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maintenance guide for ENGINEERS

CiViL AViaTiOn SaFeTY AUTHOriTY

For comments and questions contact: Steve Bell CASA Aviation Safety Promotion Telephone: 02 6217 1788 Facsimile: 02 6217 1950 Email: steve.bell@casa.gov.au Further information can be downloaded from CASAs website www.casa.gov.au To order additional copies, go to http://casa.jsmcmillan.com.au 2005 Civil Aviation Safety Authority Australia. The Civil Aviation Safety Authority is responsible for the safety regulation of Australias civil aviation operators, and for the regulations of Australianregistered aircraft outside Australian territory. CASA sets safety standards and ensures these are met through effective entry, compliance and enforcement strategies. Additionally, CASA provides regulatory services to industry, and plays a part in safety education for the aviation community. CASA also administers exams and issues licences for Australian pilots. Notice: The information contained in this document was correct at the time of publishing and is subject to change without notice. This booklet has been prepared by CASA Aviation Safety Promotion Division for educational purposes only. It can be changed at any time without notice and should never be used for any other purpose. Reference should be made to the appropriate legislation at all times prior to the use of the information contained herein.

Contents
systems of MAINTENANCE
Introduction Schedule 5 Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 Part 1 Daily inspection Part 2 Periodic inspection Part 3 Post inspection check Revised CAAP 41-2(1)  Maintenance programs for class B aircraft CAAP No:39-1 (1)  Maintenance requirements for class A aircraft CAAP No: 42B-1 (0) CAA Maintenance Schedule CAAP 42L-1(0)  Inspection of aircraft after abnormal ight loads, heavy landing or lightning strike 5 7 10 10 12 25 26 26 35 35 40 40 58

Final Certication The System of Certication  CAR 42ZE and 42ZN Further Detailed Information ANNEX A Part 1 Interpretation Part 2  Certication of completion of stages of maintenance and inspections under subregulation 42G (2) Part 3  Certication of co-ordination of maintenance Part 4 Final certication ANNEX B  Certifying on the Maintenance Release ANNEX CUseful addresses

107 108 108 116 116

quality management SYSTEMS


Introduction CAR 1988 30 and CASR 145(proposed) CAR 1988 30 CASR 145 (proposed) Quality Management Principles Quality Management systems approach Differences Between Quality Standards and Civil Aviation Law Conclusion 145 146 146 149 149 153 155 156

117 119 121 124 126

systems of CERTIFICATION for maintenance activities


References 159 Introduction 159 Setting Up a System of Certication 160 Aircraft Maintenance and Certication Systems 160 Using the Manufacturers System of Certication 161 Using the CASA System of  Maintenance/Schedule 161 What Must Be Included in a  System of Certication 162 Certication For Completion of the Maintenance 165 Additional Work Sheets 167 Certifying on the Additional Work Sheets 167 Final Certication 169 Co-ordination 170 Conclusion 170

corrosion and corrosion CONTROL


Introduction The Corrosion Process Oxidisation Galvanic Reactions Corrosion Prevention Metal Coating Corrosion Resistant Substances or Coatings Painting Preperation Other Coatings Some Simple Rules for Corrosion Prevention Conclusion 129 129 130 130 133 133 133 134 134 134 135 135

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the maintenance RELEASE


Introduction 67 How does the Maintenance Release Work? 67 The Maintenance Release 68 Part 1 69 Part 2 76 Part 3 80 ANNEX AThe new proposed ight and technical log 82 ANNEX B Certifying on the maintenance release 85

approved MAINTENANCE DATA


Introduction The Type Certication Process Conclusion 89 89 98

fabrication in the course of MAINTENANCE


Introduction Fabrication Fabrication in the Course of Maintenance (FitCoM) Required Marking of FitCoM parts Certication Requirements Conclusion 139 139 140 140 141 142

the role of the SUPERVISOR


Supervision Division 3Who may supervise maintenance 173 173

CASA Contacts

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certication for MAINTENANCE


References 103 Certication for Completion of Stages  of Maintenance and CAR 42G Independent Inspections 103 Co-ordination of Maintenance 105

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1. Introduction
1 There are two requirements for a system of maintenance; they are different in the way that they deal with different operational requirements. (a) For aircraft operated in RPT or LCRPT (soon to include Charter), an operators system must be developed and presented to CASA or an authorised person for approval. (b) For aircraft operated in Private, Aerial Work and Charter (Charter is soon to be included in the transport category), the Registered Operator (Part 47), will need to choose a maintenance schedule from one of the following: (i) the manufacturers system of maintenance (ii) their own approved system of maintenance (iii) the CASA system of maintenance (schedule 5).

The requirements of (a) are mandatory requirements. For (b) the choice is up to the Registered Operator.

What must be included?

systems of mainTenance

In every case there are certain requirements that must be met. These are outlined in CAR 1988 42L and CAR 42M. They are: A schedule that: (a)  sets out the regular maintenance inspections, tests and checks to be carried out on the aircraft (b)  sets out when those maintenance inspections, tests and checks will be carried out e.g. at what intervals (c)  nominates one of the inspections from (a) as the inspection to be carried out for the purpose of determining whether a Maintenance Release should be issued for the aircraft. (d) Sets out details of time-lifed component This system will continue when the proposed Part 43 regulations are introduced. The difference will be that a maintenance release, as we currently know it, will not be issued; instead a certication that the maintenance has been carried out and that the aircraft is returned to service will be made in the Flight and Tech Log .

The system must also include the following (CAR 1988 42L and CAR 42M):
(a)  what inspection must be performed when the aircraft suffers a lightning strike and when it should be carried out (b)  what inspection must be carried out when the aircraft is subject to abnormal ground or ight loads. This is determined from the ight manual and type certicate data, and when this will be done.
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 A list of components, which are time lifed i.e. have specic overhaul periods listed by the aircraft manufacturer e.g. the spar. The system must then specify when these components should be retired, overhauled or removed for test; (c) The procedures to be followed by the maintenance personnel when performing the inspections, tests, and checks required by the system. The procedures must be in accordance with approved data, which will normally mean that issued by the manufacturer, approved by the regulator of the country of manufacture or by CASA or an authorised person. This will include all of the methods and limits listed in: (i) the maintenance manual; (ii) SBs, SLs etc; and (iii) any other method approved by CASA i.e. ADs.

(i) Airworthiness Advisory Circulars (AACs); (ii) the Approved Aircraft Flight Manual; (iii)  engine manufacturers printed material i.e. Operators Handbooks; and (iv) other advisory material.

All of this can be used to determine what is included in the system of maintenance. For B Class Aircraft Only Manufacturers Versus CASA System of Maintenance (Schedule 5)

Schedule 5
First of all it must be stated that the original purpose behind the CASA system of Maintenance was for use by owners of aircraft where the manufacturers system of maintenance was inadequate for some reason. In some cases the original manufacturer is no longer willing to support the aircraft or equipment for whatever reason and in other cases the manufacturer has not included service information on certain equipment e.g. the avionics. The reason for this was that the aircraft that was built to a basic design, which has been modied over the years to include better, more efcient equipment. For example no aircraft manufacturer in the 1950s ever dreamed of the advances in instrumentation, radios or navigation equipment available today, i.e. GPS. In addition because they produced a BASIC model they could never be certain what equipment is or could be tted. What this means is that the Registered Operator, to meet the Australian requirements, must include the maintenance of this equipment in their system. Schedule 5 is a very comprehensive list of what to do and when to do inspections. Its limitation is that it does not have any information on how the inspection is carried out or any particular requirements or limits. This can only be gained from approved maintenance data . Approved maintenance data is dened in CAR 1988 2A. As a guide it is any data from the aircraft or component manufacturer or any approved by CASA or the National Airworthiness Authority (NAA) of the country of manufacturer or certication, check to see that any data used is approved before use. Approved data must always be used (CAR 42V makes this a legal requirement). So approved maintenance data must always be used, even if the maintenance is performed to Schedule 5, or by a pilot or the holder of an MA.

(d)  If permissible unserviceabilities are approved as a minimum Equipment List (MEL) then this list is included in the System of Maintenance (SOM). (e)  Statements identifying the Registered Operator (entitled person under CAR 1998 Part 45), and the aircraft, (model, type, serial number and registration mark). In the case of a transport aircraft the system of maintenance (SOM) should also contain the maintenance that can be carried out by a pilot and how each pilot is trained and authorised for this maintenance. The new regulations are more specic when it comes to this aspect; they state what maintenance can be authorised. Any (outside schedule 8) other maintenance that is required to be performed by the pilot because of certain types of operation , e.g. those remote from maintenance sources, can be approved using a CASA Maintenance Authority (MA) (or its equivalent). To gain this authority a pilot must have received appropriate training and experience approved by CASA. Most, if not all, of the information required above can be taken from the manufacturers maintenance information. This will include documents such as: (a) the Maintenance Manual; (b)  service bulletins, letters, and instructions etc. In addition to what is supplied by the manufacturer, other maintenance information can be taken from such information as: (a)  Airworthiness Directives, both Australian and country of manufacturer or certication; (b) information material such as 6
systems of maintenance

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Manufacturers System of Maintenance


Several distinct advantages are gained by using the manufacturers system of maintenance. These are: 1. The manufacturer will generally provide several options, which will give some alternatives to the strict compliance to times, i.e. +10% for a periodic inspection. 2. The manufacturer is surely the best person to provide maintenance information. (They should know how to maintain the reliability of the aircraft better than anyone). 3. The manufactuturers system will permit use of the various documents simultaneously, e.g. using the manufacturers system will give the same details for a daily inspection in both the maintenance manual and the ight manual. 4. The manufacturers system is the benchmark used when assessing the applicability of the CASA approved system, (see CAR 1988 42M). 5. The manufacturers system will reference other approved data as required. This is usually included in the task cards for all inspections. This is acceptable and meets part of the requirements of a system of certication which is required by CAR 1988 42ZE (1) (a). Combinations of the Manufacturers System and Schedule 5. For a non-transport aircraft both schedule 5 and the manufacturers system of maintenance is automatically approved, which means that the entitled person need only inform CASA of their use (usually through the submission of a Log Book Statement (LBS)). The legislation also permits a combination of both of these systems without further approval, provided the combination is clear on the LBS. For example if the manufacturers system is chosen, Schedule 5 may be included for the avionics. Another example is when the aircraft manufacturer does not include any reference to the engine manufacturers system; again these may be combined (and is in fact recommended). This combination will not require further approval. In the instance, though, where additional requirements are to be included at the request of the entitled person, this system then becomes that persons approved system and will require CASA approval even if it is based on the manufacturers system or even Schedule 5. The same would apply to compliance with an AD requirement for something to be included in the SOM. Note: Mention made to CASA here also includes authorised persons. 8
systems of maintenance

Writing your own System of Maintenance (or Maintenance Schedule)


This is not as difcult as it rst looks. Writing your own System of Maintenance can have several advantages. Some of these are: 1. The registered operator can gain some exibility, whereas the current schedule 5, for instance, only allows maintenance to be carried out annually or every 100 hours time in service. The operator may decide to develop a system where small amounts of maintenance from the schedule are performed at regular intervals rather than once a year. 2. The aircrafts general airworthiness would be improved. 3.  Certain concessions concerning maintenance intervals can be granted (for example a small over-run) . 4. The system of maintenance can be tailored to the operators specic requirements. The system must meet the requirements of CAR 42L and CAR 42M regardless. In addition certain parts of the manufacturers system can be included along with applicable parts of the current schedule 5. These two systems are the basis on which your system would be assessed for approval, along with the regulations previously mentioned. It is proposed in the future that the new equivalent to the current schedule 5 will be limited to aircraft used in private or aerial work categories and for which there is an inadequate manufacturers system of maintenance. The manufacturers system would be the CASA preferred system and will require no approval. The registered operator will indicate which system of maintenance is to be used in the same way they do now (through the LOG BOOK STATEMENT). An option worth considering, though; is to write your own.

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Civil Aviation Regulations 1988


Schedule 5 CAA maintenance schedule
(subregulation 2 (1)) (denition of CAA maintenance schedule)

10.  Check that the interplane and centre section struts are free from damage and that the bracing wires are of the correct tension. 11.  Check that the pitot heads and static ports are free from obstruction and that the pitot cover is removed or is free to operate. 12.  Check that the fuel tank ller caps, chains, vents and associated access panels are secure and free from damage. 13.  Check that the empennage surfaces are free from damage and that the control surfaces control cables and control rods, where visible, are secure. 14.  Check that the canard surfaces are free from damage and that the control surfaces, control cables and control rods, where visible, are secure. 15.  Check that the ight controls, the trim systems and the high lift devices operable from the ground have full and free movement in the correct sense. 16.  Check that the radios and antennae are secure and that where visible, radio units and interwiring are secure. 17.  Check that the drain holes are free from obstruction. 18.  Check that there is no snow, frost or ice on the wings, tail surfaces, canards, propeller or windscreen. 19.  Check that each tank sump and fuel lter is free from water and foreign matter by draining a suitable quantity of fuel into a clean transparent container. 20.  Check that the windscreen is clean and free from damage. 21.  Check that the instruments are free from damage, legible and secure. 22.  Check that the seat belts, buckles and inertia reels are free from damage, secure and functioning correctly.

Part 1: Daily inspection


1.1  An inspection (in this Part called a daily inspection) must be carried out on the aircraft before the aircrafts rst ight on each day on which the aircraft is own. 1.2  A A daily inspection must consist of the making of such of the checks set out in the table at the end of this Part as are applicable to the aircraft. Table of checks included in a daily inspection

Section 1: General
1.  Check that the ignition switches are off, the mixture control is lean or cut off, the throttle is closed and the fuel selector is on. 2.  Check that the propeller blades are free from cracks, bends and detrimental nicks, that the propeller spinner is secure and free from cracks, that there is no evidence of oil or grease leakage from the propeller hub or actuating cylinder and that the propeller hub, where visible, has no evidence of any defect which would prevent safe operation. 3.  Check that the induction system and all cooling air inlets are free from obstruction. 4.  Check that the engine, where visible, has no fuel or oil leaks and that the exhaust system is secure and free from cracks. 5.  Check that the oil quantity is within the limits specied by the manufacturer for safe operation and that the oil ller cap, dipstick and inspection panels are secure. 6.  Check that the engine cowlings and cowl aps are secure. 7.  Check that the landing gear tyres are free from cuts or other damage, have no plies exposed and, by visual inspection, are adequately inated. 8.  Check that the landing gear oleo extensions are within normal static limits and that the landing gear doors are secure. 9.  Check that the wing and fuselage surfaces are free from damage and that the inspection panels, ight control surfaces and ight control devices are secure. 10
systems of maintenance

Section 2:  Additional items for agricultural aeroplanes


1.  Check that the agricultural equipment is secure. 2.  Check that the dump and fan brake mechanisms are free from obstructions and operate correctly.

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Section 3: Additional items for seaplanes


1.  Check that the hull and oats are free from damage, corrosion and water accumulation. 2.  Check that the oat attachment struts, bracing wires and attachment ttings are secure and free from damage and corrosion. 3.  Check that the water rudder and its attachments are secure and free from damage and corrosion and that the water rudder has full, free and correct travel.

2.5  In spite of paragraph 2.4, if the holder of the certicate of registration for a class B aircraft that is not a private aircraft has elected under paragraph 2.2 to have the sections of the periodic inspection carried out on the aircraft at different times, the following provisions have effect: (a) t  he rst carrying out of each section of the periodic inspection on the aircraft after the election is made must be carried out within whichever of the following periods expires rst: (i) 18 months from: (a) t  he day on which the aircrafts current certicate of airworthiness was issued; or (b)  the day on which the most recent general maintenance inspection on the aircraft was completed; whichever is the later; (a)  the aircrafts current certicate of airworthiness was issued; or (b)  the most recent general maintenance inspection on the aircraft was completed; whichever occurred later;

Part 2: Periodic inspection


2.1  Subject to paragraph 2.2, an inspection (in this Part called a periodic inspection) must consist of the taking of the actions set out in the table at the end of this Part as applicable to the aircraft. 2.2 The holder of a certicate of registration for a class B aircraft may elect to have a section or sections of the periodic inspection carried out on the aircraft at a different time from the other sections. 2.3  A periodic inspection must be carried out on a private aircraft within the period of 1 year from: (a)  the day on which the aircrafts current certicate of airworthiness was issued; or (b)  the day on which the most recent general maintenance inspection on the aircraft was completed; whichever is the later.

(ii)  the aircraft has been in service for 150 hours since:

(b)  each subsequent carrying out of each section of the periodic inspection must be carried out within whichever of the following periods expires rst: (i)  the aircraft has been in service for 100 hours since the section concerned was most recently carried out on the aircraft; (ii)  1 year from the day on which the section concerned was most recently carried out on the aircraft.

2.4  Subject to paragraph 2.5, a periodic inspection must be carried out on a class B aircraft that is not a private aircraft within whichever of the following periods expires rst: (a) one year from: (i) t  he day on which the aircrafts current certicate of airworthiness was issued; or (ii)  the day on which the most recent general maintenance inspection on the aircraft was completed; whichever is the later; (i)  the aircrafts current certicate of airworthiness was issued; or (ii)  the most recent general maintenance inspection on the aircraft was completed; whichever occurred later.

2.6  In this Part: general maintenance inspection means a regular inspection and check of a class B aircraft, its systems and components that: (a) i s required by the aircrafts maintenance schedule to be carried out at regular intervals; and (b)  is not required to be carried out before the aircrafts rst ight on each day on which the aircraft is own. (a)  that is a class B aircraft; and (b)  that has a maximum take off weight of 5700 kg or less; and (c) that is only used in private operations by: (i) the owner of the aircraft; or

(b)  the aircraft has been in service for 100 hours since:

Private aircraft means an aircraft:

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(ii)  a person to whom the owner has provided the aircraft without receiving any remuneration from the person.

2.7 Unless otherwise indicated in the table, where the table requires a thing to be inspected, the inspection is to be a thorough check made to determine whether the thing will continue to be airworthy until the next periodic inspection. Table of actions included in a periodic inspection

(g)  check that the windshields and windows are clean and free from crazing, cracking, discoloration, delamination and scratches; (h)  inspect the seats, seat attachments, seat adjustment mechanisms, seat stops, seat belts, safety harnesses and inertia reels; (j)  inspect the control wheels, control columns, rudder pedals, control levers, control system bellcranks, push pull rods, torque tubes and cables; (k)  operate all trim controls through the complete range of travel and check them for correct trim position indication; (l)  inspect the brake master cylinders, brake lines, reservoirs, parking brake linkage and mechanical brake system operating mechanisms; (m)  check the cabin re extinguisher for correct charge, legibility of operating instructions and condition of locking pin or seal and ensure that the extinguisher has not reached its expiry date; (n)  inspect the heating and fresh air system ducting and outlets and the airow control valves; (p)  inspect the emergency and otation equipment and ensure that the equipment has not reached its expiry date; (q)  lubricate as necessary.

Section 1: The airframe


(1)  Check the external and internal required placards. Note Reference should be made to the aircraft ight manual and airworthiness directives for the required placards. (2) Take the following action in relation to the mainplane and empennage (including canards) of the aircraft: (a)  inspect the skins for evidence of wrinkles, buckles, sheared or loose rivets, corrosion, disbonds and general damage; (b)  if the skin is fabric, check the strength of the fabric; (c) inspect the internal structures and spars; (d)  inspect the lift struts, interplane struts, jury struts, spreaders, chang discs and bracing wires; (e)  inspect the ight control surfaces, slats, spoilers, tabs, aps, mass balance weight attachments, hinge brackets, tracks and rollers; (f)  inspect the ight control system bellcranks, push pull rods, torque tubes, cables, fairleads, turnbarrells and pulleys; (g)  inspect the wing and empennage to fuselage attachments and surrounding structure; (h)  lubricate as necessary. (a)  inspect the fuselage skin for evidence of wrinkles, buckles, sheared or loose rivets, corrosion, disbonds and general damage; (b)  inspect the areas around cut-outs (such as windows and inspection apertures) for cracks and inspect the sealing and t of all doors and emergency exits; (c) inspect the interior; (d) inspect the strength of the fabric covering on surfaces; (e) inspect the internal structure; (f)  inspect the locks, latches and hinges of doors, canopy, windows which may be opened and direct vision windows;

(4)  Jack the aircraft so that the landing gear is clear of the ground and take the following action: (a) inspect the undercarriage attachment to the airframe; (b)  inspect the structural members, drag and side braces, compression members, oleo struts, bracing struts and torque links; (c)  inspect the leaf or tube spring shock absorbing units and bungee rubber; (d) inspect the exible hoses; (e)  inspect the main wheels and tyres and the nose or tail wheels and tyres; (f)  clean the wheel bearings, check that they are free from scoring and brinelling, re-lubricate them, re-install them and adjust the bearing pre-load; (g)  inspect the brake linings or pads and the brake drums or discs; (h) inspect the brake lines and exible hoses; (j)  inspect the nosewheel or tailwheel steering mechanism and the shimmy dampener;
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(3) Take the following action in relation to the fuselage:

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(k)  inspect the landing gear retraction mechanism, the door and the door operating linkage; (l)  carry out an operational check of the landing gear and doors and ensure that the adjustment of downlocks, overcentre links, uplocks and spring tensions are within the manufacturers specied limits; (m) lubricate as necessary. (a)  inspect the fuel tanks (where visible), lines, drains, vents, signs, ller caps, ller cap securing chains or cables, ller cap seals and scupper drains; (b) inspect the fuel selector valves; (c) inspect the fuel selector valve operating linkage. (a)  remove, clean, and ret the hydraulic system lter element, or if it is unserviceable, install a new lter element; (b)  inspect the hydraulic system reservoirs, powerpack, accumulators, selector valves, hand pump, pipelines and exible hoses.

(d)  inspect the water rudders, water rudder attachments and water rudder controls, operate and check them for full and free movement in the correct sense and for correct locking; (e)  inspect the protective treatment and nish.

Section 2: The engine


(1) Check the external and internal required placards. Note Reference should be made to the aircraft ight manual and airworthiness directives for the required placards. (2) Take the following action in relation to the cowls: (a)  remove, clean and inspect the cowls, cowl aps and fastenings.

(5) Take the following action in relation to the fuel system:

(6) Take the following action in relation to the hydraulic system:

(3) Inspect, and record the compression of, each cylinder. (4) Take the following action in relation to the engine oil system: (a)  drain the sump or tank and ret the plug and lockwire; (b)  drain the oil cooler and ret and secure the hose; (c) either: (i)  remove, inspect, clean and ret the pressure lter and lockwire; or (ii)  remove, open and inspect the cartridge full ow lter and t a new cartridge and lockwire;

(7) Inspect the anti-icing and de-icing systems. (8)  Inspect the air-conditioning evaporator, condenser and compressor and the air-conditioning ducting, pipelines and units. (9)  Inspect the pressurisation control system and indication system. (10) Take the following additional action if the aircraft is used in agricultural operations: (a)  inspect the hopper, hopper lid and fasteners, bafes and internal braces; (b)  inspect the spreader, spreader gate and controls; (c)  inspect the spray pump fan, fan mount, fan brake, spray pump lines, booms and boom supports; (d)  inspect the emergency dump doors and dump controls.

(d)  inspect the oil cooler, oil temperature control valves, oil tank and attachment ttings; (e)  inspect all oil lines, ttings, breather pipe and the oil cooler shutter; (f)  rell the sump or tank with the recommended grade and quantity of oil. (a)  remove the spark plugs, clean and inspect them, check the spark plug electrode gap, test the spark plugs and renew them if required; (b)  inspect the spark plug high tension leads and ceramics; (c)  inspect the magneto housing; (d)  inspect the breaker compartment and cam follower; (e)  inspect the breaker points for serviceability and check the breaker points gap, magneto engine timing and synchronisation; (f) inspect the switch and earth leads; (g) ret and torque the spark plugs; (h) ret the spark plug high tension leads.

(5) Take the following action in relation to the ignition system:

(11) Take the following additional action if the aircraft is a seaplane: (a)  inspect the external covering and internal structure of the oats or hull; (b)  drain the bilge compartments, ret and re-lock the drain plugs; (c)  inspect the oat attachment struts, bracing wires and attachment ttings;

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(6) Take the following action in relation to the fuel system: (a) place the fuel selector in the off position; (b)  remove, inspect, clean and ret the fuel strainers and screens and lockwire; (c)  drain and ush the carburettor fuel bowl and ret the plug and lockwire; (d) inspect the carburettor or fuel injection components; (e) inspect the throttle and mixture shafts; (f) inspect all fuel lines and ttings; (g) move the fuel selector from the off position; (h) inspect the auxiliary fuel pump for operation; (i)  pressurise and purge the fuel system and inspect it for leaks.

(11)  Inspect the following controls for full and free movement in the correct sense: (a) throttle, mixture and propeller; (b) alternate air and carburettor heat; (c) engine bay fuel strainer controls; (d) oil cooler shutter and cowl ap; (e) turbocharger. (a) inspect the propeller for static track; (b) inspect the propeller hub, spinner and backplate; (c) inspect the wooden propeller attachment bolts; (d) inspect the blades; (e) inspect the counterweights; (f) lubricate the propeller hub; (g) service the propeller hub with air. (a)  remove the heat shield and inspect the turbocharger housing for cracks and oil leaks from the inlet and outlet ports; (b) inspect the compressor and turbine wheel; (c) inspect the rotating assembly bearing for end oat; (d) inspect the turbocharger mount; (e)  inspect the transition assembly, the induction and exhaust components and the clamps; (f) inspect the upper deck pressure manifold and hoses; (g)  lubricate the waste gate linkages and the buttery valve; (h) inspect the exible oil lines; (j) inspect the controllers and actuators; (k) inspect the compressor by-pass door; (m) ret the heat shield.

(12) Take the following action in relation to the propeller:

(7) Take the following action in relation to the induction system: (a)  remove the air lters, clean them, inspect them and ret or renew them; (b)  inspect the hot and alternate air systems for the integrity of seals and for serviceability of valves, shafts, bearings, magnets and hinges; (c)  inspect the induction manifold and hoses. (a) inspect the exhaust system; (b)  remove the mufer shroud, inspect the mufer and ret the shroud; (c)  inspect the mufer internally for security of bafe cones; (d)  inspect the cabin heat exible hoses.

(13) Take the following action in relation to the turbocharger:

(8) Take the following action in relation to the exhaust system:

(9) Take the following action in relation to the engine cylinders and bafes: (a) inspect the cylinder assemblies; (b) inspect the cylinder base to the crankcase area; (c) inspect the rocker covers; (d) inspect the push rod housing seals.

(14) Take the following action in relation to the retting of the cowls: (a)  check that no tooling, rags or other foreign objects remain in the compartment; (b) inspect the latches and fasteners for correct tension; (c) inspect the inlet and cooling air ducting; (d) inspect the landing and taxi light wiring; (e) inspect the cowl ap linkage and engine drain lines.

(10) Take the following action in relation to the crankcase, accessory housing and rewall: 18 (a) inspect the engine for evidence of oil leakage; (b) inspect the accessories and drive belts; (c) inspect the engine mounts and engine mountbolts; (d) inspect the engine mount frame; (e) inspect the rewall, including seals and sealant.

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(15)  Chock the wheels and check the brake operation, then set the park brake, start the engine and take the following action to determine satisfactory performance in accordance with the manuracturers recommendations: (a) stabilise the engine temperatures and pressures; (b)  check the idle speed, mixture and the magneto switch operation at low engine revolutions per minute; (c) check the carburettor heat or alternate air operation; (d) check the gyro or vacuum pressure indication; (e) inspect the generator or alternator; (f) check any unusual engine vibration or noises; (g) check the engine response to throttle application; (h)  check each magneto and propeller governor for operation; (j)  check the static engine revolutions per minute, manifold pressure and fuel ow; (k) check the idle cut-off operation.

(e) inspect the starter generator; (f) inspect the indication systems; (g) inspect the batteries; (h) inspect the external power system.

(4) Take the following action in relation to electrical equipment and furnishing: (a)  inspect the ight compartment (including any spare bulbs and fuses); (b)  inspect the passenger compartment (including any spare bulbs and fuses); (c)  inspect the buffet or galley electrical systems, the lavatory compartment electrical systems and the cargo compartment electrical systems.

(5) Take the following action in relation to the following re protection systems: (a) inspect the engine re detection system; (b) inspect any other re and smoke detection systems; (c) inspect the engine re extinguishing system; (d) inspect any other re extinguishing systems.

(16)  After taking the action described above, remove the cowls, inspect the engine for oil, fuel or other uid leaks, then replace the cowls.

Section 3: The electrical system


(1) Check the external and internal required placards. Note: Reference should be made to the aircraft ight manual and airworthiness directives for the required placards. (2) Take the following action in relation to the air-conditioning system: (a)  inspect the distribution system electrical components and interwiring; (b) inspect the heating and temperature control system; (c)  inspect the reon system electrical components and interwiring; (d)  inspect the air cycle system electrical components and interwiring. (a)  inspect the AC generation system (including the generator, invertor, regulator, interwiring, control relays and switching); (b) inspect the AC distribution system; (c)  inspect the DC generation system (including the generator, regulator, transformer or rectier units, interwiring, control relays and switches); (d)  inspect the DC distribution system (including the busses, circuit breakers or fuses, relays, switches and interwiring);

(6)  Inspect the electrical components and interwiring of the following ight control systems: (a) the trim and ap system; (b) the lift dump and spoiler system; (c) the lift augmenting system.

