitworth invented the rifled
breech loader (RBL), matters had advanced
considerably. When the trials of a 3lb
breech-loader in December 1858 proved
successful, its inventor, Armstrong, assigned
the patents for the gun to the Crown. In
turn, he was appointed engineer for rifled
ordnance to the War Department and
superintendent of the Royal Gun Factory at
Woolwich Arsenal. At the same time he
remained in control of his own firm, the
Elswick Ordnance Company in Newcastle,
which developed a successful 6in RBL gun.
On 3 October 1864, a War Office circular
finally set out the specification for rifled
guns. The new artillery was to be 7in
(178mm) calibre, muzzle-loaded (RML) and
produced to the Woolwich design. These
guns would, beside other fortifications,
adorn the Bristol Channel forts.
The Royal Gun Factory at Woolwich
made the first heavy RML gun which
evolved into the massive seven-ton barrels
which lie around the forts in our story.
Three versions of the RML were produced,
prototypes mark I and mark II, and the
mark III which went into service.
Development was slow and it took three
years for the first 500 mark III RMLs to be
ready for service. These were the last
generation of muzzle-loaded guns. What is
interesting to remember is that after a long
time of discussions and consideration of the
forts, the guns were never used in anger
and they have been left lying around the
various forts rotting away... and there they
lie to this day. A waste of money?
Guns across the Channel
The story of the Bristol Channel forts: Part 2
Hamish Mitchell FCInstCES FRICS MInstRE
Hamish Mitchell continues
his series on Britains
military history
22 Military History Civil Engineering Surveyor
The 7-inch RML were manufactured to
specifications produced by RS Fraser,
assistant superintendent at Woolwich. Their
manufacturing process has been described
by John Barrett in A History of the Maritime
Forts in the Bristol Channel 1866-1900:
They were based on a simplified method
of Sir W Armstrongs original design and
consisted of a rifled tube and cascabel
[the ring or button in the rear centre of
the breech end of a muzzle-loading
gun]. Over these ports was a breech coil
composed of treble and double coils
welded to the trunnion to form a mass
which was shrunk on in one operation,
the muzzle being strengthened by a short
tube formed of two united coils. The
outer coils in the Fraser construction
were less expensive wrought iron that the
Armstrong design. Two one-inch
diameter studs on the muzzle face were
locating the ammunition tray. Rifling
was on the Woolwich uniform system, the
twist being 1 in 35. Guns were proof-
tested at the Proofing Butts, Woolwich.
Gun platforms
The introduction of the new heavier guns
meant that a rethink was necessary of the
gun carriages. This led to the development
of the carriage garrison RML 7in casement
or dwarf (mark I) slide it became known
as the dwarf traversing platform. The
principle revolved around obsolete George
III 24lb smoothbore cannon buried in a pit
up to 3ft (0.9m), muzzle pointing upwards.
Several variants were developed:
Type A pivot in the run-out position
under the muzzle of the gun.
Type B pivot just in front of the
slide breast.
Type C pivot in the centre of the
gun carriage.
Type D pivot some 3ft behind the
centre of the platform.
Type E pivot in front of the rear
transom (crossbeam).
Type F pivot at the rear of the slide.
The gun was positioned on a moving
platform, 15ft (4.57m) long weighing just
over 4 tons. This consisted of a wrought
iron frame mounted on small iron wheels
which ran on a circular iron track, known
as the racer, placed below the parapet.
Elevation was achieved by the driving of a
wooden wedge-packing piece between the
gun and the frame which produced a slope
of 4.
Block and tackle was attached to two
eyebolts in the gun pits along with a
preventer rope secured to a bollard on the
platform at the rear transom, all of which
assisted in controlling traverse and recoil.
Another innovation in gun carriages was
the introduction of the disappearing gun
carriage. The idea behind this developed in
1863 when Lieutenant Colonel G Shaw RA
developed the muzzle pointing carriage by
placing the gun on a type A pivot and
proposed that the axis for elevation and
depression was not through the trunnions
but instead through an imaginary line
through the muzzle. A wheel then turned a
shaft, which operated two racks at the rear
above the pivot. In effect, the A pivot was
elevated and depressed, and the casement
only had to be wide enough to admit the
muzzle. In 1865, Captain Alexander
Moncrieff, of the Edinburgh Artillery Militia,
developed Shaws idea further and
designed the disappearing gun carriage
specifically for the 7in RML. This innovation
allowed the gun to be served in a gun pit
below ground level. When the target was
identified, the gun was raised to project
over the parapet before being fired. After
firing, the force of the recoil drove the gun
back into the pit. In our story there were 12
7in disappearing guns, as we shall see.
Nine on Flat Holm and three on Lavernock.
Moncrieffs disappearing gun remained in
service until 1926, when the last gun in
Mauritius was declared obsolete. We will
look again at the disappearing gun and
how it was incorporated into the Flat Holm
and Lavernock Point forts.
All these new innovations made the
government very concerned about the cost
involved in purchasing new rifled artillery.
However, help came from an unexpected
quarter when Captain Sir William Palliser of
18th Hussars developed a rifled sleeve
which, when slipped into a 32lb
smoothbore gun, would convert it into 64lb
RML, much to the relief of the government.
Having solved the matter of the guns and
their carriages, attention now shifted to
the ammunition the guns would fire. New
ammunition was required and Palliser,
now promoted to major, developed a
cored projectile. When it hit the target,
the charge was exploded by the heat and
the flash produced during penetration.
This system meant that a fuse was not
required and these shells were 20%
cheaper than comparable projectiles. The
inside of the shell was lacquered to give
a smooth surface to prevent a premature
explosion caused by friction of the
powder against the rough internal surface
during acceleration.
Having looked at the how the guns
developed, we are now able to examine
the development of the four forts and how
their construction accommodated the
armament. Next time, we will start with the
fort at Brean Down.
Hamish Mitchell FCInstCES FRICS MInstRE
From top: 7in RML gun found lying on the ground in one of the
Bristol Channel forts; the muzzle of the 7in RML gun note the
rifling that coincided with the shell studs and the 1in studs for
locating the ammunition tray; C pivot note the George III
cannon at the centre with the iron racer track surrounding it. Note
also the iron rings in the wall behind for attaching the blocks and
tackle; the disappearing RML gun its loading and recoil
position is shown as the dotted outline Jim Matthews, Navy &
Marine Living History Association.
23 Military History 10 2013
ATE in 2010 a unique opportunity
occurred when the owner of an
important piece of surviving Somme
battlefield in France came under pressure
to sell it for housing. The 2.5 hectare plot at
La Boisselle, known to British troops as the
Glory Hole, was the scene of intense
fighting between September 1914 and July
1916. It contained overlapping mine craters
filled with trees and scrub, plus depressions
marking the route of the old trenches.
With the site under threat from
development, the landowner sought
assistance in persuading the authorities of
its historical importance. She approached
historian Peter Barton who gathered a team
of fellow historians and archaeologists to
form the La Boisselle Study Group. The
group proposed a detailed long-term
archaeological, historical, technological and
genealogical study of the site,
supplementing traditional archaeology with
a range of geophysical procedures and a
detailed topographical and laser survey.
Permission to dig was granted by the
regional archaeological authority, the
Directions Rgionales des Affaires
Culturelles (DRAC), and the first
excavations began in October 2011
following a geophysical investigation by
BACTEC International, EOD, bomb disposal
and landmine clearance specialists. Strict
procedures were implemented regarding
the possible finding of ordnance and, of
course, human remains. The battlefields still
yield an annual crop of live, highly
dangerous shells, grenades and mortars,
and the bodies of numerous missing
soldiers. The team expected that the
archaeology would reveal a variety of
features, including evidence of French,
British and German occupation spanning
the evolution of trench warfare.
La Boisselle during the First World War
On 28 September 1914, the German
advance was halted by French troops at La
Boisselle on the Albert-Bapaume Roman
road. There was bitter fighting for
possession of the civilian cemetery and,
after a French attack on Christmas Eve, for
possession of a farm on the southwestern
edge of the village. It was known to the
Germans as the Granathof (shell farm) and
to the French as the Ilt. In their efforts to
recapture the Ilt, in December 1914
French engineers began tunnelling beneath
the ruins, beginning a prolonged struggle
below ground that was to expand and
deepen day by day until July 1916.
With the war on the surface at stalemate,
both sides continued to probe beneath the
opponents trenches and detonate ever-
greater explosive charges, whilst at the
same time protecting their own lines by
underground warfare. In the 18-month
period from Christmas 1914 to the infamous
British attacks on 1 July 1916 which
signalled the start of the Battle of the
Somme, a network of 8km of British,
French and German tunnels were dug.
La Boisselle:
Wartime history, bravery and surveying
Jeremy Banning, Military Historian, and Margaret Beach MRICS, Multi-Limn
How surveying techniques
are helping to unveil the
hidden history of WW1
The battlefields still yield an
annual crop of live, highly
dangerous shells, grenades and
mortars, and the bodies of
numerous missing soldiers.
Poppies at the Glory Hole, La Boisselle.
24 Military History Civil Engineering Surveyor
When the British took over the Somme
battlefront from their French allies in
August 1915, French and German tunnellers
were working at a depth of 12m. For a
distance of 375m, no-mans-land was
already an almost continuous line of mine
craters. British tunnelling companies
deployed professional miners to counter
the threat by extending and deepening the
system, first to 24m and ultimately 33m.
Eventually, some 110 charges were
detonated underground; the bodies of 38
British and French miners whose remains
could not be retrieved from the tunnels still
lie beneath the crater field. Above ground,
meanwhile, the infantry occupied trenches
just 45m apart. As a result of constant
mutual hostility, La Boisselle became one of
the most perilous and notorious sectors on
the Western Front.
