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The Genus Stylogyne (Myrsinoideae - Primulaceae) in Brazil

Author(s): Tatiana Tavares Carrijo, Maria de Ftima Freitas and Ariane Luna Peixoto Source: Systematic Botany, 37(2):478-489. 2012. Published By: The American Society of Plant Taxonomists URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1600/036364412X635520

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Systematic Botany (2012), 37(2): pp. 478489 Copyright 2012 by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists DOI 10.1600/036364412X635520

The Genus Stylogyne (Myrsinoideae - Primulaceae) in Brazil


tima Freitas,1 and Ariane Luna Peixoto1 Tatiana Tavares Carrijo,1,2,3 Maria de Fa
1

nico do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Pacheco Lea o 2040, CEP 22460-030, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Bota 2 rito Santo, Departamento de Produc o Vegetal, Current address: Universidade Federal do Esp a rio, s/n , 29500-000, Alegre, ES, Brasil. Alto Universita 3 Author for correspondence: tcarrijo@gmail.com Communicating Editor: Martin F. Wojciechowski
AbstractThe Neotropical genus Stylogyne (Myrsinoideae - Primulaceae) is revised for Brazil. Eighteen species occur in this country exclusively in the Atlantic and Amazon forests. Stylogyne incognita, S. lasseri, S. serpentina, and S. spruceana are new records for Brazil. Stylogyne araujoana, S. martiana, S. sordida, S. carautae, S. depauperata, S. leptantha, and S. warmingii were considered threatened species. This paper provides diagnostic descriptions, keys for identification, and maps detailing the distribution of species in Brazil. New synonyms are proposed for S. atra, S. cauliflora, S. nigricans, and S. pauciflora. KeywordsConservation status, geographic distribution, South America, Stylogyne, taxonomy.

Neotropical Stylogyne is a genus of Primulaceae (APGII 2003; APGIII 2009) that comprises 35 species (Ricketson and Pipoly 2010) of small androdioecous, dioecious, or bisexual shrubs or trees, with small and delicate 4-merous, or more often, 5-merous campanulate flowers. The name Stylogyne means pistil with style (Barroso et al. 2002), probably due to the long slender style seen in bisexual flowers. The pistilode in staminate flowers can be absent, rudimentary, or even similar to the pistil of bisexual flowers (i.e. cryptodioecious). In this condition, the flower appears to be bisexual, but in fact has only one functional sexual whorl (Wood et al. 2007). Inadequate understanding of sexual dimorphism is a factor attributed to overdescription in Stylogyne (Pipoly 1981). Another contributing factor that seems to contribute to this scenario was the poor knowledge of this species in the wild. Fieldwork proved to be essential to understanding slight differences among closely related taxa (Carrijo and Freitas 2008), avoiding unnecessary synonyms or revealing undescribed species (Carrijo and Freitas 2009, Carrijo et al. 2011). The last taxonomic monograph of Stylogyne was part of a worldwide revision by Mez (1902) of Myrsinaceae, the family in which this genus was placed in previous classifications. Since then several new species were described or redescribed (e.g. Smith 1939; Cuatrecasas 1951; Macbride 1959; Pipoly 1991; Pipoly 1999; Carrijo and Freitas 2009; Ricketson and Pipoly 2009; Carrijo et al. 2011), without a new, broad taxonomic evaluation, or revision. Synopses concerning aspects of nomenclature by Ricketson and Pipoly (1997, 2010) clarified synonyms and superfluous names. Nevertheless, the revision of species in Brazil highlighted the need for further taxonomic adjustments. Brazil includes two of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots of the world: the Cerrado and the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Myers et al. 2000). Floras that included Stylogyne in the Atlantic Forest (see Jung-Mendac olli and Bernacci 2001; Jung-Mendac olli et al. 2005; Carrijo and Freitas 2008, 2009 Freitas and Carrijo 2008, 2009a, 2009b) provided extensive information about species habitats and ecology. Such information is essential to detect threatened taxa and pinpoint

priority areas for conservation, and was not available for early studies involving Brazilian species of the genus (Mez 1902, 1920). This study, based on extensive fieldwork, combined with an analysis of herbarium specimens, describes the richness of Stylogyne in Brazil. It includes diagnoses, keys for species identification, maps detailing geographical distributions, and the conservation status of species.

Materials and Methods


Sixty-nine names cited for Stylogyne and related genera were investigated in taxonomic revisions (e.g. Kunth 1818; De Candolle 1837, 1841a,b, 1844; Martius 1841; Miquel 1856; Mez 1901, 1902, 1920), and floras for Central and South America (e.g. Bottelier 1936; Standley 1938; Smith 1939; Cuatrecasas 1951; Steyermark 1953; Macbride 1959; Lundell n-Teare 1993; Pipoly 1997; Jung1966,1971, Renner et al. 1990; Guzma onMendac olli and Bernacci 1997, 2001; Flores 1999; Jrgensen and Le nez 1999; Ribeiro et al. 1999; Dorr et al. 2000; Jung-Mendac Ya olli et al. 2005; Clark et al. 2006; Oliveira-Filho 2006; Carrijo and Freitas 2008; Daly and Silveira 2008). The analysis of herbarium collections and field-collected specimens followed the usual methods in plant taxonomy. The species were identified using the references listed above, especially the monograph of Mez (1902), and type collections. Diagnostic descriptions based on a unique combination of morphological characters for each species were developed. Two identification keys were prepared, one for the Amazonian Forest of Brazil and one for the ExtraAmazonia Forest. Only species distributions in Brazil are given on maps. A minimum of one specimen per municipality was listed as selected material examined. The status of conservation assigned for each species follows the criteria of IUCN (2011).

Taxonomic Treatment Eighteen species of Stylogyne occur in Brazil, representing about 60% of the known species for the genus. The disjunct distribution of species between the Amazon and Atlantic forests is a remarkable pattern in the genus geographical distribution (Fig. 1). Nine species occur in the Amazon Forest (Fig. 2), and another nine in the Atlantic Forest (Fig. 3). No herbarium collection or species in the field was recorded for the adjacent biomes Cerrado and Caatinga, indicating that species of Stylogyne do not occur there.

Key to the Species of STYLOGYNE in the Brazilian Amazonian Forest


1. Inflorescences racemose; flowers 45-merous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Inflorescences papillose to pilose; pedicels 1.72.5 mm long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. S. serpentina 2. Inflorescences glabrous; pedicels 35 mm long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

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1.

