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A.

Background

Kurikulum 2013 menghendaki bahwa suatu pembelajaran pada dasarnya tidak hanya mempelajari tentang konsep, teori dan fakta tetapi juga aplikasi dalam kehidupan sehari-hari Dengan demikian, guru diharapkan untuk mengembangkan materi pembelajaran sebagai salah satu sumber belajar dan acuan pembelajaran sehingga dapat membantu peserta didik dalam mencapai kompetensi inti dan kompetensi dasar (BSNP, 2012). Based on the above it is necessary teaching materials that can help students optimize all the potential of both cognitive and psychomotor owned by learners, so that learners can obtain the learning outcomes are satisfactory. One effort that helps students to master complex concepts as well as to apply in daily life so that teaching and learning more meaningful is the availability of textbooks that facilitate this. Buku ajar merupakan seperangkat materi yang berisi informasi, pesan dan pengetahuan yang dituangkan dalam bentuk tertulis yang dapat dikomunikasikan kepada pembaca (khususnya guru dan peserta didik) secara logis sesuai dengan tahapan perkembangan kognitif pembaca. Penyajian sebuah buku hendaknya memuat contohcontoh yang dekat dengan kehidupan sehari-hari yang merangsang peserta didik untuk mengaplikasikan pengetahuan yang diperolehnya, agar peserta didik menjadi kreatif dan inovatif (BSNP, 2006). Menurut Uno (2011) peserta didik merupakan pusat dari suatu kegiatan pembelajaran, sehingga proses pembelajaran akan lebih berhasil apabila peserta didik secara aktif melakukan latihan-latihan secara langsung dan relevan dengan tujuan pembelajaran yang sudah ditetapkan. Pengembangan buku ajar seharusnya dilakukan untuk mendukung paradigma tersebut yaitu pembelajaran yang berpusat pada siswa (student centered). Oleh karena itu, perlu dikembangkan buku ajar yang berorientasi pembelajaran aktif (active learning). Active learning merupakan segala bentuk pembelajaran yang memungkinkan siswa berperan secara aktif dalam proses pembelajaran baik dalam bentuk interaksi sesama siswa maupun siswa dengan pengajar dalam proses pembelajaran tersebut. Pembelajaran active learning sangat mementingkan pemberdayaan otak kiri dan otak

kanan. Selain itu pembelajaran aktif juga dimaksudkan untuk menjaga perhatian siswa agar tetap tertuju pada proses pembelajaran (Mahmudah, 2008). Based on the description above, the researcher will develop instructional media in the form of active learning-oriented textbook is based on the curriculum 2013 for the high school class X.

B. Textbook Development Standards Each textbook is expected to meet certain standards. Standards may include requirements, characteristics, and minimum competencies that must be contained in a textbook. According to the National Education Standards Agency (BSNP, 2006), Feasibility of a book can be judged from: 1. Feasibility Component Content Feasibility component contents include: a. range of materiaL The range means breadth and depth of the material in the textbook. b. accuracy of the material Accuracy of the material in question is the accuracy of the facts, the accuracy of the concept, the principle of truth / law, the accuracy of the theory and the accuracy of the procedure / method. c. recency Recency include conformance with the development of science and the currency of features. d. Containing entrepreneurial insight Contains insights can menumbuhakan entrepreneurship is the

entrepreneurial spirit, work ethic foster, foster the spirit of innovation / creative and foster competitiveness. e. stimulate curiosity Stimulate curiosity is growing curiosity and encourage to seek further information f. Develop life skills Develop life skills include developing personal skills , develop social skills , develop academic skills and develop vocational skills .

