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Cha pter Fou r

tion between test data and the AWWA C-950 method is generally acceptable. However, at low to intermediate pressure, particularly in the region where the Spangler and Molin curve3 ross, there is sorne discrepancy. The error is such that the suggested me chod is on the safe side.
Thrust restralnt

Unbalanced hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces in pi ping systems are called th rust forces. In the ran ge of pressu res and fluid velocities fou nd in waterworks or wastewater pi ping, the hydrodynamic th rust forces are generally insignifican t in relation to the hydrostatic th rust forces and are usually ignored. Simply stated, th rust forces occur at any poin t in the piping system wh ere the direction or cross-section al area of the waterway changes. Thus there will be th rust forces at bends, reducers, offsets, tees, wyes, dead end s, and valves. Balancing thrust forces in u ndergrou nd pi pelin es is usually accomplished with bearing or gravity th rust blocks, restrained join t systems, or combinations of th ese meth ods. The intern a! hyd rostatic pressure acts perpendicularly on any plane with a force equ al to the pressure (P) times the area (A) of the pla ne. All corn pon ents of these forces, acting radially within a pi pe, are bala n ced by circu rn ferential tension in the wall of the pipe. Axial componen ts actin g on a plane perpendicular to the pipe throu gh a straight section of the pi pe are balanced internally by the force acting on each side of the plane. Consider, however, the case of a bend as shown in Fig. 4.11.



T = 2PA sin 0 /2 Fig ure 4.11 Th rust force. (Reprinted from Thmsl Resl ra int Design for Ductile !ron Pipe, by permission o( the Ductile !ron Pipe Research Association. )

Deslgn of Pressure Pipes


The forces PA acting axially along each leg of the bend are not balanced. The vector sum of these forces is shown as T . This is the thrust force. In order to prevent separation of the join ts, a reaction equal to and in the opposite direction of T must be established. Figure 4.12 depicts the net th rust force at various other configurations. In each case, the expression for T can be derived by the vector addition of the axial forces. Thrust blocks. For buried pipelines, thrust restrain t is achieved by transferring the th rust force to the soil structu re ou tside the pip . The objective of the design is to distribute the thrust forces to the soil structure in such a man ner that joint separation will not occur in u nrestrained joints.


---- ... ,.,. ID

Dead end

_ r__ PA _





Figure 4.12 Th rust forces. ( Reprinted from Thrust Restraint design for Ductile !ron Pipe, by permission o( the Ductile !ron Pipe Research Association. )


Chapter Four

. . . . . .. 1 . . .. .. ..

. .


lf thrusts. due to high pressure, are ex pec ted, anchor valves as below. A t vertical bends, anchor to resis t outward thrus t s.

l . Thru line connl'ctiun, tee 2. Thru line connection , cross used a s tee 3. Direction chanxe. elho 4. Change fine siz e. red ucer
5. Direct ion chanKe. f <'e used

as elbow 6. Direction change, cross used as elbow 7. Direction change 8. Thru lne connection , }\'V e 9. Valie anchor 1O. Directon change vertical, bend anchor

Types of thrust blocking. ( Reprinted from the Handbook o( PVC Pipe, 16 by permission o( the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association.) Fig ure 4.13

Figure 4.13 shows standard types of thrust blocking com monly used in pressurized water systems. Table 4.7 displays the th rust which may develop at fittings and appurtenances for each 100 lb/in 2 of internal pressure. These are approximate values. Thrusts from greater or lesser pressures may be proportioned accordingly. The largest thrust may result from the test pressure, which is usually higher than the operating pressure. One method for sizing thr ust blocks uses assumed soil bearing values. Table 4.8 gives approximate allowable bearing loads for various types of soil. These allowable bearing loads are estimates only, are for horizon tal th rusts, and are for pipe bu ried 2 ft deep or deeper. When doubt exists, safe bearing loads should be established by soil bearing tests. The design calculation of a thrust block is illustrated in the following exam ple:

Desl g n of Pressure Pi pes TABLE 4.7 Thr ust Developed per 100 l b/l n 2 Pressure Pipe size, in 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 36 Fitti ng 90 elbow, lbf 2,560 5,290 9,100 13,680 19,350 26,010 33,640 42,250 51,840 73,950 113,770 162,970 Fi tti ng 45 elbow, lbf 1,390 2,860 4,920 7,410 10,470 14,090 18,230 22,890 28,090 40,070 61,640 88,310 Valve tees dead ends, lbf 1,810 3,740 6,430 9,680 13,690 18,390 23,780 29,860 36,640 52,280 80,420 115,210


TABLE 4.8 Est!mated Bea rl ng Load Soil type Mu ck, peat, etc. Soft clay Sand Sand and grave! Sand and gravel wi th clay Sand and grave! cemen ted wi th clay Hard pan lb/ft2

500 1000 1500 2000 4000 5000

Example Required, th rust block at 1O-i n 90 elbow. Maxi m u m test pressure is 200 lb/in 2 . Soil type: Sand and grave! with clay. Calculate thrust. From Table 4.7, thrust on 10-in 90 elbow = 13,680 lb per 100 lb/in 2 operating pressure; total thrust = 2 (13,680) = 27,360 lb. Calculate thrust block size. From Table 4.8, safe bearing load for sand-gravelclay = 2000 lb/ft 2 ; total thrust support area = 27,360/2000 = 13.68 ft2. Select type of thrust block. From Figu re 4.10, select type 3.

An alternate method of th rust restrain t is with the use of restrained joints. Various mechanical locking-type joints are available to provide longitudinal restraint. Of cou rse, a welded steel joint is considered to be rigid and provides maximu m longitudinal restraints. Restrained joint systems are subjected to the same thrust forces, but these forces are resisted or distributed over the restrained pipe length. The necessary length of restrained pi pe, interacting with the soil, may be determined by the design engineer. Referring to Fig. 4.14, the restrained length on each side of the joi n t is L. The frictional resistance
Restralned jol nts.


Cha pter Fou r

PA sin !!..

I F, + -} R 1 l L cos %
L cos ..!_

Figure 4.14 Freebody d iagram for pi pe wi th restrai ned joi n ts. ( Reprinted from Thrust Restraint Design for Ductile !ron Pipe, by permi ssion of the Duclile !ron Pipe Research Association. )

and bearing resista nce are given by F, and Rb respectively. Sum mation of forces resu lts in th e followi n g:

. e
PA sin or

F, L cos

z + z R L cos z

(PA tan 6/2) L = ----(F, + V2 R 6 )

where P A

= internal pressu re = pipe cross-sectional area

F, = frictional force

Fb = bearing force For a cohesionless soil, the friction force F, m ay be calculated as follows:
F, = W ta n -y


w = zw. + wp
(4,<li w.= total soil load wp = weigh t of pipe plus wa ter fq, = friction factor between pi pe and soil <ji = internal friction an gle of soil

Oeslgn of Pressure Pipes



The above method will generally prod uce conservative results. If cohesion is present, cohesive forces will also be involved wh ich will make results even more conservative. However, since cohesive forces are time dependent, it is recommended that they be neglected.
Safety factors

Design of pressure pipe is based upon certain performance limits such as long-term hydrostatic bu rst pressu re and/or crush load either acting independen tly or simultaneously. The allowable total stress or strain is equal to the failu re stress or strain reduced by a safety factor. For example:
A =

r SF


where aA = allowabl stress r = failure stress EA = allowable strain Et = failu re strain SF = safety factor The total working stress/(strain) m ust be equal to or less than the allowable stress/(strain). If a combi ned loading analysis is not required, stresses due to interna!pressure and externa!loads are evaluated separately, and the safety factor is applied to the largest value. For combined loading, the safety factor is applied to the combined stress. For nonlinear failure theories such as the Schlick form ula, safety factors must be applied to both internal pressure and externa! load. These two factors of safety need not be equal. For plastic pipe, the design is based on life rather th an a failure stress. As previously discussed in this chapter, a hydrostatic-design basis (stress) is established on the basis of a life of 100,000 h r. The design stress is this hydrostatic-design basis reduced by a factor of safety. A factor of safety of 2.0 will give, essentially, infinite life since the stress regression curve is linear on a log-log plot (see Fig. 4.6). Standards for each pipe product may list recom mended safety factors. Also, manufactu rers often recom mend certain safety factors for their products. The bases for the calculations of these are often quite different. The design engineer should be awa re of these differences when comparing prod ucts and should always have the option of requiring a safety factor which is differen t from the recom mended value. The need for safety factors arises mainly from u ncertainties. These uncertainties range frOm pipe man ufact u re to pipe installation candi-

tions. The more the uncertainty, the higher the safety factor should be. The engineer should be very cautious in u tilizing safety factors that are lower than those recommended by national standards or by the manufacturer.
l. Andrews, James S., "Water Ham mer Gene;ated du ring Pipeli ne Filli ng," masters

thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., August 1970. 2. ASTM, "Standard Method of Test for Time-To-Failure of Plastic Pi pe Under LongTerm Hyd rostatic Pressure-ASTM Dl598," America n Society of Testing and Materials, Philadel phia, Pa., 1976. 3. AWWA standards: M-11, M-9, M-23, C- lf ,l, C-200, C-206, C-300, C-301, C-303, C400, C-401, C-402, C-403, C-900 , C-901, r.>.d C-950 , American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo. 4. Bishop, R. R., "Course Notebook," Utah State Uni versi ty, Logan, Utah , 1983. 5. Devine, Miles, "Cou rse Notebook," U tah State Un iversity, Logan, Utah, 1980. 6. Hu cks, Robert T., "Design of PVC Wa ter Distribu tion Pi pe," Civil Engi neering ASCE, vol. 42, no. 6, Ju ne 1972, pp. 70-73. 7. Jeppson, Rola nd W., Cordon H. Flam mer, Gary Z. Watters, "Experi men tal Study of Water Ham mer in Bu ried PVC and Perm astran" Pi pes," Utah Water Research Laboratory/College of Engineeri ng, Utah State Uni versi ty, Logan, Utah, April 1972. 8. Jeppson, Roland W., Gord on H. Fla m mer, and Gary Z. Watters, "Experimental Study of Water Ham mer in Bu r ied PVC and PERMASTH.AN Pi pes," Utah Water ResearCh Laboratory, PRWG0113- l, March 1972. 9. Kerr, S. Logan, "Water Hammer-a Problem in Engineering Design," Consulting Engineeri ng, May 1985. 10. Lam, G., "Lecons sur la thorie de l'lastici t," Pars, 1852. ll. Moser, A. P., "Cou rse Notebook," Utah State University, Logan, Utah, 1983. 12. Moser, A. P., Joh n Clark, and D. P. Bai r, "Strains I nduced by Combined Loading in Buried Pressurized Fiberglass Pipe," Proc. ASCE lnternal ional Con(erence on Advances in Underground Pipeline Engineering , ASCE, Mad ison, Wis. (1985). 13. Streeter, Victor L., Fluid Mechanics , 2d ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958, pp. 175-187. 14. Ductile ! ron Pipe Research Association, "Thrust Restrai nt Design for Ductile ! ron Pipe," Bi rmingham, Ala., 1984. 15. Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association, Handbook o( PVC Pipe , 2d ed., Uni-Bell, Dallas, 1982 16. Vinson, H. W., "Response of PVC Pipe to Large, Repetitive Pressure Surges," Proc. of the International Conference on Underground Plastic Pipe , American Society of Civil Engi neers, New York, March 1981. 17. Walker, Robert P., "Course Notebook," Utah State University Logan, Utah, 1983. 18. Watters, G. Z., "The Behavior of PVC Pipe Under the Action of Water Hammer Pressure Waves," Utah Water Research Laboratory, PRWG-93, March 1971.


Buried Pipe Products
Chapter 5 deals wth varous generic pipe prod ucts in two general classes; rigid pipe and flexible pipe. For each product, selected standards and material properties are listed. The standards are from standard organizations such as the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Actual design examples for the various prod ucts are given in this chapter.
Rlgld Pipes Asbestos-cement pipe

Asbestos-cement CAC) pipes are available for both gravity and pressure applications (see Tables 5.1 and 5.2). However, in recent years production of this product in the United States has been limited to
TABLE 5.1 Propertles end Deslgn Constents

Modulus of elasticity Tensile strength Shear strength Modulus of rupture (MR) Compressive strength Thermal conductivity Thermal coefficient of expansion Specific heat Moisture coefficient of expansion

Hazen-Williams coefficient Manning's coefficient

3.0 X 106 Jb/in 2 3000--4000 lb/in 2 4000 lb/in2 across pipe rucis 5000-6000 lb/in 2 (bending strength in crush) 7000 lb/i n 2 K = 5.5 <Btu in )/(h F ft2 ), 4 when perfectly dry 4 -5 X 10 - 6 in/in/F 0.27 Btu/lbF @ 212F 1.5-2.0 x io - 0 in/in/(% moistu re change) (moistu re content is 6 to 7% for normal at mospheric conditions and 15 to 20% for fully saturated conditions) e = 140 n = 0.010



Chapter Flve

TABLE 5.2 Appllcabl e Natlonal Standards

AWWA C-400 AWWA C-401 AWWA C-402 AWWA C-403

AWWA C-603
ASTM C-296 ASTM C-428 ASTM C-460 ASTM C-500 ASTM C-663 ASTM D-1869 Federal Specification SS-P-35lc Bureau of Yards and Docks, Navdocks, DM-5 Canadian Standards Association CSA Bl27.l CSA Bl22.2 CSA Bl27.ll

Asbestos-cement distribution pipe, 4 in through 16 in Standard practice for the selection of asbestoscement d istribu tion pipe Standard for asbestos-cement transmission pipe 18 in through 42 in Standard practce for the selection of asbestoscement transmission and feeder main pipe, sizes 18 in through 42 in Standard for installation of asbestos-cement water pipe Asbestos-cement pressure pi pe Asbestos-cement nonpressure sewer pipe Standard definitions of terma relating to asbestoscement and related products Standard methods of testing asbestos-cement pipe Asbestos-cement transmission pipes Specification for rubber ringa for asbestos-cement water pipe Specification for pipe, asbestos-cement for u nderwater pressu re U.S. Navy Civil Engineering Design Manual (includes asbestos-cement pressu re pipe)

Com ponents for use in AC DWV systems Com ponents for use in AC building sewer systems Recommended Practice for the Installation of AC DWV pipe and fitti ngs

pipe for pressure applications only. Because of the health risks associated with the handling of asbestos, AC pipe productions in the United States may come to a complete halt in the near future. This product has sorne flexibility especially for lower classes (thinner walls). However it is generally considered to be a rigid pipe product and the rigid pipe design method should be used for AC pipe installations. Asbestos-cement pipes are manufactured from asbestos, cement, silica, and water. The pipe-making machine places this mixture on a polished steel mandrel and it is pressure-steam treated (autoclaved) to achieve curing with less than 1 percent uncombined calcium hydroxide (free lime). AC pipe which have less than 1 percent free lime are designated as type 2. Type 2 AC pipes are generally resistant to all levels of soluble sulfates, but will be attacked by acids with a pH level of 5.0 or less. Type 1pipes have more than 1percent free lime and are generally not resistant to either soluble sulfates or to acids. Asbestos cement pipes are joined va rubber gasketed couplings.

Bu rled Pi pe Prod ucts


The pipe has a hard and fairly smooth internal surface. A Hazen Williams coefficient of 140 and a Manning coefficient of 0.010 should be used for long-term design. AC pipe can be tapped for water service. Also, various fittings are available for connections. Field cu tting for repairs and/or installation is possible. Appropriate safety precau tions should be followed to protect workers from air-borne asbestos dust. Manufactu rer's safety proced ures should be followed. The asbestos-cement-silica com posite achieves a remarkably high tensile strength of up to 4000 lb/in2 . This h igh strength is directly attributable to the asbestos fiber rein forcement. AC pi pe is d u rable as many AC pipelines have been operating for more than 35 years. AC pipes are not as prone to impact damage as sorne rigid pipes, nevertheless care should be taken in handling. When excavating, to make connections to or in repairing AC pipes, care must be taken to prevent the backhoe bucket from damaging the line. For water systems, AC pipes are available for both transmission and distribution systems. It is also available for various specialty applications.
Example 5.1 (G ravlty Storm Sewer) A 36-in diameter storm sewer ! ine is to be installed. It passes through a small hill which requires a trench 20 ft deep. Native material, a silty sand with clay, will be used for final backfill. The trench width at the top of the pipe is not to exceed 7 ft. Calcu late the mnimum strength of asbestos-cement pipe for both "B" and "C" bedding. Also, what strength will be required for a possible "worst case" if the trench width exceeds the transition width and only "C" bedding is achieved. Ground water is 10 ft below surface. (See Chap. 2 for design criteria.)
l. Determine earth load (ditch condition)

H 20 B =7 = 2.86 Clayey sand, K = 0.150 W = CdY B}


[from Fig. 2.2 (C


1.9 (120 lb/ft 3 ) (7)2

11,172 lb/ft

where 'Y = unit weigh t of soil (assu me 120 lb/ft 3) Bd = trench width at top of pipe 2. Determine earth load (if transition width exceeded l

Assume r,d}J



3 = 6.67

[From Fig. 2.6 (

2.65 ) ]


B (transition) = ( :)Be

2.65(3) = 7.95 feet


Wd (transition) = Cd -y B } = 1.9 (120) (8)2 = 14,592 lb/ft 3. Determine class of pipe required for "B" bedding, 7-foot trench width Load factor (LFJ for "B" bedding = 1.9 (see Table 3.2)


Chapter Flve

LF = 1.9 Safety factor = 1.5

(see Table 3.2)

. . 1oa d) (safoty factor ) Requ1red strengt h = ( des1gn load factor

SF) Wd (LF

11,172 (1.5) 1.9

8,200 lb/ft

Contact manufacturer to see if this strength or higher is available. 4. Determine strength of pipe required for "C" bedding, 7-foot trench width Load factor (LF) for "C" beddi ng = 1.5 Safety factor

(see Table 3.2)


SF) 11,172(1.5) Required strength = Wd ( LF = (1. ) 5

= 11,172 lb/ft

Again, contact manufacturer for the availability of this strength. Al though this is a nonpressure application, a pressu re pipe with the required crush strength may be used. 5. Determine strength of pipe required if transition width is reached or exceeded, clase "C" bedding; From tem 2 above load


= 14,592 lb/ft

SF) 14,592(1.5) 1. Required strength = Wd (LF = 5

14,592 lb/ft

This strength or higher may not be avalable from manu facturer.