3. Floral bracts persistent in fruit; flowers (4)5-merous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. S. cauliflora 3. Floral bracts deciduous (never persistent in fruit); flowers 4-merous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. S. incognita Inflorescences paniculate; (4)-5-merous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4. Inflorescences cylindrical in shape; margin of the sepal papillose; petals lanceolate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. S. nigricans 4. Inflorescences not cylindrical in shape; margin of the sepals non-papillose; petals predominantly elliptical or oblong, rarely lanceolate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5. Inflorescences papillose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6. Pedicels 67 mm long; floral bud with constriction in middle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. S. spruceana 6. Pedicels 3.54 mm long; floral bud without constriction in middle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. S. orinocensis 5. Inflorescences non-papillose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7. Leaves 610 cm, margin serrate, rarely serrulate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. S. lasseri 7. Leaves 1533 cm, margin entire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8. Inflorescences a panicle of racemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. S. racemiflora 8. Inflorescences a panicle of corymbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.S. atra

Key to the Species of STYLOGYNE in the Atlantic Forest


1. Inflorescences racemose or fasciculate, usually glabrous; flowers 4-merous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Petals non-punctate; papillae on inner surface of corolla tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. S. araujoana 2. Petals punctuate; no papillae on inner surface of corolla tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Pedicels and calyx papillose; anthers opening by long (apex to the base of the anther) and narrow slits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. S. warmingii 3. Pedicels and calyx glabrous; anthers opening by short (apex to the middle or less of the anther) and enlarged slits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4. Margin of the leaves denticulate or dentate; pedicels 3.74.9 mm long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. S. sordida 4. Margin of the leaves generally entire; pedicels 23.5 mm long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5. Leaves with secondary veins obscure (in sheet and live specimens); lobes of the sepals round; apex of the petals round and symmetrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. S. depauperata 5. Leaves with secondary veins prominent (in sheet and live specimens); lobes of the sepals ovate; apex of the petals acute and asymmetrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. S. carautae Inflorescences paniculate, glabrous, flowers 45-merous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6. Inflorescences 1-branched; apex of the petals round . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. S. leptantha 6. Inflorescences 1 or 2-branched; apex of the petals acute or obtuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7. Leaves 7.518.2 cm; flowers 4-merous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. S. pauciflora 7. Leaves 1527 cm; flowers 5-merous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8. Inflorescences with conspicuous scars from the fall of the flowers, cylindrical; anthers opening by short and enlarged slits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. S. martiana 8. Inflorescences without scars, non-cylindrical; anthers opening by long and narrow slits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. S. lhotskyana

1.

1. STYLOGYNE ARAUJOANA Carrijo, M. F. Freitas and Peixoto, Brittonia 2(62): 276280. 2011.TYPE: BRAZIL. Rio De rga jo 534 os, 9 Nov 1973, fl., D. Arau Janeiro: Serra dos O and A. L. Peixoto 280 (holotype: RB). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous, 1314.2 cm long, 55.5 cm wide, elliptic, glabrous, margin repandous, petiole 1016 mm long, inflorescences fasciculate, glabrous, floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 3.54 mm long, glabrous, floral bud ellipsoid, flowers 4-merous (the inner surface of the corolla tube papillose), lobes of the sepals ovate, margin non-papillose, lobes of the petals elliptic, nonpunctate, apex acute, asymmetrical, and anthers ellipsoid, opening by short and enlarged slits. This species is similar to S. pauciflora Mez and S. sordida Mez in the 4-merous flowers and the size of the leaves. It differs from both by the nonpunctate petals with papillae on the inner surface of the corolla tube, and by leaf anatomical features (Carrijo et al. 2011). Distribution and HabitatThe species is known from Rio de Janeiro (Fig. 2), only from a premontane evergreen forest rgaos mountain range, between (400 m) in the Serra dos O polis and Tereso polis municipalities. Petro Conservation StatusThe area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 10 km2 (B2), and the species is known to exist at only a single location (a) therefore it is critically endangered (CRB2a).
Representative Specimens ExaminedKnown only from the type.

Dec 1851, fr., Spruce 1435 (lectotype W! (n. 6097), designated by Ricketson and Pipoly 2010; isolectotypes G-BOIS!, BM, G-DC, GOET, K!, M, P, G!, C!). Stylogyne rodriguesiana Pipoly, Novon 1(4): 202203, f.1. 1991. syn. nov.TYPE: BRAZIL. Amazonas: Manaus, Igarape , 4 Aug 1961, fl., W. A. do Cachoeira, Alta de Taruma Rodrigues and J. Chagas 3092 (holotype: INPA!; isotype: NY!; photo: NY 00329334). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous to coriaceous, (18)2325(33) cm long, 69 cm wide, elliptic to oblong, glabrous, margin entire, petiole 1015 mm long, inflorescences paniculate (panicle of corymbs, 1-branched, noncylindrical), glabrous (particularly dark in dry specimens), floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 23 mm long, glabrous, floral buds obclavate, flowers 5-merous, lobes of the sepals deltoid, margin non-papillose, lobes of the petals lanceolate, punctate, apex acute, asymmetrical, and anthers lanceolate opening by long and narrow slits. Stylogyne atra is similar to S. racemiflora Ricketson and Pipoly in the shape and size of the leaves, but differs in having the inflorescence as a panicle of racemes (not a panicle of corymbs). NotesStylogyne rodriguesiana was distinguished from S. atra by the small inflorescence, irregular lobes of the calyx, asymmetrical lobes of the corolla, and apiculate anthers (see Pipoly 1991). However, in our studies we observed continuous differences in the size of the inflorescences in a large number of specimens analyzed. The undulate lobesof the calyx and the asymmetrical lobes of the corolla mentioned for S. rodriguesiana (Pipoly 1991) were cited

2. STYLOGYNE ATRA Mez, Pflanzenr. IV. 236(Heft 9): 273. 1902. TYPE: VENEZUELA. Amazonas: Barra do Rio Negro,

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Fig. 1.

Geographical distribution of Stylogyne in Brazil (filled circle).

by Mez (1902) in the protologue of Stylogyne atra, and highlighted in the illustration that follows the type (Schwacke 3671 photo). Mez (1902) did not mention apiculate anthers in the description of S. atra, but the anthers of both bisexual and staminate flowers are apiculate. The pistil of Stylogyne atra was described in the protologue (Mez 1902) as having a subpyramidal ovary, ferruginous and lepidote on the base, style the same length as petals, and stigma obtuse as in S. rodriguesiana (see Pipoly 1991). The bisexual flowers of S. atra have a globose 34 ovulate ovary, and a slender style longer than the stamens and petals in the opened flower. Mez (1902) and Pipoly (1991) based their descriptions on staminate flowers, which were interpreted as bisexual. Therefore, Stylogyne rodriguesiana is

synonymized with S. atra. The synonymization of Stylogyne spruceana Mez under S. atra proposed by Ricketson and Pipoly (2010) is not accepted here. Although Stylogyne spruceana resembles S. atra in the size of the leaves, it is distinguishable by the size of the pedicels and the shape of the petals and anthers (see S. spruceana). Distribution and HabitatThe species is known from Amazonas (Fig. 3) and Venezuela. In the Brazilian Amazon, rzea Stylogyne atra occurs in lowland forest (terra firme, va forests). and igapo Conservation StatusDespite the occurrence in one locality, S. atra is an abundant species, widespread in different vegetation types, therefore it is least concern (LC).
Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. Amazonas: Amazon Ecopark, 23 Nov 2007, fl., T. T. Carrijo et al. 1221 (RB).

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Fig. 2. Geographical distribution of species of Stylogyne in the Amazonian Forest in Brazil. A. S. atra (filled triangle) and S. cauliflora (filled circle). B. S. incognita (filled triangle), S. lasseri (filled circle), and S. racemiflora (filled square). C. S. orinocensis (filled circle). D. S. nigricans (filled triangle), S. serpentina (filled circle). and S. spruceana (filled square).

