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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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1. SI UNITS ................................................................................................. 4 BASE UNITS ................................................................................... 1-1 1.1 DERIVED UNITS .............................................................................. 1-2 1.2 FORCES ................................................................................................. 2-1 DEFINITION .................................................................................... 2-1 2.1 2.2 TRIANGLE OF FORCE ...................................................................... 2-1 2.2.1 Graphical Method .......................................................... 2-1 2.3 POLYGON OF FORCE ...................................................................... 2-2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FORCES ....................................... 2-3 2.4 2.5 VECTORS ...................................................................................... 2-3 2.6 RESULTANTS ................................................................................. 2-3 2.7 EQUILIBRIUMS ............................................................................... 2-3 2.8 RESOLUTION ................................................................................. 2-3 GRAPHICAL SOLUTIONS .................................................................. 2-4 2.9 2.10 SOLUTIONS BY CALCULATION ......................................................... 2-5 2.11 MOMENTS AND COUPLES................................................................ 2-7 2.12 CENTRE OF GRAVITY ...................................................................... 2-8 2.13 1ST MOMENT OF AREA..................................................................... 2-11 2.14 STRESS ......................................................................................... 2-12 2.15 STRAIN .......................................................................................... 2-12 2.16 SHEAR .......................................................................................... 2-13 2.17 TORSION ....................................................................................... 2-13 2.18 SHEAR FORCE DIAGRAMS ............................................................... 2-14 2.19 BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAMS ......................................................... 2-16 ENERGY ................................................................................................. 3-1 WORK ........................................................................................... 3-1 3.1 3.2 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY ........................................................... 3-2 3.3 POWER ......................................................................................... 3-2 3.4 MOMENTUM ................................................................................... 3-2 CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM...................................................... 3-2 3.5 3.6 CHANGES IN MOMENTUM ................................................................ 3-2 3.7 IMPULSE OF A FORCE ..................................................................... 3-3 3.8 INERTIA ......................................................................................... 3-3 3.9 MOMENT OF INERTIA ...................................................................... 3-3 3.10 2ND MOMENT OF AREA .................................................................... 3-3 GYROSCOPES ...................................................................................... 4-1 PRINCIPLES ................................................................................... 4-1 4.1 4.2 RIGIDITY ........................................................................................ 4-1 4.3 PRECESSION ................................................................................. 4-1 4.4 TORQUE ........................................................................................ 4-1 FRICTION ............................................................................................... 5-1 PRINCIPLES ................................................................................... 5-1 5.1 5.2 FRICTION CALCULATION ................................................................. 5-1 KINEMATICS .......................................................................................... 6-1 Page 1

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6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 7.

PRINCIPLES ................................................................................... 6-1 SPEED ........................................................................................... 6-1 VELOCITY ...................................................................................... 6-1 ACCELERATION

! . VECTORS ...................................................................................... 6-2 LINEAR MOTION ............................................................................. 6-3 DISTANCE-TIME GRAPH .................................................................. 6-3 VELOCITY TIME GRAPH ................................................................... 6-3 AREA ............................................................................................. 6-4 CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF EQUATIONS ........................................ 6-5

ROTATIONAL MOTION ......................................................................... 7-1 CIRCULAR MOTION ......................................................................... 7-1 7.1 7.2 CENTRIPETAL FORCE ..................................................................... 7-1 7.3 CENTRIFUGAL FORCE ..................................................................... 7-2 PERIODIC MOTION ............................................................................... 8-1 PENDULUM .................................................................................... 8-1 8.1 SPRING MASS SYSTEMS............................................................... 8-1 8.2 HARMONIC MOTION ............................................................................. 9-1

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10. VIBRATION THEORY ............................................................................ 10-1 11. FLUIDS ................................................................................................... 11-1 11.1 DENSITY ........................................................................................ 11-1 11.2 SPECIFIC GRAVITY ......................................................................... 11-1 11.3 BUOYANCY .................................................................................... 11-1 11.4 PRESSURE .................................................................................... 11-1 11.5 STATIC AND DYNAMIC PRESSURE .................................................... 11-3 11.6 ENERGY IN FLUID FLOWS ................................................................ 11-3 12. HEAT 12.1 12.2 12.3 12-1

TEMPERATURE SCALES .................................................................. 12-1 CONVERSION ................................................................................. 12-1 EXPANSION OF SOLIDS ................................................................... 12-1

Linear ............................................................................. 12-1 Volumetric ...................................................................... 12-2 EXPANSION OF FLUIDS ................................................................... 12-2 CHARLES LAW................................................................................ 12-2 SPECIFIC HEAT .............................................................................. 12-3 HEAT CAPACITY ............................................................................. 12-3 LATENT HEAT / SENSIBLE HEAT ....................................................... 12-3 HEAT TRANSFER ............................................................................ 12-3

13. GASES .................................................................................................... 13-1 13.1 LAWS ............................................................................................ 13-1 13.2 RATIO OF SPECIFIC HEATS .............................................................. 13-1 13.3 WORK DONE BY , OR ON, A GAS ...................................................... 13-2 14. LIGHT 14-1 14.1 SPEED OF LIGHT ............................................................................ 14-1 14.2 REFLECTION .................................................................................. 14-1 14.3 PLAIN AND CURVED MIRRORS ......................................................... 14-1 Physics by COBC - Issue 1 - 22 December, 2009 Page 2

REFRACTION .................................................................................

14-2 REFRACTIVE INDEX ........................................................................ 14-3 CONVEX AND CONCAVE LENSES ..................................................... 14-4

15. SOUND ................................................................................................... 15-1 15.1 SPEED OF SOUND .......................................................................... 15-1 15.2 FREQUENCY .................................................................................. 15-1 15.3 INTENSITY ..................................................................................... 15-1 15.4 PITCH ............................................................................................ 15-1 15.5 DOPPLER EFFECT .......................................................................... 15-1 16. MATTER ................................................................................................. 16-1 16.1 STATES OF MATTER ....................................................................... 16-1 16.2 ATOMS .......................................................................................... 16-1 16.2.1 The Structure of an Atom .............................................. 16-1 16.2.2 The Fundamental Particles............................................ 16-2 16.2.3 Particle Function ............................................................ 16-2 16.3 PERIODIC TABLE ! .

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1. SI UNITS

Physics is the study of what happens in the world involving matter and energy. Matter is the word used to described what things or objects are made of. Matter can be solid, liquid or gaseous. Energy is that which causes things to happen. As an example, electrical energy causes an electric motor to turn, which can cause a weight to be moved, or lifted. As more and more 'happenings' have been studied, the subject of physics has grown, and physical laws have become established, usually being expressed in terms of mathematical formula, and graphs. Physical laws are based on the basic quantities - length, mass and time, together with temperature and electrical current. Physical laws also involve other quantities which are derived from the basic quantities. What are these units? Over the years, different nations have derived their own units (e.g. inches, pounds, minutes or centimetres, grams and seconds), but an International System is now generally used - the SI system. The SI system is based on the metre (m), kilogram (kg) and second (s) system.