(7)  Inspect the electrical components and interwiring of the fuel distribution and dump system. (8)  Inspect the electrical components and interwiring of the main and auxiliary hydraulic systems. (9)  Inspect the electrical components and interwiring of the following ice and rain protection systems: (a) the anti/de-ice systems; (b) the ice detection and indication systems.

(3) Take the following action in relation to the electrical power:

(10)  Inspect the systems and components that give audible or visual warnings. (11)  Inspect the electrical components and interwiring of the following landing gear systems: (a) the extension and retraction systems; (b) the wheels, brakes and anti-skid system; (c) the nose wheel steering system; (d) the position and warning system; (e) the anti-retract system.

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(12) Inspect lights in or on the following areas: (a)  the ight compartment, the passenger compartment and the cargo and service compartment; (b) the exterior and emergency systems.

(b)  inspect the independent instrument systems, including the inclinometers, indicators and clocks; (c)  inspect the recorders, including the ight data recorders, performance or maintenance recorders. (a) inspect the ight environment data system, including: (i) the central air data system; and (ii) the pitot/static system, including instruments; and (iii) the stall warning system; (i) the magnetic compass; and (ii) the vertical attitude gyro system; and (iii)  the directional gyro system, including the magnetic referenced systems; and (iv)  the electronic ight instrument system and multifunction displays;

(13)  Inspect the electrical components and interwiring of pneumatic systems. (14)  Inspect the electrical or electronic control panels, equipment racks and junction boxes. (15)  Inspect the electrical components and interwiring of passenger, crew and cargo doors. (16)  Inspect the electrical components and interwiring of the propeller control and anti/de-ice systems. (17)  Inspect the electrical harnesses, excluding the ignition harness. (18)  Inspect the electrical components and interwiring of the engine fuel and engine control systems. (19) Take the following action in relation to the ignition: (a) inspect the electrical power supplies; (b)  inspect the booster coils, vibrator systems and high energy ignition systems; (c)  inspect the switching, including by performing an insulation check of the magneto switch leads.

(8) Take the following action in relation to navigation systems:

(b) inspect the attitude and direction systems, including:

(c)  inspect the independent position determining systems, including: (i) the inertial navigation and reference systems; and (ii) the ground proximity warning systems;

(20) Inspect the engine starting system.

(d)  inspect the ight management system, including the ight management and performance management systems. (a) inspect the crew, passenger and portable systems; (b) inspect the indicating systems.

Section 4: The instruments


(1) Check the external and internal required placards. Note: Reference should be made to the aircraft ight manual and airworthiness directives for the required placards. (2) Take the following action in relation to the auto-ight system: (a)  inspect the autopilot or the automatic ight control system, including the ight director and stability control augmentation; (b) inspect the yaw damper system; (c)  inspect the speed-attitude correction system, including the auto-trim and mach-trim.

(9) Take the following action in relation to oxygen systems:

(10)  Inspect the pneumatic indicating systems, including the pressure gauge and warning indicators. (11) Take the following action in relation to the instrument pressure or vacuum system: (a)  inspect the distribution system, including the lters, manifolds, regulating valves, check valves and plumbing; (b)  inspect the indicating system, including the pressure gauge and warning system.

(3) Inspect the ight control surface indication systems. (4) Inspect the fuel pressure and quantity indication systems. (5) Inspect the hydraulic power indication system. (6)  Inspect the ice protection indication system. (7) Take the following action in relation to indicating and recording systems: 22 (a) inspect the instrument and control panels;

(12)  Inspect the engine indicating systems, including fuel ow, temperature and pressure. (13) Take the following action in relation to the engine indicating systems: (a) inspect the power indicating system; (b) inspect the temperature indication system; (c) inspect the integrated engine instrument system.
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Civil Aviation Advisory Publication August 1996


This publication is only advisory but it gives the CASA preferred method for complying with the Civil Aviation Regulations. It is not the only method, but experience has shown that if you follow this method you will comply with the Civil Aviation Regulations. Always read this advice in conjunction with the appropriate regulations

(14)  Inspect the oil indicating systems, including quantity, pressure and temperature. (15) Inspect the water injection indicating system.

(c)  check the localiser system for correct performance within the limits specied in section 108.34 of the Civil Aviation Orders; (d)  check the glideslope system for correct performance within the limits specied in section 108.34 of the Civil Aviation Orders; (e)  check the marker system for correct performance in all modes: an approved simulator may be used for these tests; (f)  inspect the DME system; (g)  inspect the Omega/VLF system; (h) inspect the Doppler navigation system; (j) inspect the weather radar system; (k)  check the ATC transponder system for correct performance in all modes using the self test facility: select code 0101 for this test; (l) inspect the radio altimeter system; (m) inspect the ground proximity warning system; and (n) inspect the electronic ight instrument system.

Section 5: The radio system


(1)  Check the interior and exterior required placards including frequency charts. Note: Reference should be made to the aircraft ight manual and airworthiness directives for the required placards. (2) Take the following action in relation to communication and navigation systems: (a) inspect the accessible interwiring, plugs and sockets; (b) inspect the microphones, headsets and cords; (c) inspect the fuses for adequacy of spares; (d) inspect the antennae and antenna insulators; (e)  inspect the Emergency Location Transmitter/Crash Location Beacon batteries for electrolyte leakage and check that the battery life has not expired; (f)  inspect the removable units, mounting racks, vibration isolators and bonding straps; (g) inspect the switches and controllers; (h)  inspect the radio panel lamps for adequate illumination; (j) inspect the radio indicators for legibility.

Part 3: Post inspection check


3.1 On completion of each section of the inspection, check to ensure that all tools, maintenance equipment or rags have been removed from the aircraft and all panel, access doors, detachable fairings and llets have been correctly secured.

(3) Take the following additional action in relation to communication systems in aircraft equipped for I.F .R. ight: (a)  inspect the HF communication system, including for correct performance by communication with ground stations or by other means; (b)  inspect the VHF communication system, including for correct performance by communication with ground stations or by other means; (c)  inspect the audio system, including for correct operation of all distribution and amplifying systems in all modes of operation.

Contents...
Systems of maintenance Independent inspections Log book requirements

(4) Take the following action in relation to navigation systems in aircraft equipped for I.F .R. ight: (a)  check the ADF system for accuracy and correct performance in all modes of operation within the limits specied in section 108.34 of the Civil Aviation Orders; (b)  check the VOR system for correct performance within the limits specied in section 108.34 of the Civil Aviation Orders;

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Revised CAAP 41-2(1) Maintenance programs for class B aircraft


The relevant regulations and other references
 Part IVA of Civil Aviation Regulations (CARs), particularly Subdivision B, CARs 41, 42, 42A, 42B and 42C dealing with maintenance programs for class B aircraft  CARs 2A, 42V, 42ZC, 42ZE and 42ZP The CASA Maintenance Schedule as set out in Schedule 5 of the CARs  Civil Aviation Order (CAO) 100.5, General Requirements in respect of Maintenance of all Australian Aircraft  CAAP No. 42-1, Inappropriate maintenance programs for class B aircraft.

The Certicate of Registration holder for a class B aircraft must not y the aircraft and must ensure that the aircraft does not start a ight unless there is a maintenance program for the aircraft and the program includes provision for the maintenance of all aircraft components tted to or provided in the aircraft. The Regulations provide for one of three maintenance program options which may be based on either:  the manufacturers maintenance schedule, under CAR 42A; or  the CASA Maintenance Schedule 5, under CAR 42B; or  a maintenance program developed by the Certicate of Registration holder and approved by CASA or an authorised person under CAR 42M. In providing these options, CASA expected that industry would recognise the manufacturers maintenance schedule as the most appropriate for aircraft maintenance. Many Certicate of Registration holders, however, have elected to use the CASA Maintenance Schedule 5 believing that compliance with the CASA Schedule 5, the applicable Airworthiness Directives (ADs) and the Airworthiness Limitations would satisfy all the necessary maintenance required for continued airworthiness. While election of the CASA Maintenance Schedule 5 meets the minimum requirements set by CASA, the schedule does not address supporting material contained in the instructions issued by manufacturers for continued airworthiness, such as special inspections, structural integrity inspections, corrosion control programs and continuing airworthiness inspection programs provided by the manufacturer. Nor does it address the requirements for those persons carrying out maintenance to do so in accordance with approved maintenance data (CAR 2A) which is a consideration of how maintenance tasks shall be performed, e.g. an inspection. In the absence of a requirement for a major inspection, the importance of the instructions issued by manufacturers for continued airworthiness are not only relevant but essential when considering that many class B aircraft in Australia are over twenty (20) years old. The Certicate of Registration holder for a class B aircraft must ensure that any maintenance required to be carried out on the aircraft (including aircraft components tted to or provided in the aircraft) by the aircrafts maintenance program is carried out at intervals determined in accordance with schedules which form part of that program.
civil aviation safet y authorit y

Who this CAAP applies to


 Certicate of Registration holders for class B aircraft  Certicate of Approval holders for class B aircraft maintenance Licensed Aircraft Maintenance Engineers Holders of an Airworthiness Authority

Why this publication was written


Regulation 41 of the CARs requires that a maintenance program must be in force for the maintenance of a class B aircraft. This publication gives guidance on maintenance programs, identies the maintenance schedules acceptable to CASA as dened by regulation 42, 42A, 42B and 42C and the appropriate certication requirements under regulation 42ZE for the certication for the completion of maintenance for this class of aircraft.

Status of this CAAP


The format and layout of this CAAP has been completely revised and replaces CAAP 41-2(0) dated 1 March 1992.

For further information


Contact the CASA Airworthiness District Ofce closest to you. Civil Aviation Advisory Publication April 1996

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The Certicate of Registration holder for a class B aircraft is responsible for establishing a maintenance program for the aircraft, which is to be specied in the aircrafts Log Book Statement, and which may consist of one of the following programs applicable to the aircraft:  A program which includes the manufacturers maintenance schedule, and: a  s necessary, CASA Maintenance Schedule 5 instruments and radio (avionics) inspections;  the manufacturers Airworthiness Limitations;  Australian Airworthiness Directives;

DEFICIENT INSTRUCTIONS/INFORMATION
Deciencies in instructions issued by manufacturers, or in manufacturers schedules, generally relate to lack of information concerning optional instrument and radio systems and roll equipment. The periodic maintenance of such systems and associated equipment is best undertaken by reference to the CASA Maintenance Schedule 5 for when to do it and in accordance with the approved maintenance data (CAR 2A) for how to do it .

MAINTENANCE RELEASE PERIOD


All maintenance required at the nominated inspection for maintenance release issue must be certied prior to the maintenance release issue. The periodic maintenance release inspection must not exceed 100 hours time-in-service or a calendar period of twelve months, whichever occurs rst. To ensure that no maintenance will be overlooked between periodic inspections, all maintenance required to be carried out between periodic inspections are to be endorsed on the Maintenance Required section of the maintenance release.

Consideration should, for the purposes of continuing airworthiness, also include: s  pecial inspections - (manufacturers/modications/ repairs,etc.); t  he manufacturers continuing airworthiness inspection program; t  he manufacturers supplementary and corrosion inspection programs;  A program which includes the CASA Maintenance Schedule 5, and:  the manufacturers Airworthiness Limitations;  Australian Airworthiness Directives;

CASA MAY GIVE DIRECTIONS FOR INADEQUATE MANUFACTURERS MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES


If CASA thinks the elected manufacturers maintenance schedule does not adequately provide for the continued airworthiness of the aircraft, CASA may, to remedy the inadequacy, give directions requiring the Certicate of Registration holder to do either or both of the following, in addition to comply with the schedule:  take the action described in the directions; and/or  prepare documents containing requirements specied in the directions that are to be complied with. Once the direction has been given to take particular action, the direction then forms part of the aircrafts maintenance program.

Consideration should, for the purposes of continuing airworthiness, also include: s  pecial inspections - (manufacturers/modications/ repairs,etc.); t  he manufacturers continuing airworthiness inspection program; t  he manufacturers supplementary and corrosion inspection programs;  A program which consists of an approved maintenance program under CAR 42M.

MORE THAN ONE MANUFACTURERS MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE


If more than one manufacturers maintenance schedule is available for the aircraft, e.g., periodic or progressive care, you should take care to nominate, and remain with one schedule only. There should be no mix and matching. Also in selecting your schedule, make sure that the schedule addresses the t-out of your aircraft and that it relates to the latest revision of the instructions of the manufacturer for continued airworthiness.

CASA MAY DECLARE MANUFACTURERS MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE INADEQUATE


CASA may direct under Regulation 42A (6), in the interests of the safety of air navigation, that the manufacturers maintenance schedule for a type or model of aircraft must not be used as the maintenance schedule [see also CAO 100.5]. In this case the Certicate of Registration holder cannot elect the schedule, but must either adopt the CASA Maintenance Schedule 5 or develop and seek approval of a maintenance program.

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Certicate of Registration holders should be aware that selection of the CASA Maintenance Schedule 5 is limited in its application in that the schedule:  may not be used for helicopters;  in many cases, may not address all relevant periodic maintenance requirements (schedules, etc.) for a particular aircraft; and  will not cover the requirements for continuing airworthiness (eg, service bulletins, service letters, etc.). For this reason, notwithstanding legislative requirements, CASA recommends Certicate of Registration holders and/or Certicate of Approval holders (approved organisations) will need to carefully evaluate the aircraft manufacturers manuals, in particular the associated maintenance schedule, and in the absence of any justiable reason why the maintenance program cannot be used, elect and maintain the aircraft to that maintenance program.

 the name of the Certicate of Registration holder;  the type, model and registration mark of the aircraft to which the maintenance program applies;  schedules which set out: -t  he maintenance to be carried out at specied intervals and the intervals between maintenance; -t  he identity of the inspection to be complied with for the issue of a maintenance release; - structural integrity inspections; -s  pecial inspections, including corrosion control, independent, and weight and balance inspections; -c  omponents subject to overhaul and the intervals between overhauls; -c  omponents subject to retirement and their retirement life; - continuing Airworthiness Inspection Programs;  the maintenance required following lightning strikes, or when abnormal ight or ground loads have been imposed on the aircraft;  MEL control procedures (if MEL is approved for the aircraft); and  amendment procedures for the maintenance program. Those parts of the maintenance program required by the schedules and the maintenance required following a lightning strike, etc., are to comply with the requirements specied in the approved airworthiness/maintenance data for the aircraft, unless otherwise approved or directed by CASA. Where the details in items above are identical to the recommendations contained in the approved airworthiness/ maintenance data for the aircraft, the maintenance program need only contain a reference to the documents in Logbook Statement Part 1, containing those details.

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS TURBINE ENGINES FITTED


If an aircrafts maintenance schedule is the CASA Maintenance Schedule 5 and the aircraft has a turbine engine, then all instructions issued by the engine manufacturer for the continued airworthiness of the engine must be included and form part of the aircrafts maintenance program. Once an election has been made and the Certicate of Registration holder becomes aware that the maintenance schedule contained in the aircrafts maintenance program becomes inadequate or defective and does not adequately provide for the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft the holder must report the matter to CASA as required by CAR 42. The Certicate of Registration holder must then either choose to replace the aircraft maintenance schedule with another schedule or request CASA or an authorised person to approve a maintenance program for the aircraft. Such an election must be made in writing to your local CASA Airworthiness District Ofce. Where the Certicate of Registration holder desires under CAR 42J, or is directed by CASA under CAR 42K/CAR 38, to develop a maintenance program for the aircraft, that program must be approved by CASA or an authorised person and should contain, as a minimum, the following:

REQUESTING APPROVAL OF ALTERATIONS TO AN APPROVED MAINTENANCE PROGRAM


The Certicate of Approval holder may request CASA or an authorised person to approve proposed alterations to the maintenance program. CASA or the authorised person will take into account the aircrafts relevant manufacturers maintenance schedule (if any) when considering the approval of the alterations.

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CASA MAY DIRECT CHANGES TO AN APPROVED MAINTENANCE PROGRAM


CASA may give directions requiring the Certicate of Registration holder to alter the approved maintenance program or correct any inadequacies in the program. All instructions issued by manufacturers, including service bulletins (refer CAR 2A) that deal with how to carry out maintenance must be complied with, unless CASA or an appropriately authorised delegate has explicitly approved an alternative procedure. This applies regardless of the maintenance program that has been chosen for the aircraft. Please also see CAR 42V regarding use of approved maintenance data and CAR 42ZP regarding certication only to be made where maintenance has been carried out in accordance with approved data.

ADs indicating compliance at major inspection are to be complied with at intervals not greater than three years, or one-year intervals for aircraft used in agricultural operations.  all inspections which are listed in the: - approved maintenance/airworthiness data relating to modications/repairs incorporated in this aircraft; and - approved maintenance/airworthiness data relating to modications/repairs incorporated in components installed in this aircraft.  any other requirements recommended by the aircraft or component manufacturer for the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft or component. e.g. Corrosion Prevention Control Programs (CPCPs), or Continuing Airworthiness Inspection Programs (CAIPs).

Civil Aviation Advisory Publication August 1997


This publication is only advisory but it gives the CASA preferred method for complying with the Civil Aviation Regulations. It is not the only method, but experience has shown that if you follow this method you will comply with the Civil Aviation Regulations. Always read this advice in conjunction with the appropriate regulations.

ASSESSING MANUFACTURERS DATA


The Certicate of Registration holder needs to conrm that when assessing the instructions issued by manufacturers and the associated schedules, the data addresses the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft. The Certicate of Registration holder is responsible for considering the data to conrm whether an elected manufacturers maintenance schedule is decient or otherwise. If the assessment indicates that the elected schedule is decient, then the Certicate of Registration holder is responsible for the reporting and rectication action as required by CAR 42 - Defective or inappropriate maintenance program. As part of the maintenance control function, Certicate of Registration holders are required to compile a Log Book Statement Part 1 identifying the aircrafts maintenance program and other inspections to be complied with. [refer CAR 50A and CAO 100.5] As previously discussed, there are three maintenance program options available to the Certicate of Registration holder. The following typically represent log book statements for each of the three options that should be considered when compiling the log book statement:

TYPICAL LOG BOOK STATEMENT CONSIDERATIONS WHEN USING THE MANUFACTURERS MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
This aircraft is to be maintained in accordance with the following:  the instructions issued by the manufacturer and the associated maintenance schedule contained in the latest revision of the manufacturers maintenance manual.  any instructions for the continued airworthiness of the aircraft specied by the aircraft or component manufacturer from time to time;  the CASA Maintenance Schedule 5 for instrument and radio components and systems not adequately covered by the manufacturers schedule, as appropriate;  the schedule of Airworthiness Limitations contained in the latest revision of the manufacturers maintenance manual applicable to the aircraft for all time-lifed components.  ADs indicating compliance at major inspection, are to be complied with at intervals not exceeding three years, or one year intervals for aircraft used in agricultural operations.  all inspections which are listed in the:  approved airworthiness/maintenance data relating to modications/repairs incorporated in this aircraft; and  approved airworthiness/maintenance data relating to modications/repairs incorporated in components installed in this aircraft.  any other requirement recommended by the aircraft or component manufacturer for the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft or component. e.g. Corrosion Prevention Control Programs (CPCPs), or Continuing Airworthiness Inspection Programs (CAIPs).
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Contents...
Systems of maintenance Independent inspections Log book requirements

TYPICAL LOG BOOK STATEMENT CONSIDERATIONS WHEN USING THE CASA MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE 5
This aircraft is to be maintained in accordance with the following:  the CASA Maintenance Schedule 5.  the schedule of Airworthiness Limitations contained in the latest revision of the manufacturers maintenance manual applicable to this aircraft for all time-lifed components.  all Airworthiness Directives (ADs) applicable to this aircraft. 32
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TYPICAL LOG BOOK STATEMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR AN APPROVED MAINTENANCE PROGRAM


This aircraft is to be maintained in accordance with the following:  the current approved maintenance program. state where located Note: The approved maintenance program may be attached to the log book attachment, Log Book Statement Part 1 or alternatively may be held as an independent document by the Certicate of Approval holder (maintenance organisation) normally responsible for the carrying out and certifying for completion of maintenance on the aircraft.

CAAP No: 39-1 (1) Maintenance requirements for class A aircraft


The relevant regulations and other references
This publication should be read in conjunction with Civil Aviation Regulations 39 (1), 42ZE and Schedule 6 of the CARs.

Who this CAAP applies to


 Certicate of Registration Registered Operators for class A aircraft Holders of a Certicate of Approval for maintenance of class A aircraft LAMEs and Maintenance Authority holders  Pilots and ight engineers engaged in RPT operations or who operate transport category aircraft

Certication
Regulation 42ZE requires that a person who carries out maintenance on an aircraft must ensure that completion of the maintenance is certied in accordance with an approved system of certication or the CASA system of certication (Schedule 6 of the CARs) as applicable. Separate certications relating to each inspection shall be made in the appropriate sections of the aircraft log books pursuant to the pertinent CARs.

Why this CAAP was written


Regulation 39 of the CARs requires that class A aircraft must have in force a system of maintenance approved by CASA. This publication describes the preferred procedures to be followed for the development and approval of that system of maintenance and the certication requirements of regulation 42ZE.

Status of this CAAP


This is the second issue of CAAP 39-1. It has been amended to clarify the maintenance requirements for class A aircraft by deletion of one sentence. The sentence referred to maintenance options available to class B aircraft and could have caused confusion. This is an interim amendment to rectify this aspect of the CAAP only. CASAs extensive regulatory review process may result in further changes to this and other CAAPs.

Systems of maintenance
The Certicate of Registration holder of a class A aircraft is required, by regulation 39 of the CARs, to submit for approval, to CASA or an authorised person, a system of maintenance. The system of maintenance is to be referred to in the aircrafts Log Book Statement Part 1 or an approved alternative and should include, as applicable:  the name of the Certicate of Registration holder;  the type, model and registration mark of the aircraft to 34
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which the system applies;  maintenance schedules which include: -m  aintenance tasks to be performed at specied intervals and the intervals between the maintenance; -t  he identity of the inspection to be completed for the issue of a maintenance release; - structural inspections; -a  list of components subject to an overhaul life and the intervals between the overhauls, based upon the manufacturers recommendations and the recommendations contained in the Maintenance Review Board (MRB) document for the aircraft; -a  list of components subject to retirement and the retirement life.  the maintenance required following a lightning strike or abnormal ight or ground loads;  amendment procedures for the system of maintenance;  servicing procedures including specication and grade of uids;  maintenance practices and procedures; and  if not covered by a Maintenance Control Manual: - MEL control procedures; -m  aintenance control procedures, including the planning system to ensure that all maintenance is completed and certied for on or before the due time-in-service or date. If the Certicate of Registration holder is using approved maintenance data as the system of maintenance, the system need only contain a reference to that data. Maintenance schedules are, unless otherwise approved or directed by CASA or an authorised person, to comply with the requirements specied in the approved maintenance data or, if applicable, the current Australian Maintenance Requirements Documents (AMRD) for the aircraft. Where a class A aircraft is used in extended range operations approved under CAO 20.7.1B, the system of maintenance must also include provision for the practices and procedures required to comply with the additional airworthiness requirements, including those specied in the latest issue of airworthiness directives and other approved maintenance data.

Independent inspections
As the system of maintenance will be assessed against the requirements of the current edition of the manufacturers instructions, CARs and CAOs, it is advisable to use these documents as guidance when developing the system. The denition for Approved Maintenance Data, in CAR 2A, species data that is in force from time to time. This means that the data used when performing maintenance must be the current edition in force at the time the maintenance was being performed. Regulation 42G of the CARs requires an independent inspection, to ensure correct assembly and function of the ight control systems of an aircraft, to be carried out and certied prior to the certication being made for the completion of maintenance of any part of an aircraft control system involving: assembly; adjustment; repair; modication; or replacement.

Correct assembly and function means:  that the control system and its components have been correctly assembled and adjusted;  locking devices have been made safe; and  the controls have full and free movement, in the correct sense, throughout their operating range. For the purposes of independent inspections, the ight control system of an aircraft includes:  the main control surfaces; lift and drag devices; trim and feel systems; ight control lock systems; collective pitch system; cyclic pitch system; yaw system;

 associated operating mechanisms and/or control systems, including servo systems; and ballonet systems in airships.

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Log book requirements


The rst inspection will be performed and certied by the holder of a:  valid appropriate AME licence; or  valid appropriate maintenance authority. The second inspection will be performed and certied by a person, other than the person who performed the rst inspection, who is the holder of :  a valid appropriate AME licence;  a valid appropriate maintenance authority; or

reect the latest information available from the manufacturer and CASA. Serial numbered items contained, or referred to, in the schedule for time-lifed components may also have a Lifed Component Control Record card contained in the body of the aircrafts log book. This record card is to be used as a maintenance planning document and does not replace the Component History Card also contained in the aircrafts log book. The Recurring Airworthiness Directive Control Record and the Recurring Maintenance Control Record are maintenance planning documents and do not replace the requirement for compliance and certication to be made in the Aircraft or Engine Maintenance Certication Log sections of the log book.

Civil Aviation Advisory Publication March 1992 Contents...


 Daily Inspection 1 Schedule

 a current pilot licence, other than a student pilot licence, or a current ight engineer licence, rated for the aircraft type concerned. Where adjustments of a control system are required following either the rst or second inspection, the appropriate inspections should be repeated and certied. The independent inspection and certication requirements are not required for the connection and disconnection of optional dual controls which are normally converted from one conguration to another without the use of tools. Unless using an approved alternative recording system under regulation 50B, the instructions issued by CASA for the compilation of the aircrafts log book are to be complied with. Regulation 50A requires the Certicate of Registration holder to keep a log book for the aircraft. Reference to the aircrafts maintenance schedule will be specied in the aircrafts Log Book Statement Part 1. Approved variations to this schedule will be in the aircrafts Log Book Statement Part 2, and any exemptions granted will be contained in the aircrafts Log Book Statement Part 3. If using an approved alternative to the log book, the alternative records must contain reference to the aircrafts system of maintenance. The Certicate of Registration holder will complete 2 copies of a Log Book Statement Part 1 (available from any CASA District Ofce) nominating the maintenance schedules, inspection schedules, maintenance release period, maintenance release inspection and ownership details. When completed, the Certicate of Registration holder will attach one copy of the Log Book Statement Part 1 to the front of the aircrafts log book and submit the second copy to the airworthiness ofce having administrative control of the aircrafts records within 7 days of commencing operations. These schedules must be updated to

2 Periodic Inspection Schedule Systems of maintenance

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CAAP No: 42B-1 (0) CAA Maintenance Schedule


IMPORTANT
When the Certicate of Registration holder elects to use the CAA Maintenance Schedule the election includes both the Daily and the Periodic Inspection Schedules. The time-in-service between Periodic Inspections is to be 100 hours aeroplane time-in-service or 12 months, whichever is the earlier, and for aeroplanes below 5700 kg engaged in private operations this inspection may be performed annually irrespective of hours own. The completion of this inspection, along with any defect rectications performed as a result of this inspection, is to be certied for in the aeroplanes log book.

HOW TO OBTAIN COPIES OF THIS PUBLICATION


Copies of this publication may be obtained from: Civil Aviation Authority Publication Centre P .O. Box 1986 Carlton South Victoria 3053 Telephone (008) 331676 Fax (008) 334191 (03) 342 2000 (03) 347 4407

1: DAILY INSPECTION SCHEDULE


1.1 The daily inspection is to be carried out, and certied, before the rst ight on each day the aircraft is operated. 1.2 The Daily Inspection Schedule has been prepared to cover various types of aeroplanes and refers to a number of different design features and types of construction. Only those items applicable to the aeroplane type being inspected are to be observed. It is not necessary to open inspection panels, other than those associated with engine oil or dipsticks for this inspection, but where the powerplant has quick access cowlings, it is recommended that use should be made of the increased accessibility to the engine in completing this inspection. 1.3 The person performing the daily inspection must be an appropriate person authorised to do so and must certify, in accordance with the approved system of certication, on the aircrafts maintenance release for the completion of this inspection. Appropriate persons for daily inspections are: (a) the pilot-in-command; (b) a  person holding a valid pilot licence endorsed for the aircraft type; (c) t  he holder of a valid appropriate aircraft maintenance engineer licence; (d) t  he holder of a valid appropriate maintenance authority covering the aircraft being inspected; or (e) p  rovided that person has sufcient knowledge and experience to carry out the inspection, the holder of an AME licence in either the airframe or engine category but not necessarily rated for the aircraft or engine type or group, in respect to all AME licence categories.

PURPOSE
Regulation 42B of the CARs provides that the Certicate of Registration holder of class B aeroplanes may use the CAA Maintenance Schedule. This publication contains that schedule as a reprint of the original schedule contained in the CARs, modied to include provision for the certication of each task and a nal category and co-ordination certication. This will allow this schedule to be copied and utilised as work sheets. These schedules have been designed as an option to the manufacturers maintenance schedules. Before the Certicate of Registration holder elects to use this schedule, however, it is recommended that a study be made of the manufacturers schedules as it is considered that these are generally more appropriate for the maintenance of the aeroplane.

STATUS
This is the rst issue of CAAP 42B-1, and will remain current until withdrawn or superseded.

REFERENCES
This publication should be read in conjunction with Civil Aviation Regulation 42B, and CAAP 41-2.