Surface archaeology
Archaeology has uncovered remarkable
evidence of the fierce struggle for the
Granathof complex. The undulating nature
of the ground coupled with archival
sources indicated the farm had been
destroyed by mine explosions. Excavation
focused on uncovering what we believed
was a surviving corner of the farm. Results
were spectacular, with walls and a brick
floor of the stable block uncovered. Further
work revealed the habitation, or farmhouse,
complete with part of its tiled floor still in
situ. French wartime maps showed one of
the first trenches, dug through the stable
block to the forward trench this was
found and excavated. Artefacts including
large quantities of French and German
small arms ammunition were also located at
this spot. Three sets of human remains
were also found in this area, two of whom
could not be identified. The third soldier,
found by Peter Barton, had an identity disc
which carried the name Bideau. Research
revealed the man to be Franois Marie
Bideau of the 118th Infantry Regiment, who
died on 27 December 1914. In August 2012,
with family present, he was buried in the
French Military Cemetery at nearby Albert.
Excavations in June/July 2013 focused
solely on the Granathof complex. Existing
trench excavations were extended, thereby
enabling site visitors to appreciate the
complex network of trenches and
defences amongst and around the farm
and its courtyard an area of huge
symbolic importance.
Underground archaeology
To date, three British tunnel entrances have
been investigated. All lead to the W shaft
chamber, which served the deeper systems
developed from autumn 1915 onwards.
These systems typically involved an
underground front line (called a lateral or
transversal gallery) from which enemy
activity was detected by using a simple but
effective listening device known as a
Left: Archaeological excavations in October 2012.
Right: The 1:1000 scale site plan created in June 2012.
Left: Equipment and food tins in the 80ft lateral gallery.
Centre: The remains of the wooden tramway used to excavate
spoil at the 80ft level.
Right: View from W shaft in August 2011. The tunnel from X adit
joins from the left whilst W adit is running to the right.
Sealed since the end of the war,
the galleries were found to have
survived in remarkable
condition. It was a time capsule.
25 Military History 10 2013
geophone. Fighting tunnels would then be driven out from the
transversal and used for listening and blowing explosive charges.
At La Boisselle the British worked at depths of 12, 15, 24 and 33m
but the Germans went even deeper. On our first visit to the site
we had found a collapse leading into the tunnel system. The small
hole gave access to a sloping incline descending to a depth of
approximately 10m. This was X incline, dug by the British in
September 1915. At its foot the tunnel forked; the left branch
leading to a shaft chamber containing W shaft which sank a further
15m to the 24m transversal.
X incline was archaeologically cleared, revealing the decayed
vestiges of supporting timber cases or frames. The floor level was
found to be a series of sandbag steps. These, studied alongside the
narrow and low gallery dimensions, showed that spoil was being
carried from the workings by hand, rather than with a trolley on
rails. A second incline dug at the same time as X was started from
a communication trench known as Scone Street. The steeply-
sloping gallery (W incline) offered a direct route to the W shaft
chamber. Upon excavation it became apparent that this entrance
had been more extensively used than X, the chalk walls being
smoothed by passing traffic and dirtied by soot from many candles.
At its head was a chamber cut from the chalk. Records showed this
was the location of a specially constructed facility where air was
manually pumped to the lower levels by blacksmiths bellows.
In March 1916, a new incline, the W adit, was driven in order
to improve access to W shaft. The easy 11 gradient greatly
facilitated removal of spoil from the 80ft (24m) system. In order
to reopen W adit, its location first had to be identified on the
surface. This was done using a geophone, the device developed
in 1915 for underground warfare. Team members entered the
gallery via X incline, moving through the system and up the
incline until meeting the blockage. Contact was maintained with
the surface by field telephone. The tunnellers were requested to
tap on the gallery walls, left and right; the sound was located by
geophone and plotted on the surface. The error was found to be
less than 50cm.
40 tonnes of spoil was then removed by hand from W adit
revealing vestiges of a tramway to facilitate the extraction of chalk
spoil produced in the deeper systems and their associated
features. The tramway employed wooden rails. It would also have
been used to carry timber to the shaft head and, of course,
explosives for the many charges blown underground. The opening
of all three tunnels produced an excellent flow of fresh air
through the galleries.
Sealed since the end of the war,
the galleries were found to have
survived in remarkable
condition. It was a time capsule.
Imagery from laser scans of the La Boisselle site.
It was a sobering and moving experience to sit
close by, knowing the names of men whose
remains lay just a few metres away.
26 Military History Civil Engineering Surveyor
To ascertain the structural integrity of the
square cut unsupported chalk walls
(approximately 1.5m
) and conditions at
the foot, a Go-Pro HD camera was
lowered down the 50ft W shaft. The
images revealed that the shaft was in an
excellent state of preservation. At the base,
fallen debris from the shaft collar and
chamber reached a depth of 3-4m,
blocking access to the two galleries that
emanated east and west. In May 2012 the
chamber was carefully cleared of spoil and
a steel safety cage, specially fabricated to
sit over W shaft, was erected, providing a
safe working platform for access, and
anchor points for safety equipment,
winches and lighting.
October 2012 saw Peter Barton make the
first descent of the shaft for 96 years. The
blockage at the foot was carefully cleared;
spoil being placed in buckets and winched
up for disposal. Upon breaking into the
lateral galleries, self contained breathing
apparatus (SCBA) was donned to safeguard
against the potential presence of carbon
monoxide and methane. SCBA had been
provided by Siebe Gorman, manufacturers
of the wartime Proto breathing apparatus
worn by British tunnellers. The air was
found to be safe and free from dangerous
gases, and this enabled the team to slowly
and carefully begin its exploration of the
80ft (24m) lateral. Sealed since the end of
the war, the galleries were found to have
survived in remarkable condition. It was a
time capsule.
The laterals also had wooden tramways
for quiet transportation of spoil. So far, only
200m of gallery and tunnels have been
explored. Emanating from the lateral are
much smaller rectangular fighting tunnels
running under no-mans-land toward
German positions, each with a mine
chamber at the end. Some were found to
have been blown in, more than one being
identified as those still holding tunnelling
personnel. It was a sobering and moving
experience to sit close by, knowing the
names of men whose remains lay just a few
metres away. One of the open fighting
tunnels was explored along its length to the
mine chamber. Wooden gas doors and
brickwork (to ensure an airtight fit)
remained in a good state of preservation.
From the rear of the lateral gallery several
more shafts had been sunk, descending to
the 110ft (30m) level. Initial investigations
showed these to be in pristine condition.
The team plans to make a descent during
the winter, thereby accessing several
kilometres of British tunnels for further
investigation and survey.
Akin to most site survey projects, the
information content at La Boisselle is
considerable, changing, and viewed
Left: An ammunition pouch and Lee Enfield .303 rounds found at
the foot of W adit in May 2012.
Centre: A British Mk 1 steel helmet in the lateral gallery.
Right: Calvary carved into chalk. Found in Quemart Street during
trench excavation.
uniquely by the other professionals
working on the project from the
archaeologists requirements for the
locations of small, in-situ, excavated
fragments, to the military historians
requests for volumes of material sent
skyward in a single detonation. The 3D
structural layout and form of the
underground tunnels were required by
engineers to understand the century-old
activities whilst the plant operator just
wanted to know where the trench had to
be dug. The site presented a range of
interesting survey challenges.
Reconnaissance survey
In June 2012, military surveyors from 24
Training Squadron, 1 RSME Regiment
(Royal Engineers) volunteered their skills to
record the work undertaken by Royal
Engineers on the frontline of the Somme
during 1915 to 1916. Their initial task was
to establish survey control above ground
and detail the current arrangement of
surface features at La Boisselle and the
nearby Lochnagar Crater to provide a
mapping platform for ongoing excavations,
calculate volumes of material moved and
reconcile existing plans from 1916.
Time underground was limited and an
opportunity to laser scan the recently
opened W adit enabled this technique to be
tested for use on the project. A GPS base
station serviced two RTK rovers for the
overground survey of site and surrounds
whilst a SmartStation logged raw obs and
provided control for the targets of the
ScanStation2 laser scans of the incline. GPS
obs were processed against data from the
IGN base station at Amiens and translated
to the French grid using the IGN Circe 4.0
package. Thus, the site grid was established
enabling the RTK total station and laser
scan work to be processed and deliverables
(plans, CAD drawings, laser images and a
video) to be produced.
Access to the underground
tunnel system may be possible
later in the year and, again, the
surveyors will need to be swift,
lightweight and preferably no
taller than the 1916 tunnelers!
27 Military History 10 2013
Tunnel survey
In October 2012, the survey above ground continued by mapping
the phase excavations, reaffirming the site grid with additional GPS
observations and replacing removed control points on site. The
recently opened shaft to the 80ft (24m) level enabled two hours of
survey access to this level, although for safety reasons the access
for personnel was restricted to the immediate vicinity of the base
of the shaft.
The use of a C10 laser scanner from Frankham Consultancy
enabled a wealth of data to be collected in these limiting
circumstances, with control from the incline hastily carried down
by a laser plumbed triangle. One of the project team commented;
now I understand what the 1916 nails in the side of the shaft are
for. Resection!
2013 season
This year, three weeks of surface archaeological excavation have
generated considerable survey work and a greater appreciation of
the survey requirements of the other professions involved on the
project. Access to the underground tunnel system may be possible
later in the year and, again, the surveyors will need to be swift,
lightweight and preferably no taller than the 1916 tunnelers! For a
site surveyor this is a fascinating, ongoing survey of past activities
where the data collection must supply a varying range of
deliverables both for today and for the future.
The complex nature of underground warfare can be confusing.
The laser fly-through offers a highly visual and simple way to show
the scale and complexity of the workings. The team has received
great support and interest from overseas, much of which is from
people unlikely to ever visit La Boisselle. The laser survey, coupled
with the 360 virtual tour offers an easy way to showcase the
tunnellers work.
Working entirely on a voluntary basis, and funded by donations
and sponsorship, the team's work has ensured the preservation of
the land as well as generating international interest. The story of
the tunnellers exploits at La Boisselle was shown in the BBC
Four documentary The Somme: Secret Tunnel Wars broadcast in
May 2013.
Jeremy Banning, Military Historian, and
Margaret Beach MRICS, Multi-Limn
Tweet: @jbanningww1
Thanks to the volunteer surveyors; Richard Cooke, Gareth Morris, Tim Beach,
Max Davys and Tudor Davys
All images La Boisselle Study Group.
