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BIOFUEL SEBAGAI SUMBER ENERGI MASA DEPAN

1. PENDAHULUAN

Seminar Geothermal dan Biofuel sebagai Sumber Energi Masa Depan, Terbarukan, dan Ramah Lingkungan IMAM PARYANTO
Balai Rekayasa Disain dan Sistem Teknologi (Engineering Center BPPT) Alamat : BRDST Gedung 480 Kawasam PUSPIPTEK Serpong BPPT Gedung 1 Lantai 6, JL. M.H. Thamrin No 8 Jakarta 10340, Indonesia Telp. : 62-21-3915536/37, Fax. : 62-21-3915535 Email address: imamp@webmail.bppt.go.id

Problem BBM dan Lingkungan


ENERGI FOSIL OIL Gas COAL
63% kebutuhan energy tergantung dari minyak bumi Cadangan energi fosil terbatas SKEM A M ODEL PENGUSAHAAN PANAS BUM I 40% konsumsi minyak diesel dipenuhi dari impor Kenaikan harga minyak mentah dunia Memiliki sumber hayati sebagai bahan baku BBN yang berlimpah Pencemaran udara telah mencapai tingkat yang mengkhawatirkan Adanya standar emisi internasional (Euro)

POTENSI ENERGI NASIONAL (2004)


SUMBER 86,9 billion barel 384.7 TSCF 57 billion ton CADANGAN
(PROVEN + POSSIBLE)

PRODUKSI (per tahun) 500 million barel 3.0 TSCF 130 billion ton

RASIO CAD/PROD (TAHUN) (tanpa ekslorasi) 18 62 147

9 billion barel 188 TSCF 19,3 billion ton

ENERGI NON-FOSIL Hydro Power Geothermal Mini/Micro hydro Biomass Solar Power Wind Power Uranium (Nuclear)

SUMBER 845,00 juta BOE 219,00 juta BOE 458,75 MW

SETARA 75,67 GW 27,00 GW 458,75 MW 49,81 GW 4,80 kWh/m2/hari 9,29 GW

PEMANFAATAN 6.851,00 GWh 2.593,50 GWh

KAPASITAS TERPASANG 4.200,00 MW 800,00 MW 84,00 MW 302,40 MW 8,00 MW 0,50 MW

Modifikasi mesin Memperbaiki kualitas bahan bakar

Data-data Litbang

Kebijakan Pemerintah yang Mendukung

Memproduksi Biofuel dari sumber minyak hayati merupakan salah satu solusi permasalahan di atas dari sisi Supply, Perbaikan kualitas udara dan penciptaan ekonomi kerakyatan

24.112 Ton*

3 GW u/ 11 tahun
Sumber : Blue Print Pengelolaan Energi Nasional, ESDM

* Only in Kalan Kalbar area

KONSUMSI BAHAN BAKAR 2007


(Data Pertamina) FUEL I. Subsidized Fuel 1 Gasoline (premium) 2 Kerosene 3 HSD (ADO) II. Non-subsidized Fuel 1 Gasoline (Premium) 2 Kerosene 3 ADO 4 MDF (IDO) 5 MFO 6 Avgas 7 Avtur 8 Gasoline RON 91 9 Gasoline RON 95 10 ADO CN 51 TOTAL VOLUME Kilo Liter 38,665,397 17,929,843 9,851,814 10,883,740 23,640,400 249,448 46,674 14,649,151 269,466 5,136,408 2,163 2,520,040 482,240 158,070 126,740 62,305,797 Source: APROBI, 2008

BIOFUEL ?
Estimasi Kebutuhan Biodiesel 2009 (Permen ESDM 32/2008)

Biofuel = bahan bakar nabati Merupakan bahan bakar alternatif bagi bahan bakar fossil, yang diproduksi dari bahan baku yang bersumber dari tanaman Merupakan bahan bakar yang ramah lingkungan dan terbarukan Yaitu :
biodiesel (alternatif untuk minyak diesel/solar), biethanol (alternatif untuk premium/bensin), bio-oil atau pure plant oil - PPO (alternatif minyak bakar)

BIOFUEL FOR FUEL SUBSTITUTION (2010)

National Energy MIX


Targeted Energy MIX 2025#
Biofuel 5% Geo thermal 5%
Nuclear

FUEL
TRANSPORTATION (31,7 Million kL) ELECTRICITY (7,6 Million kL) KEROSENE (10 Million kL)