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ITEM SCHEDULE
1. Check that ignition switches are OFF . 2.  Check propeller blades are free from cracks, bends and detrimental nicks, that the propeller spinner is secure and free from cracks, there is no evidence of oil or grease leakage from the propeller hub or actuating cylinder and that the propeller hub, where visible, has no evidence of any defect which would prevent safe operation. 3.  Check that induction system and all cooling air inlets are free from obstruction. 4.  Check the engine, where visible, for fuel and oil leaks and that the exhaust system is secure and free from cracks. 5.  Check that oil quantity is within the limits specied by the manufacturer for safe operation and that oil ller cap, dipstick and inspection panels are secure. 6. Check that engine cowlings and cowl aps are secure. 7.  Check that landing gear tyres are free from cuts or other damage, have no plies exposed and by visual inspection are adequately inated. 8.  Check that landing gear oleo extensions are within normal static limits and that landing gear doors are secure. 9.  Check wing, fuselage, empennage and, if applicable, canard surfaces are free from damage, ensure inspection panels, ight control surfaces and devices are secure. 10.  Check interplane and centre section struts are free from damage and that bracing wires are of correct tension. 11.  Check pitot heads and static ports are free from obstruction and that pitot cover is removed or is free to operate. 12.  Check fuel tank ller caps, chains, vents and associated access panels for security and condition. 13.  Check that all ight controls, trim systems and high lift devices have full and free movement in the correct sense. 14.  Check that all radios and antennae are secure and that where visible, radio units and interwiring are secure. 15. Check that all drain holes are free from obstruction. 16.  Remove any deposits of frost, snow or ice from wings, tail surfaces, canards, propeller and windscreen. 17.  Check that each tank sump and fuel lter is free from water or foreign matter by draining a suitable quantity of fuel into a clean transparent container. 18. Check windscreen for cleanliness and condition. 19.  Check instruments are free from damage, for legibility and security. 42
systems of maintenance

20.  Check that seat belts, buckles and inertia reels are free from damage, secure and function correctly.

ADDITIONAL ITEMS FOR AGRICULTURAL AEROPLANES


21.  Check that agricultural equipment (e.g. hopper, hopper lid and fasteners, spray tanks, spray pump and lines, booms and boom supports, dump doors, fan and fan brake) are secure. 22.  Check that dump and fan brake mechanisms are free from obstructions and operate correctly.

ADDITIONAL ITEMS FOR SEAPLANES


23.  Check hull and oats are free from damage, corrosion and water accumulation. 24.  Check oat attachment struts, bracing wires and attachment ttings for security, for freedom from damage and corrosion. 25.  Check water rudder and its attachments are secure and free from damage and corrosion and has full, free and correct travel. This Inspection is to be certied for on the aeroplanes maintenance release. Any damage or defects found when complying with this inspection are to be endorsed on the maintenance release for appropriate rectication action.

2:  PERIODIC INSPECTION SCHEDULE


2.1 The replacement or overhaul of time-lifed components required in an Airworthiness Limitations Section of the aircrafts maintenance manual and any special techniques required by the manufacturer or an Airworthiness Directive are required to be complied with. If it is clear from the terms of the manufacturers requirement that the manufacturer considers compliance is optional, then that requirement is optional.

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2.2 The engine inspection contained in this schedule is applicable only to piston engined aeroplanes. The schedules for the airframe, electrical, instrument and radio categories however may also be utilised for turbine powered aircraft. 2.3 The inspection required by this schedule shall be a thorough functional and visual check of the nominated system, component, assembly and/or installation. The inspection should be conducted making extensive use of inspection panels, access doors, detachable fairings and llets, using adequate lighting and, where necessary, inspection aids such as mirrors, torches, work stands, etc. Surface cleaning of individual components may also be required. The condition of the nominated system, component, assembly and/or installation when so inspected shall be such as to maintain the continued airworthiness of the aircraft. 2.4  All items are to be inspected for GENERAL CONDITION together with specic requirements where nominated. 2.5 The term GENERAL CONDITION includes, but is not limited to, the following: (a) c  orrect operation, full and free movement in the correct sense; (b) correct rigging, alignment and tension; (c) appropriate lubrication; (d) correct uid quantities or levels; (e) correct air and/or nitrogen pressures; (f) security, cleanliness; (g) wear is within acceptable limits; (h) no loose or missing fasteners; (i) vents are free from obstruction; (j) correct clearance; (k) b  onding straps correctly positioned, undamaged and secure; (l) freedom from excessive: (i) leakage; (ii)  corrosion, deterioration of protective treatments; (iii) cracking and disbonds; (iv) d  eformation, wear, scoring, chang, at spots and fraying; (v) obstruction or other obvious damage; or (vi) burning, arcing or heat damage;

2.6  Special attention must be paid, in agricultural aeroplanes and seaplanes, to areas where corrosion may develop and propagate. The manufacturers instructions should be referred to for guidance. 2.7  Except where otherwise approved or directed by the Authority the procedures and limits prepared by the aircraft manufacturer are to be used when performing an inspection required by this schedule. 2.8  It is highly recommended that an engine ground run be performed prior to carrying out the inspection. 2.9  Provision has been made for the certication of each maintenance task, however, where the same person has completed all tasks a block certication of those tasks is permissible.

WARNING
The manufacturers recommended safety precautions are to be observed when: (a) operating radar systems; (b) operating radio transmitters; or (c) h  andling components containing electrostatic sensitive devices.

CATEGORY AIRFRAME
REQUIRED PLACARDS
External and Internal Note: Reference should be made to the aircraft ight manual and airworthiness directives for required placards.

VH AME

LAME

MAINPLANES & EMPENNAGE INCLUDING CANARDS INSPECT


MAINPLANES & EMPENNAGE INCLUDING CANARDS INSPECT (1)  skins for evidence of wrinkles, buckles, sheared or loose rivets, corrosion, disbonds and general damage; (2)  internally through normal inspection panels for corrosion, disbonds, distortion and damage to spars and internal structures; (3)  lift struts, interplane struts, jury struts, spreaders, chang discs and bracing wires; (4)  ight control surfaces, slats, spoilers, tabs, aps, mass balance weight attachments, hinge brackets, tracks and rollers; (5)  ight control system bellcranks, push pull rods, torque
civil aviation safet y authorit y

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(m) that hoses are within inspection and testing periods.

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VH AME

tubes, cables, fairleads, turnbarrells and pulleys;

LANDING GEAR INSPECT


(1)  jack aeroplane so that landing gear is clear of the ground; (2)  undercarriage attachment to airframe, structural members, drag and side braces, compression members, oleo struts, bracing struts and torque links; (3)  leaf or tube spring type shock absorbing units and bungee rubbers; (4)  main and nose or tail wheels and tyres; (5)  clean wheel bearings and inspect for condition, re-lubricate, re-install and adjust pre-load; (6)  brake linings or pads, drums or discs ; (7)  brake lines and exible hoses; (8)  nosewheel or tailwheel steering mechanism, shimmy dampener; (9)  landing gear retraction mechanism, door and door operating linkage; (10) c  arry out operational check of landing gear and doors ensuring that adjustment of downlocks, overcentre links, uplocks and spring tensions are within the manufacturers specied limits; (11)  lubricate as necessary.

LAME

(6)  wing and empennage to fuselage attachments and surround structure for damage, distortion, corrosion, disbonds, cracks and loose or sheared rivets or bolts; (7)  the strength of fabric covering used on surfaces including control surfaces, using approved or recommended methods; (8) lubricate as necessary.

VH AME

LAME

FUSELAGE INSPECT
(1)  skins for evidence of wrinkles, buckles, sheared or loose rivets, corrosion, disbonds and general damage; (2)  areas around cut-outs such as windows and inspection apertures for cracks and the sealing and t of all doors and emergency exits; (3)  interior of aeroplane for damage and security of installed equipment; (4)  the strength of fabric covering measured at representative surfaces using approved or recommended methods; (5) internal structure; (6)  locks, latches and hinges of doors, canopy, windows which may be opened and direct vision windows; (7)  windshields and windows for cleanliness, freedom from crazing, cracking, discoloration, delamination and scratches; (8)  seats, attachments, adjustment mechanisms and stops, belts, safety harnesses and inertia reels; (9)  control wheels, control columns, rudder pedals, control levers, control system bellcranks, push pull rods, torque tubes and cables; (10)  operate all trim controls through complete range of travel and check for correct trim position indication; (11)  brake master cylinders, lines, reservoirs, parking brake linkage and brake system operating mechanisms; (12)  cabin re extinguisher for correct charge, legibility of operating instructions and condition of locking pin or seal; ensure that extinguisher has not reached expiry date; (13)  heating and fresh air system ducting and outlets, airow control valves; (14)  emergency and otation equipment (if carried), ensure that equipment has not reached expiry date; (15) lubricate as necessary.

FUEL SYSTEM INSPECT


(1)  fuel tanks (where visible), lines, drains, vents, placards, ller caps, ller cap securing chains or cables, ller cap seals and scupper drains; (2)  fuel selector valves for condition and positive detent engagement; and (3)  fuel selector valve operating linkage.

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM INSPECT


(1)  remove, clean, and ret hydraulic system lter element or if unserviceable, install a new lter element; and (2)  hydraulic system reservoirs, powerpack, accumulators, selector valves, hand pump, pipelines and exible hoses.

ANTI-ICING INSPECT
(1) anti-icing and de-icing systems.

AIR-CONDITIONING INSPECT
(1)  air-conditioning evaporator, condenser and compressor and ducting, pipelines and units.

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VH AME

PRESSURISATION LAME
(1) pressurisation control system and indication system. Note: This task may be certied by an airframe or instrument LAME holding an airframe or instrument Group 10 rating.

OIL SYSTEM
(1) drain sump or tank, ret plug and lockwire; (2) drain oil cooler, ret hose and secure; (3)  remove, inspect, clean and ret or replace pressure lter and lockwire; (4)  oil cooler, oil temperature control valves, oil tank and attachment ttings; (5)  all oil lines, ttings breather pipe and oil cooler shutter; and (6)  rell sump or tank with recommended grade and quantity of oil.

VH AME

LAME

ADDITIONAL ITEMS FOR AGRICULTURAL AEROPLANES INSPECT


(1)  hopper, hopper lid and fasteners, bafes and internal braces; (2)  spreader, spreader gate and controls; (3)  spray pump fan, fan mount, fan brake, spray pump lines, booms and boom supports; and (4) emergency dump doors and dump controls.

IGNITION SYSTEM
(1)  remove spark plugs, clean, inspect, gap, test or renew as required; (2) spark plug high tension leads and ceramics; (3) magneto housing; (4) breaker compartment and cam follower; (5)  breaker points for serviceability and gap, magneto engine timing and synchronisation; (6) switch and earth leads; (7) ret and torque spark plugs; and (8) ret spark plug high tension leads.

ADDITIONAL ITEMS FOR SEAPLANES INSPECT


(1)  external covering and internal structure of oats or hull; (2)  drain all bilge compartments, ret and relock drain plugs; (3)  oat attachment struts, bracing wires and attachment ttings; (4)  water rudders, water rudder attachments and water rudder controls, operate and check for full and free movement in the correct sense and correct locking; and (5)  protective treatment and nish.

POST INSPECTION CHECK


On completion of the inspection, check to ensure that no tooling, maintenance equipment or rags have been left in the aeroplane and all panels, access doors, detachable fairings and llets have been correctly secured.

FUEL SYSTEM (carburettor or injection installations)


(1) place fuel selector in OFF position; (2)  remove, inspect, clean and ret fuel strainers and screens, lockwire; (3)  drain carburettor fuel bowl and ush, ret plug and lockwire; (4)  carburettor or fuel injection components; (5) throttle and mixture shafts; (6) all fuel lines and ttings; (7) move fuel selector from off position;

CATEGORY ENGINE
COWLS
(1) remove, clean, check cowls, cowl aps and fastenings.

COMPRESSION CHECK
CYLINDER RESULT CYLINDER RESULT CYLINDER RESULT Nominate compression test method used. #13 #14 #15 #16 #17 #18 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6

(8) auxiliary fuel pump for operation; and (9) pressurise and purge fuel system and check for leaks.

INDUCTION SYSTEM
(1) remove, inspect, clean, ret or renew air lters; (2)  hot and alternate air systems for integrity of seals, serviceability of valves, shafts, bearings, magnets and hinges; and (3) induction manifold and hoses.

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VH AME

EXHAUST SYSTEM LAME


(1) exhaust system; (2) remove mufer shroud and inspect mufer, ret shroud; (3) mufer internally for security of bafe cones; and (4) cabin heat exible hoses.

TURBOCHARGER
(1)  remove heat shield and inspect turbocharger housing for cracks, oil leaks from inlet and outlet ports; (2)  compressor and turbine wheel for nicks, cracked or broken blades, excess bearing drag and wheel rub against housing; (3) rotating assembly bearing for end oat; (4) turbocharger mount; (5)  transition assembly, induction and exhaust components and clamps; (6) upper deck pressure manifold and hoses; (7) lubricate waste gate linkages and buttery valve; (8) ret heat shield; (9) exible oil lines; (10) controllers and actuators; and (11) compressor by-pass door.

VH AME

LAME

ENGINE CYLINDERS AND BAFFLES


(1)  cylinder assemblies for loose thread inserts, cracks, cracked and broken ns, worn bafes, and bafe seals for serviceability; (2)  cylinder base to crankcase area for evidence of fretting and loss of torque on retention nuts; (3) rocker covers; and (4) push rod housing seals.

CRANKCASE, ACCESSORY HOUSING AND FIREWALL


(1) engine for evidence of oil leakage; (2) all accessories and drive belts; (3)  engine mounts (rubbers) for delamination and set, engine mount bolts; (4)  engine mount frame for condition and evidence of overheating; and (5) rewall including seals and sealant.

REFIT COWLS
Ensure that no tooling, rags or other foreign objects remain in the engine compartment before proceeding. (1) latches and fasteners for correct tension; (2) inlet and/or cooling air ducting; (3) landing/taxi light wiring; (4) cowl ap linkage and engine drain lines.

CONTROLS
Inspect the following controls (where applicable) for full and free movement in the correct sense: (1) throttle, mixture and propeller; (2) alternate air, and carburettor heat; (3) engine bay fuel strainer controls; (4) oil cooler shutter and cowl ap; and (5) turbocharger.

ENGINE GROUND RUN


Carry out an engine ground run, in accordance with the procedure specied by the manufacturer, or that specied below. Functionally check, operate and observe the following. Observe the manufacturers recommendations with regard to the cowling conguration required for engine ground running. (1)  start engine and stabilise engine temperatures and pressures; (2)  idle speed, mixture and magneto switch operation at low R.P .M.; (3) carburettor heat or alternate air operation; (4) gyro vacuum/pressure indication; (5) generator/alternator for satisfactory operation; (6) any unusual engine vibration or noises; (7) engine response to throttle application; (8) magneto R.P .M. drop check and propeller governor operation; (9) static R.P .M., manifold pressure and fuel ow;
civil aviation safet y authorit y

PROPELLER
(1) propeller for static track; (2) propeller hub, spinner and backplate; (3) wooden propeller attachment bolts for looseness; (4)  blades for nicks, backlash, creep and dimensions within manufacturers limits; (5) counterweights; (6)  lubricate propeller hub in accordance with the manufacturers instructions; and (7)  service propeller hub with air (if applicable) in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. 50
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VH AME

(10) idle cut-off operation; then

FIRE PROTECTION
(1) engine re detection system; (2) other re/smoke detection systems; (3) engine re extinguishing system; and (4) other re extinguishing systems.

LAME

(11)  remove cowls, inspect engine for oil or fuel leaks and replace cowls.

VH AME

LAME

CATEGORY ELECTRICAL
REQUIRED PLACARDS
External and Internal Note: Reference should be made to the aircraft ight manual and airworthiness directives for required placards.

FLIGHT CONTROL
(1) electrical components and interwiring of: (i) trim and ap systems; (ii) lift dump and spoiler systems; and (iii) lift augmenting system.

AIR-CONDITIONING
(1) distribution system electrical components and interwiring; (2) heating and temperature control system; (3) Freon or air cycle system electrical components and interwiring.

FUEL
(1) e  lectrical components and interwiring of the fuel distribution and dump system.

HYDRAULIC POWER
(1)  electrical components and interwiring of the main and auxiliary hydraulic systems.

ELECTRICAL POWER
(1)  AC generation system (incudes: generator, invertor, regulator, interwiring, control relays and switching); (2) AC distribution system; (3)  DC generation system (includes: generator, regulator, transformer/rectier units, interwiring, control relays and switches); (4)  DC distribution system (includes: busses, circuit breakers/ fuses, relays, switches and interwiring); (5) starter/generator; (6) indication systems; (7) batteries: (i) l ead acid for correct specic gravity and electrolyte level of each cell; (ii) n  ickel-cadmium maintain in accordance with the manufacturers instructions;

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION


(1) electrical components and interwiring of: (i) anti/de-ice systems; and (ii) ice detection and indication systems.

CENTRAL WARNING SYSTEMS


(1)  those systems or components that give audible or visual warnings.

LANDING GEAR
(1) electrical components and interwiring of: (i) extension/retraction systems; (ii) wheels, brakes and anti-skid system; (iii) nose wheel steering system; (iv) position and warning system; and (v) anti-retract system.

(8) external power system.

EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHING


(1)  ight, passenger, buffet/galley, lavatory and cargo compartments electrical systems (including any spare bulbs and fuses).

LIGHTS
(1) ight, passenger, cargo and service compartments; and (2) exterior and emergency systems.

PNEUMATIC
(1) electrical components and interwiring.

ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC PANELS
(1) control panels, equipment racks and junction boxes

DOORS
(1)  electrical components and interwiring of passenger, crew and cargo doors. 52
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VH AME

PROPELLERS LAME
(1)  electrical components and interwiring of the propeller control and anti/de-ice systems.

ICE PROTECTION
(1) ice protection indication system.

POWERPLANTS
(1) electrical harnesses, excluding ignition harness.

INDICATING AND RECORDING


(1) instrument and control panels; (2)  independent instrument systems, including inclinometers, indicators and clocks; and (3)  recorders, including ight data recorders, performance or maintenance recorders.

VH AME

LAME

ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL


(1) electrical components and interwiring.

IGNITION
(1) electrical power supplies; (2)  booster coils, vibrator systems and high energy ignition systems; and (3)  switching, including the performance of an insulation check of magneto switch leads.

NAVIGATION
(1) ight environment data system, including: (i) central air data system; (ii) pitot/static system, including instruments; and (iii) stall warning system. (i) magnetic compass; (ii) vertical (attitude) gyro system; (iii)  directional gyro system, including magnetic referenced systems; and (iv)  electronic ight instrument system and multi-function displays. (i) inertial navigation and/or reference systems; and (ii) ground proximity warning systems; and

ENGINE STARTING
(1) cranking system.

(2) attitude and direction systems, including:

POST INSPECTION CHECK


On completion of the inspection, check to ensure that no tooling, maintenance equipment or rags have been left in the aircraft and all panels, access doors, detachable fairings and llets have been correctly secured.

(3) independent position determining systems, including:

CATEGORY INSTRUMENT
REQUIRED PLACARDS
(1) external and internal Note: Reference should be made to the aircraft ight manual and airworthiness directives for required placards.

(4) ight management system.

OXYGEN
(1) crew, passenger and portable systems; and (2) indicating systems.

AUTO-FLIGHT
(1)  autopilot/automatic ight control system, including ight director and stability control augmentation; (2)  yaw damper system; and (3)  speed-attitude correction system including auto-trim and mach trim.

PNEUMATIC
(1)  indicating systems, including the pressure gauge and/or warning indicators.

INSTRUMENT PRESSURE/VACUUM SYSTEM


(1)  distribution system, including lters, manifolds, regulating valves, check valves and plumbing; and (2)  indicating system, including the pressure gauge and/or warning system.

FLIGHT CONTROLS
(1) ight control surface indication systems.

FUEL SYSTEM
(1) fuel pressure and quantity indication systems.

ENGINE FUEL AND CONTROL


(1)  indicating systems, including fuel ow, temperature and pressure.

HYDRAULIC POWER
(1) hydraulic power indication system.

ENGINE INDICATING
(1)  power indicating system, including MAP , TORQUE, EPR and R.P .M.;

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VH AME

LAME

(2)  temperature indication system, including CHT, EGT and Turbine temperature; and (3) integrated engine instrument system, including EICAS.

NAVIGATION
(1)  ADF system, for accuracy of frequency selection and correct performance in all modes of operation within the limits specied in CAO 108.34; (2) VOR system, for correct performance within the limits specied in CAO 108.34; (3) Localiser system, for correct performance within the limits specied in CAO 108.34; (4)  Glideslope system, for correct performance within the limits specied in CAO 108.34; (5)  Marker system, for correct performance in all modes, an approved simulator may be used for these tests; (6) DME system; (7) Omega/VLF system; (8) Doppler navigation system; (9) Weather radar system; (10)  ATC transponder system, for correct performance in all modes using the self test facility. Select code 0101 for this test; (11) Radio altimeter system; (12) Ground proximity warning system; and (13) Electronic ight instrument system.

VH AME

LAME

OIL
(1) oil indicating systems, including quantity, pressure and temperature.

WATER INJECTION
(1) water injection indicating system.

POST INSPECTION CHECK


On completion of the inspection, check to ensure that no tooling, maintenance equipment or rags have been left in the aircraft and all panels, access doors, detachable fairings and llets have been correctly secured.

CATEGORY RADIO
SECTION 1 APPLICABLE TO ALL AIRCRAFT REQUIRED PLACARDS
(1) interior and exterior, including frequency charts. Note: Reference should be made to the aircraft ight manual and airworthiness directives for required placards.

COMMUNICATION & NAVIGATION (GENERAL)


(1) accessible interwiring, plugs and sockets; (2) microphones, headsets and cords; (3) fuses for adequacy of spares; (4) antennas and antenna insulators; (5)  ELT/CLB batteries for electrolyte leakage and that battery life has not expired; (6)  removable units, mounting racks, vibration isolators and bonding straps; (7) switches and controllers; (8) radio panel lamps for adequate illumination; and (9) radio indicators for legibility.

SECTION 3 APPLICABLE TO ALL AIRCRAFT POST INSPECTION CHECK


On completion of the inspection, check to ensure that all tools, maintenance equipment or rags have been removed from the aircraft and all panel, access doors, detachable fairings and llets have been correctly secured.

SECTION 2 APPLICABLE TO IFR AIRCRAFT COMMUNICATION


(1) HF . communication system, including correct performance by communication with ground stations or other means; (2) VHF . communication system, including correct performance by communication with ground stations or other means; (3)  audio system, including correct operation of all distribution and amplifying systems in all modes of operation. 56
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CAAP 42L-1(0) Inspection of aircraft after abnormal ight loads, heavy landing or lightning strike
CAAP 42L-1(0) Contents...
1. Introduction 2. Examination of aircraft 3. Heavy or overweight ground load and abnormal ight load inspection 4. Inspection as a result of lightning

detected. By virtue of their design, aircraft differ in the manner in which an abnormal load may manifest itself. Wrinkling or distortion of fuselage or wing skins may well be an indication that structure deformation or failure has occurred and a full investigation should be carried out. 2.3  Should the inspection process reveal that the aircraft has suffered major damage, the Maintenance Release must be endorsed pursuant to regulation 50 of CAR 1988. If the damage is considered to be major damage and there is a likelihood the aircraft will be own the Maintenance Release must be endorsed that the aircraft is unairworthy and the Maintenance Release ceases to be in force pursuant to regulation 47 of CAR 1988.

References
Regulation 42L of CAR 1988 systems of maintenance: matters to be included.

Purpose
This CAAP provides guidance material to any person developing a system of maintenance for an aircraft in accordance with regulation 42L.

Status of this CAAP


This is the rst CAAP to be issued on this subject

1: Introduction
1.1  Aircraft are designed to withstand ight and landing loads within specied limits. If design limits are exceeded the structural integrity of the aircraft structure may be jeopardised and safety could be impaired. Any report or evidence on the aircraft which suggests that the design limits have been exceeded or equipment damaged should, therefore, be followed by a careful inspection appropriate to the nature of the occurrence and in accordance with the aircraft manufacturers approved data. 1.2 The following advice is provided as guidance for special inspection requirements to certicate of registration holders, pilots and individuals involved in the maintenance of aircraft. It is not possible to provide precise details of inspections to be adopted after every type of incident due to the varying nature of the stress that may occur.

3:  Heavy or overweight ground load and abnormal ight load inspection


3.1  If an aircraft has been own through conditions of severe turbulence, or has been subjected to ight manoeuvres in excess of the manufacturers recommended limits or has suffered a heavy or over weight landing, the aircraft must be assessed for damage. 3.2 The following inspections and actions are recommended prior to further ight.

3.2.1 FUSELAGE
 skins, bulkheads and fairings for distortion, cracks, wrinkles and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  composite bre fairings for distortion, cracks, debonding and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  loose or missing access panels;  landing gear support structure for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  emergency exit doors for ease of operation/removal;  entry doors for correct t, latching and operation; and  evidence of hydraulic uid or fuel leaks.

2: Examination of aircraft
2.1  Where the aircraft manufacturer provides for special inspection requirements, those inspections must take priority over the guidance material in this article. Should the manufacturers inspection requirements be found to be decient the following samples are provided to supplement the manufacturers recommendations. 2.2 The inspection process must be to such a scope as to ensure that all defects, including sub-surface defects, are 58
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3.2.2 FUSELAGE INTERIOR


 loose or missing access panels;  passenger and crew seats, seat belts and harness attach points for damage, distortion and security;  cargo compartment tie-down tting attach points for cracks and security;  cargo tie-down nets and straps for obvious damage;
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 instruments and instrument panels for damage and security;  gyroscopic instruments for erection time, precession and unusual noises;  support structure for heavy components such as galley modules, batteries, water tanks, re extinguishers and auxiliary power units for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  evidence of hydraulic uid or fuel leaks; and  evidence of battery uid leakage.

 composite bre fairings for distortion, cracks debonding and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  vertical stabiliser attach ttings for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  loose or missing access panels;  rudder hinge support structure for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  stabiliser internal structure, with access panels removed, for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners; and  evidence of hydraulic uid leaks.

3.2.3 WINGS
 upper and lower wing skins and llet fairings for distortion, cracks, wrinkling and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  composite bre fairings for distortion, cracks, debonding and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  loose or missing access panels;  landing gear support structure, including uplock mechanism support ( for abnormal ight load inspection) for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  engine mount support structure for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  wing/fuselage attachment support structure for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  internal wing structure, with access panels removed, for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  wing ight control, lift augmentation and spoiling device attachment support structure for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  lift support struts for distortion, cracks and bowing;  lift support strut attachment support structure for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  oat attachment support structure for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners  interplane bracing wires for correct tension, lugs for cracks and elongated holes;  interplane bracing wire attachment support structure for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  wing centre section structure for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners; and  evidence of hydraulic uid and fuel leaks.

3.2.5 HORIZONTAL STABILISER


 horizontal stabiliser upper and lower skins and fairings for distortion, wrinkling, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  composite bre fairings for distortion, cracks, debonding and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  horizontal stabiliser attach ttings for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  loose or missing access panels;  elevator hinge support structure for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  stabiliser internal structure, with access panels removed, for distortion, cracks, loose or missing rivets or fasteners; and  evidence of hydraulic uid leaks.

3.2.6 LANDING GEARS  (heavy or overweight ground load inspection only)


 landing gear and landing gear attach ttings for distortion, cracks or movement;  retract struts, brace struts, torque links and all other undercarriage components for distortion, cracks, loose or missing fasteners and hinge pins;  axles and axle attach ttings for distortion or cracks;  landing gear up lock and down lock mechanism for distortion or cracks;  landing gear doors, door latch and actuating mechanism for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  check oleos for abnormal extension, scoring and leakage;  cracked wheel hubs, loose or missing bolts;  tyres for distortion, bulging, at spots, creeping, cuts and loss of pressure and wheel hub balance weights; 61

3.2.4 VERTICAL STABILISER


 vertical stabiliser left and right skins and fairings for distortion, cracks wrinkling and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;

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 evidence of hydraulic uid leaks from actuators; and  a retraction check.

3.2.7 CONTROL SYSTEMS


 control surface skins, closure ribs and spars for distortion, cracks, debonding and loose or missing rivets;  control surface hinges for distortion or cracks;  trim tab/s for distorted skins, closure ribs or spars, cracks, debonding and loose or missing rivets;  lift augmentation and spoiling devices for distorted skins, closure ribs or spars, cracks, debonding and loose or missing rivets;  mass balance weights and surface horns for security and attachment;  operation of control surfaces for full and free movement; and  operation of engine controls for full and free movement.

3.2.9 FLOATS  (heavy or overweight ground load inspection only)


 Bilges for evidence of leakage particularly in the vicinity of plating joints, keel strip and chine angles; Float structure for damage, distortion, cracks, skin wrinkles and sheared or loose or missing rivets or fasteners; and  struts for bowing and general damage and bracing cables for correct tension.

4:  Inspections as a result of lightning


4.1 Lightning is a discharge of electricity between highly charged cloud formations, or between charged cloud and the ground. The discharge may strike an aircraft and result in very high voltages and currents passing through the structure. 4.2 Lightning strikes may have a number of effects on an aircraft: and examples are as follows:  strike damage where the discharge enters the aircraft; and static discharge damage subsequent to the strike; and  skin damage where the lightning bounces across the skin surface.

3.2.8  ENGINE, ENGINE MOUNTS, MOUNT FRAMES AND NACELLES


 engine mounts and frames for distortion, cracks, loose or missing rivets or bolts and broken welds;  tubular engine mounts and frames should be checked for distortion, cracks or bowing;  turbine engines check for freedom of rotating assemblies and on piston engines for freedom of rotation with spark plugs removed;  engine compartment rewall for distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  engine shock mount assemblies for damage;  engine nacelle for signs of chang, distortion, cracks and loose or missing rivets or fasteners;  engine nacelle latches for correct and positive latching;  evidence of hydraulic uid, fuel or engine oil leaks;  propeller shaft shock-loading in accordance with the manufacturers approved data;  propeller attachments and counterweights; and  engine oil system chip detectors.