Left and centre: Margaret Beach laser scanning at the entrance to W adit in June 2012.
Above: View along the British front line towards the Lochnagar crater on the horizon in May 2011.
Above: Peter Barton makes the first descent of W shaft in over 95 years in May 2012.
Centre: Gary Andrews passes through a gas door. The brickwork ensures a tight fit against gases.
Right: Graffiti left by men of the 11th Battalion Border Regiment in W incline.
28 Biodiversity Civil Engineering Surveyor
N 5 September, the UK
government issued its long
awaited green paper, Biodiversity
Offsetting in England. The aim of the
paper is to consult on the proposed
implementation of a biodiversity offsetting
scheme throughout the UK. It follows the
governments policy paper Biodiversity
2020: A Strategy for Englands Wildlife
and Ecosystem Services published in
August 2011 and pilot schemes that the
Department for Environment, Food and
Rural Affairs (Defra) has been running
since March 2012 in Devon, Dorchester,
Essex, Greater Norwich, Nottinghamshire
and Warwickshire (including Coventry
and Solihull).
The purpose behind biodiversity
offsetting is to find a balance between the
sustainability of biodiversity and the UKs
growing need for new housing. The
government believes that biodiversity
offsetting has the potential to achieve this
balance and points to the fact that similar
systems have already been implemented in
more than 25 countries, including Australia
and the United States. The green paper sets
out the finer details of the proposal but
primarily the aim is to introduce a system
that applies a metric to quantify the value
of a habitat based on a set of agreed
criteria. The agreed value of that habitat
would then be used to calculate the total
number of standard biodiversity units that
the developer would need to provide or
procure should the development be
granted approval and the scheme
implemented. Essentially it will therefore
allow a developer to build on a site that
includes habitats which are home to
protected species of animals, birds and
plants, provided that the developer is able
to compensate for the loss of biodiversity
by creating a new habitat or by enhancing
an existing habitat.
The government believes that the use of
a metric system will make it easier to apply
the mitigation hierarchy that is already
fundamental to the planning system. In
particular, it will comply with the national
planning policy framework (NPPF) where
one of the guiding principles states that if
significant harm from a development
cannot be avoided, adequately mitigated or,
as a last resort, compensated, then the
planning application should be refused.
At this early stage of the consultation it
is unclear how the scheme will work if
implemented, but it is likely that a
developer would need to consult with the
local planning authority and environmental
groups should it wish to carry out a
development which would have an impact
on biodiversity. The government has made
it clear that it will only introduce
biodiversity offsetting if it is satisfied that it
will improve the efficiency of the planning
system, achieve a net gain for biodiversity
and avoid additional costs to business. So,
the key questions are whether biodiversity
offsetting will benefit developers and is it a
good idea?
Developer benefit
In answer to the first part of this question,
based on the information published to date,
the introduction of biodiversity offsetting is
unlikely to have an impact on the majority
of development schemes. Currently, if a
development site is likely to have an impact
on protected species then a developer will
be required to carry out an environmental
impact assessment (EIA) to determine the
existence of protected species. Such
surveys are costly and the outcome is more
often than not an obstacle to development.
Furthermore, many of the specialist surveys
required, such as those for bats, newts and
other reptiles, can only be carried out at
certain times of year. If this window of
opportunity is missed then the
development will be delayed which will
often have cost consequences.
Whilst the green paper acknowledges
the existence of this very problem; initial
reaction is that the introduction of
biodiversity offsetting will not negate the
need for investigation. Clearly, other than
allowing developers to disregard the
environment, there is nothing that the
government can do to avoid the need for
investigation and surveys. Prior to securing
a planning consent, a developer will still
need to commission an EIA and other
ecological surveys to comply with the NPPF
and to avoid falling foul of the current
Biodiversity offsetting
Matthew Grogan, Associate, Thomson Snell and Passmore
Will it help developers and
is it a good idea?
29 Biodiversity 10 2013
legislation protecting species under the
Conservation of Habitats and Species
Regulations 2010 and the Wildlife and
Countryside Act 1981.
The green paper goes on to confirm that
the issues surrounding protected species
are complicated and that further
consultation will be required to determine
the best way of applying biodiversity
offsetting. However, what is clear is that the
proposals for dealing with offsets for
protected species will be handled by a
specialist provider which is again likely to
increase development costs. Experience
shows us that in a vast majority of small to
medium sized development schemes the
main obstacle is costs and time delays in
the plethora of hurdles to be crossed and
boxes to be ticked before actually being
allowed to build. Therefore, whilst
biodiversity offsetting may potentially open
up further areas of land for development, it
will create additional steps, and costs, in
the planning process.
Good idea?
It is clear that, if approved, biodiversity offsetting will be integrated into the overall
planning process. The government argues that an offset calculation can be quick and that
it can be governed by a condition included in the relevant planning permission or
planning agreement. However, initial reaction, is that whilst this might be the case it will
mean an additional element to negotiate and agree which, in turn, will affect the speed
and cost of the process.
Whether biodiversity offsetting is a good idea will also depend on your personal views
on the environment. Critics have argued that it is impossible to compensate or rebuild
destroyed habitats that have evolved over many years. Since the green paper was
published, many national press headlines and environmental groups have stated that
biodiversity offsetting simply grants a licence to developers to bulldoze the countryside.
There is also some concern that allowing metric units to be traded on a market based
system could lead to land banking (i.e. the locking up of land which may have
biodiversity value to trade) which will have a negative effect on development.
The UK economy needs to grow and this will, in part, be achieved by allowing housing
and infrastructure to be built. Land for development has to be found and supporters argue
that biodiversity offsetting is the best way to achieve this progress whilst ensuring that
there is no further decline in biodiversity throughout the UK.
Whilst the introduction of biodiversity offsetting may assist a developer to argue for the
grant of a planning permission to build on land that might in the past not have been
considered possible, it is likely to create a further step in the planning process and
increase costs. If this is the case, then it will not have the desired impact and may at best
assist in large scale developments where the pace of a development may not be such an
overriding factor and where a developer can take advantage of economies of scale.
The position on biodiversity offsetting will hopefully become clearer once the results of
the consultation process are published. For now, the concept appears to be another
example of the government tinkering with peripheral planning issues without addressing
the fundamental problems with the planning system.
Matthew Grogan, Associate, Commercial Property Department, Thomson Snell & Passmore
Environmental groups have
stated that biodiversity offsetting
simply grants a licence to
bulldoze the countryside.
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31 Sydney Opera House 10 2013
N 2009, CyArk founder Ben Kacyra met with Michael Russell, the then Scottish
government minister of culture (and now cabinet secretary for education and lifelong
learning) at the digital documentation conference, DigiDoc, held annually in
Scotland. Russell was captured by Kacyras vision for the CyArk 500 challenge and his
desire to build momentum for the initiative. And so, Russell committed Scotland to
contributing the digital documentation of ten significant cultural heritage sites to the CyArk
500; the five UNESCO world heritage sites of Scotland and five other prominent cultural
sites in international locations. It was the birth of the Scottish Ten.
The Scottish Ten
The Scottish Ten is managed and delivered in Scotland by Historic Scotland and the Digital
Design Studio at Glasgow School of Art, through a partnership known as the Centre for
Digital Documentation and Visualisation (CDDV). CyArk and CyArk Europe are partners in
the project and responsible for data dissemination.
In Spring 2010, the first international Scottish Ten project began, and the world watched
as experts from the USA and Scotland worked with custom built rigs and the US National
Park Services highly skilled rope-access team to dangle laser scanners off the face of
Tripods, cantilevers and ropes
3D scanning Sydney Opera House
Justin Barton, Chief Technology Advocate and Manager of Partnership Development, CyArk, and
Dr Lyn Wilson, Project Manager, Scottish Ten
Mount Rushmore in South Dakota, USA. In
the autumn of 2011 the team battled heat
and humidity to digitally survey Rani ki Vav
in Gujarat, India; a venerable seven-tiered,
colonnaded step well of sandstone covered
in hundreds of Hindu mythological reliefs.
It was a well so deep (27m), a rope-access
team had to be used again. Winter 2012
brought the digital documentation of two
imperial shrines of the expansive Eastern
Qing Tombs of northeastern China. Here,
mobile scanners were used to provide the
footprint of the 8km+ of landscape dotted
with monuments the team mapped with
terrestrial laser scanning and
photogrammetry. And in Spring 2013, the
fourth international project began; a
Justin Barton and Lyn Wilson on the
latest iconic addition to the Scottish Ten
Sydney Opera House
32 Sydney Opera House Civil Engineering Surveyor
glistening white form of modernism, one of
the most iconic buildings in the world, and
the youngest inscribed UNESCO world
heritage site the Sydney Opera House.
The house
The Sydney Opera House (the house to
locals), which comprises a set of distinctive
interlocking vaulted shells, pushed
architecture and engineering standards to
new limits and has had an enduring
influence on design and architecture for
nearly 40 years. Designed by the Danish
architect Jrn Utzon, the building creates an
evocative image of a white sail soaring
above and contrasting with the ever
changing sea blue of Sydney Harbour.
Utzons was one of over 200 entries
submitted but failed to make the final
shortlist. However, one judge noticed
Utzons design from a pile of rejected
submissions, and believed it to be a
visionary and outstanding design. After
convincing the other judges, Utzon was
announced the winner.
Despite being a relatively young
building, the Sydney Opera House is
firmly established as an Australian
national treasure that attracts over 8
million visitors annually. It has become a
symbol of both Sydney and Australia. The
Opera House consists of two main halls
located side-by-side and seven
performance venues; the Concert Hall,
Joan Sutherland Theatre, Playhouse,
Drama Theatre, Studio, Forecourt and
Utzon Room. In 2007, the Sydney Opera
House was listed as a world heritage site
and described by UNESCO as representing
multiple strands of creativity, both in
architectural form and structural design.