3. STYLOGYNE CARAUTAE Carrijo and M. F. Freitas, Kew Bulletin 64(4): 695696. 2009.TYPE: BRAZIL. Rio de Janeiro: o Paulo, M. A. N. Coelho 658 Divisa Rio de Janeiro-Sa et al. (holotype: RB!). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous, 15.521 cm long, 78 cm wide, oblong, glabrous (secondary veins prominent, especially the marginal vein), margin entire, petiole 812 mm long, inflorescences racemose, glabrous, floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 23.5 mm long, glabrous, floral buds ellipsoid, flowers 4-merous, lobes of the sepals ovate, margin non-papillose, lobes of the petals elliptic, punctate, apex acute, asymmetrical, anthers ellipsoid, opening by short and enlarged slits. Stylogyne carautae is similar to S. depauperata in the racemose inflorescences and 4-merous flowers, but is distinct in its conspicuous leaf venation, and asymmetrical petals with apex acute apices (not round). Distribution and HabitatThe species is known from Rio o Paulo (Fig. 2). Stylogyne carautae occurs in de Janeiro and Sa premontane cloud forest (100140 m) in southern Rio de o Paulo State. Janeiro State and the northern coast of Sa

Conservation StatusThe extent of occurrence of S. carautae is estimated to be less than 20,000 km2, and it is known to exist at no more than 10 locations therefore it is vulnerable (VU B1).
Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. Rio de Janeiro: Paraty, o Paulo: APA do Cairuc u, 23 Aug 1995, fr., A. Castelar 19 (RB); Sa Caraguatatuba, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, 20 Nov 2000, fl., I. Cordeiro 2360 (SPF, SPSF).

4. STYLOGYNE CAULIFLORA (Mart. ex Miq.) Mez, Pflanzenr. IV. 236(Heft 9): 276. 1902. Ardisia cauliflora Miq. in Mart. Fl. brasil. 10: 291, t. 35. 1856.TYPE: BRAZIL. Amazonas: , Porto de Miranhas, s. d., C. F. P. von Martius s. n. Japura (holotype: M (n. v.); F negative 20068 (v.)). Stylogyne indecora Mez, Pflanzenr. IV. 236(Heft 9): 277. 1902. syn. nov. Ardisia caulifora var. parvifolia Miq. in Mart. Fl. brasil. : s. d. C. F. P. von 10: 291, t.35. 1856.TYPE: BRAZL. Para Martius s. n. (holotype: M (n. v.); F negative 20069, (v.)). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous, 18.226 cm long, 5.78.2 cm wide, elliptic to oblong, glabrous, margin entire, petiole 715 mm long, inflorescences racemose, glabrous, floral bracts persistent on the fruit, pedicels

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Fig. 3. Geographical distribution of species of Stylogyne in the Atlantic Forest: A. S. araujoana (filled triangle) and S. carautae (filled circle). B. S. depauperata (filled triangle) and S. lhotskyana (open circle). C. S. leptantha (filled circle) and S. martiana (filled triangle). D. S. pauciflora (open circle), S. sordida (filled triangle), and S. warmingii (filled square).

35 mm long, glabrous, floral buds ellipsoid, flowers (4)5merous, lobes of the sepals ovate, margin non-papillose, lobes of the petals oblong, punctate, apex acute, asymmetrical, anthers ellipsoid opening by long and narrow slits. The floral bracts remaining on the fruit distinguish S. cauliflora from all other species of Stylogyne in Brazil. The size and shape of the leaves and the number of flower whorls are the most variable intraspecific features. NotesStylogyne cauliflora was described in the protologue (Miquel 1856) as Ardisia cauliflora. Some features highlighted by Miquel (1856) were the glabrous branches and 5-merous flowers. Another specimen cited in the protologue was distinguished from S. cauliflora by the smaller leaves, as a variety (Ardisia caulifora var. parvifolia). This specimen was described as Stylogyne indecora by Mez (1902), and placed within 4-merous species in his key. Specimens with large leaves (corresponding to the holotype of S. cauliflora) show predominantly 5-merous flowers. However, collections

with smaller leaves (corresponding to the holotype of S. indecora) have 4-merous, or 4-merous and 5-merous flowers in the same inflorescence (e.g. P. Cavalcanti 3299, MG). Together with the typical features of S. cauliflora, these collections also show the conspicuous floral bracts remaining on the fruit (a strong diagnostic feature of S. cauliflora ). Therefore, Stylogyne indecora has been placed as a synonym under S. cauliflora . Stylogyne cauliflora was synonymized with Stylogyne ardidioides (Ricketson and Pipoly 2010), as the latter name has priority over the former. However, this synonym is not accepted here, as the type (or even its photograph), could not be found, and the protologue is not sufficient to support a definite conclusion. Distribution and HabitatThe species is known from States of Amazonas and Acre (Fig. 3), Bolivia, and Peru. In the Brazilian Amazonian, Stylogyne cauliflora occurs in low rzea forest). land forest (va

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Conservation StatusStylogyne cauliflora is an abundant and widespread species therefore it is least concern (LC).
Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. Acre: Cruzeiro do , 12 May 1971, fl., W. C. Steward et al. P12868 (IAN, INPA, Sul, Rio Jurua o Joaquim, Rio Javari, 28 Nov 1975, fr., P. Cavalcanti MG); Amazonas: Sa 3299 (MG).

5. STYLOGYNE DEPAUPERATA Mez, Pflanzenr. IV. 236(Heft 9): 277. 1902.TYPE: BRAZIL. Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 29 Dec 1869, A. F. M. Glaziou 4073 (lectotype: C!, [designated by Ricketson and Pipoly 2010], isolectotype: B, destroyed; negative F 9838, P! (2)). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous, 15.616.2(-22.5)cm long, 6.27.2(8.7) cm wide, elliptic, oblong or lanceolate (secondary veins obscure), margin entire, rarely dentate, petiole 69 mm long, inflorescences racemose, glabrous, floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 2.83.2 mm long, floral buds ellipsoid, flowers 4-merous, lobes of the sepals round, margin non-papillose, lobes of the petals ovate, punctate, apex round, symmetrical, anthers ellipsoid, opening by short and enlarged slits. This species is similar to S. carautae and is easily distinguishable from S. carautae by the obscure secondary veins and symmetrical petals with round apices. The margin of the leaves is usually entire, but it can also be denticulate or dentate. NotesThe synonymy of Stylogyne sellowiana under S. depauperata proposed by Ricketson and Pipoly (2010) is accepted here. In fact, S. sellowiana was described based on specimens of S. depauperata with the margin of the leaves denticulate or dentate. Distribution and HabitatThe species is known exclusively from the State of Rio de Janeiro (Fig. 2). Groups of individuals are generally common in premontane forest (60400 m) of the National Park of Floresta da Tijuca, especially in the locality called Matas do Pai Ricardo. Stylogyne depauperata is the only species of the genus that also occurs in sandy coastal vegetation of the Atlantic Forest (Restinga forest). Conservation StatusIts extent of occurrence is estimated to be less than 20,000 km2, and its existence is known at no more than 10 locations therefore it is vulnerable (VU B1).
Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. Rio de Janeiro: Parque Nacional da Tijuca, Matas do Pai Ricardo, 20 Aug 2007, s. t., T. T. Carrijo gica Estadual de Jacarepia , 28 Mar 1006 (RB). Saquarema, Reserva Ecolo jo 9320 (RB). 1999, s. t., D. Arau

and inflorescences (not pilose), and from S. sordida by the anthers opening by long and narrow slits (not opening by short and enlarged slits). NotesMost of specimens of S. incognita have elliptical leaves similar to the holotype ( J. J. de Granville et al. 8401). However, unlike the specimens from Guyana that have elliptical leaves that are 714 34.2 cm, the specimens collected in Brazil have lanceolate leaves that are 1722 5.56.5 cm. Distribution and HabitatThe species is known from and Rondo nia (Fig. 3), and French Guiana. Amapa Stylogyne incognita is a floristic component of flooded for forest), which connects ests of the Rio Oiapoque (Igapo French Guiana to Brazil. The apparent disjunction between and Rondo nia in Brazil should be the States of Amapa better evaluated. The collections H. S. Irwin et al. 47946 (MG) and Maguire 56775 (NY) are the first records of Stylogyne incognita in Brazil. This species had been considered endemic to French Guiana, where it occurs in disturbed environments (Pipoly 1999). Conservation StatusThe few and occasional collections of S. incognita in Brazil may be due to the difficulty of accessing their areas of occurrence, especially in the State therefore it is data deficient (DD). of Amapa

: Oiapoque, Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. Amapa s Saltos, 1 Sep 1960, fr., H. S. Rio Oiapoque, perto da Cachoeira dos Tre nia: Porto Velho, 24 Sep 1976, fr., B. Maguire Irwin et al. 47946 (MG); Rondo 56775 (NY).