4.3  Strike damage is generally conned to wing tips, leading edges of wings and stabilisers and the nose of the aircraft. Damage is usually in the form of small circular burn marks or holes spread over a wide area, blisters on radomes and cracks in bre glass. 4.4 The following actions are recommended prior to further ight:  an extensive inspection of the aircraft skin for evidence of lightning strike. Bonding strips and discharge wicks should be checked in areas where there is evidence of a lightning strike;  a check of ight control and lift augmentation and spoiler devices for proper bonding. Inspect bearings for roughness and resistance to movement;  an inspection of engine nacelles for evidence of pitting or burning. If the damage is consistent with a lightning strike, the discharge may have tracked through the engine bearings. In this case, some manufacturers recommend oil lters and chip detectors be examined for contamination, with repeated checks at specied intervals;  if the landing gear was extended when the lightning strike occurred, an inspection of the gear for static discharge. Check for residual magnetism and demagnetise where necessary;  functional checks of radio, radar equipment, instruments, compasses, electrical circuits and ying controls in accordance with the manufacturers approved data; and a bonding resistance check on radome.

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Introduction
The pilot, the LAME, the Certicate of Registration Registered Operator, the maintenance controller and the hirer of the aircraft all have an interest in maintenance that has been done and what needs to be done to an aircraft. Communication of the required information to these people is performed by the Maintenance Release. This is why aviation legislation is in place concerning the maintenance release. Its purpose is to allow any person who has an interest in the aircraft make informed decisions concerning the condition of the aircraft and its suitability for operational purposes. Note: the Maintenance Release in its current form (DA 741) may be changed in the future to the release to service or return to service . These perform the same communication functions as the DA 741 which we are all familiar with in Australia. When a person issues a maintenance release they are currently certifying that: 1.  All of the required maintenance has been performed. 2.  This maintenance was performed in accordance with approved maintenance data. 3.  The aircraft should remain airworthy for a period of 100 hrs or twelve months, provided that all maintenance indicated on the required maintenance section of the maintenance releases is performed when required and all other things are carried out to the required standard. This is very daunting on rst seeing it, but it shouldnt be.

How does the Maintenance Release Work?


When an aircraft has been ying for a specied period of time, it then becomes due for a periodic inspection. This time is usually 1 year from the date the last periodic inspection was carried out or 100 hours time in service (TIS). In some specic circumstances the aircraft is permitted to y unlimited hours within a 12-month period. The maintenance release is issued for the period of time indicated in the approved (by CASA) system of maintenance. This system is chosen by the Registered Operator from the list outlined in Civil Aviation Regulations. In the case of an airline operation, maintenance is performed at regular intervals over a period of time specied in the system of maintenance, meaning that all of the required maintenance is 66
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carried out over this time rather than all at once. This helps keep the aircraft ying, but more importantly decreases the number of possible safety errors, by giving the maintenance staff more time to apply their expertise to specic tasks that start and nish in one operation. All aircraft are required by the Civil Aviation Act and Regulations to have a current maintenance release before any ight is commenced. If the maintenance release is out of time (TIS has reached 100 hrs or the period specied on the release), cancelled, suspended or maintenance is required, the aircraft must not commence a ight, unless specic permission is granted by CASA. In addition, the maintenance release is to be carried in the aircraft on every ight unless an approval is given by CASA not to carry it. In some cases an electronic maintenance release is approved. These will have specic requirements that must be met that is, the pilot in command must have access to all of the required information before accepting the aircraft for a ight. The same applies to maintenance staff prior to maintenance being performed.
5 10

Part 1
1 2 1a 3 4a
......../............/.......... .................................

4b

6 11 14 12

8 13

15

16

17

18

18a

The Maintenance Release


We will now deal with each section of the maintenance release (DA 741). It must be pointed out that when the proposed changes to legislation nally become law, the same information will be required but the format and where that information is kept will be different. (Release to service, tech logs and return to service) The maintenance release is divided into three broad sections designated as Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3. Each part has a different purpose and different requirements, that must be met. Each part is further split into different sections requiring specic information. For the purpose of this information booklet each section has been given a number. An explanation of the purpose of the required information for each section will be given.

This is the actual Maintenance Release itself, and must contain all of the information needed by the pilot, Registered Operator, maintenance control personnel and maintenance staff to operate or maintain the aircraft. This part is prepared by the person authorised to issue the maintenance release and cannot be changed under any circumstances, with the exception that the person responsible for maintenance (The Registered Operator IAW CASR 47) of the individual aircraft must ensure that the maintenance required information is written in the maintenance required section, e.g. when an AD is issued for the aircraft. The Registered Operator is responsible for ensuring that all required maintenance is written in this section, particularly in the case where the maintenance release was already issued prior to notication of a new mandatory requirement, e.g. an AD. The same would apply to any other maintenance required before the current maintenance release expires, e.g. when a component reaches its overhaul life or when a mandatory inspection occurs that is not an AD. In the case where immediate action is required, the requirement would be endorsed (written) in Part 2 not Part 1 of the current maintenance release and the aircraft would be grounded; i.e. no further ight would be permitted until either the requirements are met or an exclusion is approved by CASA. It is then transferred to Part 1 Maintenance Required . There is only one instance where the aircraft may be approved for ight with mandatory maintenance outstanding. This is through a Special Flight Permit issued by CASA. These will have conditions, that must be met.

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The sections of Part One have been numbered from 1 to 18 as indicated in the diagram above: An explanation of the purpose and specic requirements of each of these sections is as follows.

Normally the TTIS indicated here will be 100 hours from the TTIS at the time of maintenance release issue; e.g. if the periodic inspection is carried out at 1221.7 hours TTIT then the expiry will be 1321.7 hours. Some exceptions to this, are approved by CASA. In the case of a light aircraft (B Class) operated in the private or aerial work categories only then this could be above 100 hours. Only in this case is the section left blank. In some cases additional times between inspection are approved by CASA, i.e. 150 hours. Whenever the time in service between periodic inspections is indicated in the approved system of maintenance, this is the gure that is used. The number is added to the TTIS when the aircraft is released. TTIS is the accumulated time the aircraft has own from manufacture. For each ight the Time In Service (TIS) is the time from when the aircraft takes off on a ight and when the aircraft lands at the end of the ight (CAR 1988 2). It is compulsory to measure this time accurately and to record it in Part 3 of the maintenance release. This is the primary means of determining when periodic maintenance is due.

Section 1
This area must contain the words Maintenance Release , or other words approved by CASA, which indicate the name and purpose of the form.

Section 1a
This must contain a unique number giving reference to this specic maintenance release. This is to ensure that there is a single path back to the issuer of the maintenance release.

Section 2
This is used to indicate the specic type of aircraft the release is issued for, e.g. Piper PA28-140. This should contain full details of the make and model of the aircraft as specied by the aircrafts manufacturer. It should not be the common name of the aircraft. In the example given, Arrow or Warrior or even just PA28 is not acceptable.

Section 3
This is where the specic Australian registration designation is written, i.e. IFA, the VH (specifying an Australian aircraft is usually pre-printed on the form; if it isnt then it must be written in by the person issuing the release). This is to specify exactly which aircraft is being released. This number should be taken from the marks on the aircraft itself and veried with the certicate of registration details. If they are different, then CASA should be notied through the Registered Operator. Find out why!

Section 5
The person issuing the maintenance release places their details in this area. The person in this case is authorised to do so by CASA, which means that it will be the CAR 30 (later Part 145) organisation that performed the inspection on the aircraft; i.e if the company that did the maintenance is ABC Aircraft Maintenance Certicate number 111111, then this is what is written in the area, not the name of the person who signed the release. The person who signs, does so for and on behalf of the organisation that is authorised to performed the maintenance and holds a CASA CAR 30 certicate for the maintenance.

Section 4a
The date the maintenance release expires is written; it should be 12 months from the day the release was issued. Pay special attention to the year. Unintentionally a signicant number of releases are issued which expire on the same day they are issued. This date is usually 12 months from the issue date or a time approved by CASA. Under the proposed changes to legislation this will be the date the next periodic inspection is due.

Section 6
The TTIS of the aircraft at the time the maintenance release is issued is written here. This number is taken from the aircrafts records and can be checked against the mechanical recording system if one is tted. When there is a discrepancy then this should be reported to the Registered Operator and CASA for investigation. 71

Section 4b
The aircrafts Total Time In Service (TTIS) when the release will expire is indicated in this box. Under the proposed changes to legislation this will be the TTIS when the next periodic inspection is due. 70
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Section 7
The time the maintenance release was signed.

Section 11
The person signing writes their personal AME licence number or authorisation number in this section.

Section 8
The date the maintenance release was signed.

Section 12
The Registered Operator has made a decision previously concerning what system of maintenance would apply to their aircraft. They tell the maintenance provider what this system is through one of two means: 1.   by providing a current complete approved system of maintenance to the maintenance organisation; or 2.  placing a Log Book Statement indicating the system of maintenance in the aircrafts logbook. Note when the system of maintenance is neither the CASA system nor the manufacturers system then it must be provided to the maintenance organisation before the inspection starts, including to the person performing the Daily Inspection . The system of maintenance and the Log Book Statement will tell the maintenance people what maintenance will be carried out and when. Part of this maintenance will be for the radio, electrical, navigation and instrument systems. This will indicate whether the aircraft is IFR or VFR. If the system indicates that the aircraft requires the maintenance for IFR then this maintenance must be carried out and the IFR box on the maintenance release is crossed; the others are left blank. An IFR aircraft can be used in VFR operations, but a VFR aircraft cannot be used in IFR.

Section 9
The place where the maintenance was performed. This is particularly important where the maintenance has more than one location where work is carried out. In any case the actual location should be written here, not the location of the main base; i.e. if a maintenance organisation based in Brisbane carries out periodic maintenance on an aircraft in Melbourne, then Melbourne should be written in this space.

Section 10
The person who is authorised to sign places their signature here. Remember this person is not signing for themselves but as a representative of the approved maintenance organisation that carried out the maintenance. This person (signatory) must be listed as approved by the organisation in the procedures manual or system of quality control. This person must be the co-ordinator of the inspection and must have been present while the work was performed (for B Class aircraft only). When the person signs they are saying that: 1.   All of the maintenance was carried out correctly in accordance with the Civil Aviation Regulations. 2. All of the maintenance has been certied for. 3. The log book has been lled out and signed. 4. The maintenance required before the next periodic inspection is researched and written in the maintenance required section (Section 16). 5.  All things being equal, no other maintenance is carried out, there are no unforeseen incidents and the maintenance required is performed, the aircraft should remain airworthy until the next periodic inspection (under the proposed new legislation the person signs that the aircraft met type design and was in a condition for safe operation at the time they signed the release). 6. The maintenance release is lled out correctly. 7 . They are authorised to sign. 8. There is a current Certicate of Airworthiness applicable to this aircraft. 9. They co-ordinated the inspection and were present the whole time it was performed. 72
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Section 13
The operational category of the aircraft should not be confused with the airworthiness category. Operational categories are: 1. Private. 2. Aerial work. 3. Charter. 4.  Regular Public Transport. Take for example the Thrush. Its airworthiness category is restricted agricultural, but its operational category is Aerial Work, not agricultural. The person issuing the maintenance release gets this information from the system of maintenance and the Registered Operator. More than one category may be written in this section provided they are not mutually exclusive; e.g. private, aerial work, charter can be used. Since there are some airworthiness requirements applicable to different categories, e.g. re extinguishers, the maintenance must be carried out as applicable before the maintenance release is signed. If the Registered Operator is using the aircraft for charter and the maintenance for private is all that was carried out, then Private is written in this section and nothing else.

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Section 14
The Maintenance Schedule or System of maintenance used when performing the periodic inspection is written in here. This will inform pilots and other people doing maintenance on this aircraft what the system of maintenance is. This is particularly important for the Daily Inspection . The only method the pilot has to determine what is included in this inspection is to use the approved checklist. This section of the maintenance release tells them where to look. The person lling out this area of the maintenance release should write what the system of maintenance is called from either the Log Book Statement or from the approved system itself. For example if ABC Airlines has a system of maintenance called the ABC System of Maintenance, then ABC System of Maintenance is written in this section. If the CASA system of maintenance is used, then the CASA System of Maintenance or Schedule 5 is written in this space. If the manufacturers system of maintenance is used, then this is written in. NOTE: Under proposed legislation the use of Schedule 5 or the CASA system of Maintenance will be restricted. Registered Operators will have the choice of their own approved system or the manufacturers. The operators of transport category (C of A) or A Class aircraft (used in RPT, or has a CoA in the Transport Category) will be required to have their own system approved.

Be aware that statements such as recommended mean that the operator can choose to ignore the request, i.e. Oil and Oil lter Change recommended at 50 hrs TIS or 6 months, this cannot be ignored. All maintenance in this section is mandatory.

Section 17
The date or TTIS or TIS the maintenance is due is placed in this column. For a date this means midnight that day; for TTIS or TIS it means just that. The maintenance release ceases to be in force (suspended) and the aircraft cannot be own until the maintenance is carried out and certied.

Section 18
In this section the person who performed the maintenance is required to enter a certication stating that the requirement was complied with and entered in, either part 2 of the maintenance release (section 20) or in the Aircraft Log Book. This person then makes the appropriate certication for this maintenance in one of these places. See CAR 1988 Schedule 6 for the certication requirements. Remember that only appropriately approved persons are permitted to certify for the maintenance but anyone can transfer the endorsement (snag) into part 2 of the release. The person authorised to perform the maintenance is required to write the details in the aircraft log book.

Section 15
Each separate item listed in the Maintenance Required column (Section16) is listed in order of entry by an Item number. This number is placed in the column next to the item.

Section 18a
The date the maintenance is performed is placed here.

Section 16
The details of any maintenance required while the maintenance release is in force (from the time of release until it expires) are written in here. The maintenance required is not limited to just airworthiness directives (ADs). This could include ANY maintenance that the person issuing the maintenance release feels needs to be done. For example if during the inspection an item is found to be just within the limits published by the manufacturer, this aircraft can be released, but if experience tells the maintenance person that it will probably need rectication before the expiry date, the person releasing the aircraft can then place an inspection in the maintenance required column to ensure that this is done. 74
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Part 2
19 20 21 22 23 24

This will tell any person likely to y or perform maintenance on the aircraft that the aircraft is VFR and the instrument is unserviceable. Once the defect or damage is rectied a certication can then be made declaring the aircraft airworthy and IFR is now permitted. There has always been a problem for a pilot when determining if a defect or damage is major or not. A major defect or damage is dened as any defect or damage in an aircraft or aircraft component which if it were to be inoperative the airworthiness, safety or the operational capability would be compromised . There are several areas of research that pilots can use to help them make a determination about a defect or damage. 1. The operators maintenance personnel. 2. The local maintenance personnel. 3. The Civil Aviation Orders. 4. The minimum equipment list, (where approved). 5. The ight manual (mandatory equipment). 6.  Their own experience, provided this is veried in the past by maintenance personnel. 7 . The local CASA district ofce staff.

Section 19
This part of the maintenance release is used to record ALL aircraft defects or damage and the corrective action taken to bring the aircraft back to its airworthy state. The legislation does not make a distinction between a major defect or damage and a minor defect or damage. It clearly states all defect or damage must be reported by any person ying the aircraft. Any person in this case includes all pilots, student pilots, ight engineers and LAMEs, once they become aware of a defect or damage. If a pilot were to discover a defect or damage during ight, but they have been told not to write it in the maintenance release, the pilot and the person who told them have both committed an offence. The person who told the pilot not to write it in the maintenance release has caused the pilot to commit an offence, which is very serious. In the past (before 1988) only a pilot or engineers were permitted to endorse the defect or damage in the release. This has all changed; now the person who discovered the defect or damage is responsible for reporting it and endorsing the maintenance release appropriately. The person making the endorsement writes the endorsement number in here.

Section 20
The details of the defect or damage is written in this section give as much detail as possible. Do not worry about the space provided. Part 2 and Part 3 of the maintenance release can be photocopied and appended to the original document, provided it is marked in a way which leaves no doubt that it is part of this particular maintenance release and it is connected to the original release in a way which would prevent it from being lost. In the case of an abnormal ight load or an abnormal ground load, this section must be endorsed with the statement This aircraft is now unairworthy . The aircraft is now grounded until the defect is investigated and appropriate action taken by maintenance staff. As mentioned previously, all defects, regardless of how minor, should be endorsed in this area. Even minor defects which seem trivial, can be an indication that there are problems with a system. For example, if a series of light bulbs are constantly blowing , this could be an indication that there is an over voltage in the lighting system.
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Sections 19, 20 and 21


In the event that the defect or damage is major then the aircraft will be grounded and the maintenance release is suspended. If the defect or damage is not major then the aircraft may be permitted to y. In some cases restrictions or conditions may apply. For example if an instrument required for IFR were to become unserviceable and this instrument is not a requirement for VFR, then the aircraft can y VFR. In any case an endorsement stating this should be written on the release; i.e. Aircraft VFR only refer Item No x , is all that is required. 76
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Section 21
The person endorsing the maintenance release signs and dates the endorsement in this section. This is not an indication of clearing the endorsement. It is there to enable the person addressing the endorsement to gain an indication of who made the endorsement and when. Remember that since 1988 the maintenance release has formed part of the aircrafts permanent record and is retained in the logbook.

For assessment of a defect, the person making the assessment can do so only for maintenance they are permitted to perform. There are certain documents that are available for the person assessing the defect, to help them make their decision: 1. CAO 20.18, for mandatory equipment. 2. CAO 20.4, for oxygen equipment requirements. 3.   CAO 20.7 .0, CAO 20.7 .1, CAO 20.7 .1B, CAO 20.7 .2, CAO 20.7 .4, for weight and balance requirements. 4.  CAO 20.11, for emergency life saving equipment requirements. 5.  AIP GEN 1.5, for radio and navigation equipment requirements. 6. The aircrafts approved ight manual. 7 . The AOC aircraft operations manual. 8.  The Approved Minimum Equipment List (MEL) for the aircraft (if available). 9. Permissible Unserviceability conditions and instructions. Not all of these documents will be available to a pilot at all times, but all steps should be taken to access these documents before making the clearing endorsement, so that your decision to continue the ight is based on sound judgement. Maintenance staff have access to the approved maintenance data, to help make their decision; they can be accessed for advice by non-maintenance staff as required. Use any or all information available to help make your decision at all times.

Section 22
The person clearing the endorsement writes the number of the endorsement for cross-reference in this area.

Section 23
This section is used for clearing the endorsement. The person assessing the endorsement or performing the appropriate maintenance writes the details in this area. An authorised person, that is a person who has received permission from CASA to perform the maintenance, must make the clearing endorsement. In some circumstances this could be the pilot. In most cases this would be an appropriately licensed aircraft maintenance engineer or the holder of a maintenance authority for the work. In the case of a pilot, this is restricted to the holder of a full licence; this does not include a GFPT, unless they hold an AME licence or a maintenance authority. The Civil Aviation Regulations in Schedule 8 list the maintenance which a pilot is authorised to perform, it should be noted that this applies only to an aircraft which is B class, that is, not used in RPT, or an aircraft which does not have a Certicate of Airworthiness in the TRANSPORT category. For A class or transport category aircraft the maintenance permitted by the pilot is listed in the system of maintenance for that specic aircraft. Proposed changes to the legislation will require all pilots to have successfully completed a training course in pilot approved maintenance activities. On completion, the pilots involved will be certied as competent and will receive a maintenance authority specifying the maintenance they are permitted to perform and certify for. This will apply to A or B class aircraft used in any operational category.

Section 24
The person making the clearing endorsement signs, here. The clearing endorsement includes the licence number, authority number of the person clearing the endorsement and the date the endorsement was cleared, and all of this is placed in this section. In the case where the person clearing the endorsement is signing for and on behalf of an approved maintenance organisation, they should indicate this fact giving full details (CoA number and Name of Organisation) in this section, in addition to the personal information required above. A typical endorsement would be Stephen Zxcovich, Lic No L123456, for and on behalf of ZXC Aviation Auth No NSW11234, 20/03/01 .

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Part 3
25 26a 26b 27a 27b 27c 27d 27e 27f 27g
Landings

All pilots, with the exception of a student or GFPT , must certify. Pilots are not permitted to supervise any person perfoming maintenance. An approved pilot must perform the maintenance themselves. In the case where a student on a navigational exercise is forced to land and then y out the next day, before the return ight, a daily inspection must be performed and certied by an authorised person, in this case either another pilot or a LAME. In some instances an authorisation can be obtained from CASA prior to commencing the exercise. In this case the student must then perform the inspection and certify for it. Remember that if there is no signature for a daily inspection beside the date that the aircraft is to be own, then the aircraft must not y.

Section 27a, 27b, 27c and 27d


This is the record of the time in service of the aircraft. The minimum requirement is the total hours own by the aircraft at the end of each days ying. This must be recorded after the last ight of each day. Time in Service (TIS) is dened as the time the aircraft rst takes off until it lands at the end of the ight. This can be measured by any means available, provided it is accurate. Your wristwatch can be used. Many aircraft have a mechanical means of measuring TIS. When tted this must be used. In some cases the TIS is measured by the engine tachometer. When this method is used, the time will be greater than that indicated by the above denition. Under no circumstances must this time be adjusted. The additional time for run-up and taxi is lost, but applying an adjustment factor will cause error and could lead to inaccuracies which will affect, aircraft components that have a dened overhaul life, such as the engines. Part 3 of the maintenance release has a dual purpose: rstly it is used to certify for the daily inspection; and secondly for recording the total time in service of the aircraft and time in service for each days ying. Time can be measured in hours and minutes, i.e. 1 hr 27 m, or as a decimal of an hour (such as is indicated by most mechanical measuring systems). In either case the time entered in the maintenance release should be consistent with other entries, including the gures which are brought forward . The person issuing the maintenance release enters the TTIS brought forward into this section.

Section 25
The date when the daily inspection was carried out is written here. The daily inspection is required to be carried out and certied before the rst ight on each day the aircraft is own. If for some reason the aircraft is not own, then a further inspection and certication is required on the next day. A daily inspection expires at midnight on the day it is performed. For example if an aircraft has a daily inspection at 0800 on one day and the aircraft has a nal ight nishing at 2359 the same day, and is to y again at 0100 the next day, then a daily inspection is required prior to the 0100 ight.

Section 27e, 27f and 27g


The nal three sections of part 2 of the maintenance release are for recording specic information required by the aircrafts system of maintenance. This may be required by the aircraft manufacturer or service requirements, to measure the life of certain components; e.g. landings are usually the measurement for undercarriages i.e. at 17 , 000 landings the undercarriage is due for change or overhaul. Other indicators that could be listed here are cycles for fuselage time on pressurised aircraft, starts for engine starters etc.

Section 26a and 26b


The person who performed the daily inspection is to certify in this section next to the date the inspection was carried out, and write their licence number (either LAME or Pilot) in the space provided. This certication is compulsory (in the past only certain pilots [commercial] were required to certify; this changed in 1988).

Conclusion
The maintenance release is the major source of maintenance information for pilots, owners and maintenance personnel. If it is used correctly it can give you all the information you would need to determine the suitability of a particular aircraft for your operational needs. It is a legal document so all of the regulatory requirements should be met at all times. As can be seen from this booklet the various sections have a reason for their existence. Once you know what to look for, maintenance contains very few secrets.
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ANNEX A
THE NEW PROPOSED FLIGHT AND TECHNICAL LOG Introduction
When the new proposed CASR Part 43 and Part 91 (Maintenance Responsibilities) are introduced into law, the way that records are maintained will be changed. Two major changes will involve the introduction of a Flight and Technical Log, which will replace the current maintenance release. This change is due to the requirement to maintain our international responsibilities and ensure that Australia complies with international standards and worlds best practices. While the format of the new log will be different, most of the information currently entered on the maintenance release will be placed in the new log.

along with the daily inspection the aircraft should remain airworthy until the next inspection leading to the issue of the maintenance release. What this means is that the person issuing the release could be held legally responsible for a period of 12 months.

The New System


The situation outlined above could not continue. First, how could any person be responsible for an aircraft that they are not in control of and which in many cases they do not even see for 12 months. Second, some aircraft are permitted to y unlimited hours between maintenance release inspections. What this means is that determining what maintenance will be required over this period is very difcult indeed. At best this process under these circumstances is awed, in that it involves guessing and not hard and fast rules. In addition, other legislative rules indicate that the responsibility for maintenance rests with the entitled person (Registered Operator), thus creating legal anomalies, which are out of the control of the individuals issuing the release. When the new system is in place the legally binding statements referred to above will be replaced. Some of these will be with reference to returning an aircraft to service after maintenance is performed, including a periodic inspection: 1.  All of the required work has been performed. 2.  All of this work has been carried out using approved or acceptable maintenance data. 3. The aircrafts maintenance records have been checked and there are no outstanding matters. 4. The aircraft meets type design, that is the applicable certication standard as indicated in the type certicate data sheet. 5. The aircraft is safe for operation.

This list is not very different from the current system. There is one major change, though, which is when the aircraft is released the responsibility no longer rests with the person who certies the release. For example when an aircraft is released or returned to service at a particular time and date, the person releasing will not be held responsible for anything after this date and time, with the exception of ensuring the requirements above are met.

(d)  Enter the progressive cycles total, e.g. pressurisation cycles, landing cycles and engine start cycles, that must be maintained to meet the airworthiness aspects of the maintenance program. (e)  Enter the oil uplifts when required by the maintenance program. INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF THE TECHNICAL LOG The registered operator must enter any scheduled maintenance due prior to and including the next 100 hourly, or similar, in the Maintenance Required column. Defects that do not affect the safety of the aircraft must be entered in the Maintenance Required column for corrective action at the TTIS or specied Due Date . ALL DEFECTS must be entered in the Part 3 Endorsement column by the PIC or qualied maintenance person. When an endorsement entered in Part 3 is deferred under conditions of a Minimum Equipment List (MEL see CAR 1988 37) or Permissible Unserviceability (PU see CAR 1988 37), along with any conditions placed on the ights indicated in these documents, applicable to the aircraft, the deferred defect must be transferred and signed by an appropriately qualied person in Part 3 and then entered in the Maintenance Required column in Part 2. Currently the Registered Operator is responsible for maintenance (ensuring all maintenance is performed when it is required). This is rather vague at present. The proposed Flight and Tech Log makes it perfectly clear who is responsible, in short the registered operator- entitled person under CASR Part 47 and the Pilot in Command. The person performing the maintenance is only to ensure that the maintenance is done correctly and certied for. This is where their responsibility ends. 83

Instructions for the new Flight and Technical Log


Currently the instructions for using the Maintenance Release are written in several regulations and orders, and more importantly inside the cover of the maintenance release booklet (the book of maintenance releases purchased by the maintenance organisation). What this means is that with the exception of the person issuing the release no one has access to the required information. The new proposed ight and technical log has the instructions for use and the responsibilities of the user written on each form. These instructions are as follows: INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF THE FLIGHT LOG The registered operator shall inform the pilotin-command of information to be entered and the use of this ight and technical log. The PIC must reference theTTIS/Cycles record in Part 1 to the Maintenance Required periods specied in Part 2 prior to any ight. On completion of a particular ight or sector, the PIC must enter the ights details in Part 1. The PIC will: (a)  Enter where the ight starts from and where it terminates in the Flight Record Column. (b)  Enter the actual ight time, i.e. wheels-off to wheels-on, in the This Flight column. (c) Update the time in service (TIS) progressive total.

Issuing the Current Maintenance Release


From a legal standpoint, when a person (at the moment this is an organisation under CAR 1988 30), issues the Maintenance Release (DA 741) for an aircraft after a 100 hourly or periodic inspection, they are making certain legally binding statements. Some of these are: 1.  All of the required work has been carried out in accordance with the approved system of maintenance and approved data. 2.  All of the details have been entered into the aircrafts maintenance records. 3.  All of the work required to be carried out during the time the maintenance release is in force has been listed on the maintenance release itself (part 2). 4.  Provided all of this work is performed 82

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ANNEX B
CERTIFYING ON THE MAINTENANCE RELEASE (MR)
Certifying on the Maintenance Release is not a unique experience. With the exception of periodic maintenance, most maintenance is certied on either work sheets (system of certication) or on the Maintenance Release. There are several factors in certifying for maintenance on the maintenance release, which have over a period of time been forgotten. 1. S  ince 1988 and the introduction of the DA 741 maintenance release in 1992 (loose leaf log book system), the maintenance release has been part of the aircrafts permanent records. The regulation changes in 1988, which removed CAO 100.5.1 and CAO 100.5.2, stipulated that a maintenance release must be kept for only 12 months after the issue of a new one. The situation now is that the maintenance release is to be kept with the aircrafts permanent records following the same rules as the aircraft log book (i.e kept by the Registered Operator for a period no less than 12 months after the aircraft ceases to be on the Australian Register). In spite of this provision it is recommended that the records be retained for much longer periods. In the instance where the aircraft has not been on the register for several years and someone wishes to rebuild, refurbish, x and y the aircraft, it will be placed back on the register . No problems here? But what about the Certicate of Airworthiness (C of A)? The aircrafts historical records are needed, this also applies to aircraft components. This includes the maintenance releases issued previously. The lack of these records could cause considerable expense to and problems for the person/s wishing to y this aircraft or use the aircraft components. 2. B  ecause the Maintenance Release is part of the aircrafts logbook, the same rules apply as for certication in the logbook. This means that CAR 1988 42ZE and CAR 1988 Schedule 6 apply to the Maintenance Release. 3. The same persons who are permitted to certify for maintenance, e.g. those outlined in CAR 1988 42ZC, must make certication on the Maintenance Release. 4. A  person can certify for and on behalf of their employer, or in their own right. It must be remembered though that if you certify for your employer the certication must say this, i.e. LH ASI changed, S/No ASI VS 001 removed, S/No ASI VS 12001, Release Note number 100000123, tted IAW Piper Maintenance Manual 84
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(No. 2222), Section 16 para 2 (1998). Ground test serviceable. Certied for and on behalf of AAAAAAAA Aviation by XXXXXXX Lic No s10098. On 12/12/2000 at 1545.6 HRS TTIS.  Without the for and on behalf section of this certication, the certifying LAME is signing taking FULL responsibility themselves. This could lead to litigation problems in the future, in which case you will be on your own . 5. The certication requirements are the same for all persons listed in CAR 1988 42ZC, including pilots. 6. The more information included in the certication, the better. This will promote communication between all interested parties and can be benecial in cases where your actions may need to be justied in the future. Remember that in court the defendant as well as the prosecution can use your certication as evidence. The lack of information in a certication can cause misunderstandings and make it very difcult if you need to make justication later. It may just save your skin.