Asbestos-cement pressure pi pes are designed using a combined loading theory (Schlick Formula) as discussed in Chap. 4. Equations (4.12) and (4.13) are repeated here for convenience.

M ( t/2 )


( 5.1)

(4.13) ( 5.2) Maximum bending stress in a pipe subjected to three-edge loading can be calculated as follows:
)(t/2) ()" = M (t/ 2) = --- = (M!b -

( 5.3)
( 5. 4)

b t3/12


= 0.318 F( r; + t/2)*

This is the maximum moment in a closed ri ng londed with d iametricnlly opposite concentrated loada. See a text on mechanics of materials for details.

Burled Pipe Products


where M = moment F = load I = moment of inertia of wall r; = interna! radius b = length of specimen thick ness t = wall thickness Equation (5.3) can be writ ten as follows:


6(0.318)(F/b )(r, + t/2) t2


For externa! loading only, at failure, the stress a is the strength sometimes called the modulus of rupture (MR). F/b is the three-edge bearing load to cause failure (three-edge bearing strength W) in lb/ft. Thus, MR = u

6(0.318)(W1b/ft)( lft/12in)[(d


or MR

=_ 0. _ 02 _9 _ 5( _ W) (D

+_ t)


The hoop stress crh in a cylinder may be calculated as follows:


= PD 2t


Knowledge of h MR and t will allow calculation of w and p through the use of Eqs. (5.1) or (5.2) and (5.6) and (5.7). By solving Eq. (5.7) for P and equation (5.6) for W, one may substitute into Eqs. (5.1) and (5.2) to obtain

w = and

/cr2t /D - p 0.0795 (D + t) \ a2t/ D

MRt 2

( 5. 8)

_ , p respectively.

a2t _ w ] 2} { 1 [ 2 D MRt /(D + t)0.0 795



Chapter Flve

Equations (5.8) and (5.9) above expresa the externa} and interna! loada, for a pipe of given thickness, modulus of rupture, and tensile strength, which will cause failure when applied simultaneously. It is difficult to solve these equations explicitly. The general procedure is to construct a graphical solution for standard pi pe classifications and standard installation and operating cond itions (see AWWA C-402). In addition, the design process will require the application of an appropriate factor of safety. Thickness design of asbestos-cemen t class pressu re pipe is outlined in AWWA C-40 l. Two cases of design are considered. The design methods are summarized in Fig. 5.1. Note that the safety factors recommended are different. Asbestos-cement pipe designed by considering case I will generally exceed the capability of pipe designed by case II. The nature of transmission systems has been recognized by AWWA. AWWA C-402-75 covers a wide range of pipe classifications suited to provide exactly the right pipe for the design conditions encountered. In cases where operating and installation conditions are controlled and the magnitude of potential surge pressures are known, lower safety factors may be justified. Figu re 5.1 also summarizes such a design procedure for asbestos-cemen t transmission pipe, case III.
Example 5.2 (Dlstrlbutlon Une) A 12-in diameter distribu tion line will operate at a working pressure of 100 lb/in 2 Average depth of cover wilt be 5.0 ft under a paved roadway. The native soil is sand. Using standard AWWA design procedures, what class asbestos-cement should be u sed if the pipe is laid in a flat bottom trench with backfill tamped. Assume the trench width is 3.0 ft., and the bedding factor is 1.3.

Design Case Case I (live load is zero)

Interna! Load Design

p = (operati ng
w =

External Load Design (transition load) x 2.5 SF = 2.5

w = (earth + live load ) x 2.5 SF = 2.5

pressure) x 4.0 SF = 4.0 Case II (surge pressure is zero)

p = (operati ng pressure) x 2.5

SF = 2.5 Case III (transmission) (designed for specific surge pressure)


= (operating pressu re + surge pressure) x 2.5 SF = 2.5

= (earth + live load) x 2.5 SF = 2.5


Figure 5.1 Asbestos-cement pressure pipe design sum mary (See AWWA C401).

Burled Pipe Products


Case 1: Hydrostatic:
P = class x SF



Crush load: W = earth load (transition)JsF bedd1ng factor Case 11: Hydrostatic: Crush load: SF

= 2.5
SF = 2.5

P = class x SF

W = [(earth load

+ live load + impact) JsF bedd1ng factor

SF = 2.5 In both case 1 and 11 use combinad loading

w = w JP ;p
Figure 5.2

Outline of design procedure for asbestos-cement class pressure pipe (6 to 16 in).

Hydrostatic design:

Crush design: SF = 1.5

= (operating pressure + surge pressure)SF

SF = 2.0

W = [earth load (transltion) + live load (H = 20) bedding factorJSF

w w JP ;p

Figure 5.3

Ou tli ne of asbestos-cemen t transmission pipe design procedure (18-36 in)

l. Determine earth load

H 5.0 Bd = 3.0


(From Fig. 2.2, Cd = 1.3) (for sand)

K = 0.165

W = 1.3 (120)(3.0)2 = 1404 lb/ft 2. Determine load at transition width

Be = (13.74/12)


= 4 37

(From Fig. 2.6 with r,P = 0.5 and K

= 0.165, Bd!Bc = 2.22)


4 ; 2.22

2.54 ft

*13.74 is OD which can be obtained from manufactu rers' specifications.


Chapter Flve

(From Fig. 2.2, Cd

K . = 0.165


Load is Wd = 1.4(120)(2.54 ) 2 = 1084 lb/ft (not 1404 as determined previously). Al ternately the load can be obtained using Fig. 2.5 for projecting conduits. H B = 4.37 (From Fig. 2.5, Ce = 7.0)

Wc = Cc'!Bc = 7.0(120) 12 (

= 1111 lb/ft

The 1111 lb/ft is essentially the same as 1084 lb/ft as previously calcu lated. The error is due to graphical in terpolations for C.i and Ce. 3. Determine live load
WL = 340 lb

(from Fig. 2.14)

4. Determine total load

Wr = Wc + WL = 1111 + 340 = 1450 5. Determine internal pressure requ iremen t

Case I: (live load is zero)
p =

(100) 4.0 = 400 lb/in 2 1111 (2.5) 1.3

= =

2136 lb/ft

Case II: (surge is zero)


(100 ) 2.5 = 250 lb/in2 25 1450 ) = 2788 lb/ft l.;

By use of the Schlick formula we can now determine the P and W or wall thickness of the pipe which is required. For AC pipe, the performance criteria P and W may be solved by tria! and error as follows (C!ass 100, P = 490 lb/in 2 , W = 5200 lb/ft) see Fig. 5.4: Case I:

w =
Case II:


1490 - 400 = 2288 lb/ft ' = 5200 \ ! 490 2136 class 100 is acceptable 40


= 3639 lb/ft > 2780 lb!ft

w = 5200 ) 490

Class 100 is acceptable.

Figure 14E of AWWA C-401-83 (see Fig. 5.4) is a solution for . 3 r.dP = 0.70, K = 0.192 and -y = 120 lb/ft . Class 100 pipe would

B u rlad Pi pe Prod ucts

Desi gn ex ter na! l oad , l b/!i n f t


250 .----.





1 ,000

Cl ass 200

':"!?" e

e 150


., c. e' "

" :!?' ei
a. e

a. "' 100

"' "' o

.g o
'ti e o


12 8

1 6 20 12 16 20


e' "


"2 e

Oep t h of cover . f t

Figure 5.4 Class pipe-design cu rve for 12-in d iameter asbestos cemen t pi pe. <.See AWWA C401 for other d iameters ). (Reprinted , by permi ssion , from AN S I /A WWA C40183,3 American Water Worhs Associa tion, 1986.)

therefore perform for any cond itions which are below t he lowest design curve. The class designations are based on case I with a class C bedding, excavated coupling holes, and 5.0 ft of cover.
Exam ple 5.3 (Tra nsmlsslon Pi pe Deslg n) A 24-in diameter transmission line will deliver water at 7000 gal/m and 5.0 ft/sec from a reservoir to a treatment plant 10 miles away. The pipe will be bu ried 5.0 ft deep in a 4.0-ft wide trench


Ch11pter Flve

in sand carefully compacted or bedded with a coarse granular material u p to the spring line. Surge devices and valve operating equipment will control maximum surge pressures to a maximum of 50 lb/in2 The syatem will operate at maximum pressure of 150 lb/in 2 Determine the appropriate asbeatos-cement tranamission pipe. (See AWWA C-402.) l. Determine earth load

H = 5.0 = 125 Bd 4.0 . K.


(from Fig. 2.2, Cd = 1.1)

(for eand)


wd = i.1 (120)( 4.0) 2 = 2 :.i2 1b/ft

Transition width _ = H 5.0 = 2 27 Be (26.4/12) .
r 8 dfJ =

(from Fig. 2.6, B,/ Be = 1.8)

0.5 2

Bd = 1.8

24 = 3.96ft,
5.0 2.2

that is 4,0-ft trench width just exceeds the transition width and the load calculated for a 4.0-ft wide trench is just slightly conservative.

2 27


(from Fig. 2.5 Ce = 3.4)

r8dfJ = 0.5 We = 3.4 (120)(2.2) 2 = 1974 lb/ft Wd z Wc @ transition width 2. Determine live load
(from Fig. 2.14) 3. Determine total load 2112 + 340 = 2452 lb/ft 4. Combined loading
p =

(150 + 50) 2.0 = 400 lb/in/ 2

w Try (T50, P

= ( 21121. 340 ) i.5 = 1936 lb/ft

8100 lb/ft

500 lb/in2 , W w

JpP- p

8100 / 5oo

- 400 500

3622 lb/ft

3622 lb/ft > 1936 lb/ft

T50 is acceptable

Alternately the pipe could be chosen from the selection curves of Fig. 4.3 (see AWWA C-402-84).

Burled Pipe Products


Clay pi pe

Vitrified clay pipe is man ufactu red from clays and shales which are chemically inert. In the manufactu ring process, various clays and shales are pulverized and screened and placed in storage bins. Blended materials are carried to the pugmill and mixed and moistened with water for a proper mix consistency for extrusion. The mix is then forced through a die into a vacuu m chamber where tr;:tpped air is removed. This mixtu re is then machine extruded in the forro of pipe. This fresh extruded pipe con tains abou t 18 percent water and is called greenware. Greenware is placed in drying rooms to reduce the moisture content to abou t 3 percent. The pipe is t hen taken to the kilns and preheated to approximately 400F to drive off rernaining moisture. The pipe travels slowly th rough the kiln reaching a ternperatu re near 2000F where vitrification takes place. During vitrification the clay fu ses in to a very h ard , chemically stable compou nd. Vitrified clay is very corrosion and abrasion resistan t. Because of its inheren t low strength, vitri fied clay pipe is used for nonpressu re applications on ly. It is bri t tle and subject to irn pact damage and special care in hand ling is a req u irement. Newer designs do n ot have extruded clay bells. Instead, a bell is formed by helically windi ng conti n uous glass filamen ts and a thermosettin g resin to form a bell on a plain pipe end. A groove is molded into the bell for a rubber gasket. Clay pipe is generally available in sizes ra nging frorn 4-in diarneter to 36-in diameter. However it may be avalable in sorne locations in diameters up to 42 in. The strength is deter mined by the three-edge bearing test, vares with diameter, and ranges frorn 2000 lb/ft to 7000 lb/ft (Tables 5.3 and 5.4).
Example 5.4 A 15-in diameter sanitary sewer line is to be installed 14 ft deep. Native material, which is sand, will be used for final backfill. If the trench
TABLE 5.3 Standards for Clay Pipe

ASTM C-700 ASTM C-425 ASTM C-301 ASTM C-12 ASTM C-828

Clay pipe, vi trified , extra st rength , standard strcngt h , a nd perforated Compression joi n ts for vitrified clay pipe and fitti ngs Clay pi pe, vi tri fied ( test methodsl l nstalli ng vi tri fied cl ay-pi pe li nes Low-pressu re air test ar vi tr i fied cl aypipe li nes Canad ian Sta ndards Association

CSA A60.1 CSA A60.2 CSA A60.3

Vi tr ified cl ay pi pe Mcthods of tcsti hg vitri fied clay pi pe Vitrified clay-pi pe joi n ts


<.;hapter t-lve

5.4 ASTM C700-74 Clay Pi pe Ml nl mu m Crushlng Strengths (Three.Edge Bea rl ng Strength)


Nominal size, in

Extra strength lb/ft

2000 2000 2000 2200 2400 2600 2900 .

Nominal size, in 21 24 27 30

Extra strength, lb/ft

3850 4400 4700 5000 5500 6000 6600 7000

4 6 8 10 12 15 18

36 39 42


width is 3.0 ft, what pipe and bedding classes should be select.ed? (Note: This example was previously given as Example 3.1).
l. Determine earth load



= 3 = 4.67

(from Fig. 2.2 Cd = 2.4) (for sand)

K = 0.165

= cd 'Y B 2d = 2.4 (120)(3.0)2 = 2592 lb/ft

2. Determine live load WL = 150 lb/ft

(from Fig. 2.14)

Note: 150


2592 (live load may be neglected)

3. Select bedding and load factor

Class D Class C (from Table 3.2)

LF = 1.1 LF = 1.5

LF = 1.9 Class B 4. Select pipe strength (safety factor = 1.5)

Three-edge strength =

Wd(SF) 2592(1.5) LF = LF

R eq ulred Strength f or Va rlous Bedd l ng Classes

Bedding class B

1.9 1.5 1.1

Three-ed ge, lb/ft

2046 2592 3535

Required strength, lb/ft Extra strength (2900) Extra strength (2900) This strength is not available


Burled Pipe Products


Concrete pi pe Concrete pipe prod ucts are. mad e by several processes. I ncl uded are nonreinforced prod ucts in sizes ranging from 4-in diameter to 36-in diameter and .various reinforced prod ucts in sizes 12-in th rough 144-in diameter (see Tables 5.5, 5.6, and 5.7) . The nonpressu re types are described in ASTM C-14 for nonreinforced and in ASTM C-76 for the rein forced-type, and in CSA A257 for both types. Concrete pressu re pipe includes various types of wall construction. Sorne are designed and ma nufactu red for specific service applicatons and other types are constructed to be su itable for a broad range of applications. Prestressed concrete cyl l nd er pi pe Prestressed concrete cylinder pipe has two types of const ruct ion: embedd ed -cyli n der types and the linedcylinder types (Figs. 5.5 and 5.6). In both types, m anu factu ring begins with a welded steel cyli nder to wh ich join t ri ngs are attached to each end. This steel cylinder is then hyd rosta tically tested .
TABLE 5.5 ASTM C14 Nonrel nf orced Concrete Pi pe

M ini m u m strength in three-ed gB beari ng, l b/ft Pipe diameter, in Class 1 Class 2 Class 3

4 6 8 10 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36

1500 1500 1500 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3150 3300

2000 2000 2000 2000 2250 2600 3000 3300 3600 3950 4300 4400 4500

2400 2400 2400 2400 2600 2900 3300 3850 4400 4600 4750 4875 5000


ASTM C-76 R elnf o rced Concrete Pi pe D Load (l b/f t ft d la.)

R eq ul red Class Size range, i n d ia.