7. STYLOGYNE LASSERI (Lundell) Pipoly, Ernstia 53:4, 1989. var: Santa Elena de Uaire n, 1946, TYPE: VENEZUELA. Bol T. Lasser 1570 (holotype: VEN (negative NY 12106; negative LL 197158A; isotypes: NY!, US, VEN, LL! (fragment)). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous, 610 cm long, 56 cm wide, oblong or elliptic, glabrous, petiole 1015 cm, secondary veins in ascendant position (< 90 ), margin serrate, rarely serrulate, inflorescence paniculate (panicle of corymbs, 2-branched, non-cylindrical), glabrous, floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 33.5 mm long, floral buds obclavate, flowers 5-merous, lobes of the sepals ovate, margin non-papillose, lobes of the petals elliptic, punctate, apex acute, asymmetrical, anthers ellipsoid, opening by long and narrow slits. Vegetative features, especially the denticulate margin of the leaves, make this species similar Municipality, to specimens of S. orinocensis from Oriximina . However, the leaves with secondary in the State of Para veins in ascending (not horizontal) position relative to the main vein are a distinct characteristic of S. lasseri from S. orinocensis. NotesStylogyne lasseri is a shrub with purple pedicels and flowers, and edible black fruits. This species is registered for the first time in Brazil. Distribution and HabitatThe species is known from nia and Roraima (Fig. 3), Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rondo and Venezuela. Stylogyne lasseri occurs in both lowland forest ) and flooded forest (Igapo ) of the Amazon Rainforest. (Plato Conservation StatusStylogyne lasseri is an abundant and widespread species in the Amazon Forest therefore it is least concern (LC).
Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. Amazonas: Barcelos, , 11 Jul 1985, fr., G. T. Prance 29464 (INPA); Mato Grosso: Serra do Arac a Alta Floresta, 22 Jan 2007, fr., D. Sasaki 1374 (INPA); Roraima: Caroebe, 04 Sep 1979, fr., N. A. Rosa 3265 (INPA).

6. STYLOGYNE INCOGNITA Pipoly, Brittonia 51(2): 131133. 1999. TYPE: FRENCH GUIANA. Cayenne: Monte Galbao, 7 Jan 1986, bot., J. J. de Granville et al. 8401 (holotype: CAY; isotypes: B, MG!, MO!, NY!, P, U, US!). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous, (7)1417(-22) cm long, (3)4.25.5(6.5) cm wide, usually elliptical, glabrous, margin entire, petiole 710(12) mm long, inflorescences racemose, glabrous, floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 44.5 mm long, floral buds ellipsoid, flowers 4-merous, lobes of the sepals ovate, margin non-papillose, lobes of the petals elliptic, punctate, apex acute, asymmetrical, anthers ellipsoid, opening by long and narrow slits. This species resembles S. araujoana, S. serpentina, and S. sordida in the shape and size of the leaves and racemose inflorescences. However, S. incognita can be easily distinguished from S. araujoana by the punctate petals, and anthers opening by long and narrow slits (not opening by short and enlarged slits). It differs from S. serpentina by the glabrous branches

8. STYLOGYNE LEPTANTHA (Miq.) Mez, Pflanzenr. IV. 236(Heft 9): 267. 1902. Ardisia leptantha Miq., Fl. brasil. 10: 285287,

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t.32. 1856.TYPE: BRAZIL. s. l., s. d., J. E. Pohl 4371 (holotype: M, isotypes: B (destroyed), W!). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous, 1617 cm long, 5.56 cm wide, elliptic or oblong, glabrous, margin entire, petiole 1416.5 mm long, inflorescences paniculate (panicle of corymbs, 1-branched, non-cylindrical), glabrous, floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 34 mm long, floral buds ellipsoid, flowers 5-merous, lobes of the sepals ovate, margin non-papillose, lobes of the petals elliptic, punctate, apex round, symmetrical, anthers ellipsoid, opening by long and narrow slits. Stylogyne leptantha is similar to S. lhotskyana, differing in the inflorescences 1-branched (not 2- branched), and petals with round apex (not acute to obtuse apex). NotesStylogyne leptantha is a rare species. Individuals occur in cloud forests, and are sensitive to changes of luminosity caused by the formation of natural gaps. Distribution and HabitatThe species is known exclusively from southeastern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro; Fig. 2). It occurs in montane forest (9001,100 m). Stylogyne lepthanta is represented by shrubs with dichotomous stems and congested leaves at the apex of the branches. Conservation StatusIts extent of occurrence is estimated to be less than 20,000 km2, and its existence is known at no more than 10 locations therefore it is vulnerable (VUB1).
Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. Rio de Janeiro: rga os, 19 Feb 2002, fr., F. M. de B. Pereira 17/ Guapimirim, Serra dos O 74 (RFA).

tenuous secondary veins, paniculate inflorescence, and 5-merous flowers, however, remain invariable. Distribution and HabitatThe species is known from o Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro states (Fig. 2). Minas Gerais, Sa Stylogyne lhotskyana occurs in Atlantic premontane forest (60800 m). It is a common species in its areas of occurrence, showing an aggregate distribution. Conservation StatusStylogyne lhotskyana is one of the species with the widest occurrence in the Atlantic Forest, and is relatively abundant in its locales of occurrence therefore it is least concern (LC).
Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. Minas Gerais: gica da Represa do Grama, 1 Sep 2001, fl., R. Descoberto, Reserva Biolo M. Castro et al. 617 (SPF); Rio de Janeiro: Cachoeiras de Macacu, Fazendas o, 08 Oct 2000, fl., F. M. de B. Pereira 24/039 (RFA); Sa o Consorciadas Serta mico, 5 o Experimental do Instituto Agrono Paulo: Pariquera-Ac u, Estac a Sep 1994, fl., E. B. Bastos 24 (SPF).