Instructions for the certication on the Maintenance Release are listed in CAR 1988 42ZE, CAR 1988 Schedule 6, CAO 100.5 and on the cover of the DA 741 Maintenance Release Book.

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Introduction
The approval and use of maintenance data is an ongoing problem for licensed and professional engineers, Certicate of Registration holders and pilots. This chapter aims to take the mystery out of maintenance data, by examining what it is, how it is approved and what it can be used for.

The Type Certication Process


Overview of design, certication and manufacture of an aircraft
The process for aircraft design and certication results from the development of a design concept, negotiating and setting a design standard with the regulatory authority, and agreement upon a certication basis for the aircraft. This process is illustrated below.

Processes: leading to the certication basis


Design concept: applicant for type certicate submits the concept proposal to the authority (submitted with 3 view drawing, ref. 21.15), e.g. Nine passengers Low wing monoplane Twin engine Turbo prop Pressurised MTOW < 5700 kg The submission is discussed with the authority when a Type Certication Board is convened to set the design standard. For the example, the design standard would be nominated as the latest issue of FAR 23. However certain paragraphs, as reected in the Type Certicate Data Sheet (TCDS) for the aircraft, may be subject to negotiation with the authority and to an earlier amendment status (issue) of FAR 23. This is shown in the sample TCDS included in the training note appendices at the end of this chapter, as the Certication Basis and is set for the life of the product, except where a safety problem may require an update. Before moving to the next stage, an agreed certication basis for the aircraft must be established in writing, demonstrating compliance with the certication basis and development of the proof of concept aircraft.

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Certication
Aircraft certication is the process of assessing an aircraft type against design standards, which culminates in issue of a certicate of airworthiness for individual aircraft. Type certication is a part process of aircraft certication that leads to the issue of a type certicate or equivalent document. This is necessary before individual certicates of airworthiness can be issued. In determining which country actually carries out type certication, it is important to establish the major demarcations of activity carried out under the term certication . An aircraft type is really only certicated once by the authority of the country of origin, which is usually, but not always, the country where the aircraft was designed and manufactured. Certication:  Ensures the product design is proved through competent and adequate ground and ight testing  Ensures the maintenance aspects are satisfactory  Ensures the ight manual and associated operating aspects are satisfactory   Ensures satisfactory arrangements are in place for continuing airworthiness control, defect and accident notication, supply of service documents and country of origin airworthiness directives. The authority of an importing country normally carries out what is known as design validation. This is not a re-certication, but a process which allows an independent audit, the checking of particular design requirements, and an opportunity for airworthiness ofcers to familiarise themselves with the design. This is important for continuing airworthiness control by that authority. This validation process is recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization in ICAO Document 9389-AN/919, Section 5.10, and is followed by most aviation regulatory authorities. The third level of design acceptance activity by a state other than the country of origin is automatic acceptance, the rubber stamping of an imported design, where there is no investigation into the design by the importing country and only minimal documentation supplied (ref 21.29A). To summarise, there are three levels of design approval by an aviation regulatory authority:  Certication  Validation  Automatic acceptance Foreign aircraft and aircraft components were accepted into the Australian eet up until the late 1980s under the terms of design validation. Regulatory changes resulting from an independent inquiry have allowed the automatic acceptance principles to apply to aircraft and components that have been certied by an authority that has been declared (pursuant to 21.12) to be a recognised authority.

Certication of an aircraft type involves:  Prescription of particular design standards and requirements   Checking the design and methods of construction have been properly coordinated and comply with the stated requirements   Ensuring that quality control requirements and prescribed standards of manufacture are met during the showing of compliance against the certication basis that the type design has established (ref. 21.31).

21.31 Type design - meaning


1. The type design of an aircraft, aircraft engine or propeller (except an aircraft type certicated under regulation 21.29 or 21.29A) consists of the following: a. The drawings and specications approved by CASA or an authorised person, and a listing of those drawings and specications, necessary to dene the conguration and the design features of the aircraft, aircraft engine or propeller shown to comply with the airworthiness standards applicable to it under regulation 21.17 b.  Information on dimensions, materials, and processes necessary to dene the structural strength of the aircraft, aircraft engine or propeller; the airworthiness limitations section of the instructions for continued airworthiness as required by the airworthiness standards mentioned in Parts 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32, 33 and 35; or as otherwise required by CASA and as specied in the applicable airworthiness criteria for special classes of aircraft mentioned in subregulation 21.17 (2) c. The operating limitations and other information necessary for the safe operation of the aircraft, aircraft engine or propeller as required by the airworthiness standards mentioned in Parts 22, 23, 25, 26, 27 , 29, 31, 32, 33 and 35 and as specied in the applicable airworthiness criteria for special classes of aircraft mentioned in subregulation 21.17 (2) d. For primary and intermediate category aircraft, if maintenance on the aircraft is to be carried out by an appropriately rated and trained pilot-owner a special inspection and preventive maintenance program designed to be accomplished by the pilot-owner e.  Any other data necessary to allow, by comparison, the determination of the airworthiness of later aircraft, aircraft engines or propellers of the same type.

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2. The type design for an aircraft type certicated under regulation 21.29 consists of the following: a. The drawings and specications accepted by CASA or an authorised person, and a listing of those drawings and specications, necessary to dene the conguration and the design features of the aircraft shown to comply with the airworthiness standards applicable to it under regulation 21.17 b.  Information on dimensions, materials, and processes necessary to dene the structural strength of the aircraft c. The airworthiness limitations section of the instructions for continued airworthiness as required by the airworthiness standards mentioned in Parts 22, 23, 25, 26, 27 , 29 and 31, or as otherwise required by CASA and as specied in the applicable airworthiness criteria for special classes of aircraft mentioned in subregulation 21.17 (2) d. The operating limitations and other information necessary for the safe operation of the aircraft as required by the airworthiness standards mentioned in Parts 22, 23, 25, 26, 27 , 29 and 31, and as specied in the applicable airworthiness criteria for special classes of aircraft mentioned in subregulation 21.17 (2) e. For primary category aircraft, if maintenance on the aircraft is to be carried out by an appropriately rated and trained pilot-owner a special inspection and preventive maintenance program designed to be accomplished by the pilot-owner f.  Any other data necessary to allow, by comparison, the determination of the airworthiness of later aircraft of the same type. 3. The type design for an aircraft type certicated under regulation 21.29A consists of the type design that was accepted by the National Airworthiness Authority (NAA) of the recognised country that issued the foreign type certicate for the aircraft. After showing compliance with all the above a Type Certicate is issued.

21.41 Type Certicate and 21.31 Type Design.


Note distinction between type certicate (21.41) and type design (21.31). A type certicate (TC):  Is issued when the authority approves the type design for an aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller  Identies the person or entity the authority considers as having the privileges and responsibilities of a TC holder  Includes type design, TC data sheet, airworthiness regulations, and any limitations the authority imposes on the certicate Type design includes technical data such as drawings, specications, information on dimensions, materials and processes. The purpose of design data is to dene a conguration that complies with the rule, and, except for (possibly) one-only STCs, to allow reproducibility of products. Design data may change due to product improvement, changes in tooling, or revisions to master drawing list. Technically, type design data for each individual aircraft may be different. However small, change in design data is ongoing and must be accounted for by an engineering approval and, in some cases, the production quality control system.

Australian requirements
Aircraft are that of a rst of type (FOT) or rst of model (FOM) being placed on the Australian Aircraft Register are dealt with by CASA according to the requirements of Part 21.13A, 21.29 or 21.29A of the CARs (1998). Following the introduction of Part 21 to 35 on October 1, 1998, aircraft certicated in Australia under the provisions of Part 21.13A or 21.29 are assessed against the requirements of Parts 22 through 35 as applicable. Aircraft that have been certicated by one of the recognised authorities are eligible for certication under Part 21.29A, and for such aircraft, the requirements of Australian Parts 22 to 35 are not applicable. Aircraft type (or subsequent model variants) that have been found acceptable following assessment are issued with an Australian Type Certicate (TC) and Type Certicate Data Sheet (TCDS) for aircraft under 21.13A (Australian) or 21.29 (foreign non-recognized NAA). For aircraft from a recognised NAA, a Type Acceptance Certicate (TAC) and Type Acceptance Certicate Data Sheet (TACDS) is issued.

21.41 Type certicate meaning


1. I n these regulations, unless the contrary intention appears, foreign type certicate, for an aircraft, aircraft engine or propeller, means a certicate (however described) for the aircraft, aircraft engine or propeller that is issued by the NAA of a foreign country and is equivalent to a type certicate but: a.  Does not include a certicate (however described) for the aircraft, aircraft engine or propeller that is issued by the NAA of a foreign country solely on the basis of a certicate (however described) for the aircraft, aircraft engine or propeller that is issued by the NAA of another country and is equivalent to a type certicate. b. Type certicate, for an aircraft, aircraft engine or propeller, means a type certicate issued under regulation 21.13A or 21.29 for the aircraft, aircraft engine or propeller. 2.  In these regulations, except in this subpart, a reference to a type certicate, or foreign type certicate, for an aircraft, aircraft engine or propeller includes a reference to the type design, the operating limitations, the type certicate data sheet, the applicable airworthiness standards with which the certicate records compliance, and any other conditions or limitations prescribed for the aircraft, aircraft engine or propeller under these regulations. 92
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Post 1990 but pre 1 October 1998, all aircraft were issued with a Certicate of Type Approval (CTA) and Certicate of Type Approval Data Sheet (CTADS) or in some early cases an Aircraft Certicate Conformance Sheet (ACCS). 21.183 (4) (a) states that; An applicant for a standard certicate of airworthiness for aircraft not covered by subregulation (1), (2) or (3) is entitled to the certicate if: a. The aircraft: (i) Has a type design approved under a type certicate or a supplemental type certicate; or (ii)  If there is no type certicate or supplemental type certicate for the aircraft is of a type or model that has previously been issued a certicate of airworthiness in the category applied for; If an aircraft does not have a type certicate, the certication basis will be that which was applicable for the aircraft at the time the aircraft type/model was rst issued an Australian certicate of airworthiness e.g. CAO Part 101 series orders. Although these orders have been repealed, they are still applicable to aircraft when specied by the certication basis.

 The certication basis for the aircraft  Equivalent safety items  Special conditions  The ight manual that is applicable to particular models  Placarding requirements  Conguration variations (e.g. Whether the aircraft may operate without a prop spinner)  Variations between aircraft models The original type certication of a type of aircraft is taken very seriously. Part of this process is a system where the type design (airworthiness standard) needs to be maintained throughout the operational life of a particular aircraft, which is listed as being manufactured and tested so that it meets stringent type certication standards. As an aircraft is operated through its useful life, certain parts will deteriorate over time. Modications are made so that the aircraft can be used for different types of operation. Included with the initial type certication basis is a system of regular maintenance activities designed to ensure that the aircraft remains in a condition that meets the type design and is safe for operation . This system is called the continuing maintenance program. The continuing maintenance program is reviewed and amended from time to time so if design problems are encountered or unsafe problems occur, there is an ongoing system to deal with them. Changes to the continuing maintenance program are usually contained in documents such as service letters (SLs), service bulletins (SBs), service instructions (SIs), advisory circulars (ACs) and amendments to the maintenance manual or system of maintenance. These are usually prepared by the aircraft manufacturer, or holder of the type certicate and sanctioned, accepted or approved by the national aviation authorities of the country of initial type certication or manufacture. In addition, the worlds aviation authorities issue airworthiness directives to rectify design deciencies or safety problems for an aircraft or aircraft type due to operational requirements. This can happen when things which were designed to last the life of an aircraft are found to be wearing out or corroding. In many cases when an aircraft was designed it was never imagined that it would be still operating 25 to 30 years after manufacture, so many components of the design run into difculties. There have also been many advances to aircraft equipment, particularly in the area of avionics, since the 1950s and 60s. When designs need to be changed, or new equipment tted, or parts that are no longer available or are difcult to obtain need replacing, there are provisions in the regulations, provided the changes or equipment still complies with the airworthiness standard of the aircraft.

Type Certicate Data Sheets


Type Certicate Data Sheets (TCDS) contain information relevant to the certication of particular aircraft. TCDS contain information that is useful, not only at the time the aircraft undergoes certication, but as an ongoing resource for the life of an aircraft. Any time a Certicate of Airworthiness requires renewal or re-issue, aircraft conguration or aircraft performance information is required or some particular limitations are being considered, the TCDS may provide crucial information. Following are examples of what might be found on the data sheets, although the information does vary from aircraft to aircraft.  Engines and propellers that can be installed and their limitations Fuels and oils that are approved for use in the engine  Airspeed limitations  Weight and balance limits, including the centre of gravity range and the datum The means for levelling the aircraft Fuel and oil capacities and amounts that are unusable  Control surface movements  Operating ceiling 94
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Approved maintenance data


A denition of Approved maintenance data can be found in Civil Aviation Regulations (CAR 1988 2A). These are placed in order of precedence: 1. Data included in or required by an AD. 2. Data included in or required by a direction by CASA. 3. Data included in or required by a condition placed on a maintenance release. 4. Data included and approved during type certication. 5. Data approved under CAR 1988 35. 6.  Instructions issued by the manufacturer of an aircraft, aircraft component or material, specifying how maintenance is to be carried out. 7.  Instructions issued by the designers of approved modications to aircraft or aircraft component, specifying how maintenance is to be carried out. 8.  Any other instructions issued by CASA for the purpose of ensuring safety. Anything approved by CASA. Note: If CASA determines something should not be approved, it is not approved maintenance data. Note: All of the above are to work within the international acceptable airworthiness standard applied to the aircraft type or individual aircraft or component.

If the NAA of the country of manufacture approves a supplemental type certcate (STC), parts manufacturing authority (PMA) or technical standard order (TSO), these are approved automatically by CASA, provided the country of origin is recognised by Australia. However, if it is deemed by the authority that there is a deciency that will affect safety, this approval is withdrawn and industry is informed. Recognised countries are: The United Kingdom  Canada The United States of America  The Netherlands France  Germany  New Zealand Since October 1998 there has been an opportunity for people to apply for a CASA-approved Australian STC or TSO. If an STC or TSO is to be incorporated which has not been approved by the NAA of one of the countries listed above, they will need separate Australian approval as though they were an Australian design. If this data is accompanied by changes to the maintenance system or schedule or to the ight manual, then these supplements and changes are also approved. In Australia, it is also possible to have a private person approve a repair or modication so it becomes approved maintenance data. These people are given an instrument of authority by CASA with certain restrictions and they then act on CASAs behalf. This is generally referred to as a CAR 35 approval. This approved data may not change the type certication requirements of the aircraft. A CAR 35 approved modication or repair may not be accepted overseas. In some instances CASA may approve maintenance data through AD action. Remember in this case it is mandatory to comply with this data. CASA can also indicate that specic data must be used by issuing a CAR 38 direction. This might be in the form of a letter or an aircraft survey report (ASR). The actions indicated by a CAR 38 direction are mandatory. These are usually issued for a specic safety-related problem for a specic aircraft. They can also be used to indicate a system of maintenance or schedule or other data is decient and requires amendment.
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What is the difference between Approved Maintenance Data and Acceptable Maintenance Data?
Approved maintenance data is as dened above, i.e. from CAR 1988 2A. Acceptable maintenance data is data which is not approved by CASA but is acceptable for use during the performance of maintenance. This includes procedures which are considered normal day-to-day practices not included in manufacturers instructions, but still a necessary part, i.e. riveting brake shoes onto the backing plates, or replacing a screw. These are normally procedures that are so common that manufacturers consider them to be an integral part of the normal LAME training. Many of these procedures can be found in textbooks such as AC 65, or in some circumstances AC 43-13 (note AC 43-13 has some restrictions for use on Australian aircraft and CASA should be consulted before using this publication).

How is Maintenance Data Approved


Maintenance data includes: repair schemes; modications; procedures; maintenance practices; schedules; and systems of continuing maintenance. Manufacturer instructions are automatically approved by CASA, provided the NAA of manufacture also approves them. CASA specialist staff examine these instructions. If there is a problem or a deciency, the approval is withdrawn and industry is informed, usually through AD action. For example, instructions issued by Beechcraft are approved automatically by CASA so they can be used immediately, provided they are also approved or accepted by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). This also applies to ight manuals and manufacturers supplements. 96
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Conclusion
Approval of modications or repairs
CAR 42V states that all maintenance on an Australian Aircraft must be performed in accordance with approved maintenance data. There are several ways of gaining a supply of approved data. Some of these are automatically approved by the Authority i.e Manufacturers Data (maintenance manuals etc), while other data may require specic approval on an individual basis i.e. under CAR 22 or CAR 35. CAR 2A (b) to (e) gives a full list of what is considered to be Approved MAINTENANCE data. Approved data may also contain the requirement for a Flight Manual Amendment or continuing maintenance data, which requires a change to the aircrafts approved system of maintenance as applicable, These must both be approved separately.

Continuing Maintenance Instruction Contained in CAR 35 data or an STC


Where CAR 35 approved data (design) or an STC contain instructions for continuing maintenance, these instructions are compulsory and form part of the aircrafts approved system of maintenance. The system of maintenance for the specic aircraft should then be amended to reect these additional maintenance requirements and submitted to CASA for approval.

CAR 36 Approval of Aircraft Components for use as Replacements


Sometimes aircraft components are modied by the manufacturer or are no longer available. A replacement part approved by the manufacturer as an alternative through a bulletin, letter or change to list of approved parts might be used. Another method is to apply under CAR 36 for approval of the component as a replacement. CAR 36 refers to aircraft components, which implies that the replacement component must be an approved aircraft component rst, before being approved as a replacement. For example, if a transistorised voltage regulator is used on a Cessna aircraft and has a Cessna part number, because it is already approved as an aircraft component, it may then on application under CAR 36 be approved as a replacement for a Piper voltage regulator. On the other hand, if the voltage regulator is identical to the Piper regulator but has a Ford Motor Company part number and is not approved as an alternative by Piper, then its design must rst be assessed and approved by a CAR 35 delegate to be an aircraft component before it is further assessed under CAR 36 as a replacement for a Piper regulator. Be very careful as some aircraft and aircraft component manufacturers use standard parts during manufacture, such as Timkin bearings. These cannot be used for aircraft maintenance if they are not procured under cover of a release document. In fact they cannot be approved under CAR 36 until they are approved under CAR 35. In some cases the manufacturer may modify the component to suit their needs and retain the original part number. Be aware that some components have differing standards that are applied during manufacture of the sub-components aircraft standards generally being the highest or at least the most strictly controlled. So a component procured under cover from the aircraft manufacturer can generally be considered of a high conformity that has been
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CAR 35
CAR 35 approvals can be applied for by any person. This regulation is used to approve the design of a modication or repair, not as a permission to perform the maintenance required. Permission to perform the maintenance by a CAR 35 approved design is CAR 42V, and under the privileges listed under each category of AME licence or an airworthiness directive.

STCs and Instructions


STCs are now automatically approved by CASA as approved data and, as such, can be used as a basis to carry out a modication. Where the STC is modied in any way by the person performing the modication, or the STC affects other modications previously incorporated, then the STC containing the aircraft specic requirements will need to be approved by a CAR 35 delegate. It then becomes approved maintenance data. A modied STC is a new modication, different from the original approved STC. Be careful, when modifying an aircraft using an STC as approved data, to ensure that the specic aircraft is covered in the STC by model and serial number. If the aircraft is not covered by the STC, then leave it unmodied or have the STC approved by a CAR 35 delegate before incorporation. In some instances the aircraft should not be operated after incorporation of an STC until any ight manual amendments or the system of maintenance is also approved.

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quality controlled, while the same component available commercially may not be of the same standard or conformity. You can only check this if the actual component is assessed for conformity to the aircraft manufacturers standards in addition to those imposed by the legislation individually before being used. Approved or acceptable data must be used at all times during maintenance, repairs or modications. Where there is approved data, it will take precedence over acceptable data. With the exception of an STC, all approved and acceptable data cannot alter the airworthiness standard or type certication basis of the aircraft in question.

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References
1. CAR 42ZE 2. CAR SCHEDULE 6 3. CAR 34 4. CAR 42G 5. CAR 42W 6. CAR 42ZC 7. CAR 42ZN 8. CAR 42ZP 9. CAR 43 10. CAR 47(1) 11. CAO 100.5

1.  Certication for Completion of Stages of Maintenance and CAR 42G Independent Inspections
a. What must be certied for
Whenever maintenance or a stage of maintenance is carried out by personnel permitted to do so in accordance with CAR 42ZC it must be certied for. In addition, whenever an independent inspection is performed by the appropriate personnel it must be certied as completed. This requirement applies to any maintenance performed on an Australian Aircraft regardless of size, category or location, including overseas.

b. Where must this certication be made


In the case where the certication is made for maintenance which will not lead to the issue of a maintenance release the certication should be made: i.  on documents supplied and kept by the person certifying (system of certication); ii. on the maintenance release; or iii. in the aircraft log book or approved alternative. In every case these documents must be retained as part of the aircrafts permanent records. NB: The maintenance release now forms part of the log book. NB: In the case of a certication for an independent inspection as required by CAR 42G and the certication is made on documents supplied by the person certifying, a further certication must be made in the aircraft log book, e.g. two (2) certications are required by both people carrying out the independent inspection.

c. Who must certify


Any person who carries out maintenance must certify for that maintenance. CAR 42ZC gives a list of persons who are permitted to carry out maintenance and under what circumstances. Note: there is a difference between a person carrying out maintenance and a person performing maintenance. 102
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A person carrying out maintenance is the person or organisation who is in direct control of the maintenance; e.g. a licensed engineer supervising a non-licensed person is legally responsible for carrying out that maintenance. When maintenance is carried out by the holder of a Certicate of Approval for maintenance, the person certifying in this case does so for and on behalf of the organisation. When the non-licensed person mentioned above is the person actually doing the maintenance they are performing that maintenance. A person performing maintenance is the person who actually does the task, but they may not be permitted to certify for that maintenance and will therefore require supervision by the person certifying. A further example of this concept is when a licensed aircraft maintenance engineer recties an endorsement and then certies for that maintenance. They are performing the maintenance whilst simultaneously carrying out the maintenance and then certify acting for and on behalf of the organisation they are employed by. They also may act independently, in which case they certify on their own behalf, but take full responsibility on their own shoulders. There is a point to remember when a sub-contactor is used to perform maintenance because the maintenance organisation does not have the staff on handfor example, ABC Aircraft Maintenance performs maintenance under an arrangement with Best Aircraft Maintenancethen they should certify on documents supplied by ABC Aircraft Maintenance . If on the other hand they are working for Best Aircraft Maintenance, they then certify on documents supplied by Best Aircraft Maintenance they then certify on documents supplied by Best Aircraft Maiintenance . They certify for and on behalf of Best Aircraft Maintenance, as though they were employed by Best Aircraft Maintenance. What documents are used for certication depends on the contractual agreement, whether formal or informal, not who pays the persons salary.

2. Co-ordination of Maintenance
Whenever maintenance is carried out by more than one person for either a phase of maintenance of within a licence category, then someone who carried out and certied for part of that maintenance must certify as co-ordinator for the maintenance. For example if two airframe licensed engineers perform part of a phase check in the airframe category, one of them must certify as co-ordinating that maintenance. CAR Schedule 6 Part 3 list the various aspects of co-ordination for maintenance.

a. The responsibilities of persons co-ordinating for maintenance


The person co-ordinating for maintenance is responsible for a considerable amount and should never take these responsibilities lightly. The person co-ordinating is responsible for ensuring: i.  that each stage of the maintenance was performed by an approved person (CAR 42ZC) ii.  that the person who carried out the maintenance certied for it iii.  that the carrying out of any stage of maintenance does not adversely effect any other stage iv.  that all of the maintenance required within the category wascompleted.

b. Co-ordination of the complete Maintenance


When a person co-ordinates maintenance in this case they have additional responsibilities from those listed above. These are: i.  that each category requiring co-ordination is co-ordinated by an appropriate person, ii. that the maintenance was co-ordinated and certied, iii.  that maintenance carried out in each category does not adversely effect maintenance in any other category, and iv. that the maintenance was completed. NB: A certication for co-ordinating complete maintenance is not a nal certication. Final certication is a completely separate issue and requires a separate signature.

d. What Must Be Included in the Certication


CAR Schedule 6 (See ANNEX A Page 16) paragraph 2.5 gives a detailed listing of what must be included in the certication for a phase of maintenance and paragraph 2.6 details what is to be included in a certication for an independent inspection in accordance with CAR 42G. What should be noted here is that the certication in more than a simple signature. Very brief statement such as serviced or xed or part replaced do not meet the requirements.

e. What is a Phase of Maintenance


A phase of maintenance is any part of a maintenance activity which requires a certication by any person listed in CAR 42ZC. This certication is not for the entire maintenance or for co-ordinating the maintenance. If a single person is completing 100% of the maintenance, e.g. rectifying a fault, then that person will make a nal certication in the log book.

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c. Who is permitted to act as a co-ordinator


For co-ordinating within a category, the certication must be by a person who performed and certied some of the maintenance within that category. For co-ordinating across categories (for the complete maintenance), the person certifying must be either: i.  In the case where the maintenance was performed by more than one person within a category, the person who coordinated within a category; or ii.  if all of the complete maintenance was performed by one person, that person. When any of these personnel certify they must certify that coordination was carried out. Co-ordination certication may be made in documents supplied by the person carrying out the maintenance or in the aircrafts log book. NB: this will be a separate signature from the person making the FINAL CERTIFICATION. Two signatures are needed.

Fig 1: A sample certication sheet

d.  What Must be Included in a Certication for Co-ordination


A certication for co-ordination must contain the following: i. the signature of the person certifying ii .  the licence number or Certicate of Approval number or authority number of the person certifying iii.  if the person certifying is an employee or working under an arrangement the certication must include the name and Certicate of Approval number of their employer iv.  if the certication is for a category then the category must be indicated v.  if the certication is for the complete maintenance then the certication must include a statement that the certication is for the complete maintenance vi. the date the certication was made. CAAP 42B-1(0) gives an example of a certication sheet. Please note the statements beside each category (for & on behalf of) and the CO-ORDINATING CERTIFICATION at the bottom. A signature beside each category means the signatory either performed the maintenance themselves or they co-ordinated the category. The certication sheet (Fig 1) is for a periodic inspection. The same principles apply for any other maintenance.