0. 01 i n crack 800 1000 1350 2000 3000




60-144 12-144 . 12-144 12-144 12-144

1200 1500 2000 3000 3750




TABLE 5.7 AWWA and ASTM Standards for Concrete Pipe AWWA C-300 AWWA C-301 AWWA C-302 AWWA C-303 AWWA Manual 9 ASTM C-118 ASTM C-14 ASTM C-505 ASTM C-985 ASTM C-654 ASTM C-506 ASTM C-76 ASTM C-655 ASTM C-507 ASTM C-361 ASTM C-924

Standard for reinforced concrete pressure pipe, steel cylinder-type for water and other liquida Standard for prestressed concrete pressure pipe, steel cylinder-type for water and other liquida Standard for rei nforced concrete pressu re pi pe, noncylinder-type for water and other liquida Standard for reinforced concrete pressu re pi pe, steel cylinder-type, pretensioned for water and other liquida Concrete pressu re pipe, manual of water supply practices Concrete pipe for irrigation or drainage Concrete sewer, storm-d rain, and culvert pipe Nonreinforced concrete irrigation pipe wi th ru bber-gasket joints Nonreinforced concrete specified strength culvert, storm-drain, and sewer pipe Porous concrete pipe Reinforced concrete arch culvert storm-drain and sewer pipe Reinforced concrete culvert, storm-drain, and sewer pipe Reinforced concrete D-load culvert, storm-drain, and sewer pipe Reinforced concrete elliptical culvert, storm-dran, and sewer pipe Reinforced concrete low-preasure pipe Low-pressu re air test of concrete pipe sewer linea

Cementmor tar coa ting

Wire anchor

steel w i re

Mortared in f ield

Spigot ring

Rubber gasket

Steel cylinder

Figure 5.5 Wall cross-section of embedded cylinder pipe. (Reprinted from Bulletin #200, Embedded Cylinder, by permission of the United Concrete Pipe Corporal ion.)

lnside diameter

Mortared in f ield

Burled Pipe Products

Cementmortar coating


Prestressed steel wire

Spigot ring

R ubber gasket

Steel c y linder

Mortared in f ield lnside diameter Cqncrete lining

Figure 5.6 Wall cross-section of !ined cylinder pipe. (Reprinted from Bullelin #200, Line Cylinder, by perrriission of the United Concrete Pipe Cor.. poration.)

A concrete core is either cast (embedded-cylinder) or spun (linedcylinder) in the steel cylinder. Af ter curing, the cylinder is helically wrapped with hard-drawn wire u nder high-tensile stress. The lead angle is controlled to produce a specific compression stress in the concrete core. After wrapping, the pipe is coated with a cement slurry and a dense mortar or concrete coating. Embedded cylinder pipe is com monly available in sizes 24-in through 144-in diameter. Lined-cylinder pipe is manufactu red in diameters 16 in through 60 in. Prestressed concrete cylinder pipe is designed using a combined loading analysis. This method was discussed in Chap. 4 (see also AWWA C-301).
Relnforced concrete cyllnder pipe This pipe is similar to the embedded-

cylinder pipe in manufacture. However, no prestressed wire is applied and instead one or more reinforcing cages and the steel cylinder are positioned between vertical forms and the concrete is cast (Fig. 5.7). Steam or water is used to cure the concrete. Th is pipe is available in diameters of 24 in through 144 in. Design is based on either the strength method or the working stress method. In either cases, the pipe is to be designed to withstand interna!pressu re and externa! load, each acting separately or in combination (see AWWA C-300, Appendix A).


Chapter Flve
Mor tared in f ield

Circumferential steel reinforcement

Longitudinal Steel

Bell ring

Ste&I cylinder Mortared in f ield 1 nside diameter

Figure 5.7 Wall cross-section of reinforced concrete cylinder pipe. (Reprinted from Bulletin #200 Reinforced Concrete Cylinder Pipe, by permission of the United Concrete Pipe Corporation.)

This type of concrete pipe is manufactured by positioning one or more steel cages in proper radial location(s) (Fig. 5.8). The cages are placed between two vertical forros and the concrete is cast. Alternately, the cages are attached to an outer form and the entire assembly is rotated and the concrete is cast centrifugally. AWWA C-302 outlines a design procedure for internal pressure and external loads acting simultaneously. Reinforced noncylinder pipe is available in diameters of 12 in through 144 in.
Relnforced concrete noncyllnder pipe

In the manufacture of pretensioned concrete cylinder pipe, one starts with steel cylinders made from steel coils and spirally welded or made from steel sheet and welded longitudinally. End rings are welded to the steel cylinder and it is then hydrostatically tested to 75 percent of yield strength of the steel. A cement mortar lining is applied centrifugally. After curing, the cement-mortar line-steel cylinder is pretensioned by helically winding steel rod under a small tension to the outside of the steel cylinder. The pitch of the winding is controlled by specific design requirements. A cement-mortar coating is then applied to the exterior surface of the rod-wrapped cylinder and the completed pipe is cured (Fig. 5.9). This pipe is normally available in diameters 10 in through 42 in. The design of this pipe is based on an analysis of both internal pressure and external loads acting separately but not in combination. This design method is usually used for flexible pipe which pretensioned concrete is not. The pipe must be installed in such a manner that the deflection is less than D J 4000 (see AWWA C-303, Appendix A).
Pretensloned concrete cyllnder pipe

Burled Pipe Producta


Ci rcumf erentia l steel reinforcement longitud i nal steel

Mortared i n f i el d Bell ri ng


Spigot ri ng R u bbe r gasket Mor ta red i n f i el d 1nside diameter

Longitudinal steel reinforcement Circum ferent,ial steel reinforcement


lnside diameter

R u bber gasket

reinforced concrete noncylinder pipe (a ) (with steel joint ringa): ( b) (with concrete bell and spigot). Reprinted from Bulle/in #200, Reinforced Concrete Cylinder Pipe, by permission of the United Concrete Pipe Corporation.)
Cementmortar coating Mortared in field

Figure 5.8 Wall cross-section of

Prestressed steel wire

Figure 5.9 Wall croBB-section of

Spigot ri ng
lnside diameter

R u bber gasket

Steel cyl i nder

Mortared in field

pretensioned concrete cylinder pipe. (Reprinted from Bulletin #200, Pretensioned Concrete Shot-Cote Pretensioned Pipe, by permission of the United Concrete Pipe Corporation.)

Cement-mortar coating


Chapter Flve

Example 5.5 A 15-in diameter sanitary sewer line is to be installed 1 4 ft deep .in native sand. The trench width at the top of the pipe is to be 3.0 ft. For clase B, class C, and class D bedding, select the required strength for nonreinforced concrete pipe and the required strength for a reinforced concrete pipe. From Example 5.4: W = 2592 lb/ft nonrelnforced Strength W(3-edge) =

w;F )



where SF = safety factor = 1.5 LF = load factor for particular bedding class (see Example 5.4) relnforced Reinforced concrete pipe is designed using the "D load." The D load is the required three-edge strength divided by the pipe diameter. Or Strength W(D load)


(2592/D)SF LF

For this material, the strength for each class is based on a 0.01-in crack, not failure. Actual failure load (ultimate) will be approximately 1.5 times the load which causes a 0.01-in crack. Therefore, a safety factor of 1.0 is recommended based on D load or 1.5 based on ultimate load. R equlted Strength Besed on SF = 1.5 end Ultlmete Bedding elasa B LF 1.9 1.5 1.1 Three-edge, lb/ft 2046 2592 4025 D-load, (lb/ft)/ft 1637 2074 3220 Nonreinforced Choose class 1 (2600) Choose class 2 (2600) Not available Reinforced Choose class III (2000) Choose class IV (3000) Choose class V (3750)


N<rrE: Above values were calculated and the requ;red classes were selected from Tables 5.5 and 5.6. Also note that a high enough strength for nonreinforced concrete is not available to withstand loads imposed if bedding is only class D.

Exem ple 5.6 (Tranemleelon Pipe) A 24-in diameter transmission line will deliver water at 7000 gal/m and 5.0 ft/s from a reservoir to a treatmen t plant 10 miles away. The pipe will be buried 5.0 ft deep in a 4.0-ft wide trench in sand carefully compacted or bedded with a coarse granular material u p to the spring Jine. Surge and valve control equipment will allow maximum surge pressures of 50 lb/in 2 The system will operate at maximum pressure of 150 lb/in 2 Determine the appropriate prestressed concrete transmission pipe (see Example 5.3). Prestressed concrete pipe is designed by the cubic parabola method as discussed in Chap. 4. Equation 4.14 is as follows:
W = Wo 3/Po - p P0 For lined cylinder: p .= 0.8 P 0 (see AWWA C-301) For embedded cylinder: p = P 0 (see AWWA C-301) From Example 5.3: W = 2112 lb/ft Required strength: W = W/LF = 2112/1.9 = 1111lb/ft.

150 Jb/in 2

Burled Pipe Producta



P 0 = 150/0.8 = 187.5 lb/in 2 for lined pipe

Total load w = wd + WL = 2452 (see Example 5.3)
for llned cyllnder pipe
p = 0.8P0

P0 . = 187.5 lb/in 2


W0 = 1900 lb/ft
The pipe muet be designed or seiected for 187.5 lb/in 2 internal pressure and an externa! load of 1900 lb/ft each acting independently. The rated strength as determined by the manu factu rer includes a safety factor of 1.2. Thus, the transient capacity is considered to be 1.2 times th e design capacity for lined cy!inder pipe. 1.2 1.2 Case I (no surge) 225 150 Max load = 2280 :} ; = 1581 lb/ft 2 5 Safe live load Case II (no live load) 1111 or 1 1 3 2 p = 225 [ 1 - ( 22 0) ] = 199 lb/in Safe surge pressure = 199 - 150 = 49 ib/in 2
for embedded cyllnder pipe

P0 = 1.2

187.5 = 225 lb/in 2

W0 = 1.2 X (1900) = 2280 lb/in 2

1581 - 1111 = 470 lb/ft



-p 225


1900 lb/ft


P 0 = 190 lb/in 3 3 /Po - P = 1900 f l 90 - ISO = 1130 lb/ft




Chapter Flve

1130 > 1111 Thus try is okay. For embedded cylinder pipe, the transient capacity is 1.4 times the design capacity. 1.4 X W0 = 1.4 X 19\)0 = 2660 lb/ft 1.4 X P 0 = 1.4 X 190 = 266 lb/in

Case I (no surge)

= 2017 lb/ft . 266 Safe live load = 2017 - 1111 = 906 lb/ft Case II (no live load)
Max load w

= 2660 y

3/266 - 150

. 2 = 266 [1- ( 1111)] = 247 lb/m 2660

Safe surge pressure = 247 - 150 = 97 lb/in 2 These excess capacities are for transient conditions only. The pipe should not be expected to perform with a sustained soil load of 2017 lb/ft nor with a sustained interna! pressure of 247 lb/in2 Problem 5.1 For the above exarn ple (embedded cylinder), try the following combinations of W0 and P 0 For the cases which satisfy design requirements, find the safe live load and safe surge pressure.

1800 2000 1800 200 185 190

Flexible Pipes
Thermoplastlc pipe materlals

There are several types of thermoplastics which are used in the manufacture of pipe. A brief discussion of thermoplastics and design bases are included in Chap. 4. There are four principal thermoplastics used to make pipe: PolYvi.nyl chloride (PVC) Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) Polyethylene (PE) Polybutylene (PB) Pipes rp.ade from other thermoplastics command an extremely small market and are primarily used for spealty applications.

Burled Pipe Products


Styrene rubber (SR) Cellulose-acetate-bu tyrate (CAB)

Polyvlnyl chlorlde (PVC) PVC pipe is available for both pressu re and

gravity applications (Fig. 5.10). For gravity sewer applications, it is available in both solid-wall and profile-wall varieties. Size ranges are as follows: PVC pressure pipe: V2 to 36 in PVC solid-wall gravity pipe: 2 to 27 in PVC profile-wall sewer pipe: 4 to 48 in The above listed sizes are generally available. However, sizes ou tside the listed ranges may be available on special order from the manufacturer. Polyvnyl chloride is manufactured from ethyle'ne and chlorine. Ethylene is extracted from natural gas or crude ol, usually from natural gas. It is also possible to use coal, however that process is much more expensive. Chlorine is manufactured va electrolysis from salt water. Vinyl chloride monomer is produced by oxychlorination (a reaction of ethylene with chlorine). The vinyl chloride monomer (vcm) is polymerized to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin. PVC resin is a white powdery substance with the consistency of table sugar. This PVC resin is the basic "building block" for PVC pipe. To optimize processability and performance properties, the pipe manufactu rer takes PVC resin and compou nds it with lubricants, stabilizers, fillers, and pigments. After the mixing takes place at an elevated tem-

Figure 5.10 PVCs high strength to weight ratio is a real advantage. (Reprinted by courtesy of Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association.)


Chapter Ave

perature, the mixture is allowed to cool to ambient temperature. This PVC compound is fed to a PVC pipe extruder (Fig. 5.11). The extruders are usually of multiscrew design. The PVC compound is worked under high pressure (via extruder screws) and at a controlled elevated temperature so that it is converted into a viscous plastic. A die at the end of the extruder barrel forma the hot viscous plastic into a cylindrical shape. Outside diameter tolerances are maintained by forcing the hot material through a sizing sleeve. After passing through the extruder head and sizing sleeve, the hot pipe is cooled from approximately 400F as it passes through a spray tank and water bath. The wall thickness and interna! diameter dimensiona are controlled by balancing the pipe puller speed with the extruder speed. The procesa is continuous. A cutoff saw which moves with the extruded pipe cuts the pipe in appropriate lengths. The pipe ends are chamfered and the pipe proceeds to a rack where it is positioned for belling (Fig. 5.12). As explained in Chap. 4, thermoplastics can be heated and reshaped. The pipe belling operation takes advantage of this important property. One end of the pipe is heated and placed in a belling machine where the bell is formed along with a groove for a rubber ring if required. The bell end is then cooled and will maintain its new shape. The resulting PVC pipe is extremely durable. It is completely inert to water, and to chemicals commonly encountered in sewage and soil

Figure 5.11 PVC pipe extrusion plant. (Reprinted by courtesy of Un-Bell PVC Pipe Association.)

Burled Pipe Pro<lucts


Figure 5.12 PVC pi!X' belling operation. (Reprinted by courtesy of Uni-Bell PVC Pipe


environments. The surfaces of the pipe are very smooth and resist any buildup of deposited minerals and other solids. It is totally corrosion resistant. It is not attacked by hydrogen sulfide or the resulting sulfuric acid. PVC pipe is not subject to biological degradation. Abrasive resistance is excellent and no special care for cleaning is needed as compared to other pipe products. Dimensional control is excellent and resulting joints are extremely tight. The use of PVC sewer pipe has all but eliminated infiltration and exfiltration and the accompanying tree-root problems. PVC pipe was first prod uced and installed on a very limited basis in Germany in the mid 1930s. PVC pipe began to have wide acceptance in the 1960s. Today it com mands a large share of the world market, including the market in the United States. It is by far the most widely used plastic pipe. About 90 percen t of all plastic pressu re-water pipe is PVC and almost 100 percent of plastic sewer pipe is PVC. (Both of these percentages are based on weights shipped.) See Tables 5.8 and 5.9. PVC sewer pipe is a flexible pipe and design methods presented in Chap. 3 for flexible pipe are appropriate. Specif. ically Table 3.5 was developed for any PVC pipe with a pipe stiffness F/t:.y = 46 lb/in 2 and diameter of 4 in through 18 in.
PVC gravlty sewer pipe.