Coal 33%

Energy MIX 2003


3,8 Million kL PREMIUM (18,529Million kL) 1,85 Million kL ADO/SOLAR (12,4 Million kL) 1,24 Million kL 4,8 Million kL
Gas 26.5%

1 Million kL
Coal 14.1%

Hydro 3.4%

Others 7% Gas 30% Oil 20%

Geo thermal 1.4%

Biomass Hydro Solar Wind Liq. Coal

BIOETANOL

BIODIESEL

BIO OIL
Oil 54.4%

Others 0.2%

Biofuel will have


minimum 5% share of total National Energy MIX 2025

RAW MATERIAL
CASSAVA 11 Million tons MOLASSES 600 Million tons PALM OIL 30,2 Million tons JATROPHA OIL 3,84 MIllion tons

#Peraturan

Presiden No. 5/2006

KEBIJAKAN TENTANG BIOFUEL


25 Januari 2006, Peraturan Pemerintah (No.5 / 2006) tentang Kebijakan Energi Nasional (No. 5/ 2006) 25 Januari 2006, Instruksi Presiden (No.1 /2006) tentang Penyediaan dan Pemanfaatan Biofuel sebagai Bahan Bakar Lain 22 Februari 2006, Keputusan Kepala BSN (No. 73/KEP/BSN/2/2006) tentang Penetapan SNI Biodiesel SNI 04-7182-2006 17 Maret 2006, Peraturan Dirjen MIGAS DESDM no.3675/K/24/DJM/2006 tentang Kualitas dan spesifikasi minyak solar tipe SOLAR 48 dan SOLAR 51 Biodiesel diijinkan dicampur dengan minyak solar s/d 10% (B10) & Biodiesel harus memenuhi SNI 04-7182-2006 20 Mei 2006 : PERTAMINA meluncurkan BIOSOLAR (B5) di 4 SPBU di Jakarta Penjualan BIOSOLAR dikembangkan ke SPBU lain di kota-kota besar 26 September 2008, Peraturan Menteri ESDM No. 32/2008 tentang Penyediaan, Pemanfaatan dan Tata niaga Bahan Bakar Nabati (Biofuel) sebagai Bahan Bakar Lain 23 October 2009, Peraturan Presiden RI No. 45/2009 tentang Perubahan atas Perpres No. 71/2005 Tentang Penyediaan dan Pendistribusian Jenis Bahan bakar minyak tertentu

PERATURAN PRESIDEN NO.5/2006


Untuk mencapai target ENERGY MIX 2025, dalam Peraturan Presiden No. 5/2006 telah ditetapkan serangkaian kebijakan utama dan pendukung sebagai berikut: Kebijakan Utama, meliputi 1. Penyediaan energi melalui: - Penjaminan ketersediaan pasokan energi dalam negeri - Pengoptimalan produksi energi - Pelaksanaan konservasi energi 2. Pemanfaatan energi melalui: - Efisiensi pemanfaatan energi - Diversifikasi energi 3. Penetapan kebijakan harga energi ke arah harga keekonomian, dengan tetap mempertimbangkan kemampuan usaha kecil dan bantuan bagi masyarakat tidak mampu dalam jangka waktu tertentu. 4. Pelestarian lingkungan dengan menerapkan prinsip pembangunan berkelanjutan Kebijakan Pendukung meliputi: 1.Pengembangan infrastruktur energi termasuk peningkatan akses konsumen terhadap energi 2.Kemitraan pemerintah dan dunia usaha 3.Pemberdayaan masyarakat 4.Pengembangan penelitian dan pengembangan serta pendidikan dan pelatihan Selain itu pemerintah juga dapat memberikan kemudahan dan insentif kepada pelaksana konservasi energi dan pengembang sumber energi alternatif tertentu. Dengan demikian, Perpres No. 5/2006 menjadi dasar pola pengembangan energi nasional untuk mengamankan pasokan energi dalam negeri

Nabati (Biofuel) Sebagai Bahan Bakar Lain

INPRES NO.1 Tahun 2006 : Percepatan Penyediaan dan Pemanfaatan Bahan Bakar
Sector