10. STYLOGYNE MARTIANA A. DC., Ann. Sci. Nat,. Bot., ser. 2, os, 1739, C. F. 16: 91. 1841.TYPE: BRAZIL. Bahia: Ilhe P. von Martius 570 (holotype: G-DEL!, isotypes: BM!, G!, G-BOIS!, GH!, K!, LE!, M!, P!, W!, NY!, photo F 7477; photo NY 329331, online). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous, 1527 cm long, 6.59.5 cm wide, oblong, glabrous, margin entire, petiole 2030 mm long, inflorescences paniculate (panicle of corymbs, 2-branched, cylindrical, with conspicuous scars from the fall of the flowers), glabrous, floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 45 mm long, floral buds ellipsoid, flowers 5-merous, lobes of the sepals ovate, margin non-punctate, lobes of the petals elliptical, punctate, apex acute, asymmetrical, anthers ellipsoid, opening by short and enlarged slits. Stylogyne martiana is similar to S. lhotskyana in the shape and size of the leaves and type of inflorescences. However, it is distinguishable by the conspicuous scars from the fall of the flowers and anthers ellipsoid, opening by short and enlarged slits. NotesIt is common to find collections of S. martiana identified as Geissanthus ambiguus (Mart.) G. Agostini, probably because the leaves are similar in size and shape. Stylogyne martiana can be easily distinguished from G. ambiguus by the inflorescences with conspicuous scars, elliptical petals (not lineate) and anthers with apical pores. Regarding species of Stylogyne, S. martiana may perhaps be confused with S. atra, also because of the leaves and paniculate inflorescences. The same distinguishing features in relation to G. ambiguus, differentiate S. martiana from S. atra. Moreover, S. martiana occurs exclusively in the Atlantic Forest, whereas S. atra is an exclusively Amazonian species. Distribution and HabitatThe species is known from Bahia (Fig. 2). All existing specimens of this species, including the holotype, were collected in the same locality. Stylogyne martiana occurs in Atlantic premontane forest in us Municipality. Ilhe Conservation StatusThe area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 10 km2 (B2), and the species is known to exist at only a single location (a), with few mature individuals (b) therefore it is critically endangered (CRB2).
us, Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. Bahia: Mun. Ilhe between Ibirapitanga e Ubaituaba, 26.I.1980, fl., R. M. Harley 20690 (K).

9. STYLOGYNE LHOTSKYANA (A. DC.)Mez, Pflanzenr. IV. 236 (Heft 9): 269. 1902. Ardisia lhotskyana A. DC., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17(1): 127. 1837.TYPE: BRAZIL. Near Rio de Janeiro, 1832, J. Lhotzky s. n. (holotype: G-DC, n. v.; photo F 20071). Stylogyne sublaevigata (Kuntze) Ricketson and Pipoly, Novon 20(4): 445, 2010. Ardisia martiana Miq. in Mart. Fl. bras. Miq. in Martius 10: 285, Table 30. 1856.TYPE: BRAZIL. , Fazenda Mandioca, C. Martius s. n. Rio de Janeiro, Mage (holotype: M (n. v.), photo F 20070). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous, 19.522.5(26.8) cm long, 6.59.5 cm wide, obovate, oblong or elliptic, glabrous, margin entire, petiole 1418(25) mm long, inflorescence paniculate (corymbose, 23 branched, non-cylindrical), glabrous, floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 1.54(6) mm long, floral buds ellipsoid, flowers 5-merous, lobes of the sepals ovate, margin non-papillose, lobes of the petals elliptic, punctate, apex obtuse or acute, asymmetrical, anthers ellipsoid opening by long and narrow slits. As stated in the diagnosis for Stylogyne leptantha, S. lhotskyana is a closely similar species that differs in 2-branched inflorescences, and petals with acute apices. o Paulo NotesSpecimens of Stylogyne lhotskyana from Sa (Pariquera-Ac u) have whitish branches and yellow flowers, which agrees with the protologue and type of Stylogyne lhotskyana. The collections from Rio de Janeiro, on the other hand, have brownish branches and reddish flowers, similar to the type and protologue of Stylogyne laevigata (Miq. ex Mart.) Mez. These features have been used informally to distinguish these species in herbarium collections, despite the great similarity between the morphology of the inflorescences and o Paulo and Minas Gerais flowers. Additional collections in Sa states reveal intermediate stages of stem and flower coloration in the species. The diagnostic features, including leaves with

11. STYLOGYNE NIGRICANS (A. DC.) Mez, Pflanzenr. IV. 236 (Heft 9): 276. 1902. Badula nigricans A. DC. in Ann. Sc. nat. 2, ser. 16: 90. 1841.TYPE: BRAZIL. Amazonas: , s. d., fl., without collector (holoRio Negro, near Para type P!; photo: F 38606).

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Stylogyne viridis (Lundell) Ricketson and Pipoly, Sida 18(4): 1171, Fig. 2. 1999. syn. nov. Parathesis viridis Lundell, Phytologia 56(1): 26. 1984.TYPE: VENEZUELA. o Carlos on Rio Negro, Amazonas: Km 01, south of Sa 4 Feb 1980, fr., R. Liesner 9046 (holotype: MO!, photo MO 2906682, online). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous, (10.5)13.517 cm long, 4.76.7 cm wide, lanceolate, margin entire, petiole 613 mm long, inflorescence paniculate (panicle of corymbs, 2-branched, cylindrical), sparsely papillose, floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 34 mm long, floral buds obclavate, flowers 5-merous, lobes of the sepals ovate, margin papillose, lobes of the petals lanceolate, punctate, apex acute, asymmetrical, anthers lanceolate opening by long and narrow slits. Stylogyne nigricans differs from the others species of Stylogyne from Amazon Forest in the cylindrical inflorescences. Anatomical studies in progress also revealed that S. nigricans is the only species of Stylogyne in Brazil that has leaves with undulate anticline walls of the epidermis. In the others species, they are predominantly straight and sinuous in S. araujoana. NotesStylogyne viridis was first described as Parathesis viridis (Lundell 1984) based on a specimen in fruit (i.e. R. Liesner 9046), probably because the margin of the calyx is covered with papillae. Pipoly and Ricketson (1999) transferred it to Stylogyne after the analysis of another specimen with flowers. During our studies, the analysis of many specimens (including the types) revealed that S. viridis was previously described as S. nigricans, a legitimate and valid species. Thus, S. viridis is synonimized here at S. nigricans. Distribution and HabitatThe species is known from Amazonas (Fig. 3), Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela. Many o Gabriel da specimens of this species were collected in Sa Cachoeira Municipality, in the Upper Rio Negro region. It is frequent in Campinarana vegetation, but also occurs in sea rzea forest) and regularly flooded sonal flooded forest (Va forest). forest (Igapo Conservation StatusStylogyne nigricans is a widespread species, relatively abundant in areas where it occurs therefore it is least concern (LC).
Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. Amazonas: Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, 29 Oct 1971, fl., G. T. Prance 15668 (INPA, NY, US, K, S, MG, F, U, A, R, P, M, MICH, C, G, MO, COL, VEN).