3. Final Certication
Once ALL of the maintenance is completed certied for and co-ordinated, one of the persons who acted as a co-ordinator MUST make a nal certication to the effect that the maintenance is complete (and the aircraft or component is returned to service) in the aircraft log book or component log book (for an engine or propeller) or the component history card, whichever is applicable. In some instances the nal certication can be made on a release to service document, but it must be remembered that all of the information required by CAR 42W and CAR Schedule 6 must be included in the certication, and that the release to service document then becomes a part of the components permanent records.

a. Who can Make the Final Certication


i.  If only one person certied for all parts of the inspection then that person should make the nal certication as well. ii.  If the maintenance was co-ordinated in only one category then the person who coordinated should make the nal certication. For example, if only engine maintenance was carried out by more than one person and was co-ordinated by one of those persons then the co-ordinator makes the nal certication in the log book for the engine inspection. iii.  If there are different categories certied, as in periodic inspection, the person who coordinated the periodic inspection should make the nal certication.

b. What MUST be Included in the Final Certication


If the nal certication is for phases of maintenance which were certied on documents held by the person certifying (as a record of the maintenance), the nal certication must be made in the log book and contain the following details:
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i.  a brief description of the maintenance, not too brief though ii.  the signature, licence, authority or Certicate of Approval number of the person certifying iii. the time in service of the aircraft since new iv.  if the person certifying is employed by a certicate of approval holder, then the name of the employer, certicate, licence or authority number (OF THE EMPLOYER) v.  details of any exemptions or variations approved under CAR 42ZS vi. The details of approved data used. Be as specic as possible for your own protection. vii.  if the weight and balance is varied because of the maintenance, a record of that variation viii.  the results of any special inspections or Airworthiness Directives (ADs) ix.  the method, procedure and results of any NDT inspections carried out x.  if the maintenance is on a component, a description of the maintenance or if it was supplied by another person the number of the documents supplied by the facility IAW CAR 42W(4) xi.  Identication of any time-lifed components replaced during the maintenance, ADs for the component complied with, the release document number, time in service, and/or number of cycles since last overhaul and test performance gures if the component was an engine xii.  any material used with the exception of a uid that was supplied under the cover of a CAR 42X document, the number of this document.

system to be veried so that the communications benet is solidly based on regulatory compliance, without which there would be no basis in trust for accepting the data or facts communicated. The completion of all maintenance on an Australian aircraft must be certied by the person who carries out the maintenance in accordance with an approved system of certication or the CASA system contained in Schedule 6 to the Regulations (CAR 42ZE(1)(a) or (b)) or 42ZN for certication overseas). Because of the notion at law of an employers vicarious liability for the work done by their employees, maintenance undertaken by employee/s of a Certicate of Approval holder, an AME licence holder, or the holder of an appropriate airworthiness authority is taken to be conducted by the employing authorisation holder(CAR 42ZE(2)), and not the employee. Because of the complexity of modern aircraft and the fact that maintenance can be carried out across shifts and by various categories of tradespersons, it is unlikely that one individual could be across all maintenance done at the one hangar visit, particularly if the inspection conducted was a major check. For those reasons the person who may be required to certify for completion of maintenance may apply to CASA for the approval of a system of certication. The proposed system must be compared by CASA to the benchmark criteria of the CASA Schedule 6 system before approval is granted. CASA must approve the system if it is satised that it adequately provides for certication of completion of maintenance (CAR 42ZG(1)(b)). At CAR 42ZJ, CASA may give a direction under CAR 38 to the person who has an approved system of certication to make a specied change to the system and to re-submit the change to CASA or an authorised person for approval. The person holding the approved system of certication may also apply to CASA or an authorised person for approval of a proposed change. CAR 42ZK requires CASA to approve the change if the proposal will continue to provide an adequate system of certication. NB : The initial approval of a system of certication is done by CASA (CAR 42ZG) while any changes to the approved system can be approved by CASA or an authorised person (CAR 42ZK). Where the aircraft has maintenance carried out outside Australia, the aircraft cannot be own unless the completion of maintenance has been certied (in a manner acceptable to CASA) by: The pilot in command for maintenance who is authorised to perform
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c.  What are the responsibilities of the person making a FINAL certication


A person must not make a nal certication if they are not satised that: i. all maintenance that was required was carried out ii. all maintenance was co-ordinated iii.  all certications have been made, including those for independent inspection.

4. The System of Certication - CAR 42ZE and 42ZN


Certication, in the CASA airworthiness sense, is both a legal requirement and a useful communication tool. In the latter instance, the certication given communicates the current status of an aircraft, component or material with respect to the approved maintenance data. The certication signals to those intending to use the aircraft, component or material whether the item is airworthy or not. Without that certication an extensive search would be needed to verify the extent of maintenance carried out.

5. Further Detailed Information


The certication is more than just a signature. It incorporates a description of the maintenance performed, when it was carried out, pertinent details of the aircraft or component time in service, and the licence or authorisation details of the person giving the certication. The legal requirement aspect parallels the communication benet because it enables an auditable trail to be established which points up the validity or otherwise of the certications given. The system of certication enables the integrity of the airworthiness 108
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The holder of a valid and appropriate Australian AME licence, or maintenance authority The holder of a valid AME licence issued by a Contracting State provided the maintenance was performed in that State  An appropriately authorised employee of an organisation approved by the authority of the Contracting State to undertake that maintenance in accordance with the aircrafts approved system of maintenance The Regulations at CAR 42ZP prohibit the issuing of a certication for the completion of maintenance on an aircraft, component or material unless the maintenance was carried out to approved data as dened by CAR 2A. You should also note that where activities other than maintenance are conducted, e.g., component manufacture, the system of certication must be that approved under CAR 34. It should be noted that the phrase certication for the completion of maintenance applies to any maintenance done not just the coordinating certication given at the completion of a major inspection. For example, if an approved replacement PMA part numbered oil pressure transmitter is replaced on a piston engine, the certication given in the appropriate log book or alternative document must reect:  The date of certication for completion of the maintenance The aircraft registration, and time in service  A signature and licence or authority number  The name and certicate or licence number of the approval holder performing the maintenance The approved data the maintenance was carried out to;  The part name, model or part number  Release Certicate Approval Tag number and details   A statement covering any additional work necessary to ensure serviceability e.g., oil feed line bled, engine run, indications within limits . If the maintenance involved the replacement of a Rotable Spare the certication would need to be expanded to include : The serial number;   AD compliance (where the component replaced is of a different AD status to the original unserviceable component the change in status must be noted as part of the certication - it may affect operational approvals like EROPS, 288 programs or the monitoring of time-lifed history);  As the component is a Rotable it is subject to an overhaul life so the Total Time in Service (TTIS), or total cycles, if appropriate, and Time Since New (TSN) or Time Between Overhaul (TBO) must be noted. 110
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The term Rotable Spare is dened in the IATA WATOG as An item that can be economically restored to a serviceable condition and, in the normal course of operations, can be repeatedly rehabilitated to a fully serviceable condition over a period approximating the life of the ight equipment to which it is related. If the replacement part was a major component like a turbine engine on which the performance of the aircraft is dependent, the certication must also include the engines test performance gures. Where the maintenance carried out relates to compliance with an Airworthiness Directive, if damage or a defect is found, the damage or defect can only be classied as not major where the damage or defect is within limits specied in the AD. Where damage or a defect is found and the AD does not specify limits, the nding constitutes major damage or a major defect. The raising of an Airworthiness Directive implies the existence of known major damage or a major defect. In all cases a Major Defect Report (MDR) is required. Where a certication is given for completion of maintenance which involves a repair or modication, the certication must include reference to the current approved maintenance data used and must record any weight or balance changes. NB : It is not adequate to state Repair carried out IAW AC 43.13.1A. The certication must specify the specic section or diagram in AC 43.13.1A that applies, and in addition must state that the repair adopted from the AC is appropriate to the area being repaired and does not conict with the manufacturers data. The system of certication for completion of maintenance should allow the following ground rules to apply :  A person may rely on a previous certication for maintenance of the same breadth and scope of work that the maintenance was properly completed to approved data and was airworthy at the time the certication was made. A narrower extension of this is :   A person certifying for completion of maintenance within an AME licence category may accept a certication made within that category provided the original certication was made on a maintenance document which identied the maintenance to which it relates and, if the maintenance was an inspection, that details of any damage or defects found are recorded, together with any rectication made as a direct result of that inspection.  A certication, within a licence category, for the completion of a repair or modication involving manual welding (including braze welding) must be made by the holder of a valid appropriate AME licence after ensuring that the subject welding has been done to approved data and so certied by the holder of a valid appropriate Welding Authority issued by CASA.  Similarly for NDT certication, the holder of a valid appropriate AME licence must certify that an inspection involving the use of a Non-Destructive Test (NDT) method has been completed to approved maintenance data by the holder of a valid appropriate NDT Authority, a registered person of a Class 1 NDT organisation, or if the test used (aerosol packed) liquid penetrant the holder of a valid appropriate AME licence.  Before making the certication the person making the certication should ensure that defects found have been assessed for further maintenance and appropriately recorded.
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 Naturally, as a corollary to the above, where maintenance performed invalidates a certication previously made, all necessary maintenance must be carried out and properly re-certied before the person makes a new certication for completion of maintenance. In relation to a system of certication, the carriage of a defect as an allowable MEL item must not be so certied unless the defect has no adverse effect on the aircraft beyond that allowed by the MEL and that maintenance procedures required by the MEL have been satisfactorily completed. Further specic training will address the use of an MEL. As the CASA System of Certication of Completion of Maintenance, Schedule 6, is the baseline procedure against which all other systems must be compared before approval, we need to examine the schedule to extract the pertinent parts.

Part 3 of Schedule 6 states that where more than one person performs stages of maintenance within a licence category, co-ordination of the maintenance is required by one of the workers performing the maintenance in the licence categoryfor that category of maintenance. The person who co-ordinates (within category) must ensure four things:  Each stage of maintenance is performed by a person permitted by CAR 42ZC to carry out the maintenance  That a certication for completion of a stage of maintenance is made by the person who performs the stage of maintenance That the stage of maintenance completed does not adversely affect another stage of maintenance  The maintenance for that category of maintenance is completed. An extension of the co-ordination requirement occurs where maintenance is conducted in more than one category and more than one person is involved in the maintenance. In this instance the maintenance co-ordination across categories can be coordinated by any one of the persons certifying for coordination of maintenance in a particular category. An approved alternative coordinator to the above is a person specically approved by CASA to co-ordinate different categories of maintenance. The person co-ordinating maintenance across categories must ensure that the following four items are addressed:  That each category of maintenance that requires coordination because more than one person is engaged in the maintenance is properly co-ordinated by a person who performed a stage of maintenance within the category  That a certication for the co-ordination of each category of maintenance is made by the person coordinating the category  The carrying out of each category of maintenance does not adversely affect another category of maintenance  The maintenance is completed. Once the above four items are addressed, the person coordinating the maintenance must certify either in documents kept by the person carrying out the maintenance, or in the aircraft log book or approved alternate record that the maintenance was co-ordinated. The certication for co-ordination of maintenance must be signed and dated by the person making the certication. The

SCHEDULE 6
You will note in the Interpretation PAGE 7 the vicarious liability concept again surfaces. It is for this reason that organisation charts submitted for Certicate of Approval issue should extend down to the coal-face supervisor level. There is also a distinction made between the person who performs maintenance , that is, the person who actually does the work, and the person who carries out maintenance . The latter doesnt include the person who performs maintenance in the course of their employment. Again the vicarious liability concept leads to the employer as the responsible party. The certication options covered in Schedule 6, at Part 2, cover the duplicate inspection requirements of CAR 42G(2); that is, a certication for the completion of each stage of maintenance and the nal certication, at Part 3, the certications needed for the co-ordination of maintenance across shifts or across licence categories, and in Part 4 the required nal certication. Taking each Part in turn and examining the detailed requirements you can see there are similarities. In terms of CAR 42ZG(2) the certication for the initial ight control system maintenance, done right up to completion of the task, is seen as constituting completion of a stage of maintenance (because the maintenance is not completed until the nal inspection is done), and is certied for by the person who actually performed the work. Once the duplicate inspection is completed, the person who completes the inspection certies for the completion of maintenance. Whether there exists a separate record of the maintenance being carried out or not, the nal certications must also go in the aircraft log book or approved alternative maintenance record. The person doing stage inspection under CAR 42G(2) must prepare a certication description which satises the items referenced above as constituting a certication. In addition the certication for completion of a duplicate inspection under 42G(2) must set out which system was inspected, be signed by the person making the certication and include the licence, authority or Certicate of Approval number of the person certifying and the date of certication.

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certication must also include the licence, authority or Certicate of Approval number of the person certifying. In addition, if the person is an employee, the name of the employer and their appropriate approval number. To complete the certication, if the co-ordination was in a category, the category must be named; if the certication is for different categories, a statement detailing the categories must be included.

The aircraft time in service since new  A listing of the approved maintenance data used to carry out the maintenance  Details of any exemption from, or variation to, requirements under 42ZS  A record of any variations to weight or balance caused by the maintenance activity  If a special inspection was undertaken, the results found  Record of a duplicate inspection under CAR 42G(2)  Where an NDT inspection was carried out there should be a record setting out the NDT method used, the procedure for carrying out the test, and a statement of the ndings   A list of ADs complied with during the maintenance and a listing of defects found in complying with the directives   A listing of installed components supplied under release documents, together with the release document numbers  A list of time-lifed components removed and replaced during the maintenance listed by description and, if applicable, part number, serial number together with the component AD status and the supply release document number  In relation to time-lifed components, if any listed components have not been overhauled, the Time Since New (TSN) or number of cycles completed since new; if any of the components have been overhauled, set out the time in service (TSO) or the number of cycles since the most recent overhaul  If the component changed is an engine, the test performance gures of the engine  If a material used in the maintenance (not being a fuel or lubricant)[not uid as in the schedule - uids include gases], has maintenance carried out on it and was supplied by another person, details of the supply release document, including its number, should be listed;  Finally there should be a cross-referenced identication of the documents kept by the person carrying out the maintenance as the maintenance record. Final certication must include a brief description of the type of maintenance carried out, and be signed and dated by the person making the certication together with their licence number, airworthiness authority number or Certicate of Approval number of the person making the certication. If the person is an employee, the name and approval number of the persons employer must be stated. NB: If certications for completion of stages of maintenance have been made in the aircraft log book or approved alternative document, a nal certication must cover the items referenced in the paragraph above. NB: The brief description required in the certication may be fairly extensive. If that is the case, reference to documents containing the description is acceptable. What is essential is that the what, where, when and how of the maintenance can be traced if necessary. A person must not make a nal certication unless the person is satised that all required maintenance has been carried out and the required co-ordinations have been duly coordinated and certied.

Details of the nal certication process


The nal certication for completion of maintenance is made when all maintenance required to be carried out at a particular time has been completed, and where co-ordination of maintenance is required, the co-ordination is completed and certied. Pilots carrying out maintenance must certify for the work they have done. The nal certication must be made in the aircraft log-book or approved alternative maintenance record. Since the category and co-ordination certications can be retained on documents other than the aircraft log book or its approved alternative, it means that the log book can be used as a guide to the maintenance carried out, but surveillance of the licence appropriateness of the persons certifying (including certications for compliance with ADs), or coordinating, must rest on a review of the maintenance record documentation kept by the person undertaking the maintenance. If one person certied for the carrying out of maintenance, that person must provide the nal certication for completion of maintenance. If a person co-ordinated maintenance which was only carried out within one category, that person must give the nal certication for completion of maintenance. If more than one category of maintenance was co-ordinated, the person co-ordinating the maintenance must provide the nal certication. Where certications for completion of stages of maintenance are made in documents kept by the person carrying out maintenance as a record of the maintenance done, the detailed information must be brought forward to the log book or alternative maintenance record for the nal certication. In addition to the required details of the nal certication listed below, the information brought forward to the log book must include: 114
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The so-called nal certication equates to a Return to Service (RTS) certication following any maintenance, whether the maintenance has been a major staged inspection or a direct component replacement during turnaround. The RTS certication maintains the airworthy status of the aircraft - as was noted before, the aircraft may be safe following rectication but it is not airworthy until the certications are made. The FAA denes maintenance as inspection, overhaul, repair, preservation and the replacement of parts , but excludes preventive maintenance (which is further dened as simple or minor preservation operations and the replacement of small standard parts not involving complex assembly operations). Except for the reference to preventive maintenance, ICAO mirrors the FAA denition, namely, any one or combination of overhaul, repair, inspection, replacement, modication or defect rectication of an aircraft or aircraft component .

Part 2: Certication of completion of stages of maintenance and inspections under subregulation 42G (2)
What is to be certied?
2.1 A certication must be made for: (a)  the completion of each stage of maintenance; and (b)  the completion of an inspection under subregulation 42G (2).

Who is to certify?
2.2  A certication for completion of a stage of maintenance or an inspection under subregulation 42G (2) is only to be made by the person who performed the stage of maintenance or the inspection. Note Regulation 42ZC sets out who can perform maintenance.

ANNEX A
CIVIL AVIATION REGULATIONS 1988

Where must a certication be made?


2.3  A certication for completion of a stage of maintenance or an inspection under subregulation 42G (2) must be made: (a)  in the documents kept by the person carrying out the maintenance as a record of the carrying out of the maintenance; or (b)  in the aircraft log book or approved alternative maintenance record for the aircraft. 2.4  If completion of an inspection under subregulation 42G (2) is certied in the documents kept by the person carrying out the maintenance as a record of the carrying out of the maintenance, completion of the inspection must also be certied in the aircraft log book or approved alternative maintenance record for the aircraft.

Schedule 6 CAA system of certication of completion of maintenance


(subregulation 2 (1)) (denition of CAA system of certication of completion of maintenance)

Part 1: Interpretation
What is meant by the person who carries out the maintenance?
1.1 I n this Schedule, a reference to the person who carries out the maintenance does not include a reference to a person who performs maintenance in the course of his or her employment with an employer.

What is meant by performs maintenance?


1.2  In this Schedule, a reference to the person who performs maintenance is a reference to the person who physically does the maintenance.

What must be included in a certication?


2.5  A certication for completion of a stage of maintenance must: (a) be signed by the person making the certication; and (b)  include the licence number, airworthiness authority number, aircraft welding authority number or certicate of approval number of the person making the certication; and (c) include the date on which the certication was made; and (d)  if an exemption from or variation to a requirement is in force under regulation 42ZS in relation to the aircraft set out details of the exemption or variation; and (e)  if, in the course of carrying out the maintenance, the weight or balance of the aircraft has been varied include a record of the variation; and
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Supervisor to be responsible for work he or she supervises


1.3  In this Schedule, maintenance performed by a person who is permitted by paragraph 42ZC (3) (b) or 42ZC (4) (c) to carry out maintenance under the supervision of a person who holds an aircraft maintenance engineer licence is to be taken to have been performed by the person who supervised the maintenance and not by the rstmentioned person.

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(f)  if a special inspection was carried out set out what was found as a result of the inspection; and (g)  if, in the course of carrying out the maintenance, an inspection using a non-destructive testing method was carried out set out: i.  the non-destructive testing method used in carrying out the inspection; and ii. the procedure used in carrying out the inspection; and ii. what was found as a result of the inspection; and (h)  include a list of airworthiness directives complied with in the course of carrying out the maintenance and set out any defects found in complying with those directives; and (i)  if, in the course of carrying out the maintenance, an aircraft component: (i) that has had maintenance carried out on it; and (ii)  that was supplied to the person carrying out the maintenance by another person;  was tted set out the number of the document that covered the supply of the component in accordance with subregulation 42W (4); (j)  if, in the course of carrying out the maintenance, a timelifed aircraft component was tted or replaced: i.  identify the component and specify (if applicable) the part number and serial number of the component; and ii.  list the airworthiness directives that have been complied with in relation to the component; and iii.  if the component was supplied to the person carrying out the maintenance by another person set out the number of the document that covered the supply of the component in accordance with subregulation 42W (4); and iv.  if the component has not been overhauled set out the time in service of, or the number of cycles completed by, the component since new; and v.  if the component has been overhauled set out the time in service of, or number of cycles completed by, the component since its most recent overhaul; and vi.  if the component is an engine set out the test performance gures of the engine; (k)  if, in the course of carrying out the maintenance, an aircraft material: i.  that has had maintenance carried out on it; and ii.  that was supplied to the person by another person; and iii.  that is not a uid;  was used set out the number of the document that covered the supply of the material in accordance with 118
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subregulation 42X (1); and (l)  if a certication is made in the aircraft log book or approved alternative maintenance record for the aircraft set out: i.  the time in service of the aircraft since new; and ii.  if the person making the certication is an employee the name of the persons employer and the employers certicate of approval number, licence number, airworthiness authority number or aircraft welding authority number. 2.6 A certication for completion of an inspection under subregulation 42G (2) must: (a) set out which system was inspected; and (b) be signed by the person making the certication; and (c)  include the licence number or airworthiness authority number or certicate of approval number of the person making the certication; and (d) include the date on which the certication was made.

Part 3: Certication of co-ordination of maintenance


When is co-ordination of maintenance required?
3.1  If more than one person performs stages of maintenance within a category of maintenance, the person carrying out the maintenance must ensure that one of the persons specied in paragraph 3.5 co-ordinates the carrying out of that category of maintenance. 3.2 If: (a)  maintenance within more than one category of maintenance is carried out on an aircraft; and (b)  more than one person performs that maintenance;   the person carrying out the maintenance must ensure that one of the persons specied in paragraph 3.6 co-ordinates the carrying out of those categories of maintenance.

What is the responsibility of a person who co-ordinates maintenance?


3.3  A person who co-ordinates the carrying out of maintenance within a category of maintenance must ensure: (a)  that each stage of maintenance is performed by a person who is permitted by regulation 42ZC to carry out the maintenance; and (b)  that a certication for the completion of each stage of maintenance is made by the person who performed the stage of maintenance; and (c)  that the carrying out of each stage of maintenance does not adversely affect another stage of maintenance; and (d)  that the carrying out of the category of maintenance is completed. 3.4  A person who co-ordinates the carrying out of more than one category of maintenance must ensure: (a)  that each category of maintenance that is required to be co-ordinated by paragraph 3.1 is co-ordinated by a person specied in paragraph 3.5; and (b)  that a certication for the co-ordination of each category of maintenance that is required to be co-ordinated because of paragraph 3.1 is made by the person who coordinated the category of maintenance; and
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(c)  that the carrying out of each category of maintenance does not adversely affect another stage of maintenance; and (d)  that the carrying out of the maintenance is completed.

Who must co-ordinate maintenance within a category of maintenance?


3.5  If the carrying out of maintenance within a category of maintenance is required to be co-ordinated because of paragraph 3.1, the maintenance must be co-ordinated by one of the persons who performed a stage of maintenance within that category.

Who must co-ordinate maintenance across categories?


3.6  If the carrying out of different categories of maintenance is required to be co-ordinated because of paragraph 3.2, the maintenance must be co-ordinated by: (a)  if maintenance within a category of maintenance is performed by more than one person the person co-ordinating the carrying out of maintenance within that category; or (b)  if maintenance within a category of maintenance is performed by one person that person; or (c)  a person approved by CASA to co-ordinate the carrying out of different categories of maintenance.

(d)  if the person thinks that the carrying out of a category of maintenance adversely affected another category of maintenance: i.  that the affected category of maintenance is no longer adversely affected; and ii.  if maintenance was performed that certication has been made for completion of the maintenance; and (e)  that the carrying out of the maintenance has been completed.

Where must a certication for co-ordination of maintenance be made?


3.10  A certication for the co-ordination of maintenance must be made: (a)  in the documents kept by the person carrying out the maintenance as a record of the carrying out of the maintenance; or (b)  in the aircraft log book or approved alternative maintenance record for the aircraft.

When and by whom does co-ordination of maintenance have to be certied?


3.7  If maintenance is required to be co-ordinated under this Part, the person who coordinates that maintenance must certify that it was co-ordinated.

What must be included in a certication for coordination of maintenance?


3.11 A certication for the co-ordination of maintenance must: (a)  be signed by the person making the certication; and (b)  include the licence number, airworthiness authority number or certicate of approval number of the person making the certication; and (c)  if the person making the certication is an employee state the name of the persons employer and the employers certicate of approval number, licence number or airworthiness authority number; and (d)  if the certication is for the co-ordination and completion of the carrying out of maintenance within a category of maintenance set out the category of maintenance; and (e)  if the certication is for the co-ordination of the carrying out of different categories of maintenance include a statement to that effect; and (f)  include the date on which the certication was made.

 hat is the responsibility of a person who certies for co-ordination of W maintenance?


3.8 The person who co-ordinates the carrying out of maintenance within a category of maintenance must not certify for co-ordination of the maintenance unless the person is satised: (a)  that each stage of maintenance was performed by a person who is permitted by regulation 42ZC to carry out the maintenance; and (b)  that a certication for completion of each stage of maintenance has been made by the person who performed the stage of maintenance; and (c)  if the person thinks that the carrying out of a stage of maintenance adversely affected another stage of maintenance: i. that the affected stage of maintenance is no longer adversely affected; and ii.  if maintenance was performed that certication has been made for completion of the maintenance; and (d)  that the carrying out of the category of maintenance has been completed. 3.9 The person who co-ordinates the carrying out of more than one category of maintenance must not certify for co-ordination of the maintenance unless the person is satised: (a)  that each category of maintenance that was required to be co-ordinated by paragraph (b)  3.1 was co-ordinated by a person specied in paragraph 3.5; and (c)  that a certication for the co-ordination of each category of maintenance that was required to be co-ordinated by paragraph 3.1 was made by the person who coordinated the maintenance; and 120
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Part 4: Final certication


When must a nal certication be made?
4.1  A nal certication for completion of maintenance on an aircraft must be made when: (a)  all of the maintenance required to be carried out on an aircraft at a particular time; and
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(b)  if the maintenance is required to be co-ordinated by Part 3 co-ordination of the maintenance; has been completed and certied.

Where must a nal certication be made?


4.2  A nal certication for the completion of maintenance on an aircraft must be made in the aircraft log book or approved alternative maintenance record for the aircraft.

Who must certify?


4.3  A nal certication must be made by: (a)  if one person certied for the carrying out of the maintenance that person; or (b)  if the carrying out of maintenance within one category of maintenance only was co-ordinated the person who co-ordinated the category of maintenance; or (c)  if the carrying out of different categories of maintenance was co-ordinated the person who co-ordinated the maintenance.

What must be included in a nal certication?


4.4  If certications for completion of stages of maintenance are made in the documents kept by the person carrying out the maintenance as a record of the carrying out of the maintenance, a nal certication must: (a)  include a brief description of the type of maintenance carried out; and (b) be signed by the person making the certication; (c)  include the licence number, airworthiness authority number or certicate of approval number of the person making the certication; (d) set out the time in service of the aircraft since new; (e)  if the person making the certication is an employee state the name of the persons employer and the employers certicate of approval number, licence number or airworthiness authority number; (f)  set out details of the approved maintenance data used to carry out the maintenance; (g)  if an exemption from or variation to a requirement is in force under regulation 42ZS in relation to the aircraft set out details of the exemption or variation; (h)  if, in the course of carrying out the maintenance, the weight or balance of the aircraft has been varied include a record of the variation; (i)  if a special inspection was carried out set out what was found as a result of the inspection; 122
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(j)  if, in the course of carrying out the maintenance, an inspection using a nondestructive testing method was carried out set out: i.  the non-destructive testing method used in carrying out the inspection; and ii. the procedure used in carrying out the inspection; iii. what was found as a result of the inspection; and (k)  include a list of airworthiness directives complied with in the course of carrying out the maintenance and a statement setting out any defects found in complying with those directives; (l)  if, in the course of carrying out the maintenance, an aircraft component: i.  that has had maintenance carried out on it; and ii.  that was supplied to the person carrying out the maintenance by another person;  was tted set out the number of the document that covered the supply of the component in accordance with subregulation 42W (4); and (m)  if, in the course of carrying out the maintenance, a time-lifed aircraft component was tted or replaced: i.  identify the component and that includes (if applicable) the part number and serial number of the component; ii.  list the airworthiness directives that have been complied with in relation to the component; iii.  if the component was supplied to the person carrying out the maintenance by another person set out the number of the document that covered the supply of the component in accordance with subregulation 42W (4); iv.  if the component has not been overhauled set out the time in service of, or the number of cycles completed by, the component since new; v.  if the component has been overhauled set out the time in service of, or number of cycles completed by, the component since its most recent overhaul; vi.  if the component is an engine set out the test performance gures of the engine; (n)  if, in the course of carrying out the maintenance, an aircraft material: i. that has had maintenance carried out on it; ii. that was supplied to the person by another person; and iii. that is not a uid;  was used set out the number of the document that covered the supply of the material in accordance with subregulation 42X (1); and (o)  identify the documents kept by the person carrying out the maintenance as a record of the carrying out of the maintenance; and (p)  include the date on which the certication was made. 4.5  If certications for completion of stages of maintenance are made in the aircraft log book or approved alternative document for the aircraft, a nal certication must: (a) be signed by the person making the certication; and (b)  include the licence number, airworthiness authority number or certicate of approval number of the person making the certication; and (c)  if the person making the certication is an employee state the name of the persons employer and the employers certicate of approval number, licence number or airworthiness authority number; and (d) include the date on which the certication was made.

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What is the responsibility of a person who makes a nal certication?


4.6  A person must not make a nal certication unless the person is satised that: (a)  all maintenance required to be carried out on the aircraft has been carried out; and (b)  if the maintenance was required to be co-ordinated by paragraph 3.1 or 3.2 the maintenance has been co-ordinated; and (c)  certications that are required to be made by paragraph 2.1 or 3.7 have been made.

 Without the for and on behalf section of this certication the certifying LAME is signing taking FULL responsibility themselves. This could lead to litigation problems in the future, in which case you will be on your own . 5. The certication requirements are the same for all persons listed in CAR 1988 42ZC including pilots. 6. The more information which can be included in the certication, the better. This will promote communication between all interested parties and can be benecial in cases where your actions may need to be justied in the future. Remember your certication can be used as evidence by the defendant as well as the prosecution in court. The lack of information in a certication can cause misunderstandings and make it very difcult if you need to make justication later. It may just save your skin. Instructions for the certication on the Maintenance Release are listed in CAR 1988 42ZE, CAR 1988 Schedule 6, CAO 100.5 and on the cover of the DA 741 Maintenance Release Book.

ANNEX B
CERTIFYING ON THE MAINTENANCE RELEASE (MR)
Certifying on the Maintenance Release is not a unique experience.

