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Biological Membranes

1. ________ is the simultaneous transmembrane movement of two molecules in opposite directions through a transport protein.

Answer: Suggested Answer: Antiport


2. An area of a lipid bilayer with a distinct lipid composition and near-crystalline consistency is called a/an ________.

Answer: Suggested Answer: lipid raft


3. The movement of a lipid within one leaflet of a bilayer is called ________.

Answer: Suggested Answer: lateral diffusion


4. ________ is the fusion of an intracellular vesicle with the plasma membrane in order to release the contents of the vesicle outside the cell.

Answer: Suggested Answer: Exocytosis


5. ________ is the charge of one mole of electrons.

Answer: Suggested Answer: Faraday


6. A lipid to which carbohydrate is covalently attached is a/an ________.

Answer: Suggested Answer: glycolipid


7. An artificial vesicle consisting of a lipid bilayer surrounding an aqueous interior is a/an ________.

Answer: Suggested Answer: liposome


8. A long-chain hydrocarbon with a carboxylic acid group at one end is a/an ________.

Answer: Suggested Answer: fatty acid


9. A/An ________ is a metabolically required substance that cannot be synthesized by an animal and must therefore be obtained from the diet.

Answer: Suggested Answer: vitamin

10. ________ is a model of biological membranes in which integral membrane proteins float and diffuse laterally in a fluid lipid layer.

Answer: Suggested Answer: Fluid mosaic model


11. A/An ________ is an amphipathic lipid containing a polar head group and an acyl group attached to a derivative of palmitate and serine.

Answer: Suggested Answer: sphingolipid


12. A membrane protein that is embedded in the lipid bilayer is a/an ________ protein, also called an intrinsic protein.

Answer: Suggested Answer: integral membrane or intrinsic


13. A substance released by a nerve cell to alter the activity of a target cell is a/an ________.

Answer: Suggested Answer: neurotransmitter


14. A/An ________ is a lipid constructed from 5-carbon units with an isoprene skeleton.

Answer:

Suggested Answer: isoprenoid


15. ________ is a lipid in which three fatty acids are esterified to a glycerol backbone.

Answer: Suggested Answer: Triacylglycerol


16. Myelin sheath is the multilayer coating of ________-rich membranes that insulates a mammalian neuron.

Answer: Suggested Answer: sphingomyelin


17. ________ is the movement of a lipid from one leaflet of a bilayer to the other.

Answer: Suggested Answer: Transverse diffusion or Flip-flop


18. An enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a lipid from one bilayer leaflet to another is ________, also called a flippase.

Answer: Suggested Answer: translocase


19. ________ is the difference in electrical charge across a membrane.

Answer:

Suggested Answer: Membrane potential


20. The thermodynamically spontaneous protein-mediated transmembrane movement of a substance from high to low concentration is called ________.

Answer: Suggested Answer: passive transport


21. ________ is the simultaneous transmembrane movement of two molecules in the same direction through a transport protein.

Answer: Suggested Answer: Symport


22. The momentary reversal of membrane potential that occurs during transmission of a nerve impulse is called ________.

Answer: Suggested Answer: action potential or depolarization


23. A/An ________ is any member of a broad class of macromolecules that are largely or wholly hydrophobic and therefore tend to be insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.

Answer: Suggested Answer: lipid

24. ________ is an amphipathic lipid in which two fatty acyl groups and a polar phosphate derivative are attached to a glycerol backbone.

Answer: Suggested Answer: Glycerophospholipid


25. A/An ________ is loaded with neurotransmitters to be released from the end of an axon.

Answer: Suggested Answer: synaptic vesicle


Question 1
Gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide cross the plasma membrane by: Your answer: b) passive diffusion through the lipid bilayer. Feedback: Gases are non-polar and can cross the lipid bilayer with ease. They therefore do not need specific mechanisms to cross the plasma membrane. Page reference: 34

Question 2
A substance only can be accumulated against its electrochemical gradient by: Your answer: d) active transport. Feedback: To accumulate any substance against its electrochemical gradient requires the expenditure of energy. It therefore requires some form of active transport. Page reference: 36

Question 3
The principal intracellular cation is: Your answer: c) K+ Feedback: The principal intracellular cation is potassium (K+). Sodium (Na+) is the principal extracellular cation. Chloride (Cl-) is an anion. Potassium is accumulated by cells as a consequence of the operation of the sodium pump. Page reference: 36

Question 4
Which of the following is an example of primary active transport? Your answer: d) The Na+, K+ ATPase Feedback: The Na+, K+ ATPase is the sodium pump and exchanges 3 intracellular Na+ for 2 extracellular K+ for each molecule of ATP hydrolyzed. Na+-H+ exchange and Na+-Ca2+ exchange are examples of secondary active transport. Cl--HCO3exchange is passive and is driven by the prevailing electrochemical gradients. Page reference: 36-38

Question 5
The sodium pump: Your answer: b) is important for maintaining a constant cell volume. Feedback: The sodium pump exchanges intracellular Na+ for extracellular K+. Although it is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP it can be directly inhibited by cardiac glycosides, notably ouabain. Page reference: 36

Question 6
The resting membrane potential of a mammalian cell is:

Your answer: b) is mainly determined by the K+ gradient. Feedback: The resting membrane potential of many mammalian cells is around -70 mV close to the equilibrium potential for potassium ions. The chloride distribution is determined largely by the potassium gradient. Page reference: 40

Question 7
Exocytosis: Your answer: b) is used to deliver material into the extracellular space. Feedback: Exocytosis provides a means for cells to deliver material to the extracellular space and to insert new material into the plasma membrane. Lipophilic molecules (e.g. steroids) are secreted directly across the plasma membrane. The retrieval of plasma membrane and the uptake of molecules from the extracellular space both occur by endocytosis. Page reference: 43

Question 1
Hormones: Your answer: d) are secreted into the blood. Feedback: Hormones are blood borne chemical signals secreted by endocrine glands. They act on cells remote from the point of secretion. The secretion of most hormones is regulated by negative feedback. Page reference: 50

Question 2
Prostaglandins: Your answer:

c) re synthesized from membrane lipids. Feedback: Prostaglandins are synthesized as required and act as paracrine signaling agents. As they are highly lipophilic, they cannot be stored in membrane bound vesicles but are secreted by diffusion across the plasma membrane. They act on G protein linked receptors. Page reference: 56-67

Question 3
Hormone receptors: Your answer: a) have a high affinity for their natural ligand. Feedback: Hormone receptors are always proteins but they may be located on the plasma membrane or inside the cell. Many hormone receptors do activate G proteins but others activate membrane bound enzymes or bind to nuclear receptors. Page reference: 53-56

Question 4
G protein activation: Your answer: c) leads to the generation of second messengers. Feedback: G proteins link extracellular signals to the control of intracellular metabolism via the generation of second messengers. Second messengers include cyclic AMP, inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacyl glycerol (DAG). Page reference: 55

Question 5
Steroid hormones such as aldosterone: Your answer: a) bind to nuclear receptors to regulate gene expression. Feedback:

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