Distribution and HabitatStylogyne orinocensis is found in , Amazonas, Para , Roraima, Rondo nia (Fig. 3), Acre, Amapa Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. It is the most widespread species in Brazil although restricted to the Amazon forest. It is an important element of the campinarana forest, but also occurs in terra rzea forest) and firme forest, seasonal flooded forest (Va forest). flooded forest (Igapo Conservation StatusStylogyne orinocensis is widespread species therefore it is least concern (LC).
Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. Acre: Cruzeiro do Sul, -Mirim, 19 May 1971, fr., W. C. Steward P13154 (MG, Periquito, Rio Jurua IAN); Rio Branco, 6 Jun 1991, fr., D. C. Daly 6874 (INPA); Senador Guiomard, 17 Oct 1980, fr., C. A. Cid 2933 (INPA); Sena Madureira, , Seringal Universo, 4 Apr 1994, fr., L. de Lima 598 (INPA); Tarauaca 13. Jun 1995, fr., C. Figueiredo 844 (NY, UFAC); Taumaturgo: 3 Apr 1993, : Macapa , 17 Jan 1980, fl., B. Rabelo 283 fr., M. Silveira 438 (INPA); Amapa (MG); Cutias do Araguari, 27 Aug 1961, fl., J. M. Pires et al. 50522 (MG, IAN, NY); Amazonas: Borba, 25 Jan 1930, fl., A. Ducke s. n. (RB21933); Camanaus, 27 Oct 1978, fl., O. C. Nascimento 800 (MG); Codajas, 14 Apr , Lago Tefe , 24 Aug 1973, fr., 1958, fl., E. Ferreira 58188 (IAN); Tefe E. Lleras et al. P17495 (RB21933); Manacapuru, 24 Jan 2002, fr., V. F. Kinupp 2137 (INPA); Manaus, 19 Jan 2000, fl., M. R. Mesquita 220 (INPA); Tototobi, 1 Mar 1969, fr., G. T. Prance et al. 10371 (A, F, C, COL, G, INPA, o Gabriel da Cachoeira, 27 Jun MG, MICH, MO, NY, P, R, S, U, VEN); Sa 1979, fr., L. Alencar 113 (MG); Manaus, 21 Jul 1983, fr., C. A. Cid 4217 (RB); : Barbacena, 8 Oct Rio Branco, Jan 1913, fl., J. G. Kulhman 241 (RB); Para 1984, A. B. Anderson 1132 (MG); Itaituba, 19 Oct 1922, fl., A. Ducke s. n. , 9 Jul 1969, N. T. Silva 2377 (MG); Oriximina , (RB18673), Jar nia: Porto Velho, Repartimento, 24 Jan 1968, fl., M. Silva 1248 (MG); Rondo 21 Mar 1978, J. Ubiratan 222 (INPA); Ji-Parana, Feb 1981, fr., M. Goulding , 30 Apr 1974, fl., J. M. Pires et al. o Luiz do Anua 1527 (MG); Roraima: Sa es 23098 (B, IAN). 14512 (IAN); Rio Branco, 22 Mar 1948, fl., R. L. Fro

13. STYLOGYNE PAUCIFLORA Mez, Pflanzenr. IV. 236(Heft 9): o Paulo, s. loc., s. d., 278. 1902.TYPE: BRAZIL. Sa Sellow 472 (lectotype: B! (photo: B 96121) [lectotype: designated by Ricketson and Pipoly 2010], isolectotype: B (destroyed, photo 96120, photo: F 4843). Ardisia fluminensis Mez, Pflanzenr. IV. 236(Heft 9): 95. 1902. syn. nov. Icacorea fluminensis (Mez) Lundell, Phytologia 49(4): 348. 1981; Stylogyne fluminensis (Mez) Ricketson and Pipoly, Novon 20(4): 440.TYPE: rga , Serra dos O os, near BRAZIL. Rio de Janeiro: Mage Fazenda Mandioca, s. d., Sellow 207 (syntype: B, destroyed; photo F 4878); J. C. Mikan (n.v.); J. E. B. Warmingii (n. v.), Lund (n. v.). Stylogyne dusenii Ricketson and Pipoly, syn. nov.TYPE: : Volta Grande, 19. Nov 1911 (fl.), BRAZIL. Parana n s. n. (holotype: GH!; isotype: S (n. v)). P. Duse Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous, 7.518.2 cm long, 36.5 cm wide, elliptical or obovate, glabrous, margin entire, rarely dentate or denticulate, petiole 715(25) mm long, inflorescences paniculate (panicle of corymbs, 1-branched, non-cylindrical), glabrous, floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 410.5 mm long, floral buds ellipsoid, flowers 4-merous, lobes of the sepals ovate, margin nonpapillose, lobes of the petals elliptic, punctate, apex acute, slightly asymmetrical, anthers ellipsoid, opening by short and enlarged slits. This species is closely similar to S. araujoana and S. sordida, but can be easily distinguished from both of these by the paniculate inflorescences (not fasciculate or racemose). The margins of the leaves are variable, being entire, denticulate, and dentate. NotesStylogyne fluminensis and Stylogyne dusenii are synonyms of S. pauciflora, and were described as different species probably because of the polymorphism of the leaf

12. STYLOGYNE ORINOCENSIS (Kunth) Mez, Pflanzenr. IV. 236 (Heft 9): 270. 1902.TYPE: VENEZUELA. Amazonas: o Borja, s. d., A. Humboldt and A. J. A. G. Orinoco, Sa Bonpland (holotype B, destroyed; photo F 4842). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous, (9.7)15.522.5 cm long, (3.7)4.49.3 cm wide, elliptical, obovate, oblong or lanceolate, glabrous or pilose, petiole 515 mm long, inflorescences paniculate (panicle of corymbs, 2-branched, non-cylindrical), few or densely papillose, floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 3.54 mm long, floral buds ellipsoid, glabrous or papillose, flowers 5-merous (rarely 4-merous), lobes of the sepals deltoid, margin non-papillose, lobes of the petals oblong, punctate, apex acute, asymmetrical, anthers ellipsoid, opening by long and narrow slits. Stylogyne orinocensis resembles S. spruceana in the shape and size of the leaves and in the inflorescence morphology, but is distinguishable by the 3.54 mm long pedicels (not 67 mm long) and by the absence of a constriction in the calyx in the flower bud.

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margins. The analysis of many collections from different states of Brazil indicated that the shape of the leaf margin is variable in this species. The synonymization of Stylogyne warmingii under S. pauciflora (Ricketson and Pipoly 2010) is not accepted here because S. warmingii can be easily distinguished from the other 4-merous species of Atlantic Forest (including S. pauciflora) because it is the only species with anthers opening by long slits (not short and enlarged slits), pedicellate flowers, and a calyx covered by papillae. Distribution and HabitatThe species is known from , Santa Catarina, and Rio o Paulo, Parana Rio de Janeiro, Sa Grande do Sul (Fig. 2). Stylogyne pauciflora is the species with the widest geographical distribution and altitudinal range (1001,250 m) in the Atlantic Forest. Individuals of rga os (Rio de Janeiro) Stylogyne pauciflora in the Serra dos O are shrubs that develop multiple stems (erect, prostrate, or subterranean). The subterranean stems reach up to two m from the adult plant, and produce new branches that resemble seedlings. Conservation StatusStylogyne pauciflora is the species with the widest occurrence in the Atlantic Forest therefore it is least concern (LC).
: Morretes, Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. Parana , 29 Oct 23 Oct 1995, fl., O. S. Ribas 910 (BHCB, MBM, SPF); Paranagua 2002, fl., J. M. Silva 3745 (SPF, SPSF); Rio Grande do Sul: Morrinhos do Sul, 6 Nov 1990, fl., J. A. Jarenkow 1802 (PEL, UEC); Rio de Janeiro: rga polis, PARNA de Serra dos O os, 23 Nov 2005, fl., T. T. Carrijo Tereso o Paulo: Cunha, 14 Dec 1996, fr., E. R. N. Franciosi et al. 2 (UEC); 289 (RB); Sa , 16 Oct 1990, fl., I. Cordeiro et al. 737 (SP, SPSF); Ilhabela, Parque Iguape Estadual de Ilhabela, 23 Aug 1995, fl., S. L. Proenc a et al. 86 (SPF, UEC); m, 16 Apr 2001, fl., F. M. Souza et al. 168 (ESA, UEC); Maripora , Itanhae 24 Feb 2000, fr., F. A. R. D. P. Arzolla 103 (SPSF, UEC); Pariquera , 28 Sep 1995, fl., N. M. Ivanauskas 432 (ESA, UEC); Ribeira o Grande, Acu 2 Nov 2000, fl., P. Fiaschi et al. 446 (RB, SPF); Sete Barras, 10 Sep 1976, polis, 22 Mar 1983, fl., M. fl., P. H. Davis et al. 60913 (SPF); Saleso o Miguel Arcanjo, 15 Oct 2004, fl., L. S. Kuhlmann 2035 (SPF); Sa o Paulo,14 Sep 1994, fr., N. S. Avila 378 Kinoshita 187 (SPSF, UEC); Sa o Vicente, 23 Jan 2001, fr., J. A. Pastori 911 (SP). (NY); Sa

the restricted distribution, this species has a large potential area of occurrence therefore it is data deficient (DD). Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. Amazonas:
Morro dos Seis Lagos, 30 Sep 12 Oct 1990, fl., B. Nelson 2150 (MO).