2 . Linguistic components Linguistic components include : a. Compliance with the development of students Compliance with the development of students is conformity with the level of development of student thinking and conformity with the emotional level students . b. communicative Include students' communicative message of understanding and compliance with the substance of the message illustrations . c. Interactive dialogue Interactive dialogue is to have the ability to motivate students to respond to the message and encourage critical thinking in students . d. businesslike Includes precision straightforward sentence structure and kebakuan terms . e. Coherence and flow keruntutan thinkCoherence and flow keruntutan think is linkage between chapters / sections and the integrity of the meaning of the paragraph in the chapter / section / paragraph . f. Conformity with the rules of Indonesian Conformity with the rules of covering accuracy Indonesian language and spelling accuracy . g. The use of the term and symbol / emblem consistent .Komponen Penyajian

3. Presentation components include: a. Presentation techniques Techniques include consistency systematic presentation of grain in the chapter, kelogisan presentation, and keruntutan concept. b. Supporters presentation of the material Supporters include the presentation of material suitability and accuracy of illustrations with the material, generating motivation at the beginning of the chapter, examples of problems in the chapter, practice questions at the end of each chapter, references / sources of reference text, tables, images, glossary, index list (subject and author), a bibliography and a summary.

c. presentation of learning Presentation of learning include student engagement, student-centered, creating interactive communication, spesific with the characteristics of the subjects, and the ability to bring feedback for self-evaluation. C. Draft Development This research is a development with reference to the development of the model according to Thiagarajan, Semmel and Semmel (in Ibrahim, 2002) is a model 4 D (four D models) that consists of 4 stages: define, design, development, desseminate (spread). This research is limited to design, but its possible to develop. Model of development in this research is schematically shown in Figure bellow:
Analisis Ujung Depan Analisis Siswa Define Analisis Tugas Analisis Konsep

Perumusan Tujuan Pembelajaran Design Desain Awal Perangkat Pembelajaran Telaah 1 Revisi 1 Validasi Draft II Draft I

2 dosen kimia

1 guru kimia Develop Revisi II Uji coba terbatas Revisi III Master Buku Ajar

Figure 3.1 Flowchart of the development of 4D models of learning (adapted from Ibrahim, 2002)

1. Define The purpose of this stage is set and define the terms of learning. In this phase includes five basic steps are: a. Front End Analysis Some things to note in the front end of the analysis are: curriculum applicable (curriculum 2013), relevant learning theories, challenges and future demands. Analysis of the front end of this stems from the knowledge, skills and attitudes to be entering behavior (behavior beginning students) to achieve the ultimate goal, namely the goals set by the school in accordance with the KI and KD in the content standards with SKL considering these schools. To determine the feasibility of textbook researchers who developed the feasibility of using the component refers to adaptation assessment criteria developed by the National Education Standards. b. Student Analysis At this stage of analysis of the characteristics of students that will be used as a reference in the preparation of textbooks developed. Objectives of this study were students of class X which at this stage students have been at the level of formal thought patterns so that students have been able to abstract thinking and to develop a hypothesis of an event. This is supported by the theory of Piaget in Nur (1999), this stage is seen as the highest stage of thinking because thinking is not just limited to students on solving concrete problems, but students can abstract thinking in formulating a hypothesis.

c. Task analysis Task analysis is a set of procedures for determining the content of a lesson. At this stage the researchers to identify the tasks to be performed by the students to achieve certain basic competencies. Tasks to be performed are students underline important concepts in the material on the "tips read", making the scheme on the "make your scheme", given the material and with the match on the "let's fill ', inquiry activities on the" let's experiment ", engage in discussions on the" discussion forum ",

to answer questions relating to the material on the" let's remember back ", search for key terms and define it in the" find ".

d. Concept analysis The concept of material organized into a concept map, making it easier to know the contents of the material. Concept maps chemistry materials depicted in Figure below:

sub materi

The role of chemistry in life The nature of the chemical sciences The scientific method and Safety

CHEMISTRY materi inti


CHEMISTRY MATERIAL CLASS X

ATOM

The development of atomic models Bohr atomic structure and quantum mechanics The atomic number and mass number The electron configuration and orbital diagram orbital quantum number and shape. Group and period The nature of periodicity elements isotopes, isobars, isoton

CHEMICAL BONDING

ELECTROLYTE NON-ELECTROLYTE SOLUTION

Lewis Structure Ionic bonding and covalent bonding coordinate covalent bond Compounds polar and non-polar covalent. Metallic bonding Style intermolecular The physical properties of compounds Molecular Shape The electron configuration and orbital diagram orbital quantum number and shape. Group and period The nature of periodicity elements isotopes, isobars, isoton

OXIDATION REDUCTION REACTION

The concept of oxidation reduction The oxidation number of an element in a compound or ion The nomenclature of compounds

CHEMICAL CALCULATION

The relative atomic mass (Ar) and relative molecular mass (Mr) Chemical equation Law of chemical
Penjabaran sub materi

Lavoisier law Proust law Dalton law Gay Law Lussac Avogadro law


The mole concept

Molar mass Molar volume gas The empirical formula And the molecular formula. Compound hydrate. Levels of substance (mass percentage, volume percentage, parts per million or parts per million, molarity, molality, mole fraction).