To understand what is meant by the term derived quantities or units consider these examples; Area is calculated by multiplying a length by another length, so the derived unit of area is metre2 (m2). Speed is calculated by dividing distance (length) by time , so the derived unit is metre/second (m/s). Acceleration is change of speed divided by time, so the derived unit is:

(m s ) s = m s

Basic SI Units

Derived SI Units

Square Metre Cubic Metre Kg / Cubic Metre Metre per second Metre per second per second Kg metre per second

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Some physical quantities have derived units which become rather complicated, and so are replaced with simple units created specifically to represent the physical quantity. For example, force is mass multiplied by acceleration, which is logically kg.m/s2 (kilogram metre per second per second), but this is replaced by the Newton (N).

Examples are:

Note also that to avoid very large or small numbers, multiples or sub-multiples are often used. For example; 1,000,000 = 106 is replaced by 'mega' 1,000 1/1000 = 10

3

is replaced by 'kilo'

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2. FORCES

If a Force is applied to a body, it will cause that body to move. A body that is already moving will change its speed or direction. Note that the term 'change its speed or direction' implies that an acceleration has taken place. This is usually summarised in the formula; F = ma Where F is the force, m = mass of body and a = acceleration. The units of force should be kg.m/s2 but this is replaced by the Newton.

2.1 DEFINITION

Hence, "A Newton is the unit of force that when applied to a mass of 1 kg. causes that mass to accelerate at a rate of 1 m/s2. Forces can also cause changes in shape or size of a body, which is important when analysing the behaviour of materials.

Two or more forces can be added or subtracted to produce a Resultant Force. If two forces are equal but act in opposite directions, then obviously they cancel each other out, and so the resultant is said to be zero. Two forces can be added or subtracted mathematically or graphically, and this procedure often produces a Triangle of Force. Firstly, it is important to realise that a force has three important features; magnitude (size), direction and line of action. Force is therefore a vector quantity, and as such, it can be represented by an arrow, drawn to a scale representing magnitude and direction.

2.2.1 GRAPHICAL METHOD

Consider two forces A and B. Choose a starting point O and draw OA to represent force A, in the direction of A. Then draw AB to represent force B.

The line OB represents the resultant of two forces. Note that the line representing force B could have been drawn first, and force A drawn second; the resultant would have been the same.

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Note how the two forces added together have formed 2 sides of the triangle; the resultant is the third side. Also note that if a third force, equal in length but opposite in direction to the resultant is added to the resultant, it will cancel the effect of the two forces. This third force would be termed the Equilabrant.

This topic just builds on the previous Triangle of Forces. Consider three forces A, B and C. A and B can be added by drawing a triangle to give a resultant.

If force C is joined to this resultant, a further or "new" resultant is created, which represents the effect of all three forces. Now this procedure can be repeated many times; the effect is to produce a Polygon of Forces.

Again, the resultant can be derived mathematically. This will be considered in a later topic.

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The topic dealing with Triangle of forces in effect adds and subtracts forces. (subtraction just means that the second force is drawn in a direction such that the resultant is smaller than the first force). So if the forces are drawn correctly, the terms Addition and Subtraction become un-important.

2.5 VECTORS

Again, a vector quantity is one that has magnitude and direction. It has been seen that force is such a quantity. Velocity and acceleration are further examples.

2.6 RESULTANTS

Resultants are created when vector quantities are added or subtracted as seen previously.

2.7 EQUILIBRIUMS

In chapter 2.1, it was defined that a force applied to a body would cause that body to accelerate or change direction. If at any stage a system of forces is applied to a body, such that their resultant is zero, then that body will not accelerate or change direction. The system of forces and the body are said to be in the equilibrium. Note that this does not mean that there are no forces acting; it is just that their total resultant or effect is zero.

2.8 RESOLUTION

This topic is important, but is really the opposite to Addition of forces. Recalling that two forces can be added to give a single force known as the Resultant, it is obvious that this single force can be considered as the addition of the two original forces.

Therefore, the single force can be separated or Resolved into two components. It should be appreciated that almost always the single force is resolved into two components, that are mutually perpendicular.

This technique forms the basis of the mathematical methods for adding forces. Physics by COBC - Issue 1 - 22 December, 2009 Page 2-3

Note that by drawing the right-angled triangle, with the single force F, and by choosing angle relative to a datum, the two components become F sin and F cos .

This topic looks at deriving graphical solutions to problems involving the Addition of Vector Quantities. Firstly, the quantities must be vector quantities. Secondly, they must all be the same, i.e. all forces, or all velocities, etc. (they cannot be mixed-up). Thirdly, a suitable scale representing the magnitude of the vector quantity should be selected. Finally, before drawing a Polygon of vectors, a reference or datum direction should be defined. To derive a solution (i.e. a resultant), proceed to draw the lines representing the vectors (be careful to draw all lines with reference to the direction datum). The resultant is determined by measuring the magnitude and direction of the line drawn from the start point to the finish point. Note that the order in which the individual vectors are drawn is not important.

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This topic achieves the same resultant as 2.9, but by mathematical methods. Remember the topic dealing with Resolution (2.8). One vector was resolved into two mutually perpendicular components.

So if there are several vectors each can be resolved into two components. e.g. F1 in direction 1, gives F1 sin 1, and F1 cos 1 F2 in direction 2, gives F2 sin 2, and F2 cos 2 F3 in direction 3, gives F3 sin 3, and F3 cos 3 etc, etc. Once the components have been resolved, they can be added to give a total force in the Datum direction, and a total force perpendicular to the Datum.

These additions can be done laboriously 'by hand' but the modern scientific calculator renders this unnecessary. Each vector should be entered and multiplied by the cosine of its direction and added consecutively to arrive at a total, F cos . This procedure should be repeated, by multiplying each vector by the sine of its direction, and added consecutively to give F sin . To calculate the Magnitude of the resultant, Add (F sin )2 + (F cos )2 (= F2)

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To calculate the Direction of the resultant, Divide (F sin ) by (F cos ) (= Tan ) and find the Angle (direction) that has that resultant,

= tan-1 !

Note that the values of sine and cosine take both positive and negative values, depending on the direction. The calculator automatically takes account of this during the procedure. The only occasion when ambiguity can arise is when finding the angle of the direction (there may be an error of 180). This can be resolved by inspection. Note the following:

With reference to the ambiguity of direction, note that ! = (A) gives the same angle (direction) as ! = (B). Thus, F sin and F cos have to be inspected to see which is negative. Solution (A) or (B) can then be selected. Similarly, ! gives the same result as ! . Again, inspect the values of F sin and F cos to see whether both are positive or negative.