15. STYLOGYNE SERPENTINA Mez, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 16 (468473): 420. 1920.TYPE: PERU. Rio Acre: Seringal Auristella, May 1911, E. Ule 9688 (lectotype: K! [designated by Ricketson and Pipoly 2010], isolectotypes: NY!; MG!, B (destroyed), photo: F 4845 (v.)). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous, 8.513.5(25) cm long, 3.76(8) cm wide, elliptical or obovate, pilose mainly at the primary and secondary veins, margin entire or repandous, pilose, petiole 1013 mm long, inflorescence racemose, floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 1.7 2.5 mm long, pilose, floral buds ellipsoid, flowers 5-merous, lobes of the sepals deltoid, margin non-papillose, lobes of the petals oblong, punctate, apex round, asymmetrical, anthers deltoid, opening by long and narrow slits. This species resembles S. incognita in the side and shape of the leaves, and racemose inflorescences, but can be easily distinguished by the pilose inflorescences. Distribution and HabitatThe species is known from nia (Fig. 3), Bolivia, Colombia, Acre, Amazonas, and Rondo Ecuador and Peru. In Brazil, S. serpentina occurs in both lowland forest (Campinarana) and high-altitude areas such as nia. Chapada dos Parecis in Rondo Conservation StatusThe small number of collections of S. serpentina in Brazil may be due to the difficulty of accessing their areas of occurrence, especially in the State of Amazonas therefore it is data deficient (DD).
Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. ACRE: Sena Madureira, , 28 Apr 1979, fl., J. Lima 470 (INPA); Amazonas: Atalaia do Rio Caete nia: Costa Norte, Jan 2006, fl., R. Kreuzer et al. 89/3286 (M); Rondo Marques, 14 Jun 1984, fr., C. A. C. Ferreira 4513 (INPA, RB).

14. STYLOGYNE RACEMIFLORA Ricketson and Pipoly, Novon 19(4): o 499500. 2009.TYPE: BRAZIL. AMAZONAS: Sa Gabriel da Cachoeira, Morro dos Seis Lagos, Lago do o, 400450 m, 1415 Aug 1987, fl., C. Farney, Draga D. Daly, D. Stevenson, J. Oliveira and R. de Lima 1705 (holotype: MO!, isotype: INPA, K!, NY!, US!). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous, 1518 cm long, 4.56 cm wide, glabrous, margin entire, petiole 614 mm long, inflorescence paniculate (panicle of racemes, 1-branched, non-cylindrical), glabrous, floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 24 mm long, floral buds obclavate, flowers 5-merous, lobes of the sepals deltoid, margin nonpapillose, lobes of the petals lanceolate, punctate, apex acute, asymmetrical, anthers lanceolate opening by long and narrow slits. Stylogyne racemiflora is distinguishable from all other species of the genus in Brazil by the inflorescence as a panicle of racemes. Distribution and HabitatThe species is known from Amazonas. Stylogyne racemiflora is the only species of the Amazon Forest that is restricted to Brazil, and that occurs in canga vegetation (i.e. ferruginous rocks typical of the State of Minas Gerais and some parts of the Amazon; see Scarano 2007). Conservation StatusThe few and occasional collections of S. racemiflora in Brazil may be due to the difficulty of accessing their areas of occurrence. As far as we know, Stylogyne racemiflora is restricted to Brazil. However, despite

16. STYLOGYNE SORDIDA Mez, Pflanzenr. IV. 236(Heft 9): 277. 1902.TYPE: BRAZIL. Rio de Janeiro: 18161821, Saint Hilaire A1 560 (lectotype: P! [designated by Ricketson and Pipoly 2010]; isolectotype: P!). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous, 14.515.7 cm long, 4.55 cm wide, elliptical, oblong or obovate, margin denticulate, petiole 912 mm long, inflorescences racemose, glabrous, floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 3.74.9 mm long, glabrous, floral buds ellipsoid, flowers 4-merous, lobes of the sepals ovate, margin non-papillose, lobes of the petals elliptical, punctate, apex acute, slightly asymmetrical, anthers ellipsoid, opening by short and enlarged slits. By the racemose inflorescences, 4-merous flowers, and margin of the leaves denticulate, Stylogyne sordida resembles S. warmingii, differing by the glabrous calyx (not papillose) and anthers opening by short and enlarged slits (not opening by long and narrow slits). Distribution and HabitatThe species is known from Rio de Janeiro (Fig. 2). Stylogyne sordida occurs in premontane cloud forest (250 m). This species was collected in a fragment of conserved vegetation on top of a hill, in the Pedra Branca State Park. The collections T. T. Carrijo 136 (RB) and T. T. Carrijo 1225 (RB) made in this locale are the only records for this species beyond the type collection listed by Mez (1902) in the protologue. Conservation StatusThe area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 10 km2 (B2), and the species is known to exist at only a single location (a), with a continuing decline of

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habitat quality (biii). Although this species occurs inside a conservation unit, the location of its occurrence is under pressure by human occupancy therefore it is critically endangered (CRB2abiii).
Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Grumari, 07 Nov 2004, fl., T. T. Carrijo 136 (RB); 24 Nov 2007, fl./fr., T. T. Carrijo 1225 (RB).

17. STYLOGYNE SPRUCEANA Mez, Pflanzenr. IV. 236(Heft 9): 274. 1902.TYPE: VENEZUELA. Amazonas: Rio Casiquiari, 18531854, s. d., R. Spruce 3384 (lectotype: W! [designated by Ricketson and Pipoly 2010]; isolectotypes: BM!, G-DC! (photo F 26705), K (2 sheets)!, NY!, P!). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves chartaceous to coriaceous, 24.229.5 cm long, 8.711.2 cm wide, oblong, margin entire, petiole 1013 mm long, inflorescences paniculate (panicle of corymbs, 1-branched, non-cylindrical), papillose, floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 67 mm long, floral buds obclavate (constricted in the middle), flowers 5merous, lobes of the sepals ovate, margin non-papillose, lobes of the petals oblong, punctate, apex round, slightly asymmetrical, anthers ellipsoid, opening by long and narrow slits. Stylogyne spruceana resembles S. orinocensis in the size and shape of the leaves, but differs in the pedicels that are 67 mm long (not 45 mm long), and in the buds constricted ate the middle. Distribution and HabitatThe species is known from Acre and Amazonas (Fig. 3), Suriname, and Venezuela (Bottelier 1936). This species occurs in lowland forest of the Amazon Forest. Conservation StatusThe few and occasional collections of S. spruceana in Brazil may be due to the difficulty of accessing their areas of occurrence, especially in the State of Amazonas therefore it is data deficient (DD).
Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. Acre: Cruzeiro do Sul, 12 Mar 1992, fl. bot., D. Daly et al. 7370 (INPA, NY, UFAC); Amazonas: 29 Dec 1953, fl., B. Maguire et al. 36978 (IAN).