Chemical calculation

The relationship between the number of moles, particles, mass and volume of gas in the reaction equation. Limiting reagent.

e. Specifications learning activities Learning activities are corellated to the learning objectives, the following high school chemistry class X syllabus using the curriculum in 2013 that details the learning activities in each basic competence (KD). 2. Design At this stage of the design of the device in the form of textbook learning high school chemistry class X. Developed a draft textbook consists of several components that textbook consists of three parts, namely the beginning, and the end portion of the content textbooks. Textbook description of the three parts are: The first part 1. front page In this section consists of the title material and illustrations. 2. How to Use the Book feature that contains instructions on how to use textbooks that have been developed. 3. Concept map feature that contains a collection of important concepts that will be studied 4. Basic Competencies and Learning Objectives Contains the basic competencies and objectives to be achieved in the learning activities. The learning objectives are developed based learning activities. 5. Bio key word Contains keywords from the material covered 6. preliminary Contains questions that will be associated with the material to be studied to establish concepts as students' prior knowledge. Content Part Content n part of the features that have been adapted to the adaptation of the assessment criteria developed by the National Education Standards. This section consists of these features:

. .

1. Material Description Contains the description of the material is based on the basic competencies developed 2. Reading Tips Contains instructions so that students can read and understand the material more quickly with strategy and write underline important concepts. 3. Chem Info Aims to open students to be more critical thinking and open to the general problems associated with chemistry 4. Chem figures Contains character profiles ilmwan or related material developed in the textbook. 5. web Chem Contains about website / web address which can be accessed students relating to the material covered. 6. Complete Come Form features that trains students to recall the material that has been read to match some of the terms in accordance with the definition / explanation. 7. Discussion Forum Form features that trains students to hone and develop skills in problem solving. 8. Come Experimenting Contains practicum students to do related to the material covered. 9. Let's Remember Back Contains questions that can arouse students 'interest to continue reading the textbook, as well as to check the students' understanding in each sub material. 10. Find The form of the features presented in the form of search and define important terms.

.Last Part The final part of the book consists of developed features: 1. summary This feature contains a summary of the material section. 2. evaluation This feature contains a collection of questions from each of the core material. 3. glossary This feature contains terms relating to materials chemistry metabolism. 4. Answer Key Contains a collection of answers to all questions contained in the textbook features. 5. Bibliography Loading literature textbooks used in developed

REFFERENCES BSNP. 2006. Naskah Akademik Instrumen Penilaian Buku Teks Pelajaran Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah. Jakarta: BSNP. Depdiknas. 2006. Pedoman Umum Pengembangan Bahan Ajar Sekolah Menengah Atas. Jakarta: Depdiknas. Ibrahim, M. 2002. Pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran. Jakarta: Depdiknas Nur, M, P. R. Wikandari, B. Sugiarto. 1999. Teori Belajar. Surabaya: Unesa University Press. Uno, H. dan N. Muhamad. 2011. Belajar dengan Pendekatan PAILKEM: Pembelajaran Aktif, Inovatif, Lingkungan, Kreatif, Efektif, Menarik. Jakarta: PT. Bumi Aksara. Yuliana, Endah. 2012. Pengembangan Buku Ajar Berorientasi Active Learning untuk SMA Pada Materi Metabolisme Karbohidrat. Skripsi. Tidak dipublikasikan. Surabaya: Universitas Negeri Surabaya.

INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA DEVELOPMENT


Instructional Media of Active Learning-Oriented Textbook Based on The Curriculum 2013 For The High School Class X

Writed by : NURUL CHOIRIYAH (113194006) FIBRI ERWAN S. YANTI PUTRI D. (113194032) (1131940..)

JURUSAN KIMIA FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM UNIVERSITAS NEGERI SURABAYA 2013