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In chapter 2.1, it was stated that if a force was applied to a body, it would move (accelerate) in the direction of the applied force. Consider that the body cannot move from one place to another, but can rotate. The applied force will then cause a rotation. An example is a door. A force applied to the door cause it to open or close, rotating about the hinge-line. But what is important to realise is that the force required to move the door is dependent on how far from the hinge the force is applied. So the turning effect of a force is a combination of the magnitude of the force and its distance from the point of rotation. The turning effect is termed the Moment of a Force.

Moment (of a force) = Force x distance In SI units, Newton metres = Newton x metres

Note: It is important to realise that the distance is perpendicular to the line of action of the force.

When several forces are concerned, equilibrium concerns not just the forces, but moments as well. If equilibrium exists, then clockwise (positive) moments are balanced by anticlockwise (negative) moments.

When two equal but opposite forces are present, whose lines of action are not coincident, then they cause a rotation. Together, they are termed a Couple, and the moment of a couple is equal to the magnitude of a force F, multiplied by the distance between them.

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Consider a body as an accumulation of many small masses (molecules), all subject to gravitational attraction. The total weight, which is a force, is equal to the sum of the individual masses, multiplied by the gravitational acceleration (g = 9.81 m/s2). W = mg The diagram shows that the individual forces all act in the same direction, but have different lines of action.

There must be datum position, such that the total moment to one side, causing a clockwise rotation, is balanced by a total moment, on the other side, which causes an anticlockwise rotation. In other words, the total weight can be considered to act through that datum position (= line of action).

If the body is considered in two different position, the weight acts through two lines of action, W1 and W2 and these interact at point G, which is termed the Centre of Gravity. Hence, the Centre of Gravity is the point through which the Total Mass of the body may be considered to act. Physics by COBC - Issue 1 - 22 December, 2009 Page 2-8

For a 3-dimensional body, the centre of gravity can be determined practically by several methods, such as by measuring and equating moments, and thus is done when calculating Weight and Balance of aircraft. A 2-dimensional body (one of negligible thickness) is termed a lamina, which only has area (not volume). The point G is then termed a Centroid. If a lamina is suspended from point P, the centroid G will hang vertically below P1. If suspended from P2 G will hang below P2. Position G is at the intersection as shown. A regular lamina, such as a rectangle, has its centre of gravity at the intersection of the diagonals.

Other regular shapes have their centre of gravity at known positions, see the table below.

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The centre of gravity can also be deduced as shown. If the lamina is composed of a several regular shapes, the centre of gravity of that lamina can be deduced by splitting it into its regular sections, calculating the moments of these areas about a given datum, and then equating the sum of these moments to the moment of the composite lamina.

Expressed as an algebraic formula, A, X, + A2 X2 + A3 X3 = (A1 + A2 + A3) x, Where x, is the position of the centroid, with respect to the datum. This is the principle behind Weight and Balance.

In chapter 2.12, the last section introduced the formula; A, X, + A2 X2 + A3 X3 = (ATotal) x, The product Area x distance is termed the 1st moment of area. Any datum (and associated distanced) can be chosen, but once chosen, must be maintained as long as the moments are being calculated. The principle is used for Weight and Balance calculation as already stated, but 1st moment of area is also important in other calculations, usually involving stress analysis.

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2.14 STRESS

When an engineer designs a component or structure he needs to know whether it is strong enough to prevent failure due to the loads encountered in service. He analyses the external forces and then deduces the forces or stresses that are induced internally. Notice the introduction of the word stress. Obviously a component which is twice the size in stronger and less likely to fail due an applied load. So an important factor to consider is not just force, but size as well. Hence stress is load divided by area (size).

(sigma) = ! (= Newtons per second metre).

The external forces induce internal stresses which oppose or balance the external forces. Stresses can occur in differing forms, dependent on the manner of application of the external force.

Torsional stress, due to twist, is a variation of shear.

2.15 STRAIN

If a length of elastic is pulled, it stretches. If the pull is increases, it stretch more; if reduced, it contracts. Hookes law states that the amount of stretch (elongation) is proportional to the applied force. The degree of elongation or distortion has to be considered in relation to the original length. The distortion is in fact a distortion of the crystal lattice.

The degree of distortion then has to be the actual distortion divided by the original length (in other words, elongation per unit length). This is termed Strain. Physics by COBC - Issue 1 - 22 December, 2009 Page 2-12

(epsilon)

Strain = !

Note that strain has no units, it is a ratio and is then expressed as a percentage.

2.16 SHEAR

In chapter 2.15, different stresses were introduced, including shear stress. Shearing occurs when the applied load causes one 'layer' of material to move relative to the adjacent layers etc. etc.

Shear stress is still expressed as load/area but is usually represented by another

Greek symbol (tau). Shear strain differs from direct strain. Whereas direct strain is expressed as change in length / original length, shear strain is expressed in angular terms. Shear strain = tangent of (gamma) When a riveted joint is loaded, it is a shear stress and shear strain scenario.

2.17 TORSION

In chapter 2.15 Torsional stress was mentioned as a form of shear stress resulting from a twisting action. If a torque, or twisting action is applied to the bar shown, one end will twist, or

deflect relative to the other end. Obviously, the twist will be proportional to the applied torque. Torque has the same effect and therefore the same unit as a Moment, i.e. Newton metres.

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If the bar is considered as a series of adjacent discs, what has happened is that each disc has twisted, or moved relative to its neighbour, etc, etc. Hence, it is a shearing action.

The shear strain is equal to the angular deflection multiplied by radius r divided by the overall length L, = !

Engineers need to consider the effect of Shear Force and Bending moments when designing components and structures. These are often considered graphically. In this topic, only simple, beam-type will be considered.

The beam AB is loaded with force F, and simply supported at A and B. It is in equilibrium. Hence, the forces and the moments balance. Taking moments about A, Reaction at B, RB balances the effect of F. Hence Similarly RB. (a + b) = F.(a) RB RA = F! = F!

But

The first diagram is defined as +ve shear, the second diagram as ve shear. This can be shown on a shear force diagram (SFD).

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Note that each change to the SFD is equal to the load or force applied at that position or point. In this diagram only concentrated or point loads exist.

Now consider an uniformly distributed load. The SFD will look like this.

Distributed loads create BMDs that are curved.

(It is obviously possible to have loading patterns which are a combination of both).

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The diagram in 2.18 created shear forces, but the applied forces also create bending.