FASE MANDATORY PEMANFAATAN BIODIESEL


Peraturan Menteri ESDM No. 32/2008
October Desember 2008 January 2009 January 2010 January 2015** January 2020** January 2025** -

remark

Menginstruksikan dan memberi tugas yang spesifik sesuai dengan tupoksi-nya kepada : 1. Menko Perekonomian 2. Menteri ESDM 3. Menteri Pertanian 4. Menteri Kehutanan 5. Menteri Perindustrian 6. Menteri Perdagangan 7. Menteri Perhubungan 8. Meneg Ristek 9. Meneg Koperasi 10. Meneg BUMN 11. Menteri Dalam Negeri 12. Menteri Keuangan 13. Menteri LH 14. Gubernur 15. Bupati dan Walikota Menteri Negara Riset dan Teknologi : Mengembangkan teknologi, memberi saran aplikasi pemanfaatan teknologi penyediaan dan pengolahan, distribusi bahan baku serta pemanfaatan bahan bakar nabati (biofuel) sebagai Bahan Bakar Lain.

Household Transportation PSO Transportation Non PSO Industry and commercial Power Plant

Not regulated * From total demand

1% (existing) -

1%

2,5 %

5%

10 %

20 %

1%

3%

7%

10 %

20 % * From total demand * From total demand

2,5 % 0,1 %

2,5 % 0,25 %

5% 1%

10 % 10 %

15 % 15 %

20 % 20 %

** Based on specification and domestic need

Peraturan Presiden RI No. 45/2009


tentang Perubahan atas Perpres No. 71/2005 Tentang Penyediaan dan Pendistribusian Jenis Bahan bakar minyak tertentu

Jenis Bahan Bakar Minyak Tertentu yang selanjutnya disebut Jenis BBM Tertentu adalah bahan bakar yang berasal dan/atau diolah dari Minyak Bumi dan/atau bahan bakar yang; berasal dan/atau diolah dari Minyak Bumi yang telah dicampurkan dengan Bahan Bakar Nabati iBiotucl) sebagai Bahan Bakar Lain dengan jenis, standar dan mutu (spesifikasi), harga, volume) dan konsumen tertentu. Dalam rangka penyediaan dan pendistribusian jenis HEM Tertentu, Badan Usaha yang mendapatkan penugasan pcnyediaaan dan pendistribusian jenis BBM Tertentu wajib mencampurkan BBN yang dilaksanakan sccara bertahap sesuai dengan ketentuan peraturan perundang-undangan. Badan Usaha dalam melakukan pencampuran BBN sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (1) wajib memanfaatkan dan mengutamakan produksi BBN dalam negeri.

2. CASE : BIODIESEL

BIODIESEL ?
Bahan bakar alternatif minyak diesel/solar yang ramah lingkungan Digunakan untuk mesin diesel Secara kimia merupakan methyl ester yang terbuat dari minyak atau lemak nabati yang direaksikan dengan methanol Produk yang sudah ada di pasaran : BIOSOLAR dari Pertamina, merupakan campuran Biodiesel 2.5 % dan Solar 97.5 % (B2.5)

Roadmap Teknologi Biodiesel (sesuai Perpres No. 5 tahun 2006)

Year Market

2005 - 2009
Pemanfaatan Biodiesel Sebesar 2% Konsumsi Solar 720.000 kL

2010 -2015
Pemanfaatan Biodiesel Sebesar 3% Konsumsi Solar 1.5 juta kL

2016 - 2025
Pemanfaatan Biodiesel Sebesar 5% Konsumsi Solar 4.7 juta kL

STANDARD BIODIESEL NASIONAL

Product

Biodiesel Sawit & Jarak Pagar

Biodiesel Sawit, Jarak Pagar, Tumbuhan lain. Etanol dari (ekses) gliserin

High/superior performance Biodiesel (angka setan tinggi, titik tuang rendah)

Technology

Commercial Plant Kapasitas 30.000 s/d 100.000 Ton/tahun

Commercial Plant Kapasitas > 100.000 Ton/tahun

High Performance Biodiesel Product Commercial Plant

R&D

Biodiesel dari minyak sawit, jarak pagar & tumbuhan lain

Plant Desain Enjiniring Test Property, Performan ce Dan standarisa si Optimasi & Modifikasi Desain plant Teknologi Pembuatan aditif