Chepter Flve Typlcal PVC-Plpa Deslgn Propertles 4000 lb/i n2 1600 to 2000 lb/in 2 4,00 lb/in 2 400,000 ato 550,000 lb/in 2 7000 lb/in2


Hydrostatic'design basis (HDB)

Hydrostatic design stress (HDS) Elastic modulus (pressure formulation) Elastic modulus (sewer formulation) Tensile stress Hazen-Williams coefficient (C) Manning's coefficient (n)


Pipe stiffness PS where


= ;=

= 0.559E ( )


= mean radius =

f Do t Do - t - - = - - - = -r 2 2 2 2

PS = .f_ =

4 .47E
(DR - 1 )3

where DR = dimension ratio = D 0/t . For PVC pipes (solid-wall or profile-wall) with diameters larger than 18 in, the manufacturer's recom mendations should be obtained and followed. Alternately, Table 3.5 may be used. Most solid-wall PVC sewer pipes have a DR = 35 and a mnimum pipe stiffness of 46 lb/in2 PVC gravity sewer pipe with pipe stiffnesses in the range of 10 lb/in 2 have been tested and performed adequately when properly installed with a soil density in the pipe zone of at least 85 percent standard proctor density. For any pipe with very low pipe stiffness, extreme care must be taken in preparing and compacting the soil envelope around the pipe. Pipes with less than 10 lb/in 2 pipe stiff" ness should be used only if a qualified soils engineer is responsible for direction and surveillance of the installation.
Example 5.7 (12-ln Gravlty Sewer) A 12-in diameter gravity sewer pipe is to be installed in a very deep cut (30 ft). The soil is clay and has been determined to be corrosive and the sewage is septic. Select an appropriate piping material and design the pipe-soil embedment system. The trench width at the top of the pipe may be as mu ch as 4 ft.

l. Calculate soil load (see Chap. 2) Rigid pipe load

= 6336 lb/ft

(see Table 2.2 for Cd)


Standards f or PVC Pipe

AWWA C-900 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pressure pi . 4 in through 12 in for water AWWA C-905 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC water tranSJ:nission pipe (nominal diameters 14 to 36 in) AWWA C-950 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC} water transmission pipe, 14 in through 36 in ASTM D-2672 Bell-end poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) Pipe Corrugated poly(vinyl chloride) tubi n g and compatible fittings ASTM F-800 ASTM D-3915 Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and rela plastic pipe and fitting compounds ASTM F-679 Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVCl large-dia.tneter plastc gravity sewer pipe and fittngs ASTM p.789 Standard specificatior; for type PS-46 poly{vinyl chloride) (PVC) plastic gravity-low sewer pipe and fitting-a ASTM p.794 Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) la'.ge. diarneter ribbed gravity sewer pipe and fittings based on controlled ms1de diarneter ASTM D-2665 Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plastic: drain, waste, and vent pipe and fit. tings ASTM D-2466 Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plastc pipe fittings, schedule 40 ASTM D-1785 Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plMtic pipe, schedules 40, 80, and 120 ASTM D-2241 Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plastic pipe (SDR-PR) ASTM D-2740 Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plastic tubing ASTM D-2729 Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) sewer pipe and fittings Poly(vinylidene chloride) (PVDCJ plastic-lined ferrous-metaJ pipe and ASTM F-599 fittings ASTM F-656 Primers for use in solvent cernent joi nts of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plastic pipe and fittings ASTM F-512 Smooth-wall poly(vinyl chloride) (PVCJ conduit and fittings far underground installation ASTM D-3036 Socket-type poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plastic line couplings ASTM D-2467 Socket-type poly(vinyl chloride) (PVCJ plastic pipe fittings, schedule 80 ASTM D-3138 Solvent cements for transition joints between acrylonitrile-bu tadienestyrene (ABS) poly(vinyl chJorideJ (PVC) nonpressure piping com ponents ASTM D-2564 Solvent cements for poly(vinyJ chloride) (PVCJ plastic pipe and fittings ASTM F-758 Smooth-wall poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plastic u nderdrain systems for highway, airport, and similar drainage ASTM F-409 Thermoplastic accessible and replaceable plastic tube and tubular fit. tings ASTM D-2464 Threaded poly(vinyl chloride) (PVCJ plastic pipe fittings, schedule 80 ASTM p.789 Type PS-46 poly(vinyl chlorideJ (PVC) plastic gravity.flow sewer pipe and fittings ASTM D-3034 Type PSM poly(vinyl chloride) (PVCJ sewer pipe and fittings ASTM D-2855 Maldng solvent cemented joints with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) pipe and fittings Canadian Standards Association CSA B 137.0
CSA B137.3 CSA B181.2 CSA Bl81.12

CSA B182.1 CSA Bl82.2 CSA Bl82.3 CSA Bl82.4

Defintions, general requirements and methods of testing for thermoplastic pressure piping Rigid poly(vinyl chloride) (PVCJ pipe for pressure applications PVC drain waste and vent pipe and pipe fittings Recommended practice for the installation of PVC dran wMte and vent pipe and pipe fitting; Plastic drain and sewer pipe and pipe fttings Large-diameter, type PSM PVC sewer pipe and fittings Largediameter, type IPS PVC sewer pipe and fittings Large-diarneter, ribbed PVC sewer pipe and fittings

TABLE 5.9 Standards for PVC Pipe

AWWA C-00 Polyvi nyl chloride ( PVC) pressu re pipe, 4 in through 12 in for water AWWA C-905 Polyvinyl chloride (PVCJ water transmission pipe (nominal diameters 14 to 36 i n ) AWWA C-950 Polyvi nyl chloride (PVC) water transmission pi pe, 14 in through 36 in ASTM D-2672 Bell-end po!y(vi nyl chlorideJ ( PVCJ pipe Corrugated poly(vinyl chloride) tu bing and compatible fittings ASTM F-800 ASTM D-3915 Poly(vinyl chloride) ( PVCJ and related plastic pipe and fitting compou nds Jl. . STM F-679 Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVCJ large-diameter plastic gravity sewer pipe and fittings ASTM F-789 Standard specification for type PS-46 po!y(vi nyl chloride) ( PVC) plastic gravity-low sewer pipe and fittings ASTM F-794 Poly(vi nyl chloride) (PVC) large diameter ribbed gravity sewer pipe and fittings based on controlled inside diameter ASTM D-2665 Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plastic drain, waste, and vent pipe and fittings ASTM D-2466 Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVCJ plastic pipe fittings, schedule 40 ASTM D-1785 Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVCJ plastic pipe, schedules 40, 80, and 120 ASTM D-2241 Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVCJ plastic pipe (SDR-PRJ ASTM D-2740 Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVCJ plastic tubing ASTM D-2729 Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) sewer pi pe and fittings ASTM F-599 Poly(vinylidene chloride) (PVDCJ plastic-lined ferrous-metal pipe and fittings ASTM F-656 . Primers for use in solvent cement joints of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVCJ plastic pipe and fitti ngs ASTM F-512 Smooth-wall poly(vinyl chloride) (PVCJ conduit and fittings for undergrou nd installation ASTM D-3036 Socket-type poly(vinyl chloride) ( PVC) plastic line couplings ASTM D-2467 Socket-type poly(vinyl chloride) ( PVCJ plastic pipe fittings, schedule 80 ASTM D-3138 Solvent cements for transition joints between acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene (ABSJ poly(vi nyl chlorideJ ( PVCJ nonpressure piping componen ts ASTM D-2564 Solvent cements for poly(vi nyl chloride) (PVCJ plastic pipe and fittings ASTM F-758 Smooth-wall poly(vi nyl chlorideJ ( PVC) plastic u nderdrain systems for highway, airport, and similar drainage ASTM F-409 Thermoplastic accessible and replaceable plastic tube and tubular fittings ASTM D-2464 Th readed poly(vinyl chloride) (PVCJ plastic pipe fittings, schedule 80 ASTM F-789 Type PS-46 poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) plastic gravity-flow sewer pipe and fittings ASTM D-3034 Type PSM poly(vinyl chlorideJ (PVCJ sewer pipe and fittings ASTM D-2855 Mald ng solvent cemented joints with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) pipe and fittings Canad ian Standnrds Association CSA B 137.0 CSA B137.3 CSA B181.2 CSA B181.12 CSA B182.1 CSA Bl82.2 CSA B182.3 CSA B182.4 Definitions, general requirements and methods of testing for thennoplastic pressu re piping Rigid poly( vinyl chloride) (PVC) pipe for pressure applications PVC drain waste and vent pipe and pipe fittings Recommended practice for the installation of PVC drain waste and vent pipe and pipe fittings Plastic drain and sewer pipe and pipe fittings Large-d iameter, type PSM PVC sewer pipe and fittings Largediameter, type IPS PVC sewer pipe and fittings Large-diameter, ribbed PVC sewer pipe and fittings


Chapter Flve

Flexible pipe load Prism load or


120(30) = 3600 lb/ft 2

w = ;Ji = ;Ji = 3600 = 3600 lb/ft

Be D 1 2. Select piping material. A check will revea! that extra strength clay is not strong enough to withstand the 6336 lb/ft soil load. Also, the highest strength concrete pipe (class 3) is not strong enough. These corrosive conditions would have eliminated concrete and will usually eliminate iron or steel pipe. Use SDR 35 ASTM D-3034 PVC pipe.

3. Design pipe-soil embedment system. For SDR 35 PVC, Table 3.5 may be used for design. The pipe should be installed in a manner such that resulting deflection is lesa than 7.5 percent. Table '. indicates that class I, class II, or clase III soil may be used if compaction :s at least 85 percent (see Chap. 3 for definitions of soil clasees). Specify class II soil to be used for bedcling, haunching, and initial backfill (Fig. 5.13). Pipe-zone soil, to the leve! of the top of the pipe, must be compacted to at least 85 percent standard proctor density. It is evident from Table 3.5, that the 7.5 percent design delection will be exceeded if only 80 percent standard proctor density is achieved. It should also be noted that class Isoil could have been used without compaction since ita natural piacement density will be sufficient. 4. Alternate design approach (Spangler's formula), Eq. (3.5):
DJ(Wcf"3 X = -

EI + 0.06 1E' r3


trench width

Final backf ill


Pipe Springline zone


-+- l

lnitial bac kf ill

Ha unchi ng



Figure 5.13 Trench cross-section showing terminology. by courtesy of Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association.)


Burled PIJ>il Product


!:u = b. y

K = 0.1 (see Chap. 3 for bedding factors)


- =



prism load

DL = 1.0 when prism load is used

O.l(D H)r 3 y = ------

EI + 0.06 1E' r 3

or 0_ D

El/r 3

O .l yH + 0.061E'


. pe st1ff ness (PS) P1

-F :-


6 .?EI r3


El = PS


Equation (5.11) becomes 0_ _ 0.1-yH D - PS/6.7 + 0.061E' or 0_ _ 0.67yH D - PS + 0.41E'


PS and E' are usually expressed in units of (lb/in2 ). If 'Y is in lb/ft3 units and H is in ft, -yH is lb/ft2. This must be divided by 144 to convert to lb/in2 Assume 'Y = 120 lb/ft 3, Eq. ( 5.12) becomes

0. - 0.67[(120)(H)/144]
D -


+ 0.41E'

== p-= +-0 ,-.-4 -1 E ,='


In the above equation, H is ft of cover. The pipe stiffness PS and soil modulus E' are to be expressed in lb/in2 units. This equation can be solved far E' as follows:
, 0.56H/( b.y/D ) - PS

E = Far this example,



H = 30 ft


Chapter Ave

= 0.075 (or 7.5 percent)

PS = 46 lb/in2 Thus, Required E' = [0.56(30)/0.075 - 46]/0.41 = 434 lb/in2

Data in Table 3.4 indicate a soil density of 85 percent is required for finer grain soils with little or no plasticity. Coarse grain soils may be used with little compactive effort required. The two design approaches produce results which agree fairly well. Obviously the use of empirical data from Table 3.5 is the easier method.
Example 5.8 (1O-In G ravlty Sewer) A 10-in gravity sewer pipe is t.-0 be installed 16 ft deep. The native soil is silty clay and the water table is 10 ft below the surface. Select a PVC pipe and specify the proper installation design if the long term deflection is not to exceed 7.5 percent. solution Seiect an ASTM D-3034, SDR 35, 10-in sewer pipe. This choice allows the use of Table 3.5 in determining the required embedment soil and soil den sity. Because of the water table, the trench condition will be wet and the re quired densities in the pipe zone may not be achievable with native soil. Required compaction must be achieved before high soil loada are imposed and the well points removed. Otherwise the soil will densify with the rising water which may cause excess deflection. However, sufficient backfill must be placed over the pipe (about 3 ft) to prevent flotation of the pipe.
Design !: Use a select clean sand or grave! back.fill material (class II Table 3.5) for bedding, haunching, and initial backfill compacted to 85 percent standard proctor density. From Table 3.5, Long-term deflection will be abou t 3 percent (see Chap. 3 for additional discussion on use of Table 3.5). Design JI: Use a select silty-sandy grave! backfill material (class III, Table 3.5) for bedding, haunching, and initial backfill compacted to 85 percent stan dard proctor density. From Table 3.5, lo:og-term deflection will be 3.5 percent.

Note , These deflections are substantially lower than the allowed 7.5 long-term deflection. However, because of the wet condition and the relatively deep cover soil, density in the pipe zone must not be leas than the density at critica! void ratio. This density is often around 90 percent proctor density. For added safety, 90 percent density is recommended. Also design Iis preferred to design II be cause in wet trench conditions the compaction of class III backfill is more difficult. Exa mple 5.9 (27-ln G ravlty Sewer) A 27-in SDR = 35, PS = 46, PVC sewer pipe is to be installed 15 ft deep. The soil is clay except in most areas there is sorne basalt rock which must be blasted. What type of soil embedment system will be required for this installation?
l. Pipe must not be laid directly on hard pan, bed rock, or any sharp stones with dimensiona larger than 11/ 2 in and preferably no stones larger than % in.

2. Excavate at least 6 in below grade and prepare a firm uniform bedding of crushed well-graded stone.

Bu rled Pi pe Products


3. Select haunching and initial backfill material: Consider class I, class II, class III, or class IV materials as listed in Table 3.5. A proctor density of 80 percent is sufficient for either class II or class III soils. Class IV soils are often overlooked as pipe embedment materials, bu t could be used if the trench is not wet and the soil is compacted to 85 percent proctor density. Of course, clase I soil will also meet design requiremen ts ( Ay/D :5 7.5 percent). 4. Spangler's method could also be used but it is not required. 5. Pipe should not be placed directly on sharp rock ou tcroppi ngs. Also large sharp blasted basalt rock should not be placed directly against the pipe. (A select imported material is recommended.)
Exa m ple 5.10 (48-l n R l bbed PVC) A 48-in ribbed PVC pi pe is to be installed 20 ft deep. The native soil is fine sand with traces of silt and clay. The pipe stiffness of the ribbed pipe is 10 lb/in2 . For a special design the owner has requested that this pipe be installed such that the maximum vertical deflection does not exceed 3 percent. Also, to keep costs down, he would like to use the native material for bedding, haunching, and initial backfill. Are these design requirements possible? solutlon Use Spengler's formula.

From Eq. 5.14 of Exa mple 5.7, . ed R' _ 0.56H/( Ay/D) - PS Re qmr 0.41

H = 20 ft


= 0.03

PS = 10 lb/i n 2 Required E' = 886 From Table 3.4, required densi ty is 95 percent. This is possible to achieve, but will be difficult to obtain. Owner should be asked to either relax his 3 percent deflection limit or allow a coarser material to be used in pipe zone. Costa MSO ciated with com paction may exceed cost of a select material. For a 5 percent deflection limit, ' - 0.56(20)/0.05 - 10 lb . 2 E 0.4 l - 522 /m For a 7.5 percent deflection limit,
' - 0.56(20)/0.075 - 10 lb . 2 E 0.4l - 340 /m

The latter can easily be achieved with the native sand used in the pipe zone.

PVC pressure pipes are considered to be flexible pipes, and methods presented in Chap. 3 for calculating ring deflection apply. However, most pressure pipes are installed with about 4 ft of cover. Thus the resulting vertical soil pressure is relatively small and consequently ring deflection is usually not a major concern. Only for the lower pressure classes (larger dimension ratios) where the pipe
PVC pressu re pi pe.


Chapter Flve

wall is relatively thin and the resulting pipe stiffnesses (F/D.y ) relatively low is it necessary to consider ring deflection (Table 5.10). As befare (see pge 174), pipe stiffness is calculated as follows:



(D 1- 1 )3

The procedure for hydrostatic design is given in Chap. 4. Equation (4.15) is repeated here for convenience.
P(D - t) =

X 2t


where P D t

= total interna! pressure (static plus surge) = outside pipe diameter = wall thickness = hydrostatic-design stress
2a = P( DR - 1 )

This equation can be rewritten as follows: (5.16)

where DR = D t Equation (5.16) may be solved for DR in terms of hydrostatic-design stress and pressure.

TABLE 5.10 Selected Dlmenslon Ratlos (00/ Stlffness (f7Ay) for PVC Pipes

and Resultlng Pipe

(00/1) DR or SDR

Mnimum E = 400,000 lb/in2

Mi nimu m E = 500,000 lb/in2 32 35

4 2 41 35 33.5 32.5 28 26 25 21 1 8 17 14 13.5

26 28 46 52 57 91

65 71 114 144 161 292 455 546 1019 1145

129 234 364 437 815 916

Burled Pipe Products


DR =




Example 5.11 (10-ln PVC Pressure) A 10-in PVC pipe is to be used for a trans-

mission pipe in a rural water system. The static pressure will not exceed 150 lb/in2 The pipe will be buried in a sandy clay soil with depths between 4 and 5 ft. Select the dimension ratio (DR = OD(t) and design the instal!ation so that the vertical def1ection <loes not exceed 5 percen t.
solutlon l. The working pressure is 150 lb/in 2-no surge pressure needs to be added u n-

less engineer is aware of surge conditions. 2. Assume material is PVC 12454B with a hydrostatic-design basis (HDB) of 4000 lb/in 2 A safety factor of 2 is required resulting in a hydrostatic-design stress of 2000 lb/in2 (see Chap. 4). 3. Use Eq. (5.17) to determine dimension ratio (DR). OD DR = 2cr = + 1 t p

2(2000) . 150 + l = 27.7

Choose next thicker wall from Table 5.10. Use DR



/; = 115 lb/in

4. Determine required pipe-zone material to limit def1ection to 5 percent. Data in Table 3.5 indicate that even for loose soil with 5 ft of cover, the maximum deflection will not exceed the 5 percent limit imposed. This table is for pipe with a stiffness of 46 lb/in 2 For the pipe in this example, the stiffness is 115 lb/in2 so it will deflect leas. Therefore, no compaction effort is required except for the purpose of limiting surface settlement. The soil placed around the pipe should be free of large stones or frozen lumps.
Example 5.12 (10-ln PVC Pressure) Resolve Example 5.11 for an interna! pres-

sure of 100 lb/in 2 instead of 150 lb/in 2

l. Total pressure is 100 lb/in 2 static plus zero surge pressure p = 100 lb/in2

2. Again, PVC 12454B with a hydrostatic-design stress of 2000 lb/in 2 is selected. 3. Use Eq. (5.12) to determine dimension ratio (DR).