The selection
The Sydney Opera House project emerged
following an initial discussion in November
2011 between Historic Scotland and
Sheridan Burke, president of the ICOMOS
scientific committee on 20th century
heritage at UNESCOs I Know Where Im
Going remote access conference in
Edinburgh. Subsequent discussions with
Fiona Hyslop, Scotlands cabinet secretary
for culture and external affairs, ensured that
Clockwise from top left: The Concert Hall stage; Rob Nuttall and
James Hepher of Historic Scotland operate the tripod mounted
scanner along the northern boardwalk while a second scanner is
suspended from a cantilevered arm to the western side of the
Concert Halls middle sail (A3) (Justin Barton); the FARO Focus3D
scanner carefully positioned by an abseiling member of Kerrect
Group along the eastern side of the Joan Sutherland Theatres
middle sail (B3) to capture additional data along the curved
exterior that was invisible to the roof-top and ground scans; the
rope-access team from Kerrect Group work with CDDV crew to
attach the scanner to the cantilevered arm and position it atop the
Concert Halls A2 sail, the tallest sail of the Sydney Opera House
(Justin Barton); resulting scan data from Kerrect Group abseiling
down the B3 sail of the Joan Sutherland Theatre with a Focus3D
scanner to fill in data gaps from ground-based scans; in position
for one of the interior scans.
33 Sydney Opera House 10 2013
the project had governmental backing. The
Scottish Ten is entirely funded by the
Scottish government in the spirit of global
collaboration, and it is therefore essential
that the international projects meet with the
governments approval.
A primary objective of the Scottish Ten is
to develop digital diplomacy links and
build longstanding relationships between
Scotland and international partners. It was
recognised that the digital survey would
have wide-ranging benefits and help
strengthen and further the longstanding
historic and cultural links between Scotland
and Australia, especially in the build-up to
Scotlands year of homecoming planned
for 2014.
The project
To allow the team to mobilise quickly on-
site, Historic Scotland, the Digital Design
Studio and CyArk Europe held numerous
planning sessions in Scotland, with CyArk
in California joining via video conferencing.
Freely downloadable 3D models were used
to preview potential scan locations and to
check on approximate distances and lines
of sight from a range of vantage points. The
logistics behind the operation were no
small feat either, taking a considerable
amount of organisation from Scotland
liaising with survey companies in
Singapore, Australia and the UK, and
coordinating arrival in Sydney of equipment
and team members from four continents.
When the team of eight finally arrived in
Sydney, the Sunday before data collection
began was spent touring the facility with
Dean Jakubowski, manager of contracts for
the Opera House. He began the tour with a
safety induction and then presented us with
our all-access key card passes and cyber
keys. The team felt privileged to say the
least! And this was no typical tour. In
addition to the public spaces, we walked
the central corridor, a major concrete tunnel
running the length of the complex
connecting all the theatre venues and
backstage areas. We scoped each of the
seven theatres, including access to the
stages and orchestra pits for the main two
symphony and opera/ballet spaces (grand
jets not included). We traversed the
Clockwise from top left: The data collection team, including
members from CyArk, CyArk Europe, Digital Design Studio,
Historic Scotland, Kerrect Group, Maptek and Sydney Opera House
staff; Lyn Wilson and Mike Marriott of the Digital Design Studio
scan the exterior of the Bennelong restaurant (Justin Barton);
interior of the north foyer of the Concert Hall, demonstrating the
contrast of glass, metal, concrete and wood; the team from
Kerrect Group stand on the edge of the sails as they position the
scanner; the 2D tool pen and paper.
34 Sydney Opera House Civil Engineering Surveyor
exterior of the compound as well, planning external scans locations, locating permanent
ground survey monuments for the structure to tie our data into local coordinates and build
survey control, and planned key target locations. Both targets and scanners would be
suspended from the crests of the iconic sails before long. But the climb up the small
concrete corridors of the spines, and exit through the diminutive hatches onto the
exteriors of the sails would be an adventure for another day.
Our arrival days in Oz were practically Scottish in wetness, and we were concerned
about the weathers impact on the fieldwork. But on the first scanning day we hit the
ground running while it was sunny, laden with all the gear we could individually muster
(those kangaroo pouches would have been handy). Luckily, over the course of the entire
project, the occasional rain was never detrimental. Documenting a structure with such
extensive interiors, including performance spaces, corridors and connecting tunnels,
cavernous set-building areas, and some 2,000 rooms, there was always more interior
spaces to scan (but the complete interior was beyond the scope of the project, which
focused internally on the theatres, central corridor, backstage set areas and public spaces).
We undertook a series of closed-loop traverses with two Leica C10s around the exterior
of the Opera House at ground level, tying into existing survey control networks and using
a system of HDS targets for registration. We also traversed throughout the interior spaces,
linking interior and exterior via the numerous doorways around the Opera House and
capturing fantastic, sweeping coverage of each venue from the stages with a scanner
centrally en pointe. Additional scans for maximum coverage were completed with a
barrage of fast phase-shift scans.
By day four we had scanners and custom-built cantilevers atop the Opera Houses sails.
After methodically transporting gear and scanners up the spines crouching, crawling
and climbing our way we began the arduous process of capturing every curve and
every tile. Working in a systematic manner through the numbered sails, we all quickly
became familiar with our A2Es and our B4Ws, while ensuring we did not disturb the ballet
dancers, musicians or acrobats performing beneath us. We made solid progress laser
scanning from the cantilevered arm, with an inverted Leica HDS6100 phase-shift scanner
securely attached at the end, suspended out over the arc of the shells. To capture areas
that were near impossible for the scanners to see from the spines on top or from the plinth
below, we mounted a small lightweight FARO Focus3D scanner on a carbon fibre
photographic tripod and, with the help of Kerrect Groups rigging experts, the rope team
abseiled down the faces of the shells, with the team above or below guiding them into
place. With each scan, we also took high dynamic range 360 panoramic photos to allow
for photo-realistic modelling from the point cloud.
In addition, the Scottish Ten team was joined on site by Maptek with long-range I-Site
8800 and 8810 scanners, typically used to survey underground mines. The team spent
three days working its way around Sydney Harbour, capturing the context and urban
waterfront setting of the Opera House. The scans were then tied into the existing control
network to allow registration with the other data.
As part of the ongoing data management, with 1,000 scans being captured over 2.5
weeks, data management was an on-site challenge. Each day, all new scans and
photographs were brought to our site
office, downloaded and backed up to an
array of external 2TB hard drives. Piles of
diligently completed metadata sheets were
filed away, and an extensive multi-page
spreadsheet helped keep track of every
scan and accompanying panoramic
photograph; file name, file size, scanner
model, date captured, site area (the site
was divided into numerous sub-sections,
each assigned a two-letter code), as well as
every performed back up and every scans
import into Leicas Cyclone for registration.
One by one, the scans were registered
together, with scrupulous attention to the
exterior. The unique overlapping sail
design that made the Opera House both
famous and a challenge to build (there
were 12 redesigns of the construction
method over six years) was also the source
of the monumental challenge to create a
complete as-built record of the structures
precast concrete ribbed sails. The Sydney
Opera House Trust asked to be able to see
every one of the 1,056,000 glazed tiles
covering the sails and the Scottish Ten team
was aiming to provide as much of this
information as possible. With a giant A2
printout of the compounds design drawing
plan, the registered influx of daily data was
used to slowly colour in the hardline plan
with a highlighter. This simple, 2D pen and
paper tool became essential to quickly
visually referencing where data voids
(shadows) were located and helped the
rope-access team strategise deployment of
scanners via cantilevers or abseiling.
The rig and abseil scans were critical to
capturing a complete exterior, while also
being the most precarious and difficult to
accomplish. These scans were reviewed
individually, with great care to be sure
data and accuracy was not distorted by
any unintentional vibrations or gusty
harbour winds. They also make for
stunning scan images!
Perspective of the interior laser scan data of the Bennelong restaurant structure. This interior-only view allows an excellent opportunity to
see the ribbed shape of the interior of the pre-cast concrete sails.
35 Sydney Opera House 10 2013
Back home
Back in Scotland, the laborious task of
accurate data registration began. Although
the scans had been pieced together in
Sydney to check for holes, the process had
to begin again from the start, as each scan
had to be cleaned of extraneous data points
prior to the registration process. Because
there is so much glass in the Opera House,
there were multiple reflections of the laser
beams which would have caused issues
and inaccuracies had they not been
removed from the data. Once the cleaning
was complete, the registration moved
forward more smoothly, tying in scans from
the cantilever and from the abseilers.
Processing is still in progress as we write,
with the generation of photo-realistic
models based on the accurate point cloud
information. The data will provide accurate
as-built survey information on the Opera
House, and will be used as a building
management tool by the internal building
information team.
A fundamental principle of both the
Scottish Ten and CyArks global works is
that all IPR from collected 3D survey data is
gifted to the host institution and country.
Therefore, the Sydney Opera House data
will be handed over to the trust as a unique
40th birthday present in October 2013.
After initial deliverables are produced by
the CDDV in Scotland, CyArk will take on
its role as data store and disseminator,
adding all original and raw data, along with
all processed and final deliverable files, to
its two petabyte data store buried beneath a
mountain in Pennsylvania, USA. And per
the CyArk operating mission, all data
deemed publicly viewable by the Sydney
Opera House Trust will be freely accessible
on the CyArk website. CyArk and CDDV
will continue to collaborate with the Opera
House to inform its use of the data in day-
to-day management of the structure, as well
as mining it for new educational and virtual
tourism possibilities.
The project team has worked closely with the Opera Houses management and trustees, as
well as the Australian government to ensure its aims and objectives are fully realised. As
the Opera House prepares to celebrate its 40th anniversary this month, it was agreed that
digital documentation of the structure would contribute to its ongoing management,
conservation, interpretation and educational programmes. Selecting a modern building for
the Scottish Ten also sought to demonstrate the breadth of the projects remit by benefiting
heritage buildings of all ages, shapes and sizes.