With the exception of periodic maintenance most maintenance is certied on either work sheets (system of certication) or on the Maintenance Release. There are several factors in certifying for maintenance on the maintenance release which have over a period of time been forgotten. 1.  Since 1988 and the introduction of the DA 741 maintenance release in 1992 (loose leaf log book system), the maintenance release has been part of the aircrafts permanent records. The regulation changes in 1988 removed CAO 100.5.1 and CAO 100.5.2, and stipulated that a maintenance release must be kept for only 12 months after the issue of a new one. The situation now is that the maintenance release is to be kept with the aircrafts permanent records following the same rules as the aircraft log book (i.e kept by the C of R holder for a period no less than 12 months after the aircraft ceases to be on the Australian Register). In spite of this provision it is recommended that the records be retained for much longer periods. In the instance where the aircraft has not been on the register for several years and someone wishes to rebuild, refurbish, x and y the aircraft, it will be placed back on the register . No problems here? But what about the Certicate of Airworthiness (C of A)? The aircraft historical records are neededthis also applies to aircraft components and includes the maintenance releases issued previously. The lack of these records could cause considerable expense to and problems for the person/s wishing to y this aircraft or use the aircraft components. 2.  Because the Maintenance Release is part of the aircrafts log book, the same rules apply as for certication in the log book. This means that CAR 1988 42ZE and CAR 1988 Schedule 6 applies to the Maintenance Release. 3.  Certication on the Maintenance Release must be made by the same persons who are permitted to certify for maintenance, e.g. those outlined in CAR 1988 42ZC. 4.  A person can certify for and on behalf of their employer, or in their own right. It must be remembered though that if you certify for your employer the certication must say this, i.e. LH ASI changed, SNo ASI VS 001 removed, SNo ASI VS 12001, Release Note number 100000123, tted IAW Piper Maintenance Manual (No 2222), Section 16 para 2 (1998). Ground test serviceable. Certied for and on behalf of AAAAAAAA Aviation by XXXXXXX Lic No s10098. On 12/12/2000 at 1545.6 HRS TTIS. 124
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ANNEX C Useful addresses Civil Aircraft Register


CASA House, Corner of Northbourne Avenue and Barry Drive, Canberra ACT 2600 GPO Box 2005, Canberra ACT 2601 Telephone: 131 757 Facsimile: 02 6217 1991 email: aircraft.register@casa.gov.au Web Site: www.casa.gov.au/casadata/ register/index.htm Airworthiness Standards Branch Includes certication and maintenance standards CASA House Corner of Northbourne Avenue and Barry Drive, Canberra ACT 2600 GPO Box 2005, Canberra ACT 2601 Telephone: 131 757 Web Site: http://www.casa.gov.au CASA Area Ofces General Aviation Operations CASA national telephone number (local call cost) 131 757 Sydney Basin Building 628 Airport Avenue Bankstown Airport NSW 2200 Fax: 02 9780 3045 email: sydneybasin@casa.gov.au Victoria and Tasmania 19 Second Avenue Moorabbin Airport, Mentone Vic 3194 Fax: 03 9518 2792 email: victasmail@casa.gov.au NSW Country Canberra Cnr Nomad Drive & Ceres Road Canberra Airport, Pialligo ACT 2609 Fax: 02 6217 1446 or 02 6217 1319 email: nswcountry@casa.gov.au NSW Country Tamworth Cnr Rentell St & Basil Brown Drive Tamworth Airport NSW 2340 Fax: 02 6755 2240 email: nswcountry@casa.gov.au 126

West 130 Fauntleroy Ave Perth Airport WA 6104 Fax: 08 9366 2810 email: west@casa.gov.au South Queensland 39 Navigator Place Hendra QLD 4011 email: southqld@casa.gov.au NT and Kimberley Reservations House, 3 Cecil Cook Ave Darwin airport, M arrara NT 0812 Fax: 08 89432986 Email: nt@casa.gov.au Central 4 Kel Barclay Avenue Adelaide Airport SA 5950 Fax: 08 8422 2900 Email: central@casa.gov.au North Queensland - Cairns Building 78, Mick Borzi Drive, Cairns International Airport Cairns QLD 4870 email: northqld@casa.gov.au North Queensland Townsville 1 Coral Sea Drive Townsville Airport QLD 4814 email: northqld@casa.gov.au Airline Operations CASA national telephone number (local call cost) 131 757 Sydney Building 235 Cnr Qantas Dr & Robey St Mascot 2020 email: sydneyairlines@casa.gov.au Melbourne Level 11, 505 Little Collins Street Melbourne VIC 3000 email: melbairlines2@casa.gov.au Brisbane 39 Navigator Place Hendra, Brisbane QLD 4011 email: brisbaneairlines@casa.gov.au

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Introduction
All aircraft are built from a variety of materials. There is one group of materials out of these, that is subject to deterioration due to corrosion, which is metal and to a certain extent plastics. While wood and fabric suffer from the effects of ageing and deterioration, fewer of these types of materials are used in modern aircraft. This booklet will not cover wood and fabric deterioration, which will be the subject of a future dedicated publication. Corrosion in metal is basically caused by the addition of water between two different metals; this is also a problem with alloys (which is basically several metals combined) if water is present. Corrosion is often difcult to detect but once the process begins the deterioration and degradation of the metallic materials can be rapid. An example of this is a Piper singleengine aircraft that was inspected specically for corrosion. Twelve months later, at the next periodic inspection, severe corrosion was indicated. The difference between the two occasions was that prior to the corrosion inspection the aircraft was parked in a hangar and washed occasionally; after the inspection the aircraft was parked out in the weather and was washed constantly. Metal once it is corroded is no longer the same alloy or compound it was made to be. It has little strength, becomes brittle and in some cases is soluble in water. Corrosion is therefore a major problem that must be removed and controlled, if possible. Corrosion needs to be detected and treated early, otherwise the only cure will be replacement of the affected part with new material. Like the old saying, as far as corrosion is concerned, prevention is better than cure .

Rust in a bracket. How much damage is under this? 128


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The Corrosion Process


Most modern aircraft are manufactured from aluminium alloys. While this material is light and strong, it does have the drawback of being susceptible to fatigue and corrosion, particularly in a salt-water environment. Other alloys such as steel and magnesium are often used in the manufacture of aircraft components. These are also readily corroded in the presence of water. Water on these occasions may be as little as airborne particles on a humid day or as much as total immersion or a soaking by rain. Rain is not pure water but is in fact a solution of acidic compounds such as carbonic acid. In some areas of the world where pollution has become a problem rain can cover your aircraft with highly acidic solutions, all without you realising it.

Oxidisation
All metals in the presence of oxygen will react in some way; in some cases this reaction is quite violent. In the case of aluminium, the surface of the metal reacts with the oxygen in the air and forms a thin layer of aluminium oxide; this in fact prevents further contact between the metal and the oxygen in the air. Once this layer, which is soluble, is broken, more metal is oxidised. If the oxide layer is constantly broken or removed, then the oxidisation process continues until the majority of metal is oxidised and no longer has any strength. Most metals after processing begin to corrode or oxidise in some way. They are inclined to turn back into the raw product they came from; i.e, iron turns into iron oxide, which is basically what iron ore consists of. Oxidisation is a natural process but it can be stopped or slowed.

Galvanic Reactions
Whenever two dissimilar metals are near each other in the presence of an acidic liquid a reaction takes place. The reaction causes one of the metals to slowly disintegrate, while the other has its characteristics changed, in most cases.

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What this means in an aircraft structure is that when two metals are separated by a liquid, such as water, there will be a reaction between the two, causing corrosion. For example, when a steel undercarriage component is bolted to the aluminium structure of an aircraft, there will be a corrosive chemical reaction. This is very prevalent where the engine mounts contact the rewall of an aircraft. Compounding the problem is the fact that most aircraft metals are alloys. Alloys will always have two dissimilar metals present. If through wear and tear or damage (even minor) an acidic substance is placed between these metals, a galvanic reaction will take place. This means that the internal structure of the aircraft metal itself will begin to corrode from the inside out . In most cases this internal reaction will be unobservable until it is too late. The only alternative then is to replace the component, which is a very expensive option. Any time corrosion is treated considerable time and expense will be incurred, so the best way to deal with it is to prevent it. If this is difcult, then early detection and treatment is necessary. This is a simple explanation of what corrosion is and what causes it.

Corrosion Prevention
Even the most drastic measures to prevent corrosion (such as gold plating) are inadequate, or simply too expensive to contemplate. There are some cheaper and easier alternatives, which can be and are used, such as painting, metal plating or even plastic coating. The problem is that even these have some drawbacks and are not a 100% guarantee that corrosion will not take place. Metal will always be metal and will always corrode. The best we can hope for is that the process is slowed and treatments are available if corrosion is detected.

Metal Coating
Coating processes such as galvanising, cadmium plating, chroming and anodising are widely used through aircraft. Possibly the most common is aluminium cladding; processed metal such as ALCLAD is used throughout aircraft manufacture and repair. The process involves coating sheets of aluminium alloy with a thin layer of pure aluminium; this layer reacts with oxygen very quickly forming aluminium oxide, which is corrosion resistant. The major problems with all of these processes are that these are very expensive and once the coating is worn the core metal is subject to corrosion. The coatings are very difcult to repair and often the component requires complete replacement once the coating is worn off. One further problem with these processes is that during manufacture water can be trapped between the coating and the core metal, giving rise to corrosion right from the start.

Corrosion Resistant Substances or Coatings


If processes such as painting, greasing and oiling etc are included, the list is vast. All of these have one thing in common; they form a protective layer on the metal, thus preventing contact with oxygen and liquid compounds. These processes are relatively cheap when compared to component replacement or metal coating and in general are easy to apply. The major problem they all have is that they are easily worn off and must be redone at varying intervals yes, even paint.

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Painting
The prime purpose of painting metal is to protect it from the effects of oxygen and to prevent water coming into contact with the surface to be painted. Painting an entire aircraft or a component is a very specialised process. Because the paint is applied to metal that is subject to corrosion, the metal has to be thoroughly inspected and prepared before the painting process. After preparation the paint coating must be applied immediately. A poor paint scheme not only looks bad but also can actually cause corrosion problems or accelerate previous corrosion. 90% of painting anything is preparation. Failure to prepare the object correctly could cause major problems in the future. Remember paint is not applied to an aircraft just to look good but to protect the metallic components from corrosion. This means that the quality of the preparation, the undercoating and the type of painting process used are of vital importance.

Some Simple Rules for Corrosion Prevention


1.  Regularly inspect the aircraft for corrosion. 2. Remove and treat all corrosion no matter how small. 3. Maintain the paint and other coatings in good condition. 4. Keep the aircraft indoors, wherever possible. 5.  Repair paint other protective coatings as soon as possible. 6. Use the correct washing compounds. 7. Use the correct polish. 8.  Remove all water from areas where it may collect inside and outside of the aircraft. 9.  Prepare all areas in accordance with the approved data prior to application of permanent corrosion preventative coatings. 10.  If an aircraft is to be stored, corrosion inhibiting compounds should be appplied and reapplied at regular intervals, these intervals are generally shorter in areas where there may be salt or pollution in the air. 11.  Stored aircraft should be inspected regularly for corrosion and then treated immediately.

Preparation
Before painting commences, the area to be protected must be prepared. This is the most important part of the painting process and must never be left out or condensed, Do not cut corners. Cutting corners may create future expensive problems. Preparation requires that the area be stripped back to bare metal. This area and the surrounding area should be inspected for corrosion, damage and cleanliness. All corrosion must be removed prior to painting; this may require extensive rework of the area. The area should then be treated with the appropriate preparation compound. Some metals require that all oxidisation be removed while other metals require that oxidisation be promoted. You should address the approved data to determine which is required. Once the area is prepared a primer should then be used to seal the area. Some primers and undercoats will actually absorb and retain water; the data will give you the information you need. Always use the primer and undercoat, which is compatible with the metal surface and the paint you will be using. In cases where paint will not be applied special waterproof primer is used. This is usually olive green in colour. When two surfaces are to be in contact with each other it is important to prepare and protect each surface prior to assembly. In some cases the atmosphere in the building must be controlled for the process to be effective. Painting and preparation must never be performed outside. To be effective, paint must be even over the entire area and must seal the area.

Conclusion
An investment in an aircraft is a substantial commitment. Corrosion will degrade your investment and prevent you from achieving the reason for the purchase in the rst place. Preventing corrosion from gaining a hold is the best and cheapest method of retaining the integrity of an aircraft. When corrosion is detected treat it immediately and keep your aircraft looking good and serviceable, so you can enjoy your ying.

Other Coatings
Application of grease, oil, wax, polish or any other temporary protection compound can be easy to apply and is relatively cheap. These compounds are all temporary and must be replaced at regular intervals or whenever the underlying metal is revealed.

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Introduction
Prior to the introduction in 1998 of CASR Part 21, CAR 30 organisations were required to have manufacturing approval on their certicate if they wished to manufacture small parts for aircraft during maintenance activities. These small parts were usually brackets and other parts which were either not available from the aircraft manufacturer or were extremely difcult to obtain. Since the manufacturer of these parts was in most instances used for aircraft undergoing maintenance at the organisations facilities and were of simple design (a right-angled piece of metal with two holes in it), having to meet the complete requirements for an approval to manufacture was a little excessive. Since all Licensed Aircraft Maintenance Engineers are required to undertake basic hand skills training, these parts are easy to manufacture. Thus their manufactue is a basic maintenance activity rather than a manufacturing activity. This situation has been largely rectied and the impediments removed. The proposed CASR Part 43, when introduced, will make the situation clearer, and give positive conditions and procedures to be complied with. It should be noted that currently under CAR 1988 30, Approved Maintenance Organisations are permitted to manufacture parts, under certain conditions, as normal maintenance practices. So nothing is really new. The conditions for CAR 30 and CAWR 43 mentioned above will be outlined later in this booklet. Manufacturing is dened as: The bringing into existence something which did not exist before . This implies that the actual part is made by someone and that it never existed before, even if it is identical to the one removed. Prior to the manufacturing process it was merely a piece of metal and nothing more; it was not an aircraft part.

Fabrication
Another term that is sometimes used instead of manufacture is fabrication . Fabrication is fundamentally different. The denition of fabrication is: To assemble a number of standard parts or sections to produce an item . Fabrication is therefore a process where manufactured parts are made and designated as standard are assembled into a more complex component. The manufacture of a small bracket to replace an identical damaged one on an aircraft cannot be considered fabrication, since the part is not standard and you are not completing an entire assembly, simply maintaining one.

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Fabrication in the Course of Maintenance (FitCoM)


FitCoM means: The making of a part or component by the holder of a CAR 30 (later CASR 154) authorisation to perform maintenance tasks, for use on an aircraft in the following circumstances: 1. The Part is to be used by personnel employed by the organisation as a replacement part on an aircraft or aircraft component that is completely under the control of the certicate holder for the purpose of performing maintenance; and 2. The part is not manufactured for sale to any third party; and 3. The certicate holder is not authorised to manufacture the component as a PMA. APMA, Production Certicate, TSO or ATSO. The holder of a certicate of approval for maintenance is permitted to manufacture small parts for use on aircraft that are undergoing maintenance in their facility or under their control in another facility for which they have a register of locations or an arrangement. The holder of the certicate must be the controlling body for the maintenance. They have the contract for the maintenance with the Registered Operator. Under the following conditions: 1. The maintenance performed must be within the scope of the organisations approval; and 2. The circumstances require that the part be made on the premises it cannot be provided by the aircraft manufacturer; and 3. The organisation has all of the required approved data including the specications for the part; and 4. The organisation has all of the equipment necessary to manufacture the part; and 5. The organisation has personnel trained to perform all of the processes necessary to manufacture the part; and 6. The organisation has a system in place to trace the materials used back to the original parts specications; and 7 .  When completed the part is identical to the one it is replacing and that its form, t and function are the same as the original part; and 8. The organisation has a quality system in place to determine that the replacement part meets all of the aircraft manufacturers specications; and 9. The organisation has a system in place to prevent the part from being sold to third parties; and 10. The organisation institutes a system equivalent to CASR 21.303(11).

In addition to the unique number mentioned above, the part must be marked with the manufacturers (aircraft or component) part number. For example you have given a bracket the part number of XYZ Maintenance No 1234; this is written on the part along with CESSNA part No 5678 (for a CESSNA of course). Now that the part is identied as being a replacement part, further markings are required to indicate who (which organisation) made it and that it is a FitCoM part. In the example above it is obvious that XYZ maintenance manufactured the part; now all we need is an indication that the part was manufactured during maintenance; i.e. XYZ Maintenance Pt No. 1234 manufactured as a FitCoM replacement part for CESSNA Pt No. 5678. This means that anyone performing maintenance in the future is certain that the part is not an original part and was manufactured during maintenance. CASR Part 21 Sub Part I allows these details to be included in a document accompanying the part, where it would be impracticable to mark the actual part itself.

Certication Requirements
After maintenance is performed, certication that is consistent with CAR 1988 42ZE is required. Manufacturing, on the other hand, requires certication to be made under CAR 1988 34 (if manufacturing was a separate process). FitCoM permits certication to be made in compliance with CAR 42ZE. This means that an approved maintenance organisation can have only one system and meet only one requirement instead of two, thus decreasing the paperwork and subsequent burdens. CAR 1988 42W requires that a part, that is to be used on an aircraft must be accompanied by a document stating certain details. In the case of a FitCoM part this need not be a release document the same as would be required if the part was for sale. In spite of this some type of release document is still required. In addition to the details listed above in the marking section, the following is also required: 1. Who manufactured the part. 2. When the part was completed. 3. What approved data was used. 4. What standard materials were used. 5.   A certication that the part was manufactured to the same standards and processes as the part it is replacing. 6.  A nal inspection certication stating that an inspection has been performed and the part complies.
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Required Marking of FitCoM parts


FitCoM parts are still manufactured as replacement parts even though they are not manufactured under a manufacturing approval. Therefore each part manufactured in the course of maintenance activities will need to meet the same requirements as a PMA or APMA part. This includes specic requirements for identication of the part. The manufactured part must meet the requirements of CASR Part 21 Sub Part I, with the exception that it is marked as a FitCoM part. The part must be given a unique part number from a register kept by the Maintenance Organisation. 140
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This sounds like a lot of information, but it is necessary to maintain the airworthiness standard of the aircraft or component tted with the FitCoM part and to protect the individual who made the part and the organisation they are employed by.

Certication after Fitment


CAR 1988 Schedule 6 (p) requires that materials, on which maintenance has been performed must have certain details recorded. These are: 1. The specication of the material. 2.  The document which meets the requirements of CAR 1988 42X (the details). 3. What maintenance was performed. 4. In the case of FitCoM parts the details listed above. A nal certication for the maintenance must include all of the above details in addition to all other requirements of CAR 1988 Schedule 6. Again it may seem that a lot of information is included: this is to inform anyone performing future maintenance that FitCoM parts were used and to protect all maintenance personnel and organisations involved.

quality management SYSTEMS

Conclusion
Maintenance organisations approved under CAR 1988 30 and later CASR Part 145 have the privilege of manufacturing items for use during maintenance as replacement parts. There are certain conditions and requirements that must be met. Once they are, the entire process should be legal and benecial to operators and maintainers.

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QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS


A COMPARISON BETWEEN CAR 1988 30 AND THE PROPOSED CASR 145 AND HOW IT EFFECTS THE AMO

Introduction
Quality assurance, quality control and quality management standards have been a consistent part of running any business now since the late seventies. Even though these standards have been in place for around 30 years, they are still misunderstood. During the nineties many organisations were coerced into spending large amounts of resources to implement a quality system. In the case of aviation there was a requirement to have a written quality system in place. At no time was there a requirement for organisations to be assessed by quality assessors or to gain quality endorsements. CAR 1988 30 (2D) presented a list of legal requirements to be included in a procedures manual. ASO 3901 was given as AN EXAMPLE of the format and more detailed requirements of a procedures manual. The purpose was not to force organisations to spend time and money on gaining an accredited quality system. There is a requirement to have a quality system in CAR 30(2D), but it was to be aviation oriented and specic to your organisation. On many occasions organisations have had a procedures manual prepared, including quality systems, which did not meet the requirements of the organisation and in some instances the regulatory requirements. The problem is once a procedures manual is accepted by the organisation, the Authority assumes that is how you wish to conduct your business activities and you were assessed against these requirements. The other problem was that many of these manuals were difcult if not impossible for the organisation to comply with and soon fell into disuse. In most cases they included too much information, making them difcult to use and understand. A procedures manual and a quality system is one of many management tools an organisation can use to improve their business activities. In addition, a large number of State and Federal requirements outside the jurisdiction of the aviation authorities, also impact on an organisation. A study of these requirements alongside aviation regulatory requirements would indicate that many requirements are repeated, there are common areas in all standards and in many legal requirements. What this means is that an organisation need only consider these areas once and concentrate on the differences. Integration of management systems is a method of decreasing the number and types of manuals and procedures. A quality system developed for one regulatory authority should, if integrated correctly, meet the requirements of another authority, with only minor differences to be addressed. This will eventually have the effect of decreasing external audits, decreasing the strain on resources and decreasing the negative effects of constant outside interference.

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CAR 1988 30 and CASR 145 (proposed)


As far as a quality system is concerned there is no difference between these two sets of regulations, with the exception of terminology. CAR 30 requires an approved maintenance organisation to have a written procedures manual which includes a quality system. CASR 145 will require an Authorised Maintenance Organisation (AMO) to have a Maintenance Operations Manual (MOM). The MOM will contain a Quality Management System appropriate to the size of the organisation. In addition the MOM will contain several other management systems: 1. Human Factors management; 2. Risk Management (AN/NZS ISO 4360:1999); and 3. Quality Management (AN/NZS ISO 9000:2000). All of these have major areas in common, so will only need to be addressed once. An organisation that has a current CAR 30 certicate, and a mature compliant Quality Management System which meets the requirements of CAR 30 (2D), should be compliant with CASR 145.130 as far as the quality system is concerned. Those that do not currently comply will have a considerable amount of work to do. Reliance on approved quality assessors may not be enough in either case, since there are some differences between ISO 9000 and CAR 30 (2D).

iv. a  system of quality control that satises the requirements of subregulation (2D); and (c)  if maintenance of class A aircraft is an activity to be covered by the certicatehave with it a copy of the procedures manual, in which the system of quality control procedures must be set out, that the applicant proposes to use if the certicate of approval is granted. (2C) A certicate of approval is subject to: (a)  a condition that each activity the certicate covers must only be carried out at a place where the facilities and equipment necessary for the proper carrying out of the activity are available to the holder of the certicate; (b)  a condition that the activities the certicate covers must be carried out in accordance with a system of quality control that satises the requirements of subregulation (2D); and (c) if the certicate covers some or all of the following activities: i. the design of aircraft; ii. the design of aircraft components; iii. the design of aircraft materials; vii. the maintenance of aircraft; viii. the maintenance of aircraft components; ix. the maintenance of aircraft materials; x.    the training of candidates for the examinations referred to in paragraph 31 (4) (e); xi.  the conducting of the examinations referred to in paragraph31 (4) (e);  a condition that each of those activities that is covered by the certicate must be carried out under the control of a person appointed by the applicant to control the activities; and (d)  a condition that the holder of the certicate of approval must ensure that each person employed by, or working under an arrangement with, the holder receives adequate training in: i.   the work performed by the person for the purposes of the activities covered by the certicate; and ii.   the use of any equipment used in connection with that work. (2D)  A system of quality control must be in writing and must contain the following: (a)  the procedures to be followed in connection with the carrying out of the activities covered by the certicate that, in particular, includes procedures for: i.   the control of the work carried out under the certicate; and ii. the maintenance, control and calibration of equipment; and
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CAR 1988 30
Below is an extract directly from CAR 30: 30 Certicates of approval (1)  A person engaged, or intending to engage, in any stage of design, distribution or maintenance of aircraft, aircraft components or aircraft materials, or in the training of candidates for, or in the conducting of, the examinations referred to in paragraph 31 (4) (e) may apply to CASA for a certicate of approval in respect of those activities. (2)  An application must be in writing and must: (a) set out the following: i. a statement of the activities to be covered by the certicate; ii.  the address of the main place (if any) at which the applicant proposes to carry out those activities; iii.  the number of appropriately qualied or experienced persons employed by the applicant who will be involved in carrying out those activities; and (b)  have with it evidence of: i.   the relevant qualications and experience of the applicant and the applicants employees; and ii.   the facilities and equipment available to the applicant for the carrying out of the activities; and iii.   the arrangements made to ensure the applicant has, and will continue to receive, information necessary for the carrying out of those activities; and

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iii.  the control of stores; (b) a statement: i.  that sets out the places at which the activities covered by the certicate are, or will be, carried out and which activities are, or will be, carried out at each place; and ii.  that identies any mobile facilities available to the certicate of approval holder for the carrying out of the activities covered by the certicate and which activities are, or will be, carried out using each mobile facility; (c)  in relation to each activity covered by the certicate that is required, by paragraph (2C) (c), to be carried out under the control of a personthe name of the position occupied by the person who controls the carrying out of the activity; (d)  a description of the applicants organisational structure, the responsibilities of employees within the structure and the procedures to be followed by the employees in undertaking the activities covered by the certicate; (e)  a description of the resources for implementing quality management; (f)  a description of the audit system applying to the system of quality control; (g)  if the quality control system is set out in a procedures manual required under paragraph (2) (c)a statement of the procedures to be followed in relation to the amendment of the procedures manual. [Note: Australian Standards AS3900 to AS3904 provide guidance for the content of a system of quality control.] The regulation above gives you a plan to work with so that your system can meet regulatory requirements. The whole idea is to take each section of (2D) and write statements about how you will handle these requirements. Care should be taken with the requirements of paragraph (a). There are three things mentioned, the control of work carried out, maintenance and calibration of equipment and control of stores. These three items are not the complete picture since these are to be included with other things, such as control of data, acceptance and rejection of components, your responsibilities to the customer and their responsibilities for maintenance, who can supervise, certication, who is authorised to certify on your behalf, to name a few. A close examination of ISO 9000:2000 will give you an idea of any additional requirements. In every case the standard should by cross-referenced to regulations to ensure you are complying. There is more to your procedures manual and quality system than that mentioned in CAR 30 or CASR 145. 148
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CASR 145 (proposed)


CASR 145 will require you to have a management system which includes quality management principles.

Quality Management Principles


There are eight Quality Management principles indicated in AS/NZS ISO 9000:2000, AS/NZS ISO 9004:2000, SAE AS 9001 and SAE AS 9110. These are listed below. Each principle will have a brief explanation of what it means and an exercise for you to attempt in class. The exercises are designed to act a memory jogger when you return to your own organisation. (In addition there are class exercises and group activities throughout the presentation). Quality management principles have been identied and developed to give organisations and management methods of improving overall performance.

Principle No. 1 Have a customer focus.


Organisations depend on their customers and therefore should understand current and future needs, meet their requirements and strive to exceed their expectations. (From AS/NZS ISO 9000:2000) The rst step is to know who your customers really are. Make a list below of as many customers your organisation deals with. Leave space on the right. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ The next step is to determine what your customer really wants from you, what standard they are looking for and what are their expectations. Remember the registered operator is responsible for what maintenance is performed. Next to your list above write what you think each customer really wants from you. When you return to your organisation ask them and check if you are right. In some cases a system may be required where the registered operators make their expectations known to you in writing, indicating precisely what they require you to do. You as an organisation have an obligation to your customers to meet their needs and expectations provided the law and your business ethics permit it. You also have a responsibility to inform customers what you can do and what you are willing to do for them. Write what you think of the statement: as an employee my customer is management .

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Principle No. 2 Show good sound leadership.


Leaders establish unity of purpose and the direction of the organisation. They should create and maintain an internal environment in which people can become fully involved in achieving the organisations objectives. (From AS/NZS ISO 9000:2000) List what the objectives of your organisation are. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Leadership does not only involve management of an organisation. Management has an obligation to act in a manner that is honest, ethical, just, legal and caring. This means that management should consider the welfare of those they manage, supplying adequate and appropriate recourses so that all employees have the capability of meeting the organisational requirements without compromising their own welfare. Communication between management and staff is absolutely paramount otherwise quality will not work. Management here is not just the boss but includes any person who supervises or is in charge of a process. In the space below write the work your organisation carries out, then list all of the resources needed to achieve a quality result when performing these tasks. Have a discussion about these resources and indicate which are actually available. Then indicate if management actually know what is needed and have they been asked for what is needed. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ In the space below make a list of what you expect of your supervisors (if you are an employee) and make a list of what management expects of you. If you are a manager, list what you expect of your employees, then list how you have indicated these expectations to them. Both areas should then address the differences between these together. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Finally make a list of what you consider to be the signs of good leadership. Managers and employees should compare lists and address any differences as necessary. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 150
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Principle No. 3 Involve people.


People at all levels are the essence of an organisation and their full involvement enables their abilities to be used for the organisations benet. (From AS/NZS ISO 9000:2000) The people in any organisation are the greatest asset they have. It is the people involved who ensure that the organisation is successful. People at every level can make or break a program. If they have not been involved in the planning (this may be through representation or personally) or do not know what is expected of them, communication breaks down, there is no ownership of the process and problems occur. Ask yourself: Who is the best person to ask if a process is working and if there are any problems? ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Now ask: Do these people become involved at any point in the planning of projects and development of procedures? ____________________________________________________________________________________________ List the new projects or incentives that have been introduced into your organisation in the last two (2) years, and then indicate who thought of the project and who was involved in the planning. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________

Principle No. 4 Use a process approach


A desired result is achieved more efciently when activities and related resources are managed as a process. (From AS/NZS ISO 9000:2000) A process approach requires the project to be broken up into separate processes which are then given an order of priority and a specic order. The completion of one process will trigger the beginning of the next and so on, until the project is complete. In addition because quality systems involve customers and staff as well as management there will need to be feedback systems in place to determine if the project is meeting expectations. In the space below indicate a project you are involved in, break it down into steps, then determine which are prerequisites for others. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________
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Principle No 5. Use a systems approach to management.