Consider a section x x at a distance x measured from end B. Then RB creates a moment about x x, which causes a bending effect. The Bending moment = RB . x As with shear force, moments causing have to be differentiated from moments causing . The first case is +ve bending, the second case is ve bending. is commonly termed Sagging is commonly termed Hogging. Note that as distance x increases, the Bending moment also increases. Variations in Bending Moment are often shown on a Bending Moment Diagram (BMD). Considering the beam AB, the BMD is drawn as;

Note that in this case, the BMD is all +ve (i.e. the beam is sagging everywhere) and note also that it increases from zero as x increases to the left of B, up to a is reduced by the effect of maximum and then decreases as the effect of RB F , finally becoming zero at A.

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(Note that BMD can be treated in the same way by considering distances measured to the right of A - the solutions are exactly the same).

A uniformly distributed load, whilst obeying the same principles, modifies the BMD. As x increases left of B, RB causes , but the distributed load also increases and causes . The BMD now looks like this.

Distributed loads create BMDs that are curved.

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3. ENERGY

3.1 WORK

It has been stated that a Force causes a body (mass) to move (accelerate) and that the greater the force, the greater the acceleration. But consider the case where a man applied a force to move a small car. He applied a force to overcome its inertia, and then maintains a somewhat lesser force to overcome friction, and to maintain movement. Now clearly he will become progressively more tired the further he pushes the car. This suggests that there is another aspect to force and movement that must be considered. This introduces Work, which is defined as the product of Force x Distance (i.e. the greater the distance, the greater the work). As with force, the derived unit of work becomes complicated i.e. Work = Newtons x metres, and so is replaced by a dedicated unit the Joule, defined as: The work done when a force of 1 Newton is applied through a distance of 1 metre. A further question arises. Work may be "done", but it doesnt just happen, where does it come from? The answer is by expending Energy. Energy can be thought of as stored work. Alternatively, work is done when Energy is expended. The unit of Energy is the same as for Work, i.e. the Joule. Energy can exist or be stored in a number of different forms, and it is the change of form that is normally found in many engineering devices. Energy can be considered in the following forms.

Electrical Chemical Heat Pressure Potential Kinetic - and there are other.

They will all be expressed in Joules. One important principle underlies the conversion of one form to another. It is known as the Conservation of Energy, which is: Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be changed from one form to another. This allows scientific equations to be derived, after investigation and analysis involving physical experiments.

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This also suggests something most of us suspect there is no such thing as a free lunch. Put another way, you dont get anything for nothing, and very often, you get less out than you put in. (So somewhere losses have occurred, this is to be expected). So a comparison between work out and work in is obviously a measure of the systems efficiency. Efficiency = ! It is usually expressed as a percentage, and so will clearly always be less than 100%..

3.3 POWER

Recalling the man pushing the car, it was stated that the greater the distance the car was pushed, the greater the work done (or the greater the energy expended). But yet again, another factor arises for our consideration. The man will only be capable of pushing it through a certain distance within a certain time. A more powerful man will achieve the same distance in less time. So, the word Power is introduced, which includes time in relation to doing work. Power = ! ! Again, for simplicity and clarity, a dedicated unit of power has been created, the Watt. The Watt is the Power output when one Joule is achieved in one second.

3.4 MOMENTUM

Momentum is a word in everyday use, but its precise meaning is less well-known. We say that a large rugby forward, crashing through several tackles to score a try, used his momentum. This seems to suggest a combination of size (mass) and speed were the contributing factors. In fact, momentum = mass x velocity (mv).

The principle of the Conservation of Momentum states: When two or more masses act on each other, the total momentum of the masses remains constant, provided no external forces, such as friction, act. Study of force and change in momentum lead to Newton defining his Laws of Motion, which are fundamental to mechanical science. The First law states a mass remains at rest, or continues to move at constant velocity, unless acted on by an external force. The Second law states that the rate of change of momentum is proportional to the applied force. The Third law states if mass A exerts a force on mass B, then B exerts an equal but opposite force on A.

What causes momentum to change? If the initial and final velocities of a mass are u and v, then change of momentum = mv - mu = m (v - u). Physics by COBC - Issue 1 - 22 December, 2009 Page 3-2

Does the change of momentum happen slowly or quickly? The rate of change of momentum = m ! Inspection of this shows that force F (m.a) = m !, so, a force causes a change in momentum. The rate of change of momentum is proportional to the magnitude of the force causing it.

Note also that for a given force, the change of momentum will depend on the time period, during which the force is applied. The product of force and time (Ft) is termed the impulse of a force.

3.8 INERTIA

Inertia is resistance to a change of momentum. We are familiar with this, e.g. a person standing in a moving vehicle; if the vehicle stops, the person lurches forward, as his mass contains momentum. The greater the mass, the greater will be its inertia.

Moment of Inertia considers the effect of mass on bodies whose moment is rotational. This is important to engineers, because although vehicle move from on place to another (i.e. the moment of the vehicle is translational) many of its components are rotating within it. Consider two cylinders, of equal mass, but different dimensions, capable of being rotated.

It will be easier (require less torque) to cause the LH cylinder to rotate. This is because the RH cylinder appears to have greater inertia, even through the masses are the same. So the moment of inertia () is a function of mass and radius. Although more detailed study of the exact relationship is beyond the scope of this course, it can be said that the M of I is proportional to the square of the radius.

In a previous topic, mention was made of the First moment of area (important for determining positions of centres of gravity) which was the product of Area x distance. The Second moment of area is an extension of this concept, and is proportional to Area x distance2.

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The second moment of area is important when calculating Moment of Inertia, and can be done mathematically, although for simple shapes or areas, standard formulas exist to allow straight forward calculation. Moment of Inertia (rather than mass) and Angular velocity combine together to represent Angular Momentum (instead of mv, the symbols become )

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4. GYROSCOPES

4.1 PRINCIPLES

Gyroscopes are rotating masses (usually cylindrical in form) which are deliberately employed because of the particular properties which they demonstrate. (note, however, that any rotating mass may demonstrate these properties, albeit unintentionally). Basic concepts can be gained by reference to a hand-held bicycle wheel. Imagine the wheel to be stationary; it is easy to tilt the axle one way or another.

4.2 RIGIDITY

Now rotate the wheel. Because the mass of the wheel is rotating, it now has angular momentum. Two properties now become apparent. The rotating wheel is now difficult to tilt, this is resistance is termed Rigidity.

4.3 PRECESSION

If sufficient force or torque is applied to tilt the wheel, the manner or direction in which it tilts or moves is interesting.

The movement of a gyroscope resulting from an applied torque is known as Precession. To calculate the manner or direction in which a gyroscope will precess, a simple rule applied.

Assuming the force is applied at A, then the gyroscope will behave as though the force had been applied at a point B, 90 onward in the direction of rotation.

4.4 TORQUE

The torque required to cause precession, or the rate of precession resulting from applied torque, depends on moment of inertia and angular velocity. Remember that direction of rotation will determine direction of precession.