The Sydney Opera House is recognised by UNESCO for its outstanding contribution to
world cultural heritage, but like many modern wonders and many heritage icons, it is at
risk from fire, natural disasters, accidental damage, terrorism and more. In terms of
authenticity, a forefront concern for heritage professionals, if something adverse were to
happen to the house, the as-built digital data would allow rebuilding as it actually was
keeping authenticity rather than from original design blueprints. It is important to
recognise that all heritage sites benefit from proactive conservation management to
prevent them from becoming at risk in the long term.
The Opera House is in need of regular maintenance and upkeep as an active site of
culture and performing arts. The 3D data set to be provided to the trust will be a
primary source to create the best-informed preventative conservation work. That means,
unlike the Eastern Qing Tombs or Rani ki Vav, which have suffered natural decay for
decades or centuries before their revival as protected archaeological sites, the vibrantly
alive Sydney Opera House will have the best tools to prevent the detrimental
degradation many cultural sites undergo due to lack of good information for
preservation early on.
With October 2013 representing both the 40th anniversary of the Sydney Opera
House and the official launch of CyArks 500 challenge, an ambitious initiative amongst
CyArk and its partners to digitally preserve 500 cultural heritage sites within the next five
years, this digital documentation project will be forefront in importance. The Opera
House will be the fourth of five international sites contributed by the Scottish
government to the 500 Challenge, and we look forward to providing the best data for
management, education, and virtual tourism to the Sydney Opera House Trust, and to
the world via the CyArk website.
Justin Barton BA MA, Chief Technology Advocate and Manager of Partnership Development,
CyArk, and Dr Lyn Wilson BSc MA PhD FSA Scot, Project Manager, Scottish Ten, Digital
Documentation and 3D Survey Lead, Historic Scotland, and Project Manager, Centre for
Digital Documentation and Visualisation LLP
Ben Kacyra, founder of CyArk, will be talking to CES in next months edition.
Images: Unless otherwise stated, Alastair Rawlinson, Digital Design Studio, Glasgow School of Art.
All images Centre for Digital Documentation and Visualisation LLP
Perspective image of the exterior laser scan data for the Sydney Opera House, with the Bennelong restaurant far left, the Concert Hall
centre, and the Joan Sutherland Theatre right.
The developing role of the surveyor
25 February 2014, London
David Philp
Head of BIM Implementation, Cabinet Office
Malcolm Taylor
Chief Technical Information Manager, Crossrail
Will Hackney
BIM Manager, London Underground
Tuesday 25 February 2014
East Wintergarden, Canary Wharf, London
Tickets: On sale soon
Contact Serena Ronan
+44 (0)161 972 3100
The Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors is a registered educational charity.
Building Information Modelling 2014
Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors Supported by Canary Wharf Group plc
37 STEP 10 2013
N 1975, the population of Abu Dhabi
was a mere 211,812 people, this has
since grown tenfold and the Emirate is
now home to 2.5 million people. The
difficulties faced by government authorities
in meeting the needs of a rapidly
expanding population are widely known,
especially in the water sector. The inability
of aging water and wastewater systems to
cope with increasing population is a
common difficulty faced by water
authorities worldwide. The Abu Dhabi
Sewerage Services Company (ADSSC), Abu
Dhabis local sewerage services utility
company, is planning for the future with
the development of the strategic tunnel
enhancement programme (STEP). This
programme is the cornerstone of ADSSCs
plan for the future wastewater requirements
for the emirate.
The multimillion pound STEP
The AED 5.36b (930m) STEP project
includes six design and build contracts,
comprising the deep sewer tunnel (three
contracts), link sewers (two contracts) and
the pumping station (one contract). The
project features 41km of deep sewer
tunnel, of up to 5.5m internal diameter,
commencing at a depth of 24m below
ground and reaching a downstream depth
of 80m below ground level. The deep
tunnel will be connected to a network of
link sewers throughout the city. The deep
sewer has been described as the spine of
the system with the link sewers being the
ribs! The link sewers will collect flows
upstream of existing pumping stations and
eliminate the need for 35 pumping stations,
removing the requirement for capacity
upgrades and extensive maintenance.
Byrne Looby Partners is acting as
geotechnical consultant to Ed Zublin AG,
the contractor for both of the link sewer
contracts. These contracts include 43km of
small-diameter tunnels and almost 300
access shafts and manholes. Tunnel
diameters range from 200-3,100mm at
depths of up to 30m. A particular challenge
is that the majority of the tunnel routes are
located in built-up urban areas, sensitive to
ground movements.
Ground conditions
The ground conditions are particularly
challenging as the bedrock contains layers
of gypsum which are very sensitive to the
groundwater regime. In the presence of
water, gypsum dissolves creating subsurface
cavities. The location of the cavities has to
be closely documented and managed in the
design of the sewers. The link sewers must
be constructed at a sufficient distance from
the cavities to ensure that the tunnel
alignment is not affected. Geotechnical
consultants had a full time presence on site
working with the contractor to manage the
site-investigation and the interpretation of
the ground conditions for use in the design.
Of particular importance is the
estimation of construction-related ground
movements and monitoring for the project.
The link sewers run across Abu Dhabi
Island which is a built up metropolitan
area. Geotechnical consultants are carrying
out analyses to estimate the anticipated
ground movements and have developed an
instrumentation and monitoring regime for
the construction of the link sewer sections.
This requires the design team to carefully
consider ground movements associated
with each stage of construction to ensure
the impact of the works is minimised on
the surrounding area.
The works extend across Abu Dhabi
Island and are in close proximity to a huge
amount of significant infrastructure in the
city. One of the principles underlying the
delivery of STEP set out by ADSSC was to
minimise disruptions to Abu Dhabi
residents, tourists and businesses, so
monitoring and instrumentation plans
needed to be aligned with this objective.
Impact assessment
The first step was to evaluate the impact
that the works would have on the
surrounding area. Initially, tunnelling routes
were assessed using the available site
investigation information and we
developed anticipated ground movement
contours. We also set up risk ratings for
various categories of movements in order to
assess the risk to the surrounding
infrastructure and buildings. In areas where
Monitoring progress on Abu Dhabis STEP
John OConnor, Project Manager, Byrne Looby Partners
Engineering Abu Dhabis
41km wastewater tunnel
38 STEP Civil Engineering Surveyor
the ground movement fell outside the
acceptable range of movement we had to
review our designs and come up with more
robust solutions to mitigate the potential
risks. As contractors designer it was
important for us to balance efficient design
and risk, we also had to be considerate of
the people of Abu Dhabi who were
working and living around this project.
The length and expanse of the
tunnelling necessitated that a huge area of
Abu Dhabi was considered during
instrumentation and monitoring planning.
The geotechnical design team produced a
construction impact assessment which
identified areas with different levels of risk;
with varying likelihood and impact of
expected damage. The construction impact
assessment was then translated into a set of
drawings for the works identifying risk
areas and ground movement contour levels,
which could be used in the monitoring
plan for the site.
Monitoring regime
The monitoring plan took account of
building structures, services, pipe jacking,
microtunnelling works, shafts and
excavations. The plan detailed the specific
requirements for instrumentation including
strain gauges for lateral support elements in
shaft construction, inclinometers, vibrating
wire piezometers, standpipe piezometers
and extensometers.
Tunnelling monitoring zones were
identified during the works, these identified
the type, location and frequency of
monitoring that would be required during
active tunnelling on the site. Survey control
was paramount for the project and we
advised that deep benchmarks be
established as control points. Baseline
reading for performance monitoring
instrumentation was advised at least two
months prior to excavation at the relevant
work site.
A particular challenge on the project was
the site constraints, there was very limited
working space at many of the shaft
locations as these were constructed
throughout the city. This required us to
work closely with the contractor to come
up with instrumentation and monitoring
layout plans tailored to suit each shaft
location. The quantity and layout of
instrumentation installed had to be
adequate for providing the level of
monitoring required, while minimising the
impact on working space, and avoid
encroaching beyond the site boundaries.
The site team had regular monitoring
meetings to discuss progress and findings
on site. Of particular importance were
groundwater levels which were monitored
rigorously as any drop in near-surface
groundwater levels could cause settlements
of the surrounding buildings. Groundwater
monitoring on the site was complex due to
the presence of quasi-independent
groundwater regimes in the overburden
soils and the rock layers in many areas on
the site.
The link sewer project is nearing
completion on site and the project has been
very successful with minimal impact on the
surrounding area. Assessment and
monitoring go hand in hand on such
projects, and the modelling we carried out
at design stage will give an indication of
the likely movements. This prediction will
depend on the quality of the information
that was used to create the model. On a
tunnelling project, ground investigation is
paramount, and we carried out additional
investigation as the project progressed
during construction. Having someone on
site to review the ground investigation and
make sure it was comparable to the initial
information allowed us to be more
confident of the movement predictions we
made. However, there will always be
unknowns, which is why it is so important
to set trigger levels for the project and carry
out regular monitoring.
Our monitoring plan identified trigger
levels for different areas of the work; alert,
action and alarm. Maximum permissible
movement levels were set for the different
works areas and structures on the site. The
alert state was reached when the movement
recorded reached 50% of the permitted
maximum movement. The action stage
occurred at 60% of the maximum
permissible movement and alarm trigger
levels occurred at 80% of maximum
permissible movement. In the alert stage
more frequent monitoring was adopted on
site to pick up any possible escalation,
when the action threshold was reached
remedial works may have been required.
The rate of increasing movement was also
observed and if this was rapidly
accelerating, remedial action may have
been required prior to the action stage.
We are now going through a
monitoring optimisation process with the
contractor with the objective of further
rationalising the monitoring regime for the
remaining works. The objective is to
reduce the quantity and cost of monitoring
without compromising the instrumentation
and monitoring process. We are using the
extensive data collected to date to
establish a more efficient monitoring
regime for the contractor.
Developing Abu Dhabi
This has been an exciting project as we
designed the heavy civil engineering for
contractor-designed temporary works and
also used our specialist structural and
geotechnical skills to assess the ground
movements and develop a monitoring plan
for the 43km of link sewers. It has been
great to be part of the project team on an
infrastructure project of this size which will
have a significant impact on the future
development of Abu Dhabi.
