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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

2011-01-18

EP1100

Data Communication and Computer Networks


Gunnar Karlsson
KTH School of Electrical Engineering
Laboratory for Communication Networks

Introduction
Goal Related courses Planning and rules
Lectures Reading Recitations Laboratory

Material
Book Exercises with solutions Laboratory instructions

Responsibilities of participants

EP1100 Data communication and Computer Networks

EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

2011-01-18

Goal
Basics
Data communication
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How information is transferred How system functions are performed How the networks are used How the pieces are put together

Protocols
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Services
o

Network architectures
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Local area networks TCP/IP and the Internet


EP1100 Data communication and Computer Networks

Related Courses
Laboratory for Communication Networks, www.ee.kth.se/lcn
EP1100 (7.5 hp) Data communication and computer networks EP2210 (7.5 hp) Performance Analysis of Communication Networks

EP2120 (7.5 hp) Internetworking

EP2200 (7.5 hp) Queuing theory and teletraffic systems

EP2300 (7.5p) Management of networks and networked systems

EP240X (30 hp) Thesis in communication networks

EP2400 (7.5 hp) Network algorithms

EP1100 Data communication and Computer Networks

EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

2011-01-18

Course Structure
Twelve lectures
Overview of material, emphasis on understanding Interactive, can be tailored to wishes (if expressed!)
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Class exercises Own presentation of 10 minutes on the theme of a lecture

Reading assignments
Extensive amounts of texts to cover! Review problems in book Online resources for rehearsal and self-checks
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See web page of book (linked from course web)

Nine recitations
Solving problems from book and course binder Opportunity to clarify concepts Two quizzes on reading assignments
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Multiple choice

Four laboratory assignments


Hands-on work in selected topics Preparation for the laboratory
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Homework

Final exam
Thursday March 14 from 9:00 to 13:00. Five problems of 10 points each
o o o

Tests deep understanding of concepts, algorithms and technologies No simple mapping of lecture and book chapter to problem ETCS grades A to E passing, Fx and F fail
Students with Fx may pass course with grade E based on extra examination

EP1100 Data communication and Computer Networks

Student presentation
Ten minutes of fame
Talk about a topic of your choice Related to the theme of a lecture
o

or more lectures

Use your best presentation skills

Why?
Practice to present in front of audience Complement to course contents
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You choose what you find interesting Only on passing grade Only on exams this semester

Gives you two bonus points on final exam


o o

EP1100 Data communication and Computer Networks

EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

2011-01-18

Teachers
Lectures
o o

Gunnar Karlsson

Office hours Thursdays 14 to 15 Meetings by appointment, or after class


Osquldas vg 12, plan 5

Recitations
Sylvia Kouyoumdjieva
o

Available for questions and clarifications after recitations

Laboratory assistants
Ognjen Vukovi (responsible) Ljubica Pajevi
EP1100 Data communication and Computer Networks

Please Note! Important messages on course web


Also given at the lectures You are responsible for staying updated!

Course tweet: ep1100kth

EP1100 Data communication and Computer Networks

EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

2011-01-18

Lectures and Recitations


F1: Introduction F2: Layered models
Internet OSI Modulation Coding Link technologies

F8 + 5: Wide Area Networks


Circuit switching Packet switching Virtual circuits

F3 and F4 + 1 and 2: Physical layer and data transfer


F8 + 6: Internetworking and IP F9 and F10 + 7 End-to-end communication


Transport protocols

F5 + 3: Data link layer


Flow control Error control Data link protocols Multiple Access Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)

F10 and F11 + 8 Applications F12 + 9: Summary

F6 and F7 + 4: Local Area Networks


EP1100 Data communication and Computer Networks

Laboratory
Purpose
Design and configuration of a computer network Work with modern Internet equipment

Groups of two students each Sign up for laboratory sessions


Ognjen will give more details

Homework
Must be completed in order to do the lab!