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5. FRICTION

5.1 PRINCIPLES

Friction is that phenomenon in nature that always seems to be present and acts so as to retard things that move, relative to things that are either stationary or moving slowly. How large that frictional force is depends on the nature of the two surfaces of the object concerned. Rough surfaces generally produce more friction than smooth surfaces, and some materials are naturally 'slippery'. Friction can operate in any direction, but always acts in the sense opposing motion.

The diagram shows a body (mass m) on an inclined plane. As the angle of the plane () is increased, the body remains stationary, until at some particular value of , it begins to move down the plane. This is because the frictional force (F) opposing motion has reached its maximum value.

At this maximum value, the force opposing motion Fmax = mg sin , and the normal reaction between the body and the plane R = mg cos .

! = ! = tan

This ratio !(tan ) is termed the Coefficient of Friction. It is generally considered in mechanics to have a value less than 1, but some materials have a 'stickiness' associated with them which exceeds this value. Note also that cases occur where static friction (friction associated with stationary objects) is greater than running friction (where objects are now in motion). A useful example is in flying-control systems, where engineers have to perform both static and running friction checks.

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6. KINEMATICS

In previous topic, we have seen that a force causes a body to accelerate (assuming that it is free to move). Words such as speed, velocity, acceleration have been introduced, which do not refer to the force, but to the motion that ensues. Kinematics is the study of motion.

6.1 PRINCIPLES

When considering motion, it is important to define reference points or datums (as has been done with other topics). With kinematics, we usually consider datums involving position and time. We then go on to consider the distance or displacement of the body from that position, with respect to time elapsed. It is now necessary to define precisely some of the words used to describe motion, (which are common in everyday speech). Distance and time do not need defining as such, but we have seen that they must relate to the datums. Distance and time are usually represented by symbols x and t (although s is sometimes used instead of x).

6.2 SPEED

Speed v = = = rate of change of displacement or position

! ! ! where v represents speed.

A word of caution - this assumes that the speed is unchanging (constant). If not, the speed is an average speed.

6.3 VELOCITY

Velocity is similar to speed, but not identical. The difference is that velocity includes a directional component; hence velocity is a vector (magnitude and direction - the magnitude component is speed). Acceleration a = = = rate of change of velocity

! ! where a represents acceleration.

(In the above, v, represents the initial velocity, v2 represents the final velocity during time period t).

6.4 ACCELERATION

Note that as acceleration = rate of change of velocity, then it must also be a vector quantity. This fact is important when we consider circular motion, where direction is changing. Remember, speed is a scalar, (magnitude only) Velocity is a vector (magnitude and direction)

If the final velocity v2 is less than v1, then obviously the body has slowed. This implies that the acceleration is negative. Other words such as deceleration or retardation may be used.

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6.5 VECTORS

In exactly the same way as force vectors were added (either graphically or mathematically), so velocity vectors can be added. A good (aeronautical) example is the vector triangle used by pilots and navigators when allowing for the effects of wind.

Here the pilot intended to fly from A to B (the vector AB represents the speed of the aircraft through the air), but while flying towards B the effect of the wind vector BC was to 'blow' the aircraft off-course to C. So how is the pilot to fly to B instead of C?

Obviously, the answer is to fly (head) towards D, so that the wind blows the aircraft to B (see diagram). Note that this is a vector triangle, in which we know 4 of the components; i.e. the wind magnitude and direction the air speed (magnitude) the track angle (direction) The other two components may therefore be deduced, i.e. the aircraft heading and the aircraft groundspeed. Note that the difference between heading and track is termed drift. The aircraft groundspeed, (i.e. the speed relative to the ground) is used to compute the travelling time. This is a particular aeronautical example. More generally, if there are two vectors v1 and v2, then we can find relative velocity.

Note the difference in terminology and direction of the arrows. V2 relative to v1 means that to an observer moving at velocity V1, the object moving at velocity V2 appears to be moving at that relative velocity. (V1 relative to V2 is the apparent movement of V1 relative to V2). Physics by COBC - Issue 1 - 22 December, 2009 Page 6-2

Linear motion means motion in a straight line, i.e. there is no change of direction. This type of motion is relatively easy to analyse and compute. Speed, acceleration and displacement can e deduced mathematically or graphically. Graphical analysis introduces Distance / time and velocity / time graphs.

Velocity / time graphs are more versatile than distance / time graphs

Straight line = constant slope = constant speed. (A straight line would clearly represent a stationary body) (Note - using symbols of calculus, v = !).

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(Note again - using symbols of calculus, a = ! = !). The mathematical analysis of variable acceleration is beyond the scope of this course, therefore the only graphs considered consist of straight lines only.

6.9 AREA

One important concept - velocity = !, therefore distance = = velocity x time area under the velocity - time graph.

Distance x x

! (v2 + v1)t

(triangle + rectangle)

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The equation of linear motion, assuming constant acceleration, are v2 x x = = = v1 + at

! (v1 + v2)t

v1t + ! at2

2 v1 + 2ax

and

v2 2

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7. ROTATIONAL MOTION

7.1 CIRCULAR MOTION

Rotational motion means motion involving curved paths and therefore change of direction. As with linear - motion, it may analysed mathematically or graphically and both types of motion are very similar in this respect, but employ different symbols. Again, only cases of constant acceleration are considered here, and cases involving linear translation and rotation are definitely ignored! Firstly, consider the equation representing rotation. They are equivalent to those linear equations of motion.

Linear Rotational 2 = 1 + t 2 = (1 + 2)t

= 1t + t2

2,2 = 2,1 + 2

1, 2

= =

N.B. It is important to realise that the angular units here must employ measurements in radians.

Consider a mass moving at a constant speed v, but following a circular path. At one instant it is at position A and at a second instant at B. Note that although the speed is unchanged, the direction, and hence the velocity, has changed. If the velocity has changed then an acceleration must be present. If the mass has accelerated, then a force must be present to cause that acceleration. This is fundamental to circular motion.

The acceleration present = !, where v is the (constant) speed and r is the radius of the circular path. The force causing that acceleration is known as the Centripetal Force = !, and acts along the radius of the circular path, towards the centre. Physics by COBC - Issue 1 - 22 December, 2009 Page 7-1

More students are familiar with the term Centrifugal than the term Centripetal. What is the difference? Put simply, and recalling Newton's 3rd Law, Centrifugal is the equal but opposite reaction to the Centripetal force.

This can be shown by a diagram, with a person holding a string tied to a mass which is rotating around the person. Tensile force in string acts inwards to provide centripetal force acting on mass. Tensile force at the other end of the string acts outwards exerting centrifugal reaction on person. (Note again - cases involving changing speeds as well as direction are beyond the scope of this course).