John OConnor, Project Manager,
Byrne Looby Partners
A STEP for Abu Dhabis
expanding population.
39 Wastewater 10 2013
Muddy waters
Chris Taylor, Zeus Renewables
S the world slowly starts to come to terms with its
growing environmental problems, the focus to date has
been on energy production and efficiency. However,
another more serious problem is yet to be fully addressed; water.
Water is already our most precious commodity, we are dependent
on it for our very survival let alone as a basic building block for
almost every industrial process around the globe. While the general
population is yet to fully grasp the magnitude of the issue of water
capacity in developed economies, the regulators are starting to take
action. Industrial water users are coming under ever increasing
pressure to clean up their effluent and reduce the strain on limited
infrastructure. As the water companies and the regulators force
industry to change, many businesses are being forced to take
action to quickly reduce effluent discharge and pollution levels.
Here in the UK, the water and sewerage industry is regulated by
Ofwat, who is responsible for ensuring that the water companies
provide household and business consumers with a good quality
service and value for money. In doing this, it is applying pressure
on the water companies to reduce the level of certain pollutants in
the water supply. Inevitably, this has led to the costs of water
treatment rising significantly in recent years, generating a knock-on
effect on water users in terms of both pricing and increasing
regulation for industrial water users and dischargers.
The effect on industry has been dramatic. Not only have the
prices for water been rising significantly, but the charges for
effluent discharge have risen even more sharply. This latter effect
means that industrial water users are increasingly encouraged to
consider investing in local effluent
treatment systems, in order to avoid
increasing effluent discharge bills. In some
cases, where discharge consistently breaks local
consent limits set by the water company, industrial
sites can be threatened with closure. Clearly,
businesses have needed to take action.
Many businesses have addressed the problem by
looking for ways to reduce water usage. This will of
course reduce incoming water bills but they may not see
a drop in effluent charges even though they are
discharging less volume to the drain. Without a change in
process or any local water treatment to clean up their
wastewater prior to discharge, the water will still contain
the same amount of pollution, usually in the form of
organic material, measured by chemical oxygen demand
(COD), or suspended solids, measured as total suspended
solids (TSS).
How new technologies are
reducing site wastewater
40 Wastewater Civil Engineering Surveyor
Changing the industrial processes is usually not the answer due to
the impact of increased capital costs and lost production.
Therefore, the answer usually lies in developing appropriate, local
water treatment. There are a number of effluent treatment
technologies available to industrial water users such as membrane
bioreactors (MBR) and dissolved air floatation (DAF) systems.
Depending on the effluent type these will reduce contamination
and/or allow companies to remain within the consent limits.
Despite identifying a potential saving and a potential solution, it is
not always feasible for companies to install an effluent treatment
plant due to either capital constraints or due to space constraint
on site, MBR plants in particular require a large investment and a
large footprint.
Electro-coagulation (EC) is a continuous electrochemical process
for treating polluted fluids. The effluent passes through the EC cell
where sacrificial anodes corrode and release an active coagulant
that causes contaminants to cluster together. This is accompanied
by gas release on the cathode that combines with the growing
contaminant cluster causing it to become buoyant; sludge is
formed and is removed. The process, which is a form of
electrolysis, reduces fats, oils and greases (FOG) and reduces the
COD of wastewater streams and aqueous solutions. The process
provides up to 99% removal of FOGs and 85% on COD. There is
some reduction is TSS, which is supported with additional filters to
bring the potential TSS reduction up to 85%.
The EC cell has a much smaller footprint than alternative
technologies and, as such, is able to be accommodated on sites
where other technologies simply cannot be deployed.
Service models
One of the biggest constraints to the deployment of water
treatment technology in industrial effluent treatment plants is the
availability of capital. Capital investment can be significant to
overcome effluent discharge issues. However, technologies like EC
can be available through a service-based model. SureWaters, who
developed EC and offers the system in the UK through capital
from Zeus Renewables, is responsible for the design, build,
installation, operation and maintenance of each system. By
providing the system as a service, it can take the performance risk
away from the client.
Chris Taylor, Zeus Renewables
While the general population is yet to fully grasp
the magnitude of the issue of water capacity in
developed economies, regulators are starting to
take action.
Not only have the prices for water been rising
significantly, but the charges for effluent discharge
have risen even more sharply.
41 Monitoring 10 2013
N 2018, Crossrail services are due to
commence through central London.
The 15b project will pass through 37
stations and run 118km (73 miles) from
Maidenhead and Heathrow in the west to
Shenfield and Abbey Wood in the east
passing through new twin-bore 21km (13
miles) tunnels. It will bring an additional
1.5 million people within 45 minutes
commuting distance of Londons key
business districts.
The projects C350 Pudding Mill Lane
contract, worth in the region of 100m, will
link the new Crossrail tunnels to the
Network Rail infrastructure in the London
Borough of Newham. The contract,
awarded to Morgan Sindall, includes the
construction of a 300m long tunnel portal, a
120m long approach ramp and a new
elevated Docklands Light Railway station at
Pudding Mill Lane, adjacent to the southern
part of the London 2012 Olympic site.
When the new station opens, the existing
Pudding Mill Lane station will be
demolished to enable construction of the
cut-and-cover tunnel and covered ramp to
connect the Crossrail tunnel to existing
Network Rail infrastructure.
Associated works will include the
construction of bridges, a six-span
viaduct, new retaining walls, and
mechanical and electrical fit out. Overall,
five new tunnel portals will be
constructed as part of Crossrail at Royal
Oak, Pudding Mill Lane, North Woolwich,
Victoria Dock and Plumstead.
The Pudding Mill Lane portal site will
launch the tunnel boring machines which
will create the tunnels to Stepney Green.
Once operational, Crossrail trains will
emerge from the central section tunnels at
Pudding Mill Lane and use the portal
An alternative to optical monitoring
Lucy Hamilton, Technical Writer, KOREC
3D laser monitoring
of Crossrails City Mill
River Bridge
The scanner mounted on a permanently
fixed survey pillar underneath the bridge.
Top right: A cross section difference plot.
Bottom right: Twin surface inspection tool showing the underside of Bridge 53.
42 Monitoring Civil Engineering Surveyor
structure and ramp to join the Great Eastern Main Line to make
their way towards Shenfield. DLR passengers will be able to
interchange with Crossrail at Stratford station.
Bridge 53
The construction of 21km of new twin-bore tunnels under central
London will bring its own engineering challenges including the
need to monitor rigorously any structures likely to be affected by
heavy work in this densely populated area of the capital.
Whilst optical solutions have been possible on much of the large
scale work, the need to monitor the City Mill River Bridge (no. 53)
threw up a particular set of demands.
Bridge 53 is a Victorian brick arch bridge over City Mill River in
Stratford. Over the top of it are both Network Rail lines running
out of Liverpool Street and the Docklands Light Railway from
Stratford. The proximity of the tracks adjacent to where piling for a
new bridge was taking place required monitoring that would
provide sufficient information for daily analysis. Without the
provision of a line block to install monitoring sensors, the
monitoring team was unable to position an automated track
monitoring system on the tracks above the bridge. Therefore,
monitoring beneath the bridge and the actual soffit of the bridge
arch was required instead. A further complication was that City Mill
River flowed under the bridge and a 3m wide tow path was the
only dry land available.
The usual method of monitoring this type of structure would be
to drill and fix L-bar prisms into the brickwork and monitor any 3D
movement using high accuracy total stations. This 3D data would
then be presented in an Excel spreadsheet and graph depicting any
detected movement. However, the time constraints of the project
and geography of this particular bridge resulted in an alternative
being considered a compact Faro 3D laser scanner supplied by
KOREC. Using the scanner the monitoring team was able to take
remote observations from a fixed point without the need to fix
monitoring points to the bridge arch.
The scanner (24x20x10cm) was mounted on a permanently
fixed survey pillar underneath the bridge. Reference spheres,
surveyed with a Trimble S8 total station, were also permanently
fixed to enable high resolution scans of the bridge arch soffit.
Colour alert
Daily scans were taken in the field, processed in the office and
then compared to a base scan that was carried out before
construction began. The laser scanner can identify and record any
cracks, fissures or movement of the tunnel and through a
comparison with the control scan, highlight any areas of concern.
These can be immediately flagged up, using a colour plot, through
the deformation alarms set up in the Trimble Realworks software;
the alarm-triggers for any 3D movement of the track are set at
green (8mm), amber (12mm), red (15mm) and black (30mm). A
red trigger requires the monitoring team to immediately alert
Network Rail and the Docklands Light Railway.
Surface to surface scan comparisons are made using the twin
surface inspection tool. Twin surface inspections allow a surveyor
to compare two datasets clearly and easily by either a colour plot
or distance measurement and can be carried out on any surface;
such as walls, roads and bridges.
Emphasis was placed on ensuring that the structure was
monitored to a high degree of accuracy using reliable monitoring,
without disruption to the existing live railway lines. This provided
an enormous contribution to both the overall running of the
project and a safe work environment.
Lucy Hamilton, Technical Writer, KOREC
A further complication was that
City Mill River flowed under the
bridge and a 3m wide tow path
was the only dry land available.
Left: Zoomed-in area of a twin surface inspection.
Right: Defined area for point extraction.
43 BIM 10 2013
N February 2013 the Construction
Industry Council (CIC) published the
first edition of its BIM protocol. It is a
legal document that is to be incorporated
into construction contracts to facilitate the
use of building information modelling on
projects. The protocol was designed in line
with the UK government strategy which
mandates using level 2 BIM on all public
projects by 2016, and various rights and
liabilities for the employer and other parties
are set out. The role of information
management is also defined, along with the
responsibilities of the information manager,
the gatekeeper of the modelling process,
who is liable for controlling and managing
data exchange.
The protocol is a fairly succinct
document consisting of only eight clauses.
These clauses provide users with the
terminology, obligations and roles required
for establishing a collaborative environment
in which project information is properly
shared to implement BIM processes. In
addition, the protocol includes a provision
giving it priority over other project
documents in case of any inconsistencies.