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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

2011-01-18

Course Material
Book
Behrouz A Forouzan, Data Communications and Networking, 4th edition, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 007-125442-0
o o

Available in Krbokhandeln Earlier editions on your own responsibility

Course binder
Exercises with solutions Lab instructions For sale at STEX at printing cost by January 24

All material (except book) available on course web


KTH EE Utbildning Kurser EE Kommunikationsnt EP1100 Datakommunikation och datornt VT11 omg 1 www.kth.se/ees/utbildning/kurshemsidor/lcn/EP1100/VT11-1

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Your Responsibilities
Continuous attention
Much to read! Time to let it sink in Need to select the course from student counselor Mark list here EE booking system, see the web Mandatory! Most information available on the course web Use only EP1100@ee.kth.se And keep the deadline for the homework

Course registrations

Registration for exams and labs


Search the web


Course responsible can be reached through email Be on time for the laboratory sessions Course evaluation

EP1100 Data communication and Computer Networks

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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

2011-01-18

Course Committee (Kursnmnd) Volounteers? Meetings


Mid-course End of course

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Illustrations in this material are collected from Behrouz A Forouzan, Data Communications and Networking, McGraw-Hill.

EP1100 Data communication and Computer Networks

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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

2011-01-18

Todays Lecture Definitions Requirements on communication Communication networks


Connections and topologies Network types

Examples of networks

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Class exercise 1 Define the terms information, data and communication


Take a few minutes to think on your own Discuss two and two for five minutes Compare notes with another pair
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Discuss and refine for five minutes

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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

2011-01-18

Information, Data and Communication


Informationmany meanings
Negative entropythe instructions that are needed to produce order or reduce uncertainty An answer to a specific question ... Representation of information
o

Data

Symbols with a given syntax One bit may have values 0 and 1

Often represented in bits, binary digits


o

Communication
The process of sharing information Telecommunication
o o o

Communication at a distance
Tele is far in Greek

Traditionally speech, telephony Sound, pictures, text, ...

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Information A Technical Definition


Context known by sender and receiver
The alternatives are well defined

Information represents one alternative


To represent one of N alternatives requires log2N bits Example: The letters in the Swedish alphabet can be represented by 5 bits (25 = 32)

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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

2011-01-18

Information and Information Rate


Time dependent information
Has a certain bit rate or data rate (measured in bits per second, b/s, bit/s, bps)

Time independent information


Consists of a certain amount of bits

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Class exercise 2 What functions are needed to get two processes to communicate?
Discuss two and two for five minutes
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List functions

Compare notes with another pair for five minutes


Discuss and merge lists

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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

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Data Communication
Exchange of data between two devices over some form of transmission medium
All information is represented as digital data
o

Analog signals are converted to digital


Sampling

Data is transferred using electromagnetic waves


Light, electricity, radio
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Analog signals The mapping of digital data to and from analog signals

Modulation
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Information is recreated at the receiver


Errors are corrected or hidden

Data communication functions for links


Signals regeneration and amplification Different equipment, formats, et c. Beginning and end of message

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Connectivity
Duplex

Half duplex

Simplex

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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

2011-01-18

Point-to-point Connections

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Multi-point Connection

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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

2011-01-18

Class exercise 3 What functions are needed to get any number of processes to communicate?
Discuss two and two for five minutes List functions

Compare notes with another pair for five minutes


Discuss and merge lists
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Computer Networks
A system for data communication between computers or devices
One or more transmission links

A set of nodes connected by links


Hosts, switches, routers, stations, Sharing of links, multiplexing

Links form a topology


Modeled by a graph

Hosts communicate over chain of links


End-to-end handling of errors and overflow

Distributed processing: Protocols


Tasks are divided among multiple units (computers) Standardized data formats for control and user data

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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

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Network Functions
Transmission
Ways to transfer information on a link Ways to share a link among more than two devices Identify sender, receiver and network nodes Find a path between sender and receiver If data is lost or corrupted Compensate for differences in speed Variations in traffic load To protect the network from being overloaded