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8. PERIODIC MOTION

Some masses move from one point to another, some move round and round. These motions have been described as translational or rotational. Some masses move from one point to another, then back to the original point, and continue to do this repetitively. The time during which the mass moved away from, and then returned to its original position is known as the time period and the motion is known as periodic. Many mechanisms or components behave in this manner - a good example is a pendulum.

8.1 PENDULUM

If a pendulum is displaced from its stationary position and released, it will swing back towards that position. On reaching it however, it will not stop, because its inertia carries it on to an equal but opposite displacement. It then returns towards the stationary position, but carries on swinging etc, etc. Note that the time period can be measured from a any position, through to the next time that position is reached, with the motion in the original direction

If the mass is displaced from its original position and released, the force in the spring will act on the mass so as to return it to that position. It behaves like the pendulum, in that it will continue to move up and down.

The resulting motion, up and down, can be plotted against time and will result in a typical graph, which is sinusoidal.

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9. HARMONIC MOTION

Analysis of oscillating systems such as the pendulum or the spring-mass will show that they often obey simple but strict laws. For example, the instantaneous acceleration is given by the term -2x. a = ! = -2x (This basically states that the acceleration is proportional to the displacement from the neutral (undisturbed) position, and in the opposite sense to the direction of the velocity) The constant is the frequency of the oscillation. (The period of the oscillation = !). Such motion is often referred-to as Harmonic motion and analysis reveals the sinusoidal pattern of such motion (beyond the scope of this course).

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Vibration Theory is based on the detailed analysis of vibrations and is essentially mathematical, relying heavily on trigonometry and calculus, involving sinusoidal functions and differential equations. The simple pendulum or spring-mass would according to basic theory, continue to vibrate at constant frequency and amplitude, once the vibration had been started. In fact, the vibrations die away, due to other forces associated with motion, such as friction, air resistance etc. This is termed a Damped vibration. If a disturbing force is re-applied periodically the vibrations can be maintained indefinitely. The frequency (and to a lesser extent, the magnitude) of this disturbing force now becomes critical. Depending on the frequency, the amplitude of vibration may decay rapidly (a damping effect) but may grow significantly. This large increase in amplitude usually occurs when the frequency of the disturbing force coincides with the natural frequency of the vibration of the system (or some harmonic). This phenomenon is known as Resonance. Designers carry out tests to determine these frequencies, so that they can be avoided or eliminated, as they can be very damaging.

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11. FLUIDS

Fluid is a term that includes both gases and liquids; they are both able to flow. We will generally consider gases to be compressible and liquids to be incompressible. When considering fluids that flow, it is obvious that some flow more freely than others, or put another way, some encounter more resistance when attempting to flow. Resistance to flow introduces the word Viscosity, highly viscous liquids do not flow freely. Gases generally have a low viscosity.

11.1 DENSITY

Density of a solid, liquid or gas is defined as = ! !

=

A large mass in a small volume means a high density, and vice versa. The unit of density depends on the units of mass and volume; e.g. density = kg/m3 in SI units. Solids, particularly metals, often have a high density, gases are of low density.

Density may be expressed in absolute terms, e.g. mass per unit volume, or in relative terms; i.e. in comparison to some datum value. The datum which forms the basis of Relative Density is the density of pure water, which id 1000 kg/m3. Relative Density = !. Note that relative density has no units, it is a ratio. RD. = ! (often referred to a Specific Gravity) The RD. of water is 1, and so substances with an RD. less than 1 float in water; with RD. greater than 1, they sink.

11.3 BUOYANCY

Buoyancy implies floatation, and may involve solids immersed in liquids or gases, one liquid in another, one gas in another and so on. It is a function of relative Densities. An object that floats has a R.D. less than the medium in which it floats. Its weight is obviously supported by some interactive force (upthrust) between the object and that medium. Archimedes states that the upthrust is equal to the weight of the volume of the medium that was displaced by the floating object, i.e. the volume of object below the surface.

11.4 PRESSURE

Previous topics have introduced forces or loads, and then considered stress, which can be thought of as intensity of load. Stress is the term associated with solids. The equivalent term associated with fluids is pressure, so pressure = p = !. !.

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Pressure can be generated in a fluid by applying a force which tries to squeeze it, or reduce its volume. Pressure is the internal reaction or resistance to that external force. It is important to realise that pressure acts equally and in all directions throughout that fluid. This can be very useful, because if a force applied at one point creates pressure within a fluid, that pressure can be transmitted to some other point in order to generate another force. This is the principle behind hydraulic (fluid) systems, where a mechanical input force drives a pump, creating pressure which then acts within an actuator, so as to produce a mechanical output force.

In this diagram, a force F1 is input to the fluid, creating pressure, equal to ! throughout the fluid. This pressure acts on area A2, and hence an output force F2 is generated. If the pressure P is constant, then ! = ! and if A2 is greater than A1, the output force F2 is greater than F1. A mechanical advantage has been created, just like using levers or pulleys. This is the principle behind the hydraulic jack. But remember, you don't get something for nothing; energy in = energy out or work in = work out, and work = force x distance. In other words, distance moved by F1 has to be greater than distance moved by F2.

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Static and Dynamic pressure.

In this diagram, the pressure acting on x x1 is due to the weight of the fluid (in this case a liquid) acting downwards. This weight W But mass = = = = mg (g = gravitational constant) volume density height cross-sectional area density h.A. = = = h..g. A. acting on A

! hpg

This is the static pressure acting at depth h within a stationary fluid of density p. This is straightforward enough to understand as the simple diagram demonstrates. (we can "see" the liquid) But the same principle applies to gases also, and we know that at altitude, the reduced density is accompanied by reduced static pressure. We are not aware of the static pressure within the atmosphere which acts on our bodies, the density is low (almost 1000 times less than water). Divers, however, quickly become aware of increasing water pressure as they descend. But we do become aware of greater air pressures whenever moving air is involved, as on a windy day for example. The pressure associated with moving air is termed dynamic pressure. In aeronautics, moving air is essential to flight, and so dynamic pressure is frequently referred-to. Dynamic pressure = v2 where = density, v = velocity. Note how the pressure is proportional to the square of the air velocity.

So the pressure energy found in moving fluids, i.e. fluids that are flowing, has at least two components, static and dynamic pressure. This is of fundamental importance when considering Theory of Flight. (Note - if the fluid flow is not horizontal, then differences in potential energy, i.e. changes in "head" of pressure are theoretically present, but are generally ignored when air is considered, because of its low density).

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12. HEAT

Heat is not the same as temperature (in a similar way that force is not the same as pressure) but the two are often related. Heat is energy, while temperature is related to the kinetic energy (speed or movement) of the molecules of the body considered. But as heat transfer is of importance in physics and engineering, and knowing that heat travels from hot to cold bodies, a means of assessing temperature becomes essential.