DR = - = +l t p



2(2000) 100

+ 1 = 41


Chapter Flve

Therefore, select a PVC pipe where DR = From Table 5.10, Pipe stiffness (PS)


= 41

= 28 lb/in 2

4. Select pipe-zone material and required compaction. Vertical ring deflection is to be less than 5 percent as per Example 5.11. Use Spangler's Equation to determine required E' (see Eq. 5.14) 0.56Hl( D.y/D ) - PS E = 0.41 ,

For this example, H = height of cover in feet = 5 ft,

(y_ D

= vertical deflection =

0 05

PS = pipe stiffness = Thus,

0.56(5)/0.05 - '28 E'

= 28 lb/in


-= 68 lb/in

Data in Table 3.4 indicate that a du mped or slightly compacted soil will meet the design criteria. Only u ncompacted clays may not meet the specified conditions. '

Exam ples 5.11and 5.12 indicate that for PVC pressure pipes in medium soil cover, the design of the pipe embedment system is not critical. The primary embedment objective is to protect the pipe from large objects, such as stones, frozen lumps, and objects which could cause impact damage or penetrate the pipe wall.
Example 5.13 (DR 41 PVC) The DR 41 PVC pipe line operating at 100 lb/in 2 selected in Example 5.12 is to cross a roadway with only 3 ft of cover. Are there special design considerations for this road crossing if a maximum of 2 percent deflection is al!owed to protect the road surface?
l. Determine total load.

Total load Wr = prism load

+ live load (See Fig. 2.14 for H20 highway loading.) From Graph, Wr
= 950 lb/ft 2 .

Burled Pipe Producta


2. Use Spangler's equation to calculate required soil modulus E' 0.56H/(.y/D) - PS E = 0.41 .


Eq. 5.14)

In the above equation, H represen ta heigh t of cover. For this example, the total load is not just due to soil load bu t also Iive load. An effective height H can be calculated as follows:


950 lb/ft2/(120 lb/ft3)

7.9 ft

H = 8 ft From previous example:

F PS = - = 28 .y

= 0.02


' - 0.56(8.0)/0.02 - 28 lb/' 2 E 0.4 l - 478 m Table 3.4 indicates that a granular material compacted to at least 85 percent proctor density is required. A coarse-grained material with slight compaction will also meet the E' requirement. Experience has shown that for such installations, little or no movemen t can be tolerated or the road surface will break up. Therefore, a coarse granular material with high compaction is recommended. Exam ple 5.14B (12-l n PVC Pressure) A 12-in PVC distribu tion line is to be installed 5 ft deep. The line is to operate at pressures u p to 200 lb/in2 Select the proper dimension ratio and comment on backfill requirements.
l. Calculate design stress. Distribution line, AWWA C-900 applies.

Hydrostatic-design basis f HDB) = 4000 lb/in 2 AWWA safety factor = 2.5. Hydrostatic-design stress = HDB/SF = 4000/2.5 = 1600 lb/in 2 2. Determine design pressure.
P = static pressure + surge pressure. AWWA C-900 recommends a 40 lb/in 2 surge pressure for clase 200 pipe. Therefore, P = 200 + 40 = 240 lb/in2 3. Calculate dimension ratio (DR). Use Eq. 5.12. 2 DR = p DR


2(1600) + l = 14.33 240 Choose DR = 1 4 which has a slightly thicker wall than required.

4. Comment on backfill requirements. Table 5.10 indicates that DR 14 PVC pipe has a pipe stiffness of 815 lb/in2 This pipe will not require special compaction or soil types when placed with only 5 feet of cover. Compaction may

- ,.., ...... . be necessary to preven t road or surface settlemen t and to provide soil friction and soil weight to preven t the pipe from loating in saturated soils. Design and construction for thrust restraint will be required at fitting such as elbows and tees (see Chap. 4 for details).
Exa m ple 5.14b (Pressu re Surge Deslg n) A water main in a municipal water system with temperatu res below 70F operates with a maximum sustained pres sure of 85 lb/in2 Design engineers predict the rnaxirnu m instantaneous surge velocity input to be 2 ft/s. For a 12-in diameter pipe, what dimension ratio and corresponding pressure class is required?
l. Try a DR = 18. From AWWA C900, average dimensiona are:

Ou tside diameter OD = 13.200 in Wall thickness t = 0.733 in ID = OD - 2t = 11.734 in 2. Calculate wave speed [see Chap. 4 and Eq. (4.9)].
a = ----:

4822 = (K/E)(ID/t) === Y l+

4822 = 1311 ft/s Vi + (313000;400000)<1i.734/o. 733) 3. Calculate surge pressure P,.

P, =


(;)cv)(0.43) = (

)(2J(0.43l = 35 Ih/in 2

4. Total pressu re = pressu re + surge pressu re. P = 85 5. Calculate DR using Eq. (5.12).
2<T DR = p

+ 35 = 120 lb/i n 2
. 2 lb/m


HDB 4000 w here a = == - 1600 SF 2.5

2(1600) = 120

+ 1 = 27.7

Select the next availabJe DR which is lower. Use DR 900 pressure clase 100.

25 which is AWWA C-

6. Check design with actual dimensiona. Use equation in step 2 to recalculate wave velocity. ID = 12.144 in

t = 0.528 in
Wave speed a

1106 ft/s

Use equation in step 3 to recalculate surge ;:::cessure.


1106) = ( . (2)(0.43) 32 2

. 2 = 29.5 lb/m

Burled Pipe Products


Actual surge pressure is lower than used in design calculations. Therefore deaign is OK.
Example 5.15 (6-ln PVC Force Mal n) An existing 6-in sewer-force main is to be replaced with a 6-in PVC pressure pipe. The line is known to operate with cyclic presaure surges to a peak pressure of 180 lb/in 2 The average nu mber of cycles in a 24-h period is 200. The design life of the system is to be a mnimum of 50 years. Determine the required dimension ratio (DR).
l. Determine the number of cycles during the life of the system.

Life = 50 years

e = cycles during life

= (50 years)(200 cycles/day)(365 days/year)

= 3.65 x 106 cycles 2. Use Eq. (4.18) to determine required design peak-hoop stress (S').

s = [5.05
= [5.05



1021)0.204 = 1230 Jb/in2 3.65 X 106

3. Use Eq. (4.1 9) to caiculate required DR.

DR = 28 p ' + 1"

where P = 180 lb/in 2

2(1230) 180 + 1 = 14.7

Select DR = 14 which is AWWA Clase 200.

Polyethylene used to manufacture pipe is available in several types and grades as per ASTM D-1248. Sorne grades of polyethylene may crack or craze when subjected to certain levels of stress or when in contact with certain chemicals. This degradation is usually accelerated when high stresses and certain chemicals act simultaneously. This phenornenon is known as environmental stress cracking. Certain grades are highly resistant to stress cracking. Type III, class C, category 5, grade P34 polyethylene is a high density, weather resistant, stress-crack resistant material. (Table 5.11).
Polyethylene (PE) pipes
TABLE 5.11 Polyethylene Desfgn Propertles

Hydrostatic-design ha.sis (HDB) Hydrostatic-design stress (HDS) Elastic modulus Tensile strea (short-time) Hazen-William coefficient (C) Manning's coefficient (n)

1250 lb/in2 625 lb/in2 100,000 lb/in 2 3200 lb/in2 150 0.009

......., .......-........... . ...... Polyethylene pipes are available in various sizes and wall configurations for varied applications-some of which are listed in Table 5.12. Other sizes for specific applications may be available from a particular manufacturer. See Table 5.13 for polyethylene standards. Many of the larger diameter gravity-sewer polyethylene pipes have pipe stiffness (F/y) of 10 lb/in 2 and sorne even lower than 4 lb/in 2 Extreme care must be taken during installation of these low-stiffness pipes because of the possibility of over-deflection and buckling due to soil load. Ring stiffness, the pipe's ability to resist ring deflection, is a function of El/D3 (see Chap. 3). Sorne literature promoting polyethylene pipe gives El/D2 as the property which is a measure of the pipe's resistance to deflection. This idea has absolutely no theoretical or experimental bases and if used in the design of a pipe installation could be the direct cause of pipe over-deflection or collapse. The term (El/D2) , called "handlir:g atiffness" is sometimes used to rate the ease of handling without amage. The inverse of this factor (D2/El ) is called the "flexibility factor" and is used by the corrugatedsteel pipe industry to rate handling flexibility. These factora arise from a bending strain consideration as follows:
Handling factor.

. . Bend1 ng strrun

Me (PD)(D/2)(t/2) El = C1 El

where C1

= a constant

pressure D = diameter PD = vertical load D/2 = moment arm t/2 = half-wall thickness l = wall moment of inertia E = modulus of elasticity One can easily see that D2/El is a factor in the above equation. Thus bending strain for a given soil pressure is directly proportional to this
TABLE 5.12 Polyethylene Pipes


Application Industrial (includes gas) Water (new service) Water (insertion) Gravity sewer (lining) Gravity sewer


Size range, in
:Y -48 Vz-3 V:>-

Solid wall Solid wall Solid wall Solid wall Profile (ribbedJ wall

4 4--48 18-96

Burle<! Pipe Producu


TABLE 5.13

Standard for Polyethylene Biaxially-oriented polyethylene (PEO) plastic pipe (SDR-PR) based on controlled outside diameter Bu tt heat fusion polyethylene (PE) plastic fittings for polyethylene plastic pipe and tubing Corrugated polyethylenc tubi ng and fittings Inserttype polyethylene fusion fittings for SOR ll.O polyethylene pipe Plastic insert fitti ngs for polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe Polyethylene plastic pipe, schedule 40 Polyethylene plastic pipe, (S! DR-PRJ based on controlled inside di ameter Polyethylene plastics pipe and fittings materials Polyethylene plastic pipe (SDR-PRJ based on ou tside diameter Polyethylene plastic pipe (SDRPRJ based on controlled outside di ameter Polyethylene plastic pipe, schedulea 40 and 80 based on outside diameter Polyethylene plastic tu bing Polyethylene thermoplastic high-preSBure irrigation pipeline systems Sockettype polyethylene fittings for outside diametercontrolled polyethylene pipe and tubing Smoothwall polyethylene pipe for use in drainage and waste dis posal absorption fields Polyethylene plastics molding and extrusion materials Polyethylene pressure pipe, tubing and fittings, V2 in through 3 in, for water

ASTM D-3287 ASTM D-3261 ASTM D-405 ASTM D-3197 ASTM D-2609 ASTM D-2104 ASTM D-2239 ASTM D-3350 ASTM F-714 ASTM D-3035 ASTM D-2447 ASTM D-2737 ASTM F-771 ASTM D-2683 ASTM F-810 ASTM D-1248 AWWA C-901

factor. The inverse of this factor is a measure of the particular product's ability to resist bending strain. Of course, ring deflection is not a direct function of D 2/EI but is a direct function of D 3/EI . It matters not what causes the deflection-handling, installation, concentrated loads, or soil pressure--the deflection is still a function of D 3/El , not D2/EI. Also buckling, whether hyd rostatic or due to soil pressure, is a function of D 3/El. Thus, D 2/El or EI/D 2 should not be used in design calculations nor should this factor be used to classify a pipe's stiffness characteristics for deflection control.
Example 5.16 (150 lb/ln2 Polyethylene) Calculate the required dimension ratio (DR) for a polyethylene pressure pipe. The maximum working pressure is 150 lb/in 2 , no surge is anticipated, and the safety factor is to be 2.5. eolutlon

l. Calculate the hydrostatic design stress:

HDS = HDB HDB (safety factor) hydrostatic-design bases

1250 lb/in 2




= 500 lb/in 2

2. Calculate DR using Eq. (5.17):


DR = 2u + l

o- = HDS

DR = Select next lower available DR:

i) +

1 = 7.67

DR = 7.0
Example 5.17 (6-ln PreHure Sewer) I t is proposed to use 6-in polyethylene pipe

for a pressurized sewer line. The maximum presaure including surge is 50 lb/in 2 and the maximum depth of cover is 20 ft. (a) Select the proper wall thickness, (b) ruid what requirements wll be neceasary conceming pipe-zone soil-type and compaction? (Use a safety factor = 2.0, OD = 6.625, and deflection limit = 5 percent.)
solutlon a

1. Hydrostatic-design stress equals (HDB/safety factor)

HDS = HDB = 125 = 625 lb/in 2 2.0 2 2. Use Eq. (5.17) to calculate dimension ratio (DR):

2 DR = - + 1 p


+ 1 = 26

= 26 =

solutlon b



6 625 = O 25 in 26 .

l. Determine pipe stiffness (F/:y ): F 6 .7EI iiy = 7

E = 100,000 lb/in 2


I = 12


- t = 3. 19 m . = mean radius = OD 2

Burled Pipe Pro<lucts


F y -


= = 12 6 2. Use Spangler's equation to find required soil rnodulus (E') (see Eq. 5.14).
E' = 0.56H/(6.y/D) - PS 0.41 where PS = pipe stiffness = Fi.y

lb . 2 27 /m

E' = 0.56(20)/(0.05) - 27 0.41

E' = 480 lb/in2 Thus, a granular soil compacted to at least 85 percent proctor density will be required in the pipe zone (see Table 3.4). Example 5.18 (96-l n Storm Sewer) A 96-in storm sewer is to be installed. The deepest cut will require 14-ft of cover. A profile-wall polyethylene pipe is to be considered. The wall moment of inertia I,of this proposed PE pipe, equals 0.524 in4/in. The pipe is to be installed in such a manner that the resulting vertical deflection is less than 5.0 percent. (1) Calculate the pipe stiffness F/6.y. (2) If selected, how should this particular type of pipe be installed? (3) Comment on the suitability of the proposed pipe for this application.
l. Calculate pipe stiffness (F/6.y) F 6.7 El -=

E = 100,000 lb/in 2 I = 0.524 in4/in 96 r = = 48 in


(6.7)(100,000)(0.524) = . lb/in 2 3 17 (48)3

Note: This is a very low value-pipe will be extremely flexible.

2. Design installation: Use Spangler's equation to calculate required E'.* [See Eq. (5.14).]

*Note: This equation is derived directly from Spangler's Iowa formula. The Iowa formula is not accurate for very low pipe stitTnesses. Test data at Utah State University indicate that this equation is nonconservative for a pi pe stitTness Fi.y = 10 lb/in 2 , and may not be appropriate for Fi.y = 3.17. A qu ick exami nation of the above equation will show that it cannot hold in the limit as pi pe stiffness approaches zero, since it indicates a zero lb/in2 pipe it will perform essentially the same as say a 10 Jb/in 2 pipe. Thus, the above equation can be used for pipe stiffness of 10 lb/in 2 and higher. The error involved is a function of other parameters as well as pi pe stiffness. However, the error is within acceptable limits for pipe stitTnesses of 10 lb/in 2 or greater. Pi pes with 3.17 lb/in2 pi pe stiffness have virtually no inherent strength and stitTness compared with soil. Thus, the pipe in this example should be installed in a well-compacted granular material.

0.56H/( .y/ D ) - PS E' = 0.41


0.56H/(0.05) - 3.17 0.41

= 374 lb/in 2

It can be determined from Table 3.4 that for E' = 374 lb/in', a granular material compacted to at least 85 percent proctor density is required.

