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Communications -Refers to the sending, reception and processing of information by electrical means Transmitter -a collection of electronic components and circuits designed to convert the information into a signal suitable for transmission over a given. -Processes Involved: Modulation, multiplexing, encoding, encryption, and pre-emphasis (FM) Channel -the medium by which the electronic signal is sent from one place to another. Receiver -another collection of electronic components and circuits that accept the transmitted message from the channel and convert it back into a form understandable by humans. -Processes Involved: demodulation, demultiplexing, decoding, decryption, and de-emphasis (FM) Basic Requirements 1. Accurate Communication 2. Fast Communication Types of Signal 1. ANALOG - Telephone, radio broadcast or TV signals 2. DIGITAL -comprises of pulses at discrete intervals of time Transmission Paths 1. Line Communication - guided media which include coaxial cable, twisted pair, optical fibers and waveguides 2. Radio Communications -unguided media

Block Diagram of a Communications System

Information Source -selects symbols (letters, numbers, words, sounds, etc) from an alphabet (or ensemble) of possible symbols.


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Basic Concepts 1. Frequency Number of times a particular phenomenon occurs at a given time. expressed in hertz (1/1 sec) Hz 2. Wavelength Distance between two points of similar cycles of a periodic wave. 3. Bandwidth Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum occupied by a signal. Significant Historical Events in Electronic Communications DATES 1830 1837 1843 1847 1860 EVENTS American scientist and professor Joseph Henry transmitted the first practical electrical signal. Samuel Finley Breeze Morse invented the Telegraph and patented it in 1844. Alexander Bain invented the facsimile. 1877 1878 DATES 1875 EVENTS Thomas Alba Edison invented Quadruplex telegraph, doubling existing line qualities. J. M. Emile Baudot invented the first practical Multiplex Telegraph and another type of telegraphy codes which consisted of pre arranged 5 - unit dot pulse. A. C. Cowper introduced the first Facsimile Machine or writing telegraph using a stylus. Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson invented the Telephone capable of transmitting voice signals (March 10). Thomas Edison invented the Phonograph.



Francis Blake invented the Microphone Transmitter James Clerk Maxwell postulated the using platinum point bearing against a hard carbon Electromagnetic Radiation Theory. surface. Johann Philipp Reis, a German who produces a device called Telephone Nikola Tesla outlined the basic principles of radio 1882 that could transmit a musical tone over a wire to a transmission and reception. distant point but incapable of reproducing it. Heinrich Hertz detected electromagnetic waves 1887 James Clerk Maxwell, a Scottish physicist established with an the Theory of Radio or Electromagnetism which oscillating circuit and establishes the existence of held the rapidly oscillating electromagnetic waves radio waves. exist and travel at through space with the speed of light.


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DATES 1889 EVENTS Hertz discovered the progressive propagation of electromagnetic action through space using a spark gap wave generator, to measure the length and velocity of electromagnetic waves and their direct relation to light and heat as their vibration, reflection, refraction and polarization. Almon Strowger introduced the dial switching system transmitting the desired telephone number electrically without the assistance of a human telephone operator. Marchese Guglielmo Marconi discovered ground wave radio signals. Guglielmo Marconi established the first radio link between England and France. Reginald A. Fessenden transmits the worlds first radio broadcast using continuous waves. Marconi transmits telegraphic radio messages from Cornwall, England to Newfoundland, first successful transatlantic transmission of radio signals. John Ambrose Fleming invented the Vacuum Tube Diode. 1937 1945 DATES 1906 EVENTS Reginald Fessenden invented Amplitude Modulation (AM). Lee De Forest added a grid to the diode and produced triode. Ernst F. W. Alexanderson invented the Tuned Radio Frequency Receiver (TRF) an HF Alternator to producing AC contributing to better voice broadcasting. Reginald Fessenden developed the Heterodyne Receiver. Edwin H. Armstrong invented the Superheterodyne Receiver. J. L. Baird and C. F. Jenkins demonstrated the transmission of Black and White Silhouettes in motion. Vladymir Zworykin and Philo Farnsworth developed television cameras, the Iconoscope and the Image Detector. The first practical television was invented in 1928. Edwin Armstrong invented the Frequency Modulation, greatly improving the quality of the signals. Alec Reeves invented the Pulse Code Modulation for digital encoding of PCM signals. Arthur C. Clarke proposed the use of satellites for long distance radio transmissions.


1907 1918 1923

1895 1898 1901




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DATES 1946 EVENTS AT&T introduced the first mobile telephone system for the public called the MTS (Mobile Telephone System). John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley introduced the bipolar junction transistors which started a new trend in radio receiver design; December 4. First transcontinental microwave system began operation. J. R. Pierce showed how satellites could orbit around the earth and effect transmission with earth stations. Troposcatter Radio Link was established between Florida and Cuba by using antennas and high powered transmitters to force microwaves beyond LOS obstructed by earths curvature bulge. Russia launched Sputnik I, the first active earth satellite, capable of receiving, amplifying and retransmitting information to earth stations. Jack Kilby developed the first Monolithic Integrated Circuit Semiconductor chip with active and passive elements. Robert Noyce invented the Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSIC). DATES 1962 EVENTS AT&T launched Telstar I, the first satellite to received and transmit simultaneously. A year later, Telstar II was launched and used for telephone, TV fax and data transmission. COMSAT and INTELSAT launched the first communications satellite code name Early Bird at approximately 34000 km above sea level. K. C. Kao and G. A. Bockam of Standard Telecommunications Laboratories in England proposed the use of cladded fiber cables as new transmission medium. First commercial use of optical fiber cables Cellular telephone networks introduced. Tim Berners Lee developed World Wide Web (WWW).