Identifying, understanding and managing interrelated processes as a system contributes to the organisations effectiveness and efciency in achieving its objectives. (From AS/NZS ISO 9000:2000)

Principle No 7. Use a factual approach to decision making.


Effective decisions are based on analysis of pertinent data and information. (From AS/NZS ISO 9000:2000)

Principle No 6. Strive for continual improvement.


Continual improvement of the organisations overall performance should be a permanent objective of the organisation. (From AS/NZS ISO 9000:2000) In the space below indicate the inputs from internal and external sources that can be studied to determine the organisations overall efciency. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Have these resources been analysed by your organisation, and list any changes that occurred because of this analysis. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ The diagram below is an indication of a continuous improvement program.

Principle No 8. Develop mutually benecial relationships with your suppliers.


An organisation and its suppliers are interdependent and a mutually benecial relationship enhances the ability of both to create value. (From AS/NZS ISO 9000:2000) List what occurs when one of your suppliers does not deliver what you require. How can these situations be turned to mutual advantage? ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________

Quality management systems approach


There are several steps to be considered and then addressed when developing and implementing a quality management approach for use in your organisation. Remember that the purpose is not only to meet regulatory requirements, but also to use it as an opportunity to improve the overall performance of the organisation. AN/NXS ISO 9000:2000 and SAE 9110 give the following suggestions. 1. Determine the needs and expectations of customers and other interested parties. a.  By now you should have a reasonable idea of who your customers are. Now take this opportunity to list any other interested parties you can think of: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ b. List what their interest in your organisation may be and what their expectations are.________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Establish the quality policy and quality objectives of the organisation. a.  While this is basically a senior management task, many individuals within the organisation should be involved. At least section heads, supervisors and employee representatives should be involved. The will promote ownership throughout the organisation.
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(From AS/NZS ISO 9000:2000) 152


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b.  Avoid motherhood statements like To try and become the best maintenance organisation in Australia . Make it as specic as possible and include all of your activities. This statement is saying this is how we do business in this organisation . Keep it precise and easy to understand. Then stick to it. Reassess it from time to time with the view of adding new organisational goals and improving old ones.  Write a short statement of what your organisation does and how you want those activities carried out. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ If you are a manager review it when you go back to work. If you are an employee, review it and give it to management. 3.  Determine the process and responsibilities necessary to attain the objectives you have listed above. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.  Determine and provide the resources necessary to attain your quality goals. a. Who will be involved? b. What will it cost? c. What procedures are needed? d. Who will write these procedures? e. Are there regulatory requirements to be met? f. If so what are they? And g. How will these requirements affect us and how can we meet them?

7 .  Determine the causes of nonconformities and take appropriate steps to prevent further occurrences and eliminate the causes if possible. Use risk management concepts to nullify the risk, remove the risk or decrease any consequences. (See AN/NZS 4360:1999 Risk Management. 8.  Establish and apply a process of continual improvement of the quality management system.

Differences Between Quality Standards and Civil Aviation Law


There are three main differences between AN/NZS ISO 9000 and CAR 30/ CASR 145. These are: 1.  Approved Data - ISO 9000 requires an organisation to have a system in place to have approved (by the organisation) persons to approve initial issue of data and any subsequent ammendments to that data. They are also required to track these ammendments and ensure only the latest issues are used. Regulations require an AMO to do much the same, with one major difference: CASA has approved persons (CAR 35/36) who have the delegation to approve data. Therefore the AMO must have access to these people and not simply approve their own. In addition CAR 2A gives denitions of what is approved data and CAR 42V and U require only approved data listed in this denition to be used. 2.  Authorised Persons and Certication CASA, SAE and ISO standards requre an organisation to list all persons authorised by them to certify documents on their behalf. SAE and ISO standards will permit this list to contain a position designation and their responsibilities without mentioning the persons name. CASA and the legal system in Australia require that persons authorised by the organisation be listed by name, qualication and responsibility. In addition regulations require that only persons with specic qualications be authorised to certify any maintenance documents. 3.  Calibration of tools CASA, SAE and ISO standards all require an organisation to develop a system to control the calibration and condition of tools used to perform a process. CASA has the additional requirement that the organsation must have calibration carried out in accordance with either the aircraft manufacturers instructions or the tool manufacturers instructions. All calibration must be performed by authorised people (NATA approved). In addition CASA requires that in circumstances where the process is critical the organisation has
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5.  Establish methods to determine the effectiveness and efciency of each process. a. Develop an internal audit plan and stick to it. b. List the external auditors and determine their requirements and add it to your audit plan. c. Perform the audits in accordance with your plan. d.  Assess all data from these audits at a management level high enough to instigate changes. e. Make the necessary changes. f. Audit these changes and make appropriate adjustments. g. Train the participants of the new procedure and implement the change.

6.  Apply these measures (data from audits) to determine the efciency and effectiveness of each process.

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a system to determine the calibration status and serviceability of the tools required before use. These are the three main differences between the various standards. There are others, which can be found by a careful check of all standards. Regardless of the amount of difference the CASA regulations have precedence.

Conclusion
A comparison of CASA reqiurements in CAR 1988 30, CASR 145 (proposed), SAE Standards and ISO Quality Standards, will reveal that there are a large number of similarities between all three. These similarities can all be dealt with simultaneously, leaving only the differences to be addressed separately. A quality management system is simply good business practice and needs to be tailored for each organisation. It should reect what the organisation actually performs and be in a form that is helpful to ALL personnel when they are doing their work for the organisation. It is a tool that can be used to enhance the organisations practices and give some advantages in the market. There are regulatory requirements outside CARs and CASRs, which are not covered. These should also be compared to what you have and all similarities be dealt with simultaneously. An aviation organisation that has a good, working quality management sytem which complies with CAR 30 should have little difculty translating to CASR 145 when the time comes. Ask yourself now. Does my system actually meet CAR 30 requirements and my organisations needs? If the answer is no, then improve what you have until it does. Initially the quality management system needs to meet CASA requirements before addressing any accreditation requirements by other organisations.

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SYSTEMS OF CERTIFICATION FOR MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES References


Civil Aviation Act Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 CAR 42ZE CAR 1988 Schedule 6 CAAP 41-2(0) CAAP 42B-1(0)

Introduction
Forgetting that it is a legal requirement for a maintenance organisation to have an approved system of certication for maintenance activities, there are numerous gains to be made for any organisation that either maintains a complex product or manufactures anything. The biggest advantage is that once a system is instituted, there is now a logical sequence for the process and a responsible person will determine that one part of the process is nished permitting the next part to begin. Having a signature (certication), which indicates that a certain standard is reached or even exceeded, is another benet. As far as the Civil Aviation Regulations are concerned, the requirements have been placed into the law, so that no single person is disadvantaged and also ensuring that should anyone be called to account, there is a complete record of precisely what has been performed and by whom. This is an immense help to anyone who is assessing your work ethics and standards of quality. The fact that someone is able to say, I did the work and I did it correctly to a high standard is quite an achievement. You have evidence to say that your organisation and work practices are the best they can be. There is also a certain amount of protection against legal action, as your records are proof of your actions; these can be presented to future inquisitors as proof, rather than relying on memory. A good system will also help alleviate any fears a customer may have concerning your work since you can now show them exactly what you will be doing, thus assuring them that you will be reliable and your standards are high. A good system should also prevent accidentally missing a part of the process. A system of certication has distinct advantages for the organisation involved and as a by product they will comply with civil aviation regulatory requirements in addition to meeting international standards. You will also have the personal satisfaction of knowing that you have a responsible organisation and a good service record. All of this can be gained for the organisation by simply setting up a workable system of certication. 158
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Setting Up a System of Certication


Observe the process/s you are performing:
Careful observation of the actual work performed is a worthwhile exercise under any circumstances. There may be opportunities to prevent duplication, inactivity because of sequential problems and poor methods of performing the work, and to determine whether people working as part of the process are getting in each others way , whetherthe time allocated for each task is adequate and whether some work may be causing problems further along the process, to indicate a few. The major steps in the process and who performs these steps should be documented.

In most cases the manufacturer will also provide work sheets or cards as part of the maintenance program. These will have a breakdown of the tasks required during a specic inspection. These sheets will also generally have areas where certication can be made. These are very good but they do have some limitations. Some of these limitations are: 1. The schedule has been developed by the aircraft manufacturer and in some cases applies to a new aircraft. 2.  The system has been developed to different regulatory requirements, which may not be applicable to the country where the aircraft is operated. 3.  In some cases, the aircraft trade groups are not applicable to Australian requirements. Remember that what is permitted in one country may not be permitted in another. 4. The system does not take into account any modications of additional equipment tted to the aircraft. This includes roll equipment , e.g. winch equipment in rotorcraft (helicopters) or radios or navigational equipment. 5. They generally deal only with airframes and engines and their associated systems and equipment tted by the manufacturer on every aircraft.

Document all of the steps:


The act of writing down what you actually do can be very sobering on occasion and help with sequencing, planning and performing the work. It may also indicate that the wrong people may be working on the task.

Break each step down into sub-tasks:


Breaking down the major tasks in a process into their individual components has the effect of determining whether the right people are actually doing the work, whether there are any hold-ups which could be avoided, whether there are any unmanaged risks, whether people have the correct tools, whether the correct data is available, whether there are indications that the entire process is dependant on a task that is in itself simple but that could have a major effect if it is done incorrectly, whethert there are any steps missing and whether some subtasks should actually be increased in importance.

Final Step
Compare what actually happens during the maintenance to the aircraft manufacturers system and the CASA system of maintenance (schedule 5) and note the differences. Determine why there is a difference and make the appropriate changes.

Using the Manufacturers System of Certication


The manufacturers maintenance program and the certication sheets included in it are a very good point to start writing your own system. But as indicated previously they have some limitations and must be carefully assessed against what you actually do before making them your own.

Aircraft Maintenance and Certication Systems


Most aircraft manufacturers have developed a system of maintenance or a maintenance schedule for the aircraft models they produce. There are certain assumptions the manufacturer makes during the development of these documents. Some of these assumptions are: 1. The aircraft will be operated in a certain type of activity, e.g. private or passenger carrying. 2. The aircraft will perform a certain number of ights in a given period. 3. Each ight will be of a specied duration. 4. The aircraft will operate in certain types of environment, e.g. dry weather. 5. The aircraft will be operated in accordance with their instructions, i.e. as indicated in the ight manual. 6. The aircraft will be maintained in accordance with their written procedures. These procedures will include service bulletins, service letters, maintenance manuals, information bulletins etc. 7 . The aircraft has been designed to operate for a specied length of time, provided all required maintenance is performed when its called for by the system. 160
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Using the CASA System of Maintenance/Schedule


CASA has also published a maintenance schedule, which includes spaces for certication. This also has limitations, since it is essentially a generic document and will not be applicable to all aircraft in all circumstances. When you are writing your own system of certication a combination of the two systems mentioned previously (the manufacturers and CASAs) should be considered. Remember, though, neither of these systems will consider current
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legislative requirements, modication status of the aircraft, age of the aircraft or operational requirements. In addition to all of this your system of certication must reect the requirements of the Registered Operators (Registered Operator) System of Maintenance. CAR 39 requires the Registered Operator for an A Class aircraft (Has a C of A in the Transport Category or is used in Regular Public Transport operations, see CAR 1988 262 for details), to develop a system of maintenance for their aircraft. Or CAR 1988 41 which requires the registered operator of a B Class aircraft (not A Class) to choose a schedule of maintenance for their aircraft (either, CASA Schedule 5, or the aircraft manufacturers maintenance schedule or to develop their own). Any of these will determine what maintenance is performed and when. Your System of Certication must then reect the maintenance authorised by the C of R (Registered Operator). If your system has included that maintenance required by the manufacturer of an aircraft and the actual aircraft maintenance is performed under CAR 1988 Schedule 5, the two systems will not be in compliance with each other. (CAAP 42B-1(0) will give you a generic system of certication for an aircraft maintained to the CASA system) The best method is to develop your own system based on these two, plus the data you collected during the time you observed the work being done. At all times reect on the fact that this system is yours and should be developed taking account of your particular operation, experience and workforce skills.

inspection or maintenance task, which will require a signature by an authorised person for completion before the next task is started . In Australia this will mean any task, that must be completed and signed for by a LAME. A close inspection of the list of tasks, for completion of the 100-hour inspection will showthat each small task has an area for certication for that particular small part of the overall inspection, [see CAAP 42B-1(0)]. This is different from a stage of maintenance, which is a number of phases, which when completed will conclude that part of the maintenance, e.g. the airframe section of an inspection.

What Must Be Included in a System of Certication


CAR 1988 Schedule 6 (CASA SYSTEM OF CERTIFICATION OF COMPLETION OF MAINTENANCE) will give a great deal of help when determining what is to be included in your System of Certication. First of all you need to determine what is a phase of maintenance in the specic circumstance and for the particular aircrafts system of maintenance. Schedule 6 has been developed for aircraft on the CASA Schedule (Schedule 5) (this will not change when the new proposed regulations are implemented except in a few small areas which will be covered in the booklet at the appropriate time). A rough denition of a phase of maintenance is any part of an 162
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Fig 1: Section of CASA Certication Guide From the example listed above it can be seen that there is provision made for a signature by an AME (the person who actually did the work) and/or, a LAME. The numbered sections (1) etc. are a phase of maintenance. The order has been developed in a way that should give a smooth ow for the work. Compare this to the data you collected during the time you observed the work being performed in your organisation. Where there is a difference between the two you need to make a decision about including the phase, moving it to another position or even deleting it (you will need to justify this). Some areas indicated in the CASA system will not be applicable to the aircraft you are maintaining.
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Remember thatthis system applies only to those aircraft for which the Registered Operator has chosen Schedule 5, and may bear no resemblance to either the manufacturers system or the Registered Operators system or what you observed yourself.

Fig 3: Part of the schedule for a small aircraft. This particular document informs the person doing the work what to check and when the inspection is needed but has no certication section and no detail as to how the work is performed. In this case a complete system will need to be developed from the approved maintenance data dealing with each inspection area.

Fig 2: Part of the schedule and certication system for a large aircraft. Note here, that the certication requirement is for a Mechanic and an Inspector not AME and LAME. Also each inspection refers the people performing the inspection to other documents. To use this system under Australian conditions several changes may be required and the additional information must be made available to the person performing the task.

Certication For Completion of the Maintenance


In addition to a means of certication for each phase of maintenance, provision should also be made in your system of certication for certication for completion of each stage of the maintenance activity. This certication can be made on your documents or in the aircraft logbook. If more than one person performed the work (i.e. there is more than one LAMEs signature for the tasks, then one of these people needs to act as a co-ordinator for the stage of maintenance. In other words one of the people who actually did some of the work themselves or supervised someone else if they didnt. Under the new proposed rules the co-ordinator may not be one of the people involved with the work.

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Additional Work Sheets


It is very obvious when a person reads the list of maintenance tasks in the system that there is no indication of problems found or any rectications made when the area is inspected. This is the purpose of the additional work sheet. This sheet or your own version will need to be included in your system of certication. The use of this sheet is precisely the same as Part 2 of the current Additional Work Sheets (DA 741 or form 918); the instructions for this are the same. There is one exception though the AME as well as the LAME can make a certication. This certication acts as a Final Certication for the particular rectication; there should only be a certication for each rectication.

Certifying on the Additional Work Sheets


With the exception of periodic maintenance most maintenance is certied on either work sheets (system of certication) or on the Additional Work Sheets. There are several factors in certifying for maintenance on the Additional Work Sheets, which have over a period of time been forgotten. 1.  Additional Work Sheets became part of the aircrafts permanent records. The situation now is that the Additional Work Sheets are to be kept with the aircrafts maintenance certications sheets (or work package). 2.  Because the Additional Work Sheets are part of the aircrafts records, the same rules apply as for certication in the logbook. This means that CAR 1988 42ZE and CAR 1988 Schedule 6 applies to the Additional Work Sheets. 3. The same persons who are permitted to certify for maintenance, e.g. those outlined in CAR 1988 42ZC, must make certication on the Additional Work Sheets. 4.  A person can certify for and on behalf of their employer, or in their own right. It must be remembered, though, that if you certify for your employer the certication must say this, for example: LH ASI changed, S/No ASI VS 001 removed, S/No ASI VS 12001, Release Note number 100000123, tted IAW Piper Maintenance Manual (No. 2222), Section 16 para 2 (1998). Ground test serviceable. Certied for and on behalf of AAAAAAAA Aviation by XXXXXXX Lic. No.10098. On 12/12/2000 at 1545.6 HRS TTIS.  Without the for and on behalf section of this certication the certifying LAME is signing taking FULL responsibility themselves. This could lead to litigation problems in the future, in which case you will be on your own . 5. The certication requirements are the same for all persons listed in CAR 1988 42ZC, including pilots. 6. The more information included in the certication the better. This will promote communication between all interested parties and can be benecial in cases where your actions may need to be justied in the future. Remember that in court the defendant as well as the prosecution can use your certication as evidence. The lack of information in a certication can cause misunderstandings and make it very difcult if you need to justify your actions later.

Fig 4: An example of a Certication for a Stage of Maintenance Sheet There are a large number of items to be included when a certication is made for a stage of maintenance. These are: i. a brief description of the maintenance, not too brief though ii.   the signature, licence, authority or Certicate of Approval number of the person certifying. iii. the time in service of the aircraft since new iv.  if the person certifying is employed by a certicate of approval holder, then the name of the employer, certicate, licence or authority number (OF THE EMPLOYER) v.  details of any exemptions or variations approved under CAR 42ZS vi.  if the weight and balance is varied because of the maintenance, a record of that variation, vii. the data used viii.  the results of any special inspections or Airworthiness Directives (ADs) ix. the method, procedure and results of any NDT inspections carried out x.  if the maintenance is on a component, a description of the maintenance or if it was supplied by another person the number of the documents supplied by the facility IAW CAR 42W(4) xi.  Identication of any time-lifed components replaced during the maintenance, ADs for the component complied with, the release document number, time in service, and/or number of cycles since last overhaul and test performance gures if the component was an engine xii.  any material used, with the exception of a uid supplied under the cover of a CAR 42X document, in which case supplythe number of this document. (Summarised from CAR 1988 Schedule 6 para 2.5) While this looks like a formidable list of things, that must be included in this certication, most of the information will be included in the system of certication itself as part of the list of required maintenance tasks and/or the additional work sheets if they are used. 166

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Included with the additional work sheets you may wish to have an Airworthiness Directives (ADs) and Special Inspection Compliance Sheet. This will allow you to have more control over what Airworthiness Directives are completed, particularly when you are writing up the Final Certication in the Aircraft Log Book. Special Inspections are those that may be called up by Service Bulletins etc, which the Registered Operator has decided to incorporate. Please note it is not the responsibility of the person performing the maintenance to determine what maintenance including ADs is to be carried out during maintenance. If the sheets in Figures 4, 5 and 6: are used it should be remembered that these are nal certications in accordance with CAR 1988 ZE. This has the effect of making them part of the aircraft log book. Therefore they are not kept by the person performing the maintenance but once used belong to the Registered Operator. Alternatively they can be used as proof by the person making the Final Certication that the work has been carried out, but in this case the information needs to be transferred to the logbook and recertied by the person making the Final Certication .

Final Certication
An example of a Final Certication follows. Fig 5: Example of an Additional Work Sheet 100-HOUR INSPECTION CARRIED OUT AT 11120.7 HRS TTIS ON 20/11/2003 IN ACCORDANCE WITH CASA SCHEDULE 5. IN ADDITION TO THE INSPECTION THE FOLLOWING MAINTENANCE WAS ALSO CARRIED OUT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE APPROVED MAINTENANCE DATA LISTED: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX, mm 123456.SECTION 5 PARA 9 AMDT 8 2003. ETC. THE FOLLOWING ADs WERE ALSO CARRIED OUT; AD ENG 4 AMDT 7 NIL FAULT FOUND ETC. CESSNA SB XYZ CARRIED OUT NIL FAULTS FOUND. INSPECTION IN ACCORDANCE WITH EXCLUSION NO 111 CARRIED OUTNIL FAULT FOUND. FUEL CONTROL UNIT QQQ SNo 112233 REMOVED AND REPLACED BY SNo 123456 IAW CONTINENTAL SERVICE MANUAL 123 SECTION X PARA 12 AMDT 7 OCT 2003. AUTHORISED RELEASE CERTIFICATE No. 7890 POST INSPECTION ENGINE RUN CARRIED OUT IAW CESSNA MM NIL FAULTS FOUND MAINTENANCE PERFORMED BY EXCELLENT AIRCRAFT MAINTENCE SERVICE COA 11111, SIGNATURE: AMEL No: AS A FINAL CERTIFICATION ON DATE: / / A nal certication is to be made in the aircrafts logbook by a person who acted as a coordinator in accordance with CAR 1988 Schedule 6 Part 4 refers). The person making the nal certication can use the evidence provided by the certications in the system of certication work sheets as proof that the work was done correctly. This person should have been present during the complete inspection for a B Class aircraft; this is not the case for an A Class aircraft. Changes proposed in Part 43 would permit a person who did not take part in the inspection to certify as a co-ordinator or for the nal vertication, provided that they have hard evidence in the form of certications on the work sheets as prrof the work was carried out in accordance with the regulations.

Fig 6: Example of an Airworthiness Directive and Special Inspection Compliance Sheet.

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Co-ordination
Your System of Certication also requires provision for any person acting as a co-ordinator to certify. Co-ordination is needed where more than one LAME peforms any part of the maintenance. (CAR 1988 Schedule 6 Part 3 refers).

Conclusion
The person holding the Certicate of Approval to perform the maintenance specied in that approval develops the System of Certication. The system should take into account all of the requirements specied in CAR 1988 Schedule 6, and the maintenance system/ schedule chosen or developed by the Registered Operator. In addition to the certication sheets, the system includes all of the instrsuctions required by the end user so they they know what they are certifying for, how the system is amended and who is authorised to certify and make changes to the system. This system is approved by CASA (including the instructions and forms) and any changes made to the system must also be approved prior to the system being used. The system is yours and should be developed to indicate how you wish it to work, but compliance with the actual aircrafts system/schedule of maintenance and Civil Aviation Regulations must be stricly adhered to. The system should also include a list of persons who are authorised to certify on behalf of the Certicate of Approval holder. This acts to protect the person certifying and the organisation employing those people.

the role of the SUPERVISOR

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Supervision
The dictionary denition of supervision is to oversee (a process, work, workers etc) during execution of performance (Macquarie Dictionary) or FAR 43.3(d) ..... that the supervisor is authorised to perform, if the supervisor personally observes the work being done to the extent necessary to ensure that it is done properly. From the Proposed CAR 1998 Part 43

Division 3 Who may supervise maintenance


43.21 Supervision by a licensed aircraft maintenance engineer, etc
(1) The person is permitted to supervise the maintenance of aircraft or aeronautical product only if: (a)  the person holds an aircraft maintenance engineer license, or an AMS-1 certicate, that covers the maintenance; and (b)  t all material times when the person is supervising the maintenance, the holder of a the license or certicate observes the work being done to the extent to ensure that it is being done properly and is readily available in person, for consultation.

43.23  Supervision by an employee of an approved maintenance organisation.


(1)  Subject to subregulation (2), a person employed by an approved maintenance organisation is permitted to supervise on an aeronautical product not tted to an aircraft any maintenance: (a)  that may be carried out under the control of the organisation; and (b)  that, as an employee of the organisation, he or she is qualied to carry out; (c)  at all material times when the person is supervising the maintenance, the holder of the license or certicate observes the work being done to the extent to ensure that it is being done properly and is readily available in person, for consultation. (2) The person is qualied to supervise the maintenance provided in subregulation (1) only if: (a)  the person holds and aircraft maintenance engineer license, or an AMS-1 certicate, that covers the maintenance; or (b) the following circumstances exist: i.  the person holds a certicate that covers the maintenance, issued by a Part 147 maintenance training organisation; or ii.  the person holds a certicate, that covers the maintenance, issued by a recognised training provider; or iii.  the person holds a certicate, that covers the maintenance, after completing a training course approved under the provisions of Part 145; or iv.  the person holds a degree/diploma applicable to the maintenance. 172
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As can be seen from the above, supervision is more than asking a skilled or non skilled person to carry out a maintenance task and then performing a quick check of their work. Regardless of the experience and performance of the person ender supervision if they are not qualied under CASA regulations, they must be supervised, by a qualied or approved person, close enough to ensure that there are no errors made. The closeness of supervision is dependent on several factors. These are: (1) How much experience the person under supervision has. (2) How much trust the supervisor has in that person. (3) The complexity of the task. (4)  Whether the next sub-task will cover up the previous work carried out, for example, if a panel is replaced covering the work. (5) The importance of the task, i.e. what effect will there be on safety or operation if the task is done incorrectly. Note that cost did not rate a mention. The regulations are not interested in the cost of maintenance, only in maintaining safety.

Civil Aviation Safety Authority


CASA CENTRAL OFFICE
CASA Building
Cnr Northbourne Ave & Barry Dr Canberra ACT 2600 GPO Box 2005 Canberra ACT 2601 ph 131 757 (local call cost within Australia) ph 61 131 757 (from outside Australia) fax 02 6217 120

Bankstown

Building 628 Airport Ave Bankstown Airport ph 02 9870 3007 fax 02 9780 3050 email sydneybasin@casa.gov.au 39 Navigator Place Hendra QLD 4011 ph 07 3632 4051 fax 07 3632 4060 email southqld@casa.gov.au Building 78, Mick Borzi Drive, Cairns International Airport Cairns QLD PO Box 280N North Cairns Qld 4870 ph 07 4042 3603 fax 07 4042 3600

Brisbane

CASA SerVice Centre

PO Box 836 Fortitude Valley Qld 4006 ph 136 773 fax 07 3842 2580 email regservices@casa.gov.au

Cairns

Airline offices
39 Navigator Place Hendra Brisbane QLD 4011 ph 07 3632 4056 fax 07 3632 4060 email brisbaneairlines@casa.gov.au

Brisbane

Canberra

If any case the person supervising is ultimately responsible to the organisation they are employed by, themselves and CASA. In effect a lack of proper supervision can result in costly mistakes and may in some circumstances lead to legal action against the supervisor and their employer, not just by CASA. A recent legal case (not brought about by CASA) determined that the supervisor was totally responsible and was not performing their work in this area correctly (they were working in an adjacent hangar, when the work was performed). This ruling by the court caused severe penalties to be imposed on the supervisor and the employer. In the worst instance the supervisor can have criminal charges laid against them, in addition to a law suit, which is something none of us want to go through. This is out of CASAs hands but it must be kept in the back of the supervisors mind. This does not mean that the person being supervised can do what they like; it just means that when blame is apportioned, the supervisor carries the greater culpability. This may sound very negative, but good supervision is very important both in a quality sense and stress levels of supervisory and maintenance staff. Good supervision can also lead to productivity increases, fewer non-conforming products, increased customer satisfaction, increased prots and a happier work force. Remember when you are supervising you are responsible for the work carried out, not the person being supervised. You should take all steps possible to ensure that during supervision the person being supervised is guided and checked. You should be available for consultation, inspection and certication. You, the supervisor, are certifying for the work carried out, by someone else, so this work should meet both your standards and the regulatory standard. In Australia we are lucky that supervisors and licensed aircraft maintenance engineers are professional, enthusiastic, reasonably well trained, experienced and conscientious. Dont let a lack of proper supervision spoil your day and our excellent safety record.

Canberra

Cnr Nomad Drive & Rayner Road Canberra Airport Pialligo ACT 2609 GPO Box 2005 Canberra 2601 ph 02 6217 1357 fax 02 6217 1446 email nswcountry@casa.gov.au Reservations House 2 Fenton Court Darwin Airport Marrara NT 0812 PO Box 41196 Casuarina NT 0811 ph 08 8943 2999 fax 08 8943 2986 email nt@casa.gov.au 19 Second Avenue Moorabbin Airport Mentone Vic 3194 PO Box 20 Moorabbin Vic 3189 ph 131 757 fax 03 9518 2792 email victasmail@casa.gov.au

CASA Building Cnr Northbourne Ave & Barry Dr Canberra ACT 2600 GPO Box 2005 Canberra ACT 2601 ph 131 757 email airlineops@casa.gov.au Level 11, 505 Little Collins St Melbourne VIC 3000 PO Box 558 Collins Street West Victoria 8007 ph 03 9927 5345 fax 03 9927 5336 email melbairlines2@casa.gov.au Building 235 Cnr Qantas Dr & Robey St , Mascot 2020 PO Box 409 Mascot NSW 1460 ph 02 9366 3121 fax 02 9366 3111 email sydneyairlines@casa.gov.au

Darwin

Melbourne

Moorabbin

Sydney

Perth

130 Fauntleroy Ave Perth Airport WA 6104 GPO Box 1082 Cloverdale WA 6105 ph 08 9366 2802 fax 08 9366 2810 email west@casa.gov.au

FIELD offices
Adelaide
4 Kel Barclay Avenue Adelaide Airport SA 5950 PO Box 126 PBC Adelaide Airport SA 5950 ph 08 8422 2904 fax 08 8422 2900 email central@casa.gov.au

Tamworth

Cnr Rentell St & Basil Brown Drive Tamworth Airport NSW 2340 PO Box 895 Tamworth NSW 2340 ph 02 6755 2245 fax 02 6755 2240 1 Coral Sea Drive Townsville Airport QLD 4814 PO Box 7740 Garbutt Qld 4814 ph 07 4750 2672 fax 07 4750 2699 email northqld@casa.gov.au

Townsville

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