Distribution and HabitatThe species is restricted to o Paulo (Fig. 2). Stylogyne warmingii Minas Gerais and Sa occurs in premontane (100650 m) evergreen tropical forest, but is also frequent in semideciduous tropical forest of the Atlantic Forest. Isolated individuals or small populations were observed near watercourses and in forest edges. Conservation StatusStylogyne warmingii is considered near threatened (NT), because it is known from more localities and there are more mature individuals by comparison with the threatened species. However, many individuals observed during fieldwork occur outside conservation units, in urbanized areas under strong pressure due human activities.
Representative Specimens ExaminedBRAZIL. Minas Gerais: Carangola, 12 May 2006, fr., R. C. Forzza et al. 4166 (RB); Caratinga, 14 Mar 2003, fr., F. R. Couto 224 (BHCB); Divino, 24 Oct 2006, fl., L. S. Leoni 6697 (RB); Monte Belo, 23 Nov 1987, fl., M. C. W. Vieira 1369 (RB); Faria Lemos, Mar 2006, fl. bot., L. S. Leoni 7002 (GFJP); Governador es 852 (BHCB); Lagoa da Prata, Valadares, 26 Nov 1941, fl., M. Magalha ria, Parque Estadual Dec. 1996, fl., L. V. Costa s. n. (BHCB34659); Marlie do Rio Doce, 7 Jun 2000, fr., J. A. Lombarde et al. (BHCB); Porto Ferreira, 19 May 1981, fl., J. E. A. Bertoni 20388 (UB, UEC); Rio Doce, 16 Oct 1997, fl.bot., I. Cordeiro 1659 (SP), Rio Branco, 27 Dec 1930, fl., Y. Mexia 5454 ncio et al. 86 (UEC). o Paulo: Campinas, 22 Oct 1999, fl., S. Consta (NY); Sa

Discussion Stylogyne in Brazil are associated with Amazon and Atlantic Forests. The geographical distribution of Stylogyne in Brazil is in general agreement with the patterns of distribution recorded for other Brazilian plants. Many species are endemic to one floristic domain (Fiaschi and Pirani 2009), as observed in Stylogyne, in which the geographical analysis reveals two sets of unshared species between the Atlantic and Amazon Forest. These two blocks of forests were connected in the past (Stehmann et al. 2009), and the biological exchange between them followed by periods of isolation led to geographical speciation (Silva et al. 2004) resulting in a high diversity of species. However, these forests are currently separated by a corridor of seasonal and open formations that includes the semiarid Caatingas of northeastern Brazil, the Cerrado (woody savanna of central Brazil), and the Chaco of Paraguay, Argentina, and Bolivia (Prado and Gibbs 1993; Oliveira-Filho and Fontes 2000). Many authors have considered this corridor a barrier for taxon migration between the Amazon and Atlantic forests (see Oliveira-Filho and Ratter 1995), which could partly explain the current absence of common species of Stylogyne between these two floristic domains. In this case, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the disjunction between species of Stylogyne in Brazil was the result of a vicariance event followed by speciation, a process leads to sister species distributed in sister areas (Crisci et al. 2003). The Atlantic Forest is the second largest humid tropical forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian Forest (Oliveira-Filho and Fontes 2000). Approximately 95% of its area is restricted to Brazil (Conservation International of Brazil 2000), and the remaining portions are located in Argentina and Paraguay. In addition to the great diversity of plants, this forest contains large numbers of endemic species (see Murray-Smith et al. 2008). However, the loss of natural habitat by deforestation makes the Atlantic rainforest one of the three most endangered ecosystems on Earth ( Joly et al. 1999), which explains why seven of nine species of Stylogyne are under some threat category of the IUCN. The Serra do rga os mountain ranges are centers Mar and Serra dos O

18. STYLOGYNE WARMINGII Mez, Pflanzenr. IV. 236(Heft 9): 278. 1902.TYPE: BRAZIL. Minas Gerais: Lagoa Santa, J. E. B. Warming 522 (lectotype: C! [designated by Ricketson and Pipoly 2010], photo: F 22971). Circumscription and SimilaritiesLeaves elliptical to oblong, 8.513 cm long, 34.5 cm wide, elliptical or oblong, margin dentate or denticulate, petiole 89 mm long, inflorescence racemose, glabrous, floral bracts deciduous, pedicels 45 mm long, papillose, floral buds ellipsoid, flowers 4merous (calyx papillose), lobes of the sepals ovate, margin non-papillose, lobes of the petals elliptical, punctate, apex round, slightly asymmetrical, anthers ellipsoid, opening by long and narrow slits. This species is easily distinguishable from the others of the genus in the Atlantic Forest by the pedicels and calyx papillose. NotesThe synonymization of Stylogyne warmingii under S. pauciflora (S. fluminensis sensu Ricketson and Pipoly 2010) is not accepted here. Although these species seems to be close, S. warmingii can be easily distinguished from S. pauciflora by the calyx and pedicels covered with papillae, and anthers opening by long and narrow slits. Stylogyne warmingii is another member of a group of species from the Atlantic Forest that are characterized by 4-merous flowers (S. araujoana, S. carautae, S. depauperata, S. sordida, and S. pauciflora).

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of diversity for Stylogyne species in the Atlantic Forest. There, a group of similar species ( S. araujoana, S. carautae, S. depauperata, S. pauciflora, and S. sordida) that share racemose inflorescences, 4-merous flowers, and anthers opening by short and enlarged slits (except S. warmingii) is restricted to this region (see Carrijo and Freitas 2008). The Amazon Forest in Brazil extends from the states of , Acre, Rondo nia, Amapa , and Roraima, to Amazonas, Para o State the west of Tocantins State, part of western Maranha and northern Mato Grosso State, with an estimated area of ca. 3,400,000 Km2 (Fernandes 2006), and is the largest single area of tropical forest in the world (Daly and Prance 1989). However, the fragility of the Amazonian environment make it a research priority to understand the composition and distribution of plant species, and to allow efficient management and conservation of their flora (Oliveira et al. 2008). The collecting effort is unevenly distributed in some areas of the Amazon Forest (see Schulman et al. 2007), one reason for this being the difficulty of access. Different from of Atlantic Forest, most Amazonian species of Stylogyne have paniculate inflorescences, 5-merous flowers, and anthers exclusively opening by longitudinal slits, suggesting it is a different lineage within the genus. The polymorphism of the widespread species S. orinocensis, and the coexistence of similar species in the same geographical regions (e.g. S. atra and S. racemiflora) suggest sympatric speciation. Future studies in Stylogyne need to include phylogeny, molecular biology, and macroecological tools to answer questions about the relationships among species, to reveal migration, and mechanisms of speciation. The combination of these approaches will allow us to assess the factors (i.e. ecological or phylogenetic) that explains the patterns of geographical distribution of Stylogyne species in Brazil.
Acknowledgments. The authors would like to thank Jon Ricketson (MO) who made the types available for study by the senior author, and to the reviewers for valuable suggestions to improve the manuscript. We are also grateful to the New York Botanical Garden and the National Science Foundation (grant no. NSF DBI-0749751) for financial support to visit the Missouri Botanical Garden herbarium; to Jardim nico do Rio de Janeiro for logistic and lab supports, and to Bota vel Superior o de Aperfeic Coordenac a oamento de Pessoal de N (CAPES) for fellowship support.

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