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Physic & Data link Engineering

Telkom University Bandung 2013

Pendahuluan
Perkembangan teknologi & perkembangan aplikasi jaringan beradaptasi secara dinamis Perancangan jaringan bukan hal mudah arsitektur jaringan berfungsi memandu perancangan dan implementasi jaringan Tantangan mendefinisikan suatu model yang mewakili aspek-aspek penting dari sistem, membungkus (encapsulate) model tersebut dalam suatu objek dan menyediakan antar muka (interface) yang dapat dimanipulasi oleh komponen lain dalam sistem sementara itu menyembunyikan detil tentang implementasi objek tersebut dari pengguna

Ide Layering segalanya dimulai dari layanan yang ditawarkan oleh perangkat keras, kemudian ditambahkan layer demi layer diatasnya dengan masing-masing menawarkan level layanan yang lebih tinggi (dan semakin abstrak) Keuntungan :

dekomposisi masalah pembangunan jaringan menjadi komponen-komponen yang lebih mudah ditangani model untuk melakukan perancangan secara modular

Protokol objek abstrak penyusun layer dalam sistem jaringan

Network Architecture
Kumpulan aturan tentang format dan isi dari protocol graph Badan standarisasi internasional penyusun arsitektur jaringan : IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) dan ISO (International Standard Organization)

Benefit Of Using Layered Model


To visualize the interaction between various protocols, it is common to use a layered model. There are benefits to using a layered model to describe network protocols and operations. Using a layered model:
Assists in protocol design, because protocols that operate at a specific layer have defined information that they act upon and a defined interface to the layers above and below. Fosters competition because products from different vendors can work together. Prevents technology or capability changes in one layer from affecting other layers above and below. Provides a common language to describe networking functions and capabilities.

Protocol and Reference Model

There are two basic types of networking models:


protocol models reference models.

Protocol Model
A protocol model provides a model that closely matches the structure of a particular protocol suite. The hierarchical set of related protocols in a suite typically represents all the functionality required to interface the human network with the data network. The TCP/IP model is a protocol model because it describes the functions that occur at each layer of protocols within the TCP/IP suite.

Reference Model

A reference model provides a common reference for maintaining consistency within all types of network protocols and services. A reference model is not intended to be an implementation specification or to provide a sufficient level of detail to define precisely the services of the network architecture. The primary purpose of a reference model is to aid in clearer understanding of the functions and process involved. The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is the most widely known internetwork reference model. It is used for data network design, operation specifications, and troubleshooting.

TCP/IP and OSI models are the primary models used when discussing network functionality, designers of network protocols, services, or devices can create their own models to represent their products. Ultimately, designers are required to communicate to the industry by relating their product or service to either the OSI model or the TCP/IP model, or to both.

Perbandingan Arsitektur

TCP/IP MODEL

OSI MODEL
Initially the OSI model was designed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to provide a framework on which to build a suite of open systems protocols. The vision was that this set of protocols would be used to develop an international network that would not be dependent on proprietary systems.

Model Seven Layer OSI


Application Program Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 5 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1
NIC

Tujuan Interface ke program user Data filters (compression, encryption) Manage koneksi end-to-end Menyediakan koneksi end-to-end Koneksi/pemgiriman paket ke tujuan Menyediakan koneksi point-to-point handal

Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer

Datalink Layer Physical Layer

Berhub dg sinyal elektrik


signals

Wire (Network Cable)

Model Seven Layer OSI


Layer 1: Physical Layer Fungsi Utama: Berhubungan dg sinyal elektrik Contoh: Manchester Signal Encoding NRZI Signal Encoding Bipolar-AMI Signal Encoding Mendefinisikan bagaimana sinyal direpresentasikan Interpretasi sinyal elektrik, representasikan sbg 1 atau 0

Model Seven Layer OSI


Layer 2: Data Link Layer

Fungsi Utama:
Deteksi dan koreksi error sinyal, jika ada Meneruskan/Forward sinyal yg diterima ke network layer Jika error tdk dp dikoreksi, memberikan error warning ke network layer Menyediakan Media Access Control (MAC) - Utk shared network, kontrol siapa yg dp menggunakan network Contoh penggunaan bersama Network:
Ring Bus Star (=hub)

Model Seven Layer OSI


Layer 3: Network Layer

Fungsi Utama:
Best effort delivery service - Meroutekan paket dari sumber ke tujuan - Translasi address

Model Seven Layer OSI


Layer 4: Transport Layer
Fungsi Utama: Deteksi dan koreksi error paket (error control) utk E2E Melaksanakan flow control - Jika penerima ingin slow down, mengurang laju transmisi TX - Jika network congesti, mengurang laju transmisi congestion control Layer 5: Session Layer Fungsi Utama: Establish/Manage/Delete koneksi (E2E)

Kontrol Full-Duplex/Half-Duplex
QoS (specifikasi toleransi delay maximum)

Model Seven Layer OSI


Layer 6: Presentation Layer Encryption Raw Data
Presentation Layer Encrypted Data Fungsi Utama: Encryption, compression, dll Compression Raw Data Presentation Layer Compressed Data

Layer 7: Application Layer Fungsi Utama: Interface ke application programs Contoh: Network API (Application Program Interface)

Model Seven Layer OSI - Summary

Bagaimana Data Mengalir?

End-to-End dan Point-to-Point

Host A

Point-to-point

Host B

NIC

Intermediate Routers End-to-end

Sekian

TCP/IP Model

Physical Layer

Lapis fisik, memiliki 4 karakteristik penting: Mekanik peralatan fisik antarmuka ke media transmisi Listrik representasi bit, laju transmisi data Fungsi kegunaan masing-masing rangkaian listrik pada antarmuka Prosedur urutan event pertukaran bit

Data Link Layer


Framing Error Control (parity check, checksum) Flow Control( stop n wait, sliding window) Address Information (MAC)

Ada 2 Sublayer : 1. MAC (kontrol shared medium) 2. LLC