Several different temperature scales have evolved, the most common are the Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin scales. A diagram may be used to make comparisons. Boiling Point of water (at standard pressure) Melting ice +32 Fahrenheit 0 Centigrade 273 Kelvin +212 100 373

12.2 CONVERSION

An engineering student should be able to convert from one temperature to another; e.g. convert F to C convert C to F convert C to K Example #1: Example #2: 15 + 273 20 x ! + 32 = Subtract 32, then multiply by ! Multiply by !, then add 32 add 273 = 288K 36 + 32 = 68F

Note also that when thermodynamic principles and calculations are considered, it is usually vital to perform these calculations using temperatures expressed in Kelvin. Note also that 0K is often termed absolute zero (it is the lowest temperature theoretically possible).

Engineers are familiar with the effect of temperature on structures and components, as the temperature increases, things expand (dimensions increase) and vice versa. Expansion effects solids, liquids and gases. But how much does a component expand? The answer should be obvious. Expansion is proportional to the increase in temperature to the original dimension and depends on the actual material used.

12.3.1 LINEAR

So

L2 - L1

L1 (2 - 1) Page 12-1

Where

2 and 1 are final and initial temperatures is a material constant (coefficient of linear expansion).

And

12.3.2 VOLUMETRIC

Expansion can be considered as a change in length (see above), a change in area or change in volume. The change in volume, v2 - v1 = v1 (2 - 1) Where = the coefficient of volumetric expansion. (note that = 3 (see above)).

Different materials expand at different rates, and this may be used, for example, when shrink fitting components

Liquids behave in a similar way to solids when heated, but (a) they expand more than solids, and (b) they expand volumetrically. Note that when heated, the containers tends to expand as well, which may or may not be important to a designer. Gases however, behave in a rather more complex way, as volume and temperature changes are usually accompanied by pressure changes.

If a fixed mass of gas (e.g. air) is heated from temperature T1 to T2, its initial volume V1 increases to V2. Note that the increase is linear (the graph follows a straight-line). Note that if the line is extended back, it crosses the T (x) axis at -273C, or absolute zero. The slope is constant, therefore ! is constant, or ! = ! (temperature must be expressed in K). This illustrates Charles Law. "The volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure is proportional to the absolute temperature".

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Heat is a form of energy, so how much heat is needed to increase the temperature of a substance? Again, the answer is obvious. The heat required depends on the temperature rise, the amount or mass of the substance, and on the actual substance being heated. As a formula, Q = mc (2 - 1) Where Q is the heat energy supplied (in joules), m is the mass (kg) 2 and 1 are final and initial temperatures, and c is the specific heat of the substance considered in J kg.k .

Here specific heat c is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by 1K.

Heat capacity (C) of a body is the mass of the body x specific heat.

mc

If water, for example, is heated at a constant rate, the temperature will rise,

shown by AB. At B, corresponding to 100C (the boiling point of water) the graph follows BC, which represents the constant temperature of 100C. After a time, the graph resumes its original path, CD. What was happened to the heat supplied during the time period between B and C? The answer is that it was used, not to raise the temperature, but to change the state from water into steam. This is termed latent heat, and also features when ice melts to become water. So latent heat is the heat required to cause a change of state, and sensible heat is the heat required to cause a change of temperature.

Heat transfer, where a substance at high temperature looses heat to a substance at a lower temperature, is important as we may want it to occur, or not, as the case may be. Heat transfer may occur by conduction, convection or radiation.

Conduction is transfer of heat through the stationary substance. Convection is transfer by motion of the substance (this happens by fluid flow). Radiation is by electro-magnetic radiation or wave propagation.

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For this module, the study is limited to conduction. Materials such as metals are good conductors (e.g. silver, copper, aluminium) whilst other materials do not conduct readily and are termed insulators (e.g. wood, plastics, cork). Note that there appears to be a similarity between thermal and electrical conduction or insulation.

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13. GASES

13.1 LAWS

Charles Law has already been referred to. Boyles law assumes constant volume. Boyle's Law states that "the pressure of a given mass of gas at constant temperature is inversely proportional to its volume".

Summarised:

! is constant ! is constant ! ! ! !

pV

is constant

! is a constant

We have already defined the term specific heat as a quantity of heat supplied etc, and this is sufficient when considering solids and liquids. Gases can be a different case however, and the heat supplied to produce a temperature rise will vary, depending on whether the gas is allowed to expand or not, whilst being heated. This leads to the two specific heat values. Cp is the specific heat of the gas which is maintained at constant pressure, but allowed to expand. Cv is the specific heat of the gas which is maintained at a constant volume. In the first case, the heat input raises the temperature, and causes the gas to expand, during which the gas does work (gives out energy). In the second case, the heat input only raises the temperature.

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The ratio of the specific heats, symbol = !, in which Cp is greater than Cv, hence ! > 1. This particular relationship is frequently used in thermodynamics. pv = constant.

Put simply, work is done by a gas that is expanding; work is done on a gas that is being compressed. This is a simplification but reference to a p.v. diagram is helpful.

The work done by or on the gas is given by the area under the p-v curve. If we go from v1 to v2 (expansion) work is done by the gas. If we go from v2 to v1 (compression) work is done on the gas. The exact amount of work depends on the exact nature of the expansion / compression, i.e. is the relevant gas law pv = constant or pvn = constant or = constant? pv

These different equations give different curves, and hence different work values, but this is beyond the scope of this module. Note also that an expanding gas tends to cool; a gas being compressed tends to heat-up.

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14. LIGHT

14.1 SPEED OF LIGHT

Light is one form of transmission of electro-magnetic energy. Light travels at high speed (about 3 x 108 metres per second) and in straight lines, although it can be 'bent' or reflected.

14.2 REFLECTION

Light can also be reflected, usually by mirrors, which are made by depositing a thin layer of metal on one side of a piece of glass. Some interesting facts may be obtained.

Observation and measurement will show that a. b. the incident and reflected rays lie in the same plane. the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.

When you look in a mirror, you see a reflection, usually termed an image. The diagram above shows 2 reflected rays, viewing an object O from two different angles. Note the reflected rays appear to come from I which corresponds to the image, and lies on the same normal to the mirror as the object, and appears the same distance behind the mirror as the object is in front. Note also that the image is a virtual image, it can be seen, but cannot be shown on a screen. Note also that it appears the same size as the object, and is laterally inverted. These are features of images in plane mirrors. Mirrors can also be curves, sometimes they are spherical, sometimes parabolic. The basic law, incidence equals reflection - still holds, but the curved surface allows the rays to be focussed or dispersed.

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FP is known as the focal length. Note the rays actually pass through F, and a real image can be formed.