3. It appears that this particular pipe can t a made to work under tightly controlled installation conditions. For pipec with such low stiffnesses, buckling due to soil load is much more likely. TL!s failu re mode is cliscussed in detail in Examples 5.20 and 5.21. Because pipe stiffnesses below 10 lb/in 2 offer little in heren t resistance to deflection, the pipe ring may need to be braced internal ly whi le the soil arou nd the pipe is placed and compacted. After the required soil density is obtained, the braces (stills) may be removed. For plastic pipe, braci ng may penetrate the pipe wall unless the bracing is carefully designed and positioned. Because of the above concerns, this pipe should be selected only if the above concerns can be addressed. A1so a granular material, compacted to at least 85 prcent proctor density, should be specified for the pipe zone. Acrylonltrlle-butadl ene-styrene (ABS) pipes ABS plastic for pipe manu-

facture is available in severa! types and grades as per ASTM D-1788. The physical properties of the various AES materials vary quite widely as is indicated by Table 5.14. Most AES pipes, especially pressure pipes, are manufactured from grades with the higher tensile properties. Solid wall ABS is used widely for drain, waste, and vent piping. It is also used for smaller diameter sanitary sewers. It is used to a very limited exten t for smaller diameter pressu re piping. The design methods and procedu res are essen tially the same as for PVC pipes with the appropriate elastic mod ulus for calculating pipe stiffness and the appropriate hyd rostatic-design stress for pressurepipe design. A listing of selected ASTM standards for ABS plastic pipes is given in Table 5.15.
Exa m ple 5.19 (8-l n A BS) An 8-in solid wall ABS pi pe has been selected for a sewer installation. The native soil is clay and the wa ter table is abou t 8-ft deep. TABLE 5.14 ABS Desl g n Propert l es Hydrostatic-design basis (HDB), lb/i n 2 Hydrostatic-design stress (HDS), lb/i n 2 Elastic modulus, lb/in2 Tensile stress, lb/i n 2 Hazen-Williams coefficient (CJ Manni ng'a coefficien t (n) 1600-3200 800-1600 200,000-400,000 2500-7000 150 0. 009

Burled Pipe Products


TABLE 5.15 Selected Standards f or ABS Plastlc Pipe

ASTM D-1788 ASTM D-2680 ASTM D-2661 ASTM D-628 ASTM D-2468 ASTM D-1527 ASTM D-2282 ASTM D-2750 ASTM D-2751 ASTM D-2469 ASTM D-2235 ASTM D-3138 ASTM D-246.5

Rigid acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plMtics Acrylonitrilebu tadiene-styrene composite sewer piping Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene plastic drain, waste and vent pipe, and fittings Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene plastic drain , wagte and vent pipe havi ng a foam core Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene plastic pipe fittings, sched ule 40 Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene plastic pipe, sched ules 40 and 80 Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene p]agt ic pipe (SDR-PR) Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene plastic u tilities cond uit and fittings Acrylonitrile-bu tad iene-styrene sewer pipe and fitti ngs Socket-type acrylonitrile-bu tadiene-styrene plastic pipe fittings, sched ule 80 Solvent cement for acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene plastic pipe and fittings Solvent cementa for transition joints between acrylonitrilebutadiene-styrene and poly (vinyl chloride) nonpressure piping components Th readed acryloni trile-butadiene-styrene ilastic pipe fittings, schedule 80

Most of the line will be installed abou t 10-ft deep bu t one section has depths u p to 20 ft. The long-term deflection is not to exceed 5 percent. What pipe zone soil and soil density should be specified? solut:on From ASTM D-2751, SDR = 42 and PS = Fi.y = 20 lb/in2 . Use Spangler's equation. See Eq. (5.14) of Example 5.7. . d , _ 0.56H/( .y/D ) - PS Reqmre E 0.41 H = 20 ft

PS = 20 lb/in2


= 0.05

E' = 498 lb/in2 500 lb!in2 The pipe-zone material should be either a granular material cornpacted to 90 percent proctor density or a crushed angular stone. Because of the high water table, the crushed stone should be specified since little or no compaction will be required for an angular stone. See Table 3.4 for E' values for various soils. Other thermoplastlc pipes

In addition to the thermoplastic piping materials discussed previously, there are other types of thermoplastic piping materials which are used to a lesser amoun t. These materials include polybutylene (PB), cellulose acetate bu tyrate (CAB) and styrene-rubber (SR). A selected list of standards for these materials is given in Tables 5.16, 5.17, and 5.18. The design tech niques which are used for thermoplastics such as PVC can also be applied to these thermoplastic materials. The design engineer should obtain necessary design parameters such as the hydrostatic-design stress and pipe stiff-


Chapter Flve

TABLE 5.16 Selected Standards for Polybutylene

ASTM F-809 ASTM F-809M ASTM F-845 ASTM D-2662 ASTM D-3000 ASTM D-2666 AWWA C-902

Large-diarneter polybutylene plastic pipe Large-diameter polybutylene plastic pipe (metric) Plastic insert fittings for polybutylene (PB) tu bing Polybutylene plastic pipe (SDR-PRJ Polybutylene plastic pipe (SDR-PRJ based on outside diarneter Polybutylene plastic tubing Polybutylene pressure pipe, tu bing, and fitting, 1/2 in through 3 in, for water

ness for the particular pipe and material. These parameters may be used in design equations discussed previously.
Example 5.20 (Brlttle Behavlor) A strain-sensitive plaatic sewer pipe haa been

inatalled in an area where expanaive soils are known to exist. The pipe deflects aa a flexible pipe, haa a high pipe stiffnesa and haa a somewhat brittle behavior. A TV inapection made 2 years after installation, indicates vertically elongated pipe with many pipe sections showing longitudinal cracks along the 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock positions. The pipe waa installed with a compacted granular material around the pipe, and 10 ft of cover. The expansive soil is to the sides and under the pipe but not over the pipe. The TV photos indicate the pipe to be vertically elongated in the 3 to 8 percent range. Estmate the horizontal-swell pressure exerted by the soil. (Assume E' = 1000 lb/in 2 .) solutlon The actual buried pipe may be used as a transducer to obtain a fair estimate of the in situ horizontal swell pressures. This is accomplished by use of the Iowa formula and the actual deflection behavior of the pipe. In short, this formula may be used by providing pipe properties, soil properties, and pipe deflection and then back calculating the pressure necessruy to produce that deflection. [see Eqs. (5.11) and (5.12)]. Soil modulus E' = 1000 Jb/in 2
2 Pipe atiffness = 200 lb/in _ . . [ Pressure ( )(10 _ ) 67 - deflect10n rat10


pipe stiffness ] ) 0 _ 061 (soil modulus

The following table indicates probable swell pressures in the range of 23 to 60 lb/in2 for deflections of 3 to 8 percent.
Table of Horizontal Swell Pressures f or Varlous

Vertical Deflectlons

Deflection, %
3 4

Swell pressure, lb/in2 22.8 30.4 38.0 45.5 53.1 60.7

6 7 8

Burled Pipe Products


TABLE 5.17 Selected Standards for Cellulose-Acetate-Butyrate (CAB) Plastlc Pipe

ASTM D-2446 ASTM D-1503 ASTM D-2560

Cellulose-acetate-butyrate plastic pipe (SDR-PRJ and Tubing Cellulose-acetate-butyrate plastic pipe, schedule 40 Solvent, cements for cellulose-acetate-butyrate plastic pipe, tubing, and fittings

TABLE 5.18 Selected Standards for Styrene-Rubber (SR) Pipe

ASTM D-3122 ASTM D-3298 ASTM D-2852

Solvent cements for styrene-rubber plastic pipe and fit. tings Styrene-rubber plastic drain pipe, perforated Styrenerubber plastic drain pipe and fittings

Thermoset plastlc pipe

Thermosetting resina give off heat during the curing procesa (exotherm). Such resina cannot be melted and reformed as thermoplastics can. Epox:y, polyester, and phenolic resins are part of the thermosetting resin family. Pipes made from such resina are usually fiberreinforced and the fiber is normally "E"-type glass. The glass may be continuous strands or rovings placed in a winding procesa, or it may be chopped and placed in a centrifuga! casting process. Glass fabric and glass mats may also be used. There are two broad classes of reinforced thermoset pipes: (1) reinforced plastic mortar (RPM) pipe and (2) reinfarced thermosetting resin (RTR) pipe. This type has been referred to as fiberglass reinfarced plastic (FRP) pipe. The thermoset resin used in either may be filled or unfilled. The filler in the resin is used as a resin extender and will usually influence the chemical and physical properties. Reinforced thermoset plastic pi pe are available in a wide range of sizes. Because of the high tensile strength of the reinforced plastic, a smooth wall pipe may have low pipe stiffness, especially in large diameters. To overcome this, sorne pipes are made stiffer by molding externa! ribs which run circu mferentially and are spaced along the Iength. The pipe stiffness is determined with the assu mption that the pipe wall and wall stiffeners act integrally as a u nit. Such pipes are often designed and manufactured far the specific job with different designs along the installation in response to varying conditions. Table 5.19 gives selected standards far reinforced thermosetting resin pipes. (See Chap. 4 far additional infarmation and design criteria.)
Relnforced thermosettl ng resln (RTR) pipe RTR pipes are manufactured

from a thermosetting resin and glass fiber reinforcement. The resin may be filled or unfilled. This type of pipe is available in many diam-

TABLE 5.19 Selected Standard& for Relnforce<l Th0rmoaettl ng Resln Pi pe

ASTM D-3517 ASTM D-3262 ASTM D-2992 ASTM D-2290 ASTM D-2997 ASTM D-2996 ASTM D-2310 ASTM D-2517 ASTM D-3840 ASTM D-3754 ASTM D-4160 ASTM D-4163 ASTM D-4024 ASTM D-4162
ASTM D-4184 ASTM D-1694 AWWA C-950

Reinforced plastic-mortar presso:r-a pipe Reinforced plastic-mortar sewer pipe Standard method for obtaining hydrostatic-design basis for reinforced thermosetting resin pi pe and titting11 Standard test method for apparent tensile strength of ring or tubular plastics and reinforced plastics by split-disk method Centrifugally cast rei nforced thermosetting resi n pipe Filament-wou nd reinforced thermosetting resi n pipe Machine-made reinforced thermosetti ng resi n pipe Reinforced epoxy resin gas pressure pipe and fittings Reinforced plastic mortar pipe fittings for nonpressure applications Reinforced plastic mortar sewer and industrial pressure pipe Reinforced thermosetting resin pipe (RTRP) fittings for nonpressure applications Reinforced thermosetting resin pressu re pipe (RTRP) Reinforced thermosetting resin (RTR) langes Reinforced thermosetting resin. sewer and ind ustrial pressure pi pe

Reinforced thermosetting resin sewer pipe (RTRP) Threads for reinforced thermosetting resin pipe Glassfiber-reinforced thermosetting-resin pipe

eters and for diverse uses for both pressu re and nonpressure applications. Linera are available to meet various chemical requirements.
Example 5.21 (84-!n Cool l ng Water) A fiberglass rei nforced polyester resin material has been selected for the pipe to supply cooling water for a large power plan t. Selected design parameters are given in Table 5.20. (See AWWA C-950 for deaign procedures.) l. Design for delection Earth load W, = (5.5)(110) = 605 lb/ft2

TABLE 5.20 Selected Deslgn Parameters

Pipe inside diameter Bu rial depth Unit weight (soil) Live load Interna! pressure (maximu m ) Interna! pressure {mnimum ) Water temperature (maximu m ) Hoop modulus (pipe) Bending strain basis Design strain Backfill soil Soil mod ulus E' Delection limit Hydrostatic-design basis

84 in 5.5 ft (maximum ) 110 lb/ft3 300 lb/ft2 60 lb/i n 2 14.7 lb/i n 2 vacu u m 140F 3.5 x i0 6 lb/i n 2 0.0054 in/in 0.0036 in/in Med iun sand at 90% proctor densi ty Use '150 lb/i n 2 3 per nt 10,0;j(J lb/i n 2

Burled Pipe Product


Live load WL = 300 lb/ft2 Total load W


+ 300 = 905 lb/ft2

= 6.28 lb/in 2

Use Spangler's equation to determine required pipe stiffness to control ring deflection. For RTR pipe, a limiting deflection is usually set at sorne value lesa than 5 percent. For our problem, the delection limit has been set at 3 percent. Spangler's equation may be expreseed as follows (see Example 5.7): (0.l)()'H) D - PS/6.7 + 0.061 E' In this case, H may be replaced by the total load and the above equation will be solved for pipe stiffness (PS). PS -

= [/ - 0.061E' ]6.7

For W = 6.28 lb/in2, !:J.y/D = 0.03, and E' = 650 lb/in 2, the pipe stiffneBB PS is found to be negative therefore deflection does not control deeign. Thie conclusion is baeed on the aBSumption that the pipe will be inetalled properly with a resulting E' equal to 650 lb/in2 2. Assume that the pipe may not be installed as per deeign specificatione. What is the minimum soil modulus E' that can be accepted and still meet the 3 percent deflection limit (assume pipe stiffness PS = 10 lb/in 2 ). Use Spangler's equation to solve for E' . ,
E =


(PS)] 1 ( !:J.y/D ) - 6.7 <0.061)

= [(0.1)(6.28) -

lQ.)(-1 -)
6.7 0.061

= 319 lb/in 2

3. Deeign for buckling (see AWWA C-950). The buckling equation given in AWWA C-950 is as follows:
[ 32RwB'E' (El!D3 ) ]
q =




q = allowable buckling pressure SF = safety factor or design factor usually taken as 2.5 or greater Rw = water buoyancy factor, 1.0 for our problem B' = emprica! coefficient of elastic support (dimensionleBB)

0.26 for our problem H = burial depth to top of pipe, ft Buckling pressure q = 14.7 lb/in2 vacuum + 6.28 lb/in 2 soil preBBure
= 20.98 "' 21 lb/in2

1/(1 + 4e -

0 066 H


c11apler Flve

Use the AWWA equation to solve for EI/D 3


-= Ds ( 32RwB' E' )


(21)2(2.5) =(32)( 1)(0.26)(650)

Pipe stiffness PS 0.5 llb/in 2 6.7()



52.5 lb/in 2

Therefore, the required pipe stiffness is PS = (53.6)(0.51) = 27.34 lb/in2


(32(1.0)(0.26)(650)(0.51 )) 112

The thickness required for a straight wall pir. a may be determined using above stiffness as follows: PS = or (PS)D 3 I = 53.6E but t3 l =1 2 then 1 2(PS)D 3 t - 53.6E

6 . .7(E r sI)

= 53.6 ( EI )


3 t = 0.6W(PS)ll 3E - 11

= 0.6W(PS)lf 3(3.5 = 1.02 in

106) - 1/3

4. Check preBSure design. Interna! pressure including surge is given to be 60 lb/in2 A quick clieck on stress due to interna! pressure reveals a low value.




= 2471 lb/m

Burled Pipe Prod ucta 2471




Thus, stress due to internal pressure acting alone is not a critical factor.

5. Check strain due to ring deflection. The bending strain caused by the 3 percent design-ring deflection is calculated using Eq. (3.19). Eb = 6 () (tx)

= 6 ( \i


= 0.00219

The above strain is less than the 0.0036 design strain.

6. Calculate strain due to combined loading. (See Chap. 4-fiber reinforced plastic and AWWA C-950.) Two equations are given in AWWA C-950 for calculating strain due to the simultaneous action of ring bending and interna! pressure. The so-called "Molin equation" is to be used for low pressures and another equation based on Spangler's Iowa formula is to be used for higher pressures. The maximum strain is the lower of the two calculated values. For our problem, the interna! pressure is quite small, therefore, the equation attributed to Molin applies.

Combined strain Ec =

+ 6(tx) (;J)

This equation is just the simple addition of the strain due to interna!pressure with the strain due to ring bending-a simple concept of elementary mechanics of materials. For the problem at hand,


= 0.706

(60)(84 ) + 6(0 03) (1.02) X 1 06)(1.02)) . 84


10 - 3 + 2.19

10 - 3 = 2.90

10 - 3

or Ec = 0.00290 This is lesa than the design strain of 0.0036. Thus, combined strain is ali right. Example 5:22 (84-ln Rlbbed) In Example 5.21, it was determined that the wall thickness should be 1.02 in. This was the thickness required to produce a pipe stiffness PS = 27.34 lb/in2 which was required for buckling design. Suppose a ribbed pipe is to be used instead of the solid-wall pipe designed in the previous example. The ribbed pipe is to have ribs spaced on 78-in centers and the wall thickness between ribs is to be 0.6 in. The ribs will be constructed to act in an integral manner with the wall such that the pipe stiffness, PS , is equal to 27.34 lb/in 2 as required previously. Carry out neceBBary calculations to determine if the ribbed pipe will perform adequately. l. Check pressure design (see Example 5.21).

* .......

..... ...... i""'

"" "'



(60)(84) . 2 = 2(0. 6 ) = 4200 lb/m

Since the hydrostatic design basis (HDB) 10,000/4200 = 2.38.

10,000 lb/in2 , the safety factor is

2. Check bending strain (see Example 5.20). a. Find strain in wall at a.point away from rib.

= 6 ( ) (0.03) = 1.29

10 - 3 in/in

b. Find strain in wall at point near rib. Assume rib thickness from inside wall to outside of rib is 2.10 in and also assume the distance from the inside wall to the centroid of the wall section is Xc = 0.68 in. Since the wall thickness is 0.60 inch, the centroid is 0.08 in outside of wall.

where t/2 may be replaced by 0.68. Thus, 8 Eb = 1 2( 3 ) (0.03)

= 2.91 X

10 - 3 in/in

Wall bending strain is within design limita. 3. Check combined strain (aee Example 5.21). For near rib:

= =

6()( )

+ i2( ) ()

where t/2 can be replaced by 0.68 in (see Example 5.20).



(60)(84) 2(3.5 X 1 0 6)(0.6)


+ i2( 68)co.03)

= 1.20

10 - 3

+ 2.91

10 - 3

= 4.11 X 10 - 3 in/in

Thia strain exceeds the design atrain of 3.6 x 10 - 3 However, the design strain included a safety factor and the pressure used included a surge pressure. Also, the effective thicknesa near the rib is larger than the 0.6 used in the calculation. In any case, the limiting long-term strain of 5.4 x 10 - 5 in/in has not been exceeded so combined atrain is all right. In wall away from rib:

Burled Pipe Producta


Ec -

_ PD 2Et

+6 D

(i.)(D )
+ 6 (6) o 03
84 ( .