Multiplexing Addressing Routing Error detection and control Buffering

Congestion control

Management and network operations

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Network Topologies

Topology Topology Mesh Mesh Star Star Bus Bus Ring Ring

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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

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Mesh Topology
One link between every pair of nodes Advantages
Reliable and robust High capacity

Disadvantages
High cost
o o o

Installation Cabling Number of I/O ports

Poor resource usage

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Star Topology
All links to a central node (hub) Common office installation today Advantages
Less costly than mesh Easy to install and maintain

Disadvantages
Hub is single point of failure One cable from each node to hub
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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

2011-01-18

Bus Topology
Point-to-multipoint Advantages
Ease of installation Low cost

Disadvantages
Limited size Maintainance
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Reconfiguration Fault isolation

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Ring Topology
Point-to-point links
Between neighbours

Disdvantages
Robustness

Signals rotate around the ring Advantages


Easy to install and reconfigure Cost

Dual ring improves robustness and capacity

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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

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Requirements on Communication
Quality
Delay (a k a latency) Data loss and errors Reliability Availability Security

Cost
Information
o

The contents Resources


Network access Connection time Data volume

Service
o

Connectivity
One-way and two-way
o

Simplex/duplex Unicast Multicast, broadcast (to all) Multi-drop Why? o

One to one
o

Management
Booking Directory services Security

One to many
o

Many to one
o

One to any
o

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Network Types
Network Network Local LocalArea AreaNetwork Network (LAN) (LAN) Metropolitan MetropolitanArea AreaNetwork Network (MAN) (MAN) Wide WideArea AreaNetwork Network (WAN) (WAN)

Classification depends on
Ownership Size and distance Physical architecture
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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

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Local Area Networks (LANs)


Single organization
Office, building, campus, etc

Resource sharing
Printers, file servers, Internet connection

One type of medium


Ethernet most common
o

10, 100, 1000 Mb/s 11 and 54 Mb/s

Wireless LANs
o

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Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)


Connect LANs together Provide access to WAN Different kinds of ownership
private company public company
o o

Network operator Stadsnt, kommuner, energibolag

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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

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Wide Area Network (WAN)


International networks Use different kinds of equipment
Public, leased, private equipment

International operators (carriers) Private WAN


Enterprise networks

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Telephone Network
Built for analog voice traffic
Subscriber access via simple pair cable
o

Analog signals with low bandwidth, about 3 kHz

Low delay, low loss Data transfer with modem (fax) ISDN multi-service network, is available but outdated

Simple terminals with intelligence in the network Services mainly related to connection establishment (plustjnster")
Call waiting Call transfer Group calls

xDSLHigher data rate over existing telephone cables


Higher capacity downlink (up to 100 Mb/s today) Lower capacity uplink (up to 10 Mb/s today)

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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

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Cable TV
One-way distribution (simplex) of TV signals Cabling with high quality
Coaxial cable or optical cable Bus or star topology

Alternative Internet access


Higher capacity downlink (up to 24 Mb/s today) Lower capacity uplink (up to 8 Mb/s today)

Owned and operated independently of the telephone network


Competition in the local access networks

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The Internet
Most important computer network
Some prefer capital I in Internet.

Many interconnected (independent) networks Common addressing and transmission format


Internet Protocol (IP)

Access via xDSL, cable TV, fiber, LAN,


Internet Service Provider (ISP) Limited access speed

Not time-dependent data traffic


Mainly text and pictures Download and replay of audio-visual contents

Time-dependent traffic increases


Streaming media (for example web radio, video clips) IP telephony (Voice over IP)
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EP1100 Data Communications and Computer Networks

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Internet Today

IXP

IXP

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Reading for Next Class Forouzan


1.1 - 1.4 2.1 - 2.5

Formulate two questions from the reading


What you did not understand On what you think are key issues
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