The image may be smaller or larger. Magnification = ! (It can be shown for spherical mirrors that magnification = ! !. Concave mirrors (e.g. shaving mirrors) give a magnified, erect (right way up) image, if viewed from close-to. Convex mirrors (e.g. driving mirrors) give a smaller, erect image, but with a wide field of view. Parabolic reflectors can focus a wide parallel beam. By placing the bulb at the focus, they can produce a strong beam of light. (Conversely, they can focus microwave signals when used as an aerial).

14.4 REFRACTION

Many people have noticed a strange optical phenomenon when looking at submerged objects. Such an object often appears to be at a reduced depth.

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The rays appear to have been bent at the water / air boundary. This is known as Refraction.

The angles of incidence and refraction are not equal, but they are related, shown as:

! =

a constant =

It can be shown that = ! Another phenomena may occur. In the diagram, ray (1) has been refracted

across the boundary, but ray (2) has been internally reflected at the boundary. There is a critical angle of incidence when the ray in the denser medium does not emerge, but travels along the boundary.

The relationship

sine C = ! exists.

Refraction is the basic principle which explains the workings of prisms and lenses.

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Lenses can be made of glass or plastic, and like mirrors, have spherical surfaces so as, to give concave or convex lenses. The light rays then meet the surface of the lens at an angle to the normal, and are then refracted. As the rays exist the lens, a second refraction takes place.

As with mirrors, images can be real or virtual, erect or inverted, and larger or smaller. The nature of the image will depend on the type of lens, and the position of the object in relation to the focal length of the lens, (the focal length is a function of the curvature of the lens surfaces).

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15. SOUND

15.1 SPEED OF SOUND

Sound is transmitted by a wave motion that is unlike light or heat radiation, in that it is not electro-magnetic, but relies on the transmission of pressure pulses - the molecules vibrate backwards and forwards about their mean position, and this vibration transmits the pressure wave. Sound travels much slower than light, only about 760 miles per hour at sea level or 340 m/s. The speed of sound is primarily affected by temperature, the lower the temperature, the lower the speed of sound. A formula exists, where; speed of sound = where R T = = = ,RT ratio of specific heats of the gas gas constant gas temperature (in Kelvin)

Speed of sound is of utmost importance in the study of aerodynamics, because it determines the nature and formation of shock waves. Because of this, aircraft speed is often compressed in relation to the speed to sound.

! =

Mach N

(Aircraft travelling at speeds greater than Mach 1 are supersonic, and generating shock waves).

15.2 FREQUENCY

Frequency (f) of sound is related to the number of vibrations that the molecules perform in a unit of time. The amount (or distance) which the molecules vibrate about their main position is termed the amplitude. Another term exists, i.e. wavelength (). A formula exists, linking frequency and wavelength. f. = constant = speed of sound

15.3 INTENSITY

The intensity of sound (its 'loudness) is dependent on the intensity of the pressure variations, and thus is related to the amplitude. The amplitude of the vibration is proportional to the energy input into the generation of the wave.

15.4 PITCH

Pitch is another word for frequency (see previous paragraph).

Doppler effect is the effect that is noticeable when for example, a car is heard speeding towards the listener, then speeding away. The sound is initially at a high-pitch, which then becomes lower. This is because the source of the sound (the car) is moving, which causes a change in the time interval between successive pressure variations in the ear of the listener (i.e. there appears to be a change in frequency, which is proportional to the speed of the car). Physics by COBC - Issue 1 - 22 December, 2009 Page 15-1

16. MATTER

Matter is defined as anything that occupies space and may be classified in a number of ways.

There are three normal states of matter:

Solid. A solid has definite mass, volume and shape. Liquid. A liquid has definite mass and volume but takes the shape of its container. Gas. A gas has definite mass but takes the volume and shape of its container.

16.2 ATOMS

If a water molecule could be magnified sufficiently it would be seen to consist of three smaller particles closely bound together. These three particles are ATOMS, two of hydrogen and one of oxygen. The water is a compound, the oxygen and hydrogen are elements. Every element has atoms of its own type. There are 92 naturally occurring elements and therefore 92 types of naturally occurring atoms. Every molecule consists of atoms. Molecules of elements contain atoms of the same types, for example the hydrogen molecule consists of two atoms of hydrogen joined together, the oxygen molecule consists of two atoms of oxygen joined together, but the molecules of compound contain different atoms joined together. Most molecules contain more than one atom but some elements can exist as single atoms. In such a case the atom is also the molecule. For example the Helium atom is also the Helium molecule. An atom is the smallest indivisible particle of an element which can take part in a chemical change.

16.2.1 THE STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM The Nucleus and Electrons. Atoms themselves are also composed of even smaller particles. Let us take an atom of hydrogen as an example. A hydrogen atom is very small indeed (about 10 10 in diameter), but if it could be magnified sufficiently it would be seen to consist of a core or nucleus with a particle called an electron travelling around it in an elliptical orbit.

The nucleus has a positive charge of electricity and the electron an equal negative charge; thus the whole atom is electrically neutral and the electrical attraction keeps the electron circling the nucleus. Atoms of other elements have more than one electron travelling around the nucleus, the nucleus containing sufficient positive charges to balance the number of electrons.

Protons and Neutrons. The particles in the nucleus each carrying a positive charge are called protons. In addition to the protons the nucleus usually contains electrically neutral particles called neutrons. Neutrons have the same mass as protons whereas electrons are very much smaller only !of the mass of a proton

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Although other atomic particles are known, the three fundamental ones are:

Protons. The proton has unit mass and carries a unit positive charge. Neutron. The neutron has unit mass but no electrical charge. Electron. The electron has only !unit of mass but it carries a unit negative charge.

Thus although we have 92 types of naturally occurring atoms, they are all built-up from different numbers of these three fundamental particles. Thus our picture of the structure of matter is as shown below.

16.2.3 PARTICLE FUNCTION 16.2.3.1 Protons

The number of protons in an atom determines the kind of material: Eg. Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium etc Copper etc Uranium 29 protons 92 protons 1 proton 2 protons 3 protons 4 protons

The number of protons is referred to as the atomic number, thus the atomic number of copper is 29.

16.2.3.2 Neutrons

The neutron simply adds to the weight of the nucleus and hence the atom. There is no simple rule for determining the number of neutrons in any atom. In fact atoms of the same kind can contain different numbers of neutrons. For example chlorine may contain 18 20 neutrons in its nucleus. The atoms are chemically indistinguishable and are called isotopes. The weight of an atom is due to the protons and neutrons (the electrons are negligible in weight), thus the atomic weight is virtually equal to the sum of the protons and the neutrons.

16.2.3.3 Electrons

The electron orbits define the size or volume occupied by the atom. The electrons travel in orbits which are many times the diameter of the nucleus and hence the space occupied by an atom is virtually empty! The electrical properties of the atom are determined by how tightly the electrons are bound by electrical attraction to the nucleus.

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