(60)(84) [2(3.5 X 106)(0.6)) 1.20 2.49


10 - 3 + 1.29 10 - 3

10 - 3

4. Check buckling. The ribbed pipe in this exam ple has the same pipe stiffness as the solid wall pipe of Example 5.21. Therefore, general buckling will not occur and a design check should be made for localized buckling. Texts, deal ing with advanced mechanics of materials or theory of elasticity, usually have solu tions for local ized buckling of tubes with ring stiffeners. The book., Theory of Elastic Stability , by Timoshenko and Gere, gives such a solution in graphical form on page 480 (see Fig. 5.14). These solu tions are far tubes subjected to hydrostatic pressure and not constrained by soil. The surrounding soil effectively stiffens the pipe. Thus, a pipe in soil will take a larger bucle
x i o-2 1 x i o-3 7

3 2
x 10-3


1 7

N >

.e w
11 x i o-5


2 7

X 1o-4 1


a 2 x 10


5 2

10-5 1o-6 -->.,cf-'"'='-t'<..-o;:;;!::6 71o -6 4 X 10-6

._e x



7 x 10-6 5 3 2
.J1 1


0. 2






100 200

Flgun1 5.14 Curves for critica! buckling pressure qcr for stiffened circular cylinders subjectecl to a unifonn radial pressure. 1 = rib spacing = 78 in, a = pipe radius = 42 in, v = Poillson's. ratio = 0.3, n = pipe thickness = 0.6 in., ' = t"/12r" = (0.6)/!(12)(42) 2], E = el.astic modulus (3.5 x 106 lb/ft.2J, q.,.. = buckling pre& sure.) <Reprinted by permission from Timoshenko and Gere,1' Elastic Stabili.ty, McGrow-Hill, New York , 1961.)

ling load as compared to a pipe subjected to hydrostatic pressure. Therefore, the hydrostatic solutions are conservative. From Fig. 5.14, we can determine th following: t2 (0.6) a =-= , = 1.7 X 10 - 5 2 12r (12)(42)2 From the curves, .. = 0.9 x 10 - 4
tj, Eh
qcr = a( l - v2) (9 =

10 - 4 )(3.5 X 106)(0.6) ( 42)(1 - 0.9)

= 49.5 ! b/in 2

Again, this is the buckling pressure for a pipe subjected to hydrostatic pressure without soil support. The actual buckling pressu re will be larger and can be ap proximated as follows: The general buckling pressure for a long tu be (pipe) subjected to only hydro static Joading is given by the followi ng equation: (see Eq. 3.13) For the pipe in our example,
3( EJ/r 3)


1 _ v2


= 13.5 lb/in 2

The general buckling pressure for pipe in soil as calculated in part 3 of Example 5.21 was
qcr = [32 RwB' E'

( ;)]In

= [32(1.0)(0.26)(6.50)(0.51)) 112
= 52.5 lb/in 2

Note that this pressure is 52.5/13.5 = 3.9 times greater than for the pipe with no soil support. For localized buckling in soil, for this example, a factor of 2 can be used conservatively. Thus, the localized buckling pressu re can be approxi mated by multiplying the hydrostatic value by 2.


99 lb/in 2

The applied pressure is 21 lb/in2 (see Example 5.21). The pipe, in this example, will not exerience localized buckling. General


Chapter Flve


48 in

"I = 120 lb/ft3

E = 30 Solve for EI/r 8

106 lb/in2

E' = 1000 lb/in (from Table 3.4)

El = (O.l)(-yH) - 0.061E'
r3 ( 6. y /D )

(0.1)( 120)(60)(1/144 ) 0.05 - 0.061(1000)

= 100 - 61 = 39

or 39r3 39(24)3 [ = -= --E 30 X 106

= 0.018 in4/in = 0.22 in4/ft

From Table 5.21, the uncoated thickness should be 0.1345 in. 2. Assume the yield stress (crY) for the steel is 33,000 lb/in2 What wall aroa is required for ring compression design with a safety factor of 2?

Design compression stress fe

J = 16,500 lb/in2

Vertical soil pressure Pv = (120)(60) = 7,200 lb/ft2 or

Pv = 7200 = 50 lb/in2 144

Solve for AJL.


fe = 2A = (2A/L)


(50)(48) _ . zn 1 73 L = 2f.e = 2(16,500) - 0.0 m

= 0.073 in2/in(12 in/ft) = 0.88 in2/ft


From Table 5.21, the uncoated thickness is 0.0598 in. Thus, the deflection design controla and the thickness found in l. is the required thickneBS.

Steel pressure pipes are used in many varied and diverse applications in industrial, agricultural, and municipal markets. The di.scussion here will

TABLE 5.21 Sectlonal Propertles of Corrugated Steel Sheets

- Pi tch = 3 in

Depth = 1 in

"' "'

Specified thickness

Uncoated thickness I, in

Area of section A, in2/ft

Tangent length TL, in

Tangent angle l> , degrees

Moment of inertiat I, rn/ft

Section modulust S, in3/ft

Radi us of gyration r, in

Developed width:J: factor

0.040" 0.052 0.064 0.079 0.109 0.138 0.168

0.0359 0.0478 0.0598 0.0747 0.1046 0.1345 0.1644

0.534 0.711 0.890 1.113 1.560 2.008 2.458

0.963 0.951 0.938 0.922 0.889 0.855 0.819

44.19 44.39 44.60 44.87 45.42 46.02 46.65

0.0618 0.0827 0.1039 0.1306 0.1855 0.2421 0.3010

0.1194 0.1578 0.1961 0.2431 0.3358 0.4269 0.5170

0.3403 0.3410 0.3417 0.3427 0.3448 0.3472 0.3499

1.239 1.240 1.240 1.241 1.243 1.244 1.246

"Thickness not commonly available. Information only. tPer foot of projection about the neutral axis. To obtain A, l, or S per inch of width, divide by 12. +Developed width factor measures the increase in profile length due to corrugating. Dimensiona are subject to manufacturing tolerances.


Chapter Flve Selected Standards for Steel Pressure Pipes In Water Servlce Steel water pipe 6 in and larger Coal-tar protective coatings and linings for steel water pipelinesenrunel and tape-hot applied Cement-mortar protective lining and coati ng for steel water pipe-4 in and larger-shop applied Field weldi ng of steel water pipe Steel pipe langes for waterworks service-sizes 4 in through 144 in Dimensions for fabricated steel water pipe fittings Cold-applied tape coatings for special sections, connections, and fittings for steel water pi pelines Coal-tar epoxy coating system for the in terior and exterior of steel water pipe Fusion-bonded epoxy coating for the interior and exterior of steel water pipelines Tape coating systems for the exterior of steel water pipelines Steel pipe design and installation

TABLE 5.22

AWWA C-200 AWWA C-203 AWWA C-205 AWWA C-206 AWWA C-207 AWWA C-208 AWWA C-209 AWWA C-210 AWWA C-213 AWWA C-214 AWWA M-11

be limited to steel pipe used primarily in the municipal water market (see Table 5.22). However, principies used are applicable to all steel pressure pipe.
Exam ple 5.24 (108-ln Transmlsslon) A 108-in diameter water-transmiBsion line is to be installed. Steel has been selected as the piping material. The joint iB to be a bell- and spigot-type joint welded both inside and out as shown:
......------- Wel d

. l\S\S\\\\\\\\\\SS\\\\SSS\\\\SS" S '" \"S '"''""""""""



The wall thickness is to be 0.5 in. Because of the large diameter, the pipe will be very flexible and will be braced with interna! bracing (stills) when manufactured. These stills will remain in the pipe sections until they have been installed and pipe zone soil has been placed and compacted to the specified density. The stills will be removed after backfilling is complete. The pipe line will then be lined with a portland cement-type mortar before the line is placed in service. Design Parruneters
Wall thickness Yield stress Ultimate strength Modulus PoiBson's ratio Thermal coefficient of expansion Ductile-brittle transition tem perature Surge pressure allowance Cover depth Pipe-zone soil Pipe-zone density Water temperature

0.5 in 36,000 lb/in 2 60,000 lb/in2 29 X 106 Jb/in2 0.3 6.5 X 1O .6 (1f F) (70FJ 40 lb/i .'"
6 ft

Crushed stone 90% standard proctor 34F

Burled Pipe Products


Evaluate the proposed steel pipe for this application. Are there any spedal precau tions which should be taken or special construction methods which should be followed.
l. Check pipe stiffness and evaluate possible ring delection.

PS = .E_ = 6.7El
r3 X


106)(0.5) 3

(12)(54)3 12.85 lb/in2

This pipe is quite flexible. However, the pi pe is going to be held in the undelected state until pipe-zone soil is compacted and the overburden is placed. The resulting delection after the stills are removed will be quite low. 2. Check pressure design. a. Find hoop stress for design pressure plus surge.


= '"21 =

(120 + 40)(108) 2(0.5)

17,280 lb/in2

b. Find hoop stress for design pressure only.


(120)(108) = '"21 = 2(0.5) = 12,960 lb/i n 2


The yield stress is 36,000 lb/in 2 The safety factor is greater than 2, therefore, pressu re design is ali righ t. 3. Consider longitudinal stresses. AWWA C-206 ind icates that temperature considerations should be made in design. AWWA C-206 and AWWA M-11 suggest the use of either closure welds or expansion joints to alleviate stresses due to temperatu re change. Longitudinal stresses will also be produced by the Poisson eITect. Temperature stresses and Poisson stresses along with bending stresses due to nonparallel loading in the bell-spigot connection, may be large enough to cause failu re. Assu me the pipe is placed and tack welded du ring the day. It is July and August and the pipe temperature during tack welding is between 80 and 130F. The tack welds hold firm and the welding procesa is completed by a welding crew who are following behind the pi pe laying crew. No closure welds or expansion joints are bei ng u sed. After the line is completed, it is put in service with water at 120 lb/in2 and 34F. (See Chap. 4-longitudinal stresses and steel pipe sections.} a. Find the longitudinal stress due to the Poisson effect. bu t
ah =

12,960 lb/in 2

= (0.3)(12,960) = 3,888 lb/in 2


Cha pter Flve

b. Find the longitudinal stress due to temperature change.

o-r = Ea( !J.T )

= (29


10 - 6 )( /J.T)

= (188.5)(.'.\T)

Assu me a /J.T = 70F


= 13,195 lb/in 2

c. What is the total longi tudinal stress?


o-( Poisson ) + o-(temperatu re)

= 3888

+ 13,195

17,083 l b/in 2

d. The nonparallel loading in the bell-spi got will prod uce a bending moment and will effectively magnify the sLEss fou nd in (e) above. What is that magnification factor?

Bending stress where M = moment = (o-L)(A )(t) = t = thickness A = area = bt e = t/2 I = bt 3/ l 2

= o-8 =

o-L( bt )(t )

Therefore (o-)(bt)( t)(t/2)

= 60-L

Then, the bending stress is six times the longitudinal stress. However, the maximum stress is the sum of the bending stress pl us the longitudinal stress.

The magnification factor is 7. Therefore,


( 7)(17,083)

119,581 lb/in2

The pipe will fail befare this stress is reached. In fact, it did. This pipeline was actually designed and constructed as descri bed in this example. The designer failed to consider longitudinal stresses and did not allow for closure or expansion joints. There were three separate fail u res caused by longi tudinal stresses. Each time a repair was made the line was retu rned to service. After the third failu re, a general repair was ordered. Every other join t was cu t to relieve the built-in stresses. As the joints were cu t, there were snap back openings of as much as 1 in. The temperature of the pi pe during the repair was 55F, 21 degrees higher than the service temperatu re. so there will still be sorne stress at 34F. Had the steel been more ductile it may have been able to relieve itself by simply stretching. For the steel selected, the ductile-bri ttle transition temperature was 70F. Therefore, the steel behaved in a brittle manner and failed.

Burled Pipe Producta


Ductlfe lron pipe

Ductile-iron pipe has essentially replaced gray cast-iron pipe. Ductile iron is, as its name implies, more ductile than gray cast iron but still retains somewhat brittle properties. It is very popular among public works people wh o repair and main tain water systems. Many of them perceive this pipe as able to withstand abuse du ring handling and repair operations. Corrosion rate for ductile iron is essentially the same as for gray cast iron. However, since th e wall is usually thin ner, corrosion is more critical. Design procedures call for a corrosion allowance, called a "service factor." When installed in h ighly corrosive soil, steps should be taken to protect it. Ductile-iron pipe is usually lined with a cementmortar lining. This lining improves the hydraulic efficiency and also provides sorne corrosion protection. Other linings and coatings are available. See Table 5.23.
Example 5.25 (30-l n DI Pi pe) Calculate the thickness for 30-in ductile-iron (DIJ pipe laid on a lat-bottom trench with backfill tamped to centerline of pipe, laying condition type 2 (Fig. 5.15), under 10 ft of cover for a working pressure of 200 lb/in2 (See ductile iron section in Chap. 4 far design procedu re for pressure pipe. Also, se AWWA C-150. Certain tables from AWWA C-150 have been reproduced here for the reader's convenience. This exarnple is taken from AWWA C-150).
l. Design for trench load a. Earth load, Table 5.24, P, = 8.3 lb/in 2 May be obtained from Fig. 2.14. Truck load, Table 5.24, P, = 0.7 lb/in 2 Trench load, P. = P, +, P, = 9.0 lb/in2 b. Select Table 5.29 for diameter-thickness ratios for laying condition type


c. Entering P. of 9.0 lb/in 2 in Table 5.29, the bending stress design requires
D!t of 128. From Table 5.28, diameter D of 30-in pipe, OD is 32.00 in. Net thickness t for bending stress is
1 = (D!t ) = -128


. 0 .25 m

TABLE 5.23

Selected Standa rds f or Ductlle !ron Pi pe Cement mortar lini ng for ductile iron Polyethylene encasement for d uctile iron Ductile iron and gray iron littings Rubbergasket joi nts for ductile iron Flanged ductile iron Th ickness design of ductile iron pipe Ductile iron pipe in metal and sandlined molds Materials properties test Physical properties

AWWA C-104 AWWA C-105 AWWA C-110 AWWA C-111 AWWA C-115 AWWA C-150 AWWA C-151 ASTM E-8 ASTM A-539


1.;hapter flve

T ype 1

Type 2

Type 3

T ype 4

Type 5

Flgur 5:15 Standard pipe laying conditions. (Reprinted , by permission, from AN SI/AWWA CJ 50/A/21.50-81 (R-86), American Water Works Association, 1986.)

d . Also, from Table 5.29, the delectio'.1 design requires D/t 1 of 108. Mnimum thickness t 1 for delection design:
D 32.00 ti = D!t1 = 108


.30 m

Deduct service allowance - 0.08 in Net thickness t for delection control

= 0.22 in

e . The larger net thickness is 0.25 in, obtained by the design for l;>ending stress.
2. Design for internal pressure:
P = 2.0 (working pressu re + 100 lb/in 2 surge a!lowance)

Burled Pipe Products


TABLE 5.24

Depth of cover, ft 2.5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 20 24 28 32 Depth of cover, ft 2.5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 1 4 16 20 24 28 32


1 8 -in pipe P, 2.1 2.5 3.3 4.2 5.0 5.8 6.7 7.5 8.3 10.0 11.7 13.3 16.7 20.0 23.3 26.7 P, 7.8 5.9 3.9 2.6 1.9 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

20-in pipe P, 7.5 5.7 3.9 2.6 1.9 1.4 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

24-in pipe P, 7.1 5.4 3.6 2.4 1.7 1.3 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

30-in pipe P, 6.7 5.2 3.5 2.4 1.7 1.3 1.1 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

9.9 8.4 7.2 6.8 6.9 7.2 7.9 8.5 9.1 10.5 12.l 13.6 16.9 20.1 23.4 26.8

9.6 8.2 7.2 6.8 6.9 7.2 7.8 8.4 9.0 10.5 12.l 13.6 16.9 20.1 23.4 26.8

9.2 7.9 6.9 6.6 6.7 7.1 7.8 8.4 9.0 10.5 12.1 13.6 16.9 20.1 23.4 26.8

8.8 7.7 6.8 6.6 6.7 7.1 7.8 8.4 . 9.0 10.5 12.1 13.6 16.9 20.1 23.4 26.8

36-i n pipe P, 2.1 2.5 3.3 4.2 5.0 5.8 6.7 7.5 8.3 10.0 11.7 13.3 16.7 20.0 23.3 26.7 P, 6.2 4.9 3.4 2.3 l.7 1.3 1.1 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1

42-i n pipe P, 5.8 4.6 3.3 2.3 l.7 1.3 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

48-in pipe P, 5.4 4.4 3.1 2.2 1.6 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

54-in pipe P, 5.0 4.1 3.0 2.1 1.6 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

8.3 7.4 6.7 6.5 6.7 7.1 7.8 8.3 9.0 10.5 12.l 13.6 16.9 20.1 23.4 26.8

7.9 7.1 6.6 6.5 6.7 7.1 7.7 8.3 9.0 10.5 12.1 13.6 16.9 20.1 23.4 26.8

7.5 6.9 6.4 6.4 6.6 7.0 7.7 8.3 9.0 10.5 12.1 13.6 16.9 20.1 23.4 26.8

7.1 6.6 6.3 6.3 6.6 7.0 7.7 8.3 9.0 10.5 1 2.l 13.6 16.9 20.1 23.4 26.8


Table 50.1 from AWWA C-150.

