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Memory capacity of prodigies[edit] PET scans performed on several mathematics prodigies have suggested that they th ink in terms

of long-term working memory (LTWM).[7] This memory, specific to a f ield of expertise, is capable of holding relevant information for extended perio ds, usually hours. For example, experienced waiters have been found to hold the orders of up to twenty customers in their heads while they serve them, but perfo rm only as well as an average person in number-sequence recognition. The PET sca ns also answer questions about which specific areas of the brain associate thems elves with manipulating numbers.[7] One subject never excelled as a child in mathematics, but he taught himself algo rithms and tricks for calculatory speed, becoming capable of extremely complex m ental math. His brain, compared to six other controls, was studied using the PET scan, revealing separate areas of his brain that he manipulated to solve the co mplex problems. Some of the areas that he and presumably prodigies use are brain sectors dealing in visual and spatial memory, as well as visual mental imagery. Other areas of the brain showed use by the subject, including a sector of the b rain generally related to childlike "finger counting," probably used in his mind to relate numbers to the visual cortex.[7] Working memory/cerebellum theory[edit] "My mother said that I should finish high school and go to college first." Saul Kripke in response to an invitation to apply for a teaching position at Har vard Noting that the cerebellum acts to streamline the speed and efficiency of all th ought processes, Vandervert[8] explained the abilities of prodigies in terms of the collaboration of working memory and the cognitive functions of the cerebellu m. Citing extensive imaging evidence, Vandervert first proposed this approach in two publications which appeared in 2003. In addition to imaging evidence, Vande rvert's approach is supported by the substantial award winning studies of the ce rebellum by Masao Ito.[9] Vandervert[10] provided extensive argument that, in the prodigy, the transition from visual-spatial working memory to other forms of thought (language, art, mat hematics) is accelerated by the unique emotional disposition of the prodigy and the cognitive functions of the cerebellum. According to Vandervert, in the emoti on-driven prodigy (commonly observed as a "rage to master") the cerebellum accel erates the streamlining of the efficiencies of working memory in its manipulatio n and decomposition/re-composition of visual-spatial content into language acqui sition and into linguistic, mathematical, and artistic precocity.[11] Essentially, Vandervert has argued that when a child is confronted with a challe nging new situation, visual-spatial working memory and speech-related and other notational system-related working memory are decomposed and re-composed (fractio nated) by the cerebellum and then blended in the cerebral cortex in an attempt t o deal with the new situation.[12] In child prodigies, Vandervert believes this blending process is accelerated due to their unique emotional sensitivities whic h result in high levels of repetitious focus on, in most cases, particular rulegoverned knowledge domains. He has also argued that child prodigies first began to appear about 10,000 years ago when rule-governed knowledge had accumulated to a significant point, perhaps at the agricultural-religious settlements of Gobek li-tepe or Cyprus.[13] Nature vs. nurture[edit] Further information: Nature versus nurture and Heritability of IQ Daniel Barenboim, age 11, with Conductor Moshe Lustig and the Gadna Symphonic or chestra 1953 Some researchers believe that prodigious talent tends to arise as a result of th e innate talent of the child, and the energetic and emotional investment that th e child ventures. Others believe that the environment plays the dominant role, m

any times in obvious ways. For example, Lszl Polgr set out to raise his children to be chess players, and all three of his daughters went on to become world-class players (two of whom are grandmasters), emphasizing the potency a child's enviro nment can have in determining the pursuits toward which a child's energy will be directed, and showing that an incredible amount of skill can be developed throu gh suitable training.[14] But on the other hand George Frideric Handel was an example of the natural talen t ... "he had discovered such a strong propensity to Music, that his father who always intended him for the study of the Civil Law, had reason to be alarmed. He strictly forbade him to meddle with any musical instrument but Handel found mea ns to get a little clavichord privately convey'd to a room at the top of the hou se. To this room he constantly stole when the family was asleep". At an early ag e Handel became a skillful performer on the harpsichord and pipe organ.[citation needed]