1951 1954


1977 1983 1991




Radio -General term applied to any form of wireless communication from one point to another. Types of electronic communications 1. Simplex -One way communication -Information travels only in one direction. 2. Full Duplex -Two way communication -Can transmit and receive simultaneously


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Half Duplex -Only one party transmits at a time. -Two way but the direction alternates. ASCII -American Standard Code For Information Interchange -Commonly used digital code in communications. Baseband Transmission -Original voice, video or digital signals directly into the medium. Multiplexing -Process of transmitting two or more signals simultaneously over the same channel. RF Waves -Electromagnetic signals travel through space for long distances. Bandwidth -Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum occupied by a signal. BW=F2-F1 FCC -Federal Communications Commission -Regulatory body whose sole purpose is allocating spectrum space, issuing licenses, setting standards and policing the airwaves. ITU -International Telecommunications Union -Set standards for various areas within the communications fields. Two long distances communications 1. Telegraph (1844) 2. Telephone (1876) Range of hearing-20-20000 Hz MODULATION - process by which some characteristic of a high frequency sine wave is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the signal. Types of Modulation a. According to carrier used 1. Continuous Wave -carrier is a sinusoid

2. Pulse -carrier is a train of pulses (discrete)


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b. According to the method used 1. Analog -modulated parameter is made proportional to the modulating signal. Analog Modulation Amplitude Modulation

Angle Modulation a. Frequency Modulation 2. Digital -change the form of a given signal.

b. Phase Modulation

Reasons for Modulation 1. To reduce the antenna lengths 2. To reduce noise / interference 3. For frequency assignments 4. For multiplexing 5. To overcome equipment limitations UC-BANILAD Page 6


Digital Modulation 1. Pulse Code Modulation

2. Delta Modulation

AMPLITUDE MODULATION -A system of modulation in which the amplitude of the carrier is made proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating voltage.

Consider any sinusoid, (t)= V sin (t + ) = instantaneous amplitude V = peak amplitude = 2f; angular frequency t = instantaneous time = phase angle in radians UC-BANILAD Page 7


General Equation of the AM wave Let the carrier voltage be given by Frequency Domain of Standard AM -graph of relative amplitude of signal against frequency.

And the modulating voltage be given by

Then the amplitude resulting from modulation is Since and Vm = Vc ma, then Therefore A = Vc + Vc ma sin m t A = Vc (1 + ma sin m t ) The voltage of the resulting AM wave envelope at any instant is

General Form

Standard Form

Where Vc = carrier signal peak voltage c = 2 fc = carrier signal angular frequency m = 2 fm = modulating signal angular frequency t = instantaneous time ma = modulation index UC-BANILAD Page 8


Envelope -the curve produced by joining the tips of the individual RF cycles of the AM waveform. Percent Modulation (Ma) -modulation index expressed as a percentage Ma = ma x 100% Degrees of Modulation

AM Modulation Index (ma) -Modulation index (modulation factor, modulation coefficient, degree of modulation, depth of modulation)



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Power Content of an AM Signal PT = PC + PUSB + PLSB Simultaneous Modulation Modulation by several carriers

NOTE: PC is constant value before and after modulation. PT is the total power after modulation and is dependent on the modulation index. The higher the modulation index, the higher the output power. Current and Voltage Relationships

Where VT = total modulated voltage IT = total modulated current maT = effective total modulation index Bandwidth Formula for AM

Effiency Where IC = unmodulated carrier IT = total or modulated current VC = unmodulated carrier voltage VT = total or modulated voltage ma = modulation index UC-BANILAD Page 10


Percentage Power Saving 4. J3E SSBSC - Single Sideband Suppressed Carrier - The carrier is suppressed by at least 45 dB in the transmitter

Types of AM Transmission

Frequency Domain

1. A3E Standard AM (DSBFC) - Double Sideband Full Carrier - used for broadcasting 2. A3J DSBSC - Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier

Types of AM Transmission 5. R3E SSBRC - Single Sideband Reduced Carrier - An attenuated carrier is reinserted into the SSB signal to facilitate receiving tuning and demodulation. 6. B8E Independent Sideband Emission - Two independent sidebands, with a carrier that is most commonly attenuated or suppressed. - Used for HF

Frequency Domain

3. H3E SSBFC - Single Sideband Full Carrier - could be used as a compatible AM broadcasting system with A3E receivers


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point to point radiotelephony in which more than one channel is required. 7. C3F Vestigial Sideband - A system in which a vestige, i.e., a trace, of the unwanted sideband is transmitted usually with a full carrier. - Used for video transmissions in the entire worlds various TV systems to conserve bandwidth.


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