If anticipated surge pressu res are greater than 100 lb/in2 , which results from instantaneous stoppage of a column of water moving at 2 ft/s, then the actual anticipated pressures must be used.

P = 2.0 ( 200 + 100)

= 600 lb/i n 2

t =



= 600 x 32.00/2 x 4 2,000 = 0.23 in

Net thickness t for interna! pressure is 0.23 in.

TABLE 5.25 Designa Values for Standard laylng Condltlons

Laying Condition
Type lt Type 2 Type 3



Bedding angle, degrees 30 45 60



Type 4

Type 5

Flat-bottom trenchi Loose backfill. 150 Flat-bottom trench. Backfill lightly con300 solidated to centerline of pipe. Pipe bedded in 4-in-minimum loose .oil.1 400 Backfill lightly consolidated to to.: of pipe. Pipe bedded in sand, grave!, or crushed stone to depth of 1/s pipe diameter, 4-in minimu m. Backfill compacted to top of pipe. (Approx. 80 percent standard proctor, AASHTO T-99), Pipe bedded to its centerline in com700 pacted granular material, 4-in mnimum under pipe. Compacted granular or select1 material to top of pi pe. (Approx. 90 percent standard proctor, AASHTO T-99)'

0.235 0.108 0.210 0.105 0.189 0.103




See Fig. 5.15 ' For pipe 30 in and larger, consideration should be given to the use of laying conditions other than type l. ' Flat-bottom is defined as "undisturbed earth." 1 Loose soil or select material is defined as "native aoil excavated from the trench, free of rocks, foreign material, and frozen earth." 'AASHTO T-99, "Moisture Density Relations of Soils Using a 5.5 lb (2.5 kg) Rammer 12-in (305-mm) Drop." SOURCE: Table 50.2 from AWWA C-150.

TABLE 5.26 Allowances for Casting Tolerance Casting tolerance, in 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09

Size, in

1 0-12 1 4-42 48 54

Table 50.3 from AWWA C-150.

TABLE 5.29 Dlameter-Thlckness Ratlos for Lllylng Cond ltlon Type 2

Trench load Bending stress design

6.29 6.34 6.39 6.44 6.50 6.55 6.60 6.66 6.71 6.77 6.82 6.88 6.94 6.99 7.05 7.11 7.17 7.23 7.29 7.35 7.42 7.48 7.54 7.61 7.67 7.74 7.80 7.87 7.94 8.01 8.08 8.15 8.22 8.29 8.37 8.44 8.52 8.59 8.67 8.75 8.83 8.91


lb/in 2

Trench load (P.J, lb/in2 Bending stress design

8.99 9.07 9.16 9.25 9.33 9.42 9.51 9.60 9.70 9.79 9.89 9.99 10.09 10.19 10.29 10.40 10.51 10.62 10.73 10.84 10.96 11.08 11.21 11.33 11.46 11.59 11.73 11.87 12.01 12.16 12.31 12.46 12.62 12.79 12.96 13.13 13.31 13.49 13.68 13.88 14.08 14.30 14.51

Deflection design
6.18 6.19 6.21 6.23 6.25 6.26 6.28 6.30 6.32 6.34 6.37 6.39 6.41 6.43 6.46 6.48 6.50 6.53 6.56 6.58 6.61 6.64 6.67 6.70 6.73 6.76 6.79 6.83 6.86 6.89 6.93 6.97 7.01 7.05 7.09 7.13 7.17 7.22 7.26 7.31 7.36 7.41

D!t or D/t 1
170 169 168 167 166 165 164 163 162 161 160 159 158 157 156 155 154 153 152 151 150 149 148 147 146 145 144 143 142 141 140 139 138 137 136 135 134 133 132 131 130 129

Deflection design
7.46 7.51 7.57 7.63 7.69 7.75 7.81 7.87 7.94 8.01 8.08 8.16 8.23 8.31 8.40 8.48 8.57 8.66 8.76 8.86 8.96 9.07 9.18 9.29 9.41 9.54 9.67 9.80 9.94 10.09 10.24 10.40 10.56 10.73 10.91 11.10 11.29 11.50

D!t or D!t1
128 127 126 125 124 123 122 121 120 119 118 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86

11.94 12.17 12.42 12.67

*See Fig. 5.15. souRcE: Table 50.8 from AWWA C-150

Burled Pipe Product11


3. Selection of net thickness and addition of allowances. The larger of the thicknesses is given by the design for trench load, step 1, and 0.25 in is selected.
Net thickness = 0.25 in Service allowance = 0.08 in Mnimum thickness = 0.33 in Casting tolerance = 0.07 in Total calculated thickness = 0.40 in

4. Selection of standard thickness and class. The total calculated thickness of 0.40 in is nearest to 0.39, class 50, in Table 5.28. Therefore, class 50 is seJected.

l. American Association of Civil Engineers and Water Poll ution Control Federation,

Gravity San'itary Sewer, "Design and Construction," 1982: 2. American lron and Steel Insti tute, Hand book of Steel Drainage and Highway Con- struction Prod ucts, Donnelley, New York, 1971. 3. AWWA Standards: M-11, M-9, M-23, C-150, C-200, C-206, C-300, C-301, C-303, C400, C-401, C-402, C-403, C-900, C-901, C-905, and C-950, American Water Works Association, Denver, Colo. 4. Bishop, R. R., "Cou rses Notebook," U tah State U ni versi ty, Logan, Utah , 1983. 5. Concrete Pipe Division of U.S. Pipe and Fou ndary Com pany, "Bulleti n 200," Birmingh am, Ala. (no datel. 6. Devine, Miles, "Cou rses Notebook," U tah State U ni versity, Logan, Utah, 1980. 7. Ductile ! ron Pipe Research Association, Th ntst Restrai n t Design for Ductile !ron Pipe," Birmi ngham, Ala., 1984. 8. Howard, Amster K., "Modulus of Soil Reaction ( E' ) Values for Buried Flexible Pipe," J. Geotech. Eng. Div., ASCE, vol. 103, no. GT, proceedi ngs paper 127000, January 1977. 9. Moser, A. P., Joh n Clark, and D. P. Blai r, "Strains lnduced by Combined Loading in Buried Pressurized Fiberglass Pipe," Proc. ASCE / nternational Conference on Aduances in Underground Pipeline Engineering , ASCE, Madison, Wis., 1985. 10. Moser, A. P., "Course Notebook," U tah State U niversity, Logan, Utah, 1983. 11. Moser, A. P., R. K. Watki ns, and O. K. Shupe, "Design and Performance of PVC Pipes Subjected to Externa! Soil Pressu re," Bu ried Structu res Laboratory, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, 1976. 12. Pipi ng Systems lnsti tute, "Course Notebook," Utah State University, Logan, Utah, 1980. 13. Spangler, M. G., and R. L. Handy, "Soil E ngineeri ng," lntext Ed ucational Pub!., New York, 1973. 14. Timoshenko, S. P., and J. M. Gere, Theory o( Elastic Stability, 2d ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961. 15. Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association, Handbook o( PVC Pipe Design and Construclion , Dallas, Tex., 1982. 16. Walker, Robert P., "Cou rses Notebook," U tah State Universi ty, Logan, Utah, 1983.


l ndex Flexible pipes (Conl.): com bi ned load i ng analysis for, 119 d uctile-i ron pipes, 207-213 externa! loads on, 116-117 Marston load theory for, 22-26 as pressu re pi pes, 124-144 prod ucts, 170-213 safety factors i n, 73-74 steel pipes, 201-206 thermoplast ic pi pes, 170-193 thermoset plast ic pipes, 193-201 Fou ndation, 176 Frictional resista nce, 6 Frost loads, 35 FRP (fiberglass rei nforced plastic) pipes, 119, 140-144, 193 Geometric nonlinear analysis, 86-87 G ra::1-size d istribu tion curve, 38 G ravels, 3, 39-41 G ravi ty low pi pe design, 37-105 fi n i te elcment analysis technique, 74105 lexi ble pi pe a nalysis, 48-62 pipe design cri teria, 62-74 rigid pi pe analysis, 43-48 G ravity storm sewers, 153-154 G rou nd movemen t, 29 Ha nd l i n g actor, 186-187 Hau nch cond i t ion , poor, 99-102 Hau nch i ng, 176 Hazcn-Wi ll i n ms cq ua t ion, 6 H DU r hyd rosta tic-desi gn basisl, 126-128, 130 H DS r hyd rostat ic-dcsign stress), 128, 130 Hcad ]oss, 6 High way J oads, 31, 33, 35 Howa rd, A. K , 52, 53, 60 Hyd raulics, pi pe, 5-6 Hyd rostat ic-dcsign basis r HDBl, 126-138 Hyd rostat ic-dcsign stress r H DSl, 128, 130 Hyd rostat ic prcssu re, 107-110 I m pact ractor, 30, 31 l ncom plete projection , 15, 17, 18 l n i t ial backfill , 176 lowa form u la , 49-51 mod i ficd, G l Joi n ts, rcstrai ncd, 147-149 Kerr, L., 114

DifTeren tial settlement, 28-29 Dimension ratio !DRl, 109-110 Distribu tion line, 156-158 Distribution system, water, 6 DR (dimension ratiol, 109-110 Ductile-iron pi pes, 207-213 Ductile-iron pressu re pipes, 137-139 Du ncan soil model, 79-82 enhanced, 87-88 Durability, 4 Earthquake, 29 Economics, 7-8 Effective closing ti me, 114 Elastic mod ulus constant, 89 Embankmen t cond ition, 14-20, 25 Embankment loads, 23-24 Embedded cyc!inder pipe, 163, 164, 169 Embed men t material classitications, 40 Empi rical method, 59 Equal settlement, plane of, 15-16 Equilibriu m delection , 56 Expansion joi nts, 205 Expansive soils, loads d ue to, 35-36 Externa! loads, 9-36, 84, 115-117 Fatigue performance lim i t, 71 FEA ( finite element analysisl, 74-105 Fi berglass rei nforced plastic rFRPI pi pes, 119, 140-144, 193 Field strength , 43 Fi nal backfill, 176 Fi ni te elemen t a nalysis r FEA1, 74 compaction si m u la t ion , 96, 97, 98, 101 core hau nch cond ition , 99, 100 enhanced soil modcl , 87 enhancemen ts, 75, 85 externa] loads, 84 geometric non li ncar a nalyscs, 86 homogeneous i nstallation, 96 hyperbolic soil model , 79 iteration proced u re, 90 large d isplacement theory, 83 outpu t, 90 pipe, 79 preexisti ng stresses, 83 pri nted resul ta, 91 small d isplacemen t theory, 83 soil parameters, 84, 89, 95 SSTIPN, 74, 75 stiffness matri x, 82 Flexi bl e pi pes, 4-5, 21-26 analysis of gravi ty low pi pes, 48-62

lndex Open channel flow, 5 Overdeflecti on, 68-69 PB ( polybu tylenel, 191, 192 PE < pol ycthylcne l pi pes, 185-190 Peak hoop, st ress, 134, 135, 136 Performance l i m its, 62, 64 PIPE com pu ter code, 75, 77, 79-105 en hancemen ts i ncl uded in, 85-90 exam ple applica tions, 95-104 iteration proced u re, 90 ou t pu t, 84-85, 90-95 Pi pe cost, 8 Pi pe design cri ter ia , 62-74 Pi pe hyd rau l ics, 5-6 Pi pe prod ucts, 151-213 Pi pe stiffness, 48-49, 116 soi l compressi bi l i ty versus, 22-23 Pi pe th rust, 121 Pi pe walls l see Wall enl ries l Pi pes: ci rcul ar, a ngul a r coord i nates of, 76 clay, 161-162 concrete, 163-170 flexi ble i see Flexible pi pes> gravi ty flow isee G ravi ty low pipe design l pressu re ( see Pressu re pipe design) prolile-wall, 73 rigid (see Rigid pipes) sewer, PVC, 62, 63 steel, 201-206 thermoplastic, 170-193 u ndergrou nd , 1-2 Pi pi ng materials, 4-5 Plane of equal settlement, 15-16 Plast ici ty chart, 39 Poisson's effect, 119-120 Poisoon's ratio, 82, 89, 90 Polybu tylene ( PBJ, 191, 192 Polyethylene IPE J pipes, 185-190 Polyvi nyl chloride ( see PVC ent ries ) Poor hau nch cond i tion, 99-102 Positive projection , 14 Preexisti ng stress concept, 83-84 Pressu re: hyd rostatic, 107-110 su rge, 110-115 Pressu re class, 125, 143 Pressu re low, 5 Pressu re pipe design, 107-150 design bases, 122-150 flexible pipes i n, 124-144


i- --

Laml acie's solution, 107-110 Large displacement theory, 83 Large test cell, 94 Lateral pressu re, 11 Live loads, 29-34 Load coefficien t, 12, 31 Load factor, 43-44 Loading analysis, com bi ned , 117-119 Loads: ai rcraft, 34 design, 48 embankment, 23-24 d ue to expa nsi ve soi ls, 35-36 externa!, 9-36, 84, 115-117 frost, 35 highway, 31, 33, 35 live, 29-34 longitud i nal, 26-29 prism , 23-24 shear, 71 soil, 21 tu n nel, 25-26 wheel, 29-34 Localzed buckli ng, 199 Longterm deflect ion, 63 Longitudi nal loads, 26-29 Longitudi nal stress, 70-71, 119-122 Maintenance cost, 8 Manning equation, 6 Marston, Anson, 9-10 Marston load theory, 1 for flexible pipes, 22-26 for rigid pipes, 9-21 Marston tu n nel-load equation, 20 Modulus of soil react ion (E' ), 53 Mohr-Coulomb strength theory of soil, 80 Moh r's circle analysis, 88-89 N ational Standards ABS pipe, 191 asbestos cement pi pe, 152 clay pipe, 161 concrete pipe, 164 ductile iron pipe, 207 fiber rei nforced plastic pi pe ff Hl'l, 194 other thermoplastic pipe, 192, 193 polybutylene pipe, 192 polyethylene pipe, 187 PVC pipe, 175 steel pi pe, 204 Newmark, N.M., 31 Nonu niform bedding, 26-28

AASHTO <America n Association of State High way and Transportation OfficialsJ, 3 ABS (acrylonitrile-butad iene-styrene 1 pipes, 190-191 AC (asbestos cemen t) pipes, 151-160 Acrylonitrile-bu tad iene-styrene t AllSl pipes, 190-191 Active pressu re, 11 Aircraft J oads, 34 American Associa tion of State H igh way and Transporta tion Officials (AASHTOJ, 3 American Society for Testi ng a nd Materials <ASTM I, 3, 151 American Water Works Association ( see AWWA entries ) Asbestos-cement <AC l pipes, 151-160 Asbestos-cemen t pressu re pi pes, 122-123, 154-160 ASTM (America n Society for Testi ng a nd MaterialsJ, 3, 151 AWWA (American Water Works Association ), 118, 151 AWWA standards, 131-133 Axial bendi ng, 26-28 Backfill material, 4 Bar element, 82 Barlow form ula, 109 Beam element, 82 Beddi ng, non u niform, 26-28 Bed d ing classes, 45 Bedd ing constan t, 52 Beddi ng factor, 43-44 Bendi ng stress, 116 Boussi nesq sol u tion, 29-34 Bri ttl e behavior, 192 Buckl i ng, 140, 195 . Buckling pressu re, 195 Bu l k mod ul us, 80-81 Bu ried pipes ( see Pipes) Cell classifica tion ,, 125 Cellu lose acetate butyrate (CABl, 191, 193 Cesspools, 2 Ci rcu l a r pi pes, a ngu l ar coord i nates of, 78 Clay pi pes, 161 Clays, 3 Closu re welds, 205 Cohesion coefficien t, 20-21 Com bi ned load i ng analysis, 117-119 Combi ned sewers, 7 Com plete projection cond i tion, 16-17 Com pu ter code PI PE <see PIPE compu ter cod el Com pu ter code SSTJ PN, 74-75 Concrete pi pe, 163-170 Cond ui ts ( see Pipes! Corrosion, 8, 207 Corrugated steel sheets, 203 Cost, main tenance, 8 Creep, 54, 55 Critica! buckl i ng pressu re, 199, 200 Cr i tica} ti me, 114 Cu lverts, 14 Cu rvatu re, reversa} of, 67-68, 69 Cyclical pressu re surges, 110, 133-137 Delection, 68-69 equ i libri u m, 56 Delect ion l ag factor, 51-52 Dela m i nation, 71-72 Design bases, 122 Design loads, 48 Di a metcr-t h ick ness ratios, 212


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