Under analysis
As part of a masters research project at the
University of Portsmouth, a survey was
carried out on the perceived ability of the
protocol to manage BIM projects, with the
aim of identifying its potential benefits and
challenges. 32 professionals from various
sectors in the construction industry took
part including lawyers, contractors,
managers, engineers and architects.
Most respondents agreed that the
protocol will support BIM uptake and
facilitate its implementation on projects. It
provides a user-friendly document that
facilitates the production of BIM models
and encourages collaboration between
parties by setting specific obligations,
liabilities and limitations in relation to
creating and using these models. However,
the respondents mentioned that the design
of the protocol to only work with BIM level
2 projects will not meet the needs of those
looking to engage in more advanced levels
of BIM. Equally, they were unsure whether
it provides absolute protection of the
intellectual property created on BIM
projects, or whether it gives sufficient
support for the collaborative working
methods necessary for the sharing of
information required on these projects.
Over half the respondents (56%) agreed
that the protocol will succeed in providing
an effective contractual framework to
manage BIM projects. This indicates the
potential the protocol has to successfully
support level 2 projects and, in doing so,
aid the governments strategy.
Most professionals ranked the ease with
which the protocol terminology can be
understood as moderate. This is an
encouraging point, as the easier it is to
understand the protocol terms, the more
likely it will be accepted and used across
the industry.
The protocol aims to overcome the legal
issues connected with BIM implementation.
These include concerns such as model
ownership, liability for data accuracy and
intellectual property rights. The protocols
effectiveness in addressing the legal issues
surrounding BIM implementation was
considered by 79% of the respondents as
being average. Most respondents expect
fair protection to be provided for IP
creators under the protocol. It secures IP
rights through granting short-term licenses
for the employer and other members of the
project team, allowing the use of the IP
created only for the permitted purposes.
The majority of respondents (63%)
expect average support to be provided by
the protocol for data exchange. This is an
assessment of the effort made regarding the
liabilities, obligations and constraints set in
the protocol to manage data sharing,
copying, use and modification.
Respondents highlighted several benefits to
be gained from using the protocol; (i)
generally it is considered to be a fairly
simple document which provides the
procedures required to manage data
exchange on BIM projects, (ii) legally, it is
a universal framework which can be
incorporated into common contracts with
The CIC BIM protocol: A critical appraisal
Mustafa Al-Shammari, MSc Student, University of Portsmouth
A students look at the
industrys reaction to the
Construction Industry
Councils BIM protocol
45 BIM 10 2013
simple amendments, (iii) it is a standard
document with a managerial concept which
can provide a stepping stone to more
sophisticated protocols for dealing with
BIM projects, (iv) technically, it suits the
requirements for BIM level 2, as it
overcomes most of the issues associated
with this level, and (v) it guides the design
team to meet the employers requirements
and fulfil the projects needs.
The survey results have identified several
problems with the use of the protocol; (i)
as it was designed to be used only with
level 2 BIM projects, it does not look to
support truly collaborative working
methods, (ii) appendix 1 (the model
production and delivery table) seems to be
too simple and straightforward, although
some see it as the best part of the protocol,
and (iii) legally, the protocol cannot be
easily controlled, because it is too process-
driven. Additionally, the technical
information required to complete the
appendices, which lie at the core of the
protocol, needs to be thoroughly defined
before use.
Respondents felt that various groups
within the industry such as consultants,
architects, quantity surveyors and
contractors, would accept the protocol.
They think it would be successful in
dealing with BIM issues, providing fair
protection for IP creators, giving some
support for data exchange and
providing users with a framework which
can be easily understood and successfully
used for managing contracts involving
BIM processes.
Despite the problems that might be facing
its use, the CIC protocol has the potential
to be fairly successful in dealing with the
issues that surround BIM implementation
(such as IP rights, collaboration among
parties and data exchange). Also, releasing
Al-Shammari M (2013) A critical appraisal of the building information modelling (BIM) protocol that has been recently published by the Construction Industry Council (CIC),
unpublished masters dissertation, University of Portsmouth
BIM Task Group (2013) BIM Protocol Overview
NEC (2013) How to Use BIM with NEC3 Contracts, London: Thomas Telford
Out-Law (2013) The CIC's BIM Protocol.
RICS, (2013) The Construction Industry Council (CIC) publishes BIM Protocol.
the protocol seems to be facilitating the uptake of BIM across the industry. A noticeable
step forward with BIM adoption has been taking place since the document was published.
A framework has been provided to cover the requirements of using BIM level 2 on
projects, and this is in line with the strategy developed by the government.
Mustafa Al-Shammari, MSc Student
Under the supervision of Anna Parkin, Senior Lecturer, University of Portsmouth
The protocol and accompanying documents can be downloaded from
Top: The overall performance summary based on respondents to the survey.
Above: Acceptance across the construction industry.
46 TSA Focus Civil Engineering Surveyor
HEN we are born, a form is
filled out by an official and a
certificate is issued. When we
die, another from is filled out by yet
another official and another certificate is
issued. In between, we are given the
opportunity to fill out hundreds more forms
both in our personal and professional
lives. How many people get fed up with
completing forms? Come on, hands up.
Okay, so it now looks like a Mexican wave
at the World Cup!
In the pre-computer days, not so long
ago, it seemed that form filling was a way
to keep civil servants in a job. Nowadays,
and with the ease of online completion, it
seems that someone has decided that a
very long and repetitive form is required
for everything from buying a toothbrush to
applying for a tender. It is the latter point
that I would like to address here.
A couple of months ago, I was
approached by a TSA member who was
totally fed up with filling in pre-
qualification questionnaires and tender
documents for various government
departments, agencies and local authorities
all of which used a different form. The
complaint was not about the completion of
the form per se, but about the lack of
commonality and common sense used by
the various commissioning bodies in
creating this form filling exercise. Why not
use a standard form for all commissioning
agents? Now that would make sense, so it
will probably never happen. To compound
the general annoyance, many of the
contracts do not get awarded subsequently
due to a lack of cash. One recent contract
for just under 4,000 required the
completion of a document many hundreds
of pages in length. The document was at
best poor with a number of incorrect
technical statements which were then
corrected by the tenderers. In the end, the
project was scrapped, thereby wasting
hundreds of hours of client and contractor
time. And this is progress?
I apologise if I am starting to sound like
Victor Meldrew. I have been told that the
older I get, the more I look like him so it is
probably acceptable that I have a right
good old moan.
Another TSA member recently contacted
me complaining about the priority school
building programme, the replacement for
Building Schools for the Future, and asking
if TSA can lobby government about it. The
member stated:
The new scheme is as silly as the
original in terms of trying to get surveys
done over the summer break. i.e. no
notice period, no forethought, no
planning, no arrangement all so they
can be started on day one of the school
holidays. It seems to happen every year
that sometime in August, lots of schools
are tendered for survey. They are not
getting best value for money due to time
constraints. It is guaranteed to lead to
rushed surveys, it also means that the
smaller survey companies have no
chance of winning the contracts as you
can have eight schools all to be done in a
few weeks (even larger companies
struggle). This needs planning and
proper lead-in times, so that money can
be spent cost effectively and for the
benefit of all including the client.
I have now sent this complaint on to the
relevant government minister and the
funding agency and am waiting to hear
what they say. I am not holding out much
hope, but we have at least stated our case
and suggested a way that the government
can save some money. I can think of
hundreds of other ways to save money
albeit they are not related to survey but this
is neither the time nor the place to do so.
Rory Stanbridge FCInstCES,
Secretary General, The Survey Association
Forms, forms and more forms
Rory Stanbridge FCInstCES, Secretary General, The Survey Association
Rory Stanbridge on time
wasting, form filling and
common sense
Why not use a standard form for
all commissioning agents? Now
that would make sense, so it will
probably never happen.
47 Advertorial-Profiles 10 2013
EOTECHNICAL specialist Maccaferri, has introduced a new, organic-based
polyamide protective coating for its gabions and related double-twist wire
based products, which offers improved technical performance and
environmental compatibility, when compared to PVC and HDPE coated mesh
products. The new PA6 coating is an extruded polyamide material which has
improved adhesion characteristics, enhanced resistance to mechanical damage
and better cold temperature performance. Resistance to hydrocarbon pollutants is
also significantly enhanced together with long term strength and elasticity.
According to Maccaferri, the organic polyamide PA6 coating is also far more
environmentally friendly then traditional wire coatings as it contains no
pthalates, heavy metals or other ozone depleting chemicals. Furthermore, unlike
PVC, it doesnt emit hydrogen chloride during burning. Although Maccaferri will
continue to manufacture PVC coated products for use in less demanding
applications, the new PA6 coating is available on its entire range of double twist
wire based products.
Gabion baskets have been used for over 100 years to stabilise vulnerable
embankments, build retaining structures, line fast flowing watercourses and
prevent coastal erosion. Their substantial mass and flexible mesh construction
means that gabion walls can accommodate large differential settlement without
sustaining damage. In the rail sector a soil nailed, gabion retaining wall was used
to help boost capacity of the busy London to Oxford rail line where it passes
through an historic bottleneck near Northolt. Engineers were able to increase line
capacity by widening an existing 3m high embankment to allow the installation of
an additional track. All within what was an already narrow, rail corridor. A
conventional battered slope was not viable due to space restrictions, so a near
vertical 3m high retaining wall was built comprising stone-filled, woven mesh
gabions in combination with an array of integral, 14m long soil nails.
Pictured: Soils nails were drilled through pre-formed apertures in stone filled gabions to add stability
to this retaining wall at Northolt on the London Oxford, Chiltern Line. Image courtesy of BAM Nuttall.