Test Property, Performance & standarisasi

Teknologi Blending, (bio-) teknologi (ekses) gliserin

Sumber : ESDM, 2005

Syarat mutu biodiesel ester alkil


No Parameter 1 Massa jenis pada 40 C, kg/m3 2 Viskositas kinematik pd 40 C, mm2/s (cSt) 3 Angka setana 4 Titik nyala (mangkok tertutup), C 5 Titik kabut,C 6 Korosi lempeng tembaga (3 jam pada 50 C) 7 Residu karbon %-massa - dalam contoh asli, atau - dalam 10 % ampas distilasi 8 Air dan sedimen, %-vol. 9 Temperatur distilasi 90 %, C 10 Abu tersulfatkan, %-massa 11Belerang, ppm-m (mg/kg) 12 Fosfor, ppm-m (mg/kg) 13 Angka asam, mg-KOH/g 14 Gliserol bebas, %-massa 15 Gliserol total, %-massa 16 Kadar ester alkil, %-massa 17 Angka iodium %-massa (g-I2/100 g) 18 Uji Halphen Satuan Nilai 850 890 2,3 6,0 min. 51 min. 100 maks. 18 maks. no 3 maks 0,05 maks. 0,30 maks. 0,05* maks. 360 maks.0,02 maks. 100 maks. 10 maks.0,8 maks. 0,02 maks. 0,24 min. 96,5 maks. 115 Negatif

KEBIJAKAN TENTANG PENCAMPURAN BIODIESEL SNI 04-7182-2006 PENCAMPURAN BIODIESEL KE SOLAR Peraturan Dirjen MIGAS DESDM no.3675/K/24/DJM/2006 tentang kualitas
dan spesifikasi minyak solar tipe SOLAR 48 dan SOLAR 51 Biodiesel diijinkan dicampur dengan minyak solar s/d 10% (B10) & Biodiesel harus memenuhi SNI 04-7182-2006

BIOSOLAR PERTAMINA Target PERTAMINA secara bertahap mensubstitusi solar dengan biodiesel,
khususnya sektor transportasi 20 Mei 2006 : PERTAMINA meluncurkan BIOSOLAR (B5) di 4 SPBU di Jakarta Penjualan BIOSOLAR dikembangkan ke SPBU lain di kota-kota besar

* Catatan : dapat diuji terpisah dengan ketentuan kandungan sedimen maksimum 0.01 %-vol

BIOFUEL SELLING PROGRESS (Source: Pertamina)

KEUNTUNGAN BIODIESEL
Denpasar
Bio Solar : 11 SPBU Volume 2.100 KL / bln Bio Pertamax : 11 SPBU Volume 200 KL / bln

Sumber energi yang terbarukan (non fossil) Ramah lingkungan : Free sulfur Emisi rendah (COx, Particulate Matter, HC) Cetane number tinggi (BDF : > 51 , Solar = 48) Efek pelumasan Tidak memerlukan modifikasi mesin Dapat menggunakan infrastruktur distribusi yang ada (pom bensin) Dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar langsung maupun campuran (B-XX)
Tinggal tuang Emisi Karbon monoksida (CO) Hidrokarbon (HC) Partikulat (SPM) B20 - 12 % - 20 % - 12 % B100 - 47 % - 67 % - 48 %

Jakarta & sekitarnya


Bio Solar : 205 SPBU Volume 4.300 KL / bln Bio Pertamax : 20 SPBU Volume 1.100 KL / bln

Total keseluruhan:

Malang
Bio Premium : 1 SPBU Volume 310 KL / bln Bio Pertamax : 4 SPBU Volume 55 KL / bln

Bio Solar : 228 SPBU Vol : 46.700 KL/bln Bio Premium : 1 SPBU Vol : 310 KL / bln Bio Pertamax : 40 SPBU Vol : 1.651 KL / bln

Surabaya
Bio Solar : 12 SPBU Volume 1.600 KL / bln Bio Pertamax : 5 SPBU Volume 296 KL / bln

Note : Penurunan dibandingkan emisi solar

CHALLENGES
1. Increasing variety in feedstock availability 2. Increasing efficiency in process technology 3. Improvement parameters for Biofuel quality 4. Accelerating production development 5. Broad variety in different marketing strategy 6. Challenges for further engine warranties 7. Solid legal framework in pushing the markets 8. Broadening information basis and easier access

3. BIODIESEL PLANT TECHNOLOGY SELECTION

State of the Art of Biodiesel Production


Acid Catalyst (Esterification) Alkaline Catalyst (Transesterification)

Technology and Plant Capacity Selection, depend on:


Plant location Availability and characteristic of raw material Local fuel demand Human resources level Local content Local industries capability

Catalytic
Low Pressure Low Temperature

Biocatalyst

Non-Catalytic

Low Pressure, High Temperature (Bubble Column Reactor)

High Pressure, High Temperature (Supercritical methanol)

SITE SPECIFIC
Big country with more than 17.000 islands Different type of soil Special region with special plant oil, for example : Sumatera suitable for CPO Nusa Tenggara suitable for Jatropha Maluku coconut oil Every region need Fuels The geography makes the fuel distribution in Indonesia is highly site specific
Security supply for every region Name Jarak pagar Sawit Kapok/randu Kelapa Kecipir Kelor Kusambi Nimba Saga utan Akar kepayang Gatep pait Kepoh Ketiau Nyamplung

ABUNDANT (BIODIESEL) RAW MATERIAL


Latin name Jatropha curcas Elais guineensis Ceiba pentandra Cocos nucifera Psophocarpus tetrag. Moringa oleifera Sleichera trijuga Azadirachta indica Adenanthera pavonina Hodgsonia macrocarpa Samadera indica Sterculia foetida Madhuca mottleyana Callophyllum inophyllum Oil Source Inti biji Sabut + dg buah Biji Daging buah Biji Biji Daging biji Daging biji Inti biji Biji Biji Inti biji Inti biji Inti biji Content, %-b kr 40 60 45-70 + 46-54 24 40 60 70 15 20 30 49 55 70 40 50 14 28 65 35 45 55 50 57 40 73 P / NP NP P NP P P P NP NP P P NP NP P NP

Note : kr dry; P edible fat/oil, NP nonedible fat/oil. (Source, Soerawidjaja, 2005)

ABUNDANT (BIODIESEL) RAW MATERIAL


Name Randu alas Seminai Siur (-siur) Tengkawang. Terindak Bidaro Bintaro Bulangan Cerakin/Kroton Kampis Kemiri cina Nagasari (gede) Sirsak Srikaya Latin name Bombax malabaricum Madhuca utilis Xanthophyllum lanceatum Isoptera borneensis Ximenia Americana Cerbera manghas/odollam Gmelina asiatica Croton tiglium Hernandia peltata Aleurites trisperma Mesua ferrea Annona muricata Annona squamosa Oil Source Biji Inti biji Biji Inti biji Inti biji Biji Biji Inti biji Biji Inti biji Biji Inti biji Biji Content, %-b kr 18 26 50 57 35 40 45 70 49 61 43 64 ? 50 60 ? ? 35 50 20 30 15 20 P / NP NP P P P NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP Jatropha Curcas L CPO Pond Palm

(CURRENTLY USED) BIODIESEL RAW MATERIAL IN INDONESIA


No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Oil Refine Bleach Deodorized Palm Olein (PFAD)/cooking oil Used Cooking Oil Standard CPO Off grade CPO (CPO pond) Palm Fatty Acid Distilate (PFAD) Jatropha Curcas Est. Quantity (Ton/yr) 4.000.000 20.000 18.000.000 108.000 200.000 1.875.000 0.6% CPO standard 5% cooking oil 1.5 million ha in 2010, 5 ton seed/ha/yr, 25% rendement 0.5 % cooking oil Remark

Note : kr dry; P edible fat/oil, NP nonedible fat/oil. (Source, Soerawidjaja, 2005)

COMPARISON OF SMALL BATCH AND BIG CONTINUOUS BIODIESEL PLANT


Production Scale (MITTELBACH, 2004) : Batch : 500 10.000 Ton/year Continuous : 30.000 Ton/year
Parameter Raw material flexibility Cost investment Cost production Technology/Plant operation I&C Manpower and product ratio Risk of product quality stability Local content Small batch Flexible Low High Simple Simple High high High Large continuous Fix High Low Complex Sophisticate Low Low Low

BIODIESEL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY IN INDONESIA :


CATALYTIC PROCESS (Low Pressure, Low Temperature) using Alkaline and Acid Catalyst Basic Consideration : Various grade of oil as the raw materials (batch process) Plant location distribution Availability raw material and fuel demand site specific Easier to be handled by operator on minimum requirement skill Can be constructed in small up to medium capacity (< 15 ton/day) High domestic local content

Existing installed capacity and technology status


No Institution/company Location Capacity (MT/yr) 2008 1.588.300 Dumai Jakarta Gresik & Cikupa Bekasi Medan Merak Bekasi Medan Duri Bekasi & Lampung Dumai 200.000 300 120.000 150.000 3.000 60.000 5.000 50.000 200.000 100.000 700.000 8.800 Jakarta Serpong Bandung 2.500 300 500 500 Medan Kampar Jakarta South Sumatera South Kalimantan Java, Sumatera, Kalimantan, NTT 1.200 300 3.000 500 2009 2.521.000 200.000 1.000 240.000 150.000 10.000 160.000 10.000 350.000 200.000 200.000 1.000.000 14.800 2.500 1.500 500 500 300 3.000 500 2.000 2.000 2.000 Local Local Local Local Local Local Local Local Local Local Modification from Existing Chem. plant Lurgy Local NextGen Ballestra Local Modification from Existing Chem. plant Technology

APROBI list 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Asian Agri Tbk Energi Alternatif Indonesia PT Eterindo Wahanatama Tbk Darmex Biofuel PT. Ganesha Energy Group Indo Biofuels Energy PT. Multikimia Intipelangi PT. Musim Mas Group Permata Hijau Group Sumi Asih PT. Wilmar Group

4. BIODIESEL DEVELOPMENT IN BRDST BPPT

Institution and others 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Lemigas BPPT ITB RNI PT. PPKS Pemda Riau-BPPT RAP PT. OKUT-Ristek-BPPT Kotabaru-Ristek-BPPT Department of Industry

Source: Data from APROBI and Timnas BBM

BRDST (Engineering Center) - BPPT


Balai Rekayasa Disain dan Sistem Teknologi (Engineering Center - BPPT) Main Task and Function: To conduct development, services, and socialization on engineering design and system technology Main activities :
Research on Energy Field Process Design & Development Design & Engineering Promotion, Advocating, Socialization

BPPT
Ka. BPPT PKT TPSA TAB TIEM TIRBR SEKR. UTAMA

INSPEK TORAT BPPT ENGINEE RING

BUDAYA & DAYA DUKUNG INOVASI

TEK. INVENTRS SDA TEK. PENGEM SD LAHAN & WILAYAH

TEKNOLOGI BUDAYA PERTANIAN TEK. PENGOLAHA N HASIL PERTANIAN TEK. BIO INDUSTRI TEK. MEDIKA & FARMASI

TEK. INFORMASI & KOMUNIKASI TEK. MATERIAL KOMPOSIT & POLIMER TEK. SD ENERGI
TEK. KONVERSI & KONSERVASI ENERGI

TEK. IND. PROSES TEKNOLOGI MANUFAKTUR & OTOMASI SISTEM TRANSPORTA SI TEK. INDUSTRI HANKAM

RO-REN RO-SDMO RO-KEU RO-UMUM PUSBINDIK LAT PUSDATIN

DIFUSI INOVASI SISTEM INOVASI DAERAH


AUDITEK

TEK. LINGKUNGAN

TEK. PENGEM SD MINERAL

BALAI INKUBATOR

UPT MOD. CUACA BALAI TEKNOLOGI SURVEI BALAI TEK. LINGKUNGAN

BALAI BESAR TEKNOLOGI PATI BALAI BIOTEK

B2TE

B2TKS UPT LAGG BPPH BPDP BALAI MEPPO BTMP

BRDST
BALAI TEKNOLOGI POLIMER BALAI IPTEKNET BALAI KERAMIK

ORGANIZATION HISTORY
1993

Organizational Structure
Head EC BPPT Manager General Affair

P2R2B - BPIS
PLTGU Belawan 400 MW PLTU Paiton II 600 MW PLTGU Muara Tawar 400 MW Revitalisasi Sistem Catudaya Sentel Gambir .

1995

PRRB - BPPT
PLTN AP600 Westinghouse 600 MW PLTN Candu Canada 800 MW PLTD Kalimantan 7 x 1MW Bontang NGLfor Steel structure Eng. FEED LNG Tangguh Project Bechtel Corp

2001 Now

EC - BPPT
Biodiesel plant 8 ton/hari, Riau Revitalisasi Jaringan Listrik Jawa timur - Bali PLTN AP1000 Westinghouse 1000 MW Cogeneration Project Arun NGL 15 MW PIM2 Utility and Amonia Plant

Manager Cooperation and Technical Services