High performance polymer coating
for Maccaferri Gabions
Scottish Water plc has recently
completed a 7m project to
upgrade aqueducts conveying
water from Loch Katrine to
Glasgow. Winn & Coales
(Denso) Steelcoat 400 system
was chosen to give long-life
protection on the 48in diameter
pipes used at three structures
which were virtually
reconstructed along the aqueduct system. These carry two twin
pipeline sections conveying 450 million litres of water per day to
1.3 million people. The Steelcoat system, applied by subcontractor
Interserve Industrial Services, comprised: Denso Hi-Tack Primer,
Denso Profiling Mastic, Denso Hi-Tack Tape, Denso Ultraseal Tape
and a Denso Acrylic Topcoat.
Piling has commenced on site at
Nova in London, in a joint venture
between Cementation Skanska and
Balfour Beatty Ground Engineering.
The partners were appointed by
Mace to carry out the ground
engineering elements of the 897,000
square feet development for Land
Securities. Nova, Victoria is a mixed office, shopping, residential
and public realm scheme being developed adjacent to Victoria
Station. The project team is scheduled to be on site at the end of
November to install a double basement with a 445m secant wall
followed by the installation of 336 large diameter rotary bearing
piles. The construction complexities include installing 251 of the
bearing piles with plunge columns. The team has worked with
Mace before on London Bridge Place and the Shard.
Trimble has released a preview
version of its CenterPoint RTX
post-processing service, enabling
GNSS observations using
available Galileo and BeiDou middle earth orbit (MEO) satellites.
The free CenterPoint RTX post-processing service provides better
than centimetre level positions. The existing CenterPoint RTX post-
processing site uses data from the GPS, GLONASS, and QZSS
satellite systems. Through a link accessible from the post-
processing website, users can enter a preview site and derive
positions that also use data from available open service Galileo and
BeiDou MEO satellites. Users can upload static GNSS observation
data and receive positioning corrections calculated in the ITRF
2008 reference frame.The post-processed solution can be
transformed to a variety of regional reference frames by selecting a
coordinate system and tectonic plate.
Kemp Engineering and Surveying
celebrated 25 years in business
with a long-awaited win at the
annual RNLI Dragon Boat Races.
13 teams from across Cornwall
turned out to compete in a series
of fast-paced heats that
culminated in a four-boat final,
from which Kemps Survey Squad
emerged victorious. The win was a great addition to an already
notable year for Kemp Engineering, who celebrated its 25th year in
business in April. Founded by director Scott Kemp in 1988, the
company has weathered five British prime ministers and plenty of
economic uncertainty, and has flourished from its small beginnings
into a leading provider of setting out solutions in the southwest
and beyond.
48 Classifieds Civil Engineering Surveyor
Open technology and standards-based
solutions for sharing spatial data
Equipment Mobile Mapping
Mapping (Underground) Monitoring
Software, Mapping & Data
Large and small-scale topographic surveys
Installation of survey and engineering control
Site surveys Boundary demarcation
Mapping Volumetric analysis and
earthworks design CAD services River
channel and flood plain surveys
GPS surveys GIS data capture
Monitoring Setting out
Provision of site engineering
survey staff Digital design
24 Church Meadow,
Surbiton Surrey KT6 5EW
T: 0208 398 8991
UAVs georeferenced aerial photography
photogrammetry and aerial 3D
visualisation digital ground modelling
machine control model data preparation/
calibration land/topographic surveys
measured building surveys engineering
surveys GPS/GNSS surveys site setting
out rapid bulk earthmoving/quarry
surveys and volumes cut and fill volume
calculations and analysis CAD services
01932 268365 07979 636223
Abbey House, Brooklands Business Park,
Weybridge, Surrey KT13 0TT, UK
Alan Lees
ICES Publishing
+44 (0)161 972 3110
Discounts for
ICES members
Alan Lees
ICES Publishing
+44 (0)161 972 3110
49 Where to Buy 10 2013
survey accessories
Hilti (Gt Britain) 1 Trafford Wharf Road, Manchester M17 1BY, UK
+44 (0)800 886 100 +44 (0)161 886 1000
Leica Geosystems Davy Avenue, Knowlhill, Milton Keynes MK5 8LB, UK
+44 (0)1908 256500
Scotland: Gary Kelly
+44 (0)7500 700 487
Northern England: Mike Workman
+44 (0)7887 517 528
Central England: Martin Edwards & Shane ORegan
+44 (0)7771 517 411
+44 (0)7775 712 326
South East: Graham Sharp
+44 (0)7789 816 628
South West: Mark Francis
+44 (0)7500 112 071
Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland: John Kerrigan
+44 (0)7917 543 923 +353 (0) 85 1707 129
A1 Survey
Sparks House, Western Industrial Estate, Lon-llyn, Caerphilly CF83 1BQ,
UK +44 (0)845 5005858
M & P Survey Equipment
Meridian House, Stanney Mill Rd, Little Stanney, Chester CH2 4HX, UK
+44 (0)151 3571856
hq1 Building, Phoenix Park, Eaton Socon PE19 8EP, UK
+44 (0)1480 404888
Unit 4, Riverside One, Medway City Estate, Sir Thomas Longley Road,
Kent ME2 4DP, UK +44 (0)1634 296809
Speedy Services
Chase House, 16 The Parks, Newton-Le-Willows, Merseyside WA12 0JQ,
UK + 44 (0)845 600 9960
NavCom Technology 20780 Madrona Avenue Torrance, CA 90503 USA
+1 (310) 381-2000
South Survey 21 Deanfield Court, Clitheroe, Lancashire BB7 1QS, UK
+44 (0)1200 429870
Nikon-Trimble Co 16-2, Minamikamata 2-chome, Ota-ku, Tokyo 144-0035,
Japan +1 3 5710 2592
A1 Survey Sparks House, Western Industrial Estate, Lon-llyn, Caerphilly
CF83 1BQ, UK +44 (0)845 500 5858
Korec Head Office, Blundellsands House, 34-44 Mersey View, Waterloo,
Merseyside L22 6QB, UK +44 (0)845 6031214
South Survey 21 Deanfield Court, Clitheroe, Lancashire BB7 1QS, UK
+44 (0)1200 429870
Speedy Services
Chase House, 16 The Parks, Newton-Le-Willows, Merseyside WA12 0JQ,
UK + 44 (0)845 600 9960
Ordnance Survey Adanac Drive, Southampton SO16 0ASU, UK
+44 (0)8456 05 05 05
SOKKIA BV Essebaan 11, 2908 LJ, PO Box 145, 2900 AC, Capelle a/d
IJssel, The Netherlands +31 10 751 9300
+31 10 751 9300
Spectra Precision 10368 Westmoor Drive, Westminster, CO 80021 USA
+1 720 587 4700
ZAC de la Fleuriaye, BP 60433, 44474 Carquefou Cedex, France
+33 2 28 09 38 00
South Survey 21 Deanfield Court, Clitheroe, Lancashire BB7 1QS, UK
+44 (0)1200 429870
Topcon (GB) Topcon House, Bone Lane, Kennet Side, Newbury
RG14 5PX, UK +44 (0)1635 551120
Phoenix Surveying Equipment Head Office, Unit 4, Armstrong Court,
Armstrong Way, Yate, Bristol BS37 5NG, UK +44 (0)1454 312560
1 Howard Street, Constitution Hill, Birmingham B19 3HW, UK
+44 (0) 1212 126 040
Unit 38 Azura Close, Woolsbridge Industrial Estate, Three Legged Cross
Wimbourne, Dorset BH21 6SZ, UK +44 (0) 1202 814030
Unit 17, Swift Business Centre, East Moors Industrial Estate, Keen Road,
Cardiff CF24 5JR, UK +44 (0)2920 470776
4 Leigham Business Units, Silverton Road, Matford Park, Exeter
EX2 8HY, UK +44 (0) 1392 824163
Unit 9, Metropolitan Park, Greenford UB6 8UP, UK
+44 (0) 208 578 3377
665 Eccles New Road, Salford M50 1AY, UK +44 (0) 161 786 2975
Unit 3, Youngs Industrial Estate, Paices Hill, Aldermaston, Reading
RG7 4PW, UK +44 (0)1189 707280
A1 Survey Sparks House, Western Industrial Estate, Lon-llyn, Caerphilly
CF83 1BQ, UK +44 (0)845 500 5858
York Survey Supply Centre Prospect House, George Cayley Drive,
Clifton Moor, York YO30 4XE, UK +44 (0)1904 692723
Trimble Trimble House, Meridian Office Park, Osborn Way, Hook,
Hampshire RG27 9HX, UK +44 (0)1256 760150
A1 Survey Sparks House, Western Industrial Estate, Lon-llyn, Caerphilly
CF83 1BQ, UK +44 (0)845 500 5858
Korec, Blundellsands House, 34-44 Mersey View, Waterloo, Merseyside
L22 6QB, UK +44 (0)845 603 1214
Survey Solutions Scotland The Pyramid Building, 14 Dryden Road,
Bilston Glen, Loanhead, Edinburgh EH20 9LZ, UK +44 (0)131 4404688
50 Recruitment Civil Engineering Surveyor
Bookshop Offer
Visit the online bookshop
*telephone and email orders.
The Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors is a registered educational charity.
Looking for books on laser scanning?
Researching civil engineering?
Interested in military history?
ICES members are now entitled to a 15% discount on
book from Whittles Publishing*.
The Journal of the Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors
Advertise your position to the specialists
+44 (0)161 972 3110
Engineering Surveyor/Setting Out Engineer
Kemp Engineering and Surveying seeks an
experienced engineering surveyor/ setting out
engineer to join our expanding team of professionals.
Desirable Criteria
Qualified to HNC/D or degree level in a related subject
Proficient with AutoCAD and robotic total stations
Familiar with ground modelling software
Able to work with minimal supervision
Hold a full clean driving license
Carrying out site setting out projects, from residential and
commercial developments to roads and heavy civils
Liaising with clients
Computation and presentation of data
Ground modelling
It is likely that the successful candidate will have a minimum of
five years of relevant experience. However, consideration will also
be given to recent graduates in civil engineering or surveying, and
competent applicants with less experience.
Positions available in Devon and Cornwall. Please note that you
may be required to work away from home at times.
Please send applications to,
quoting ref:ICES1 in the subject bar, and include a CV and current
salary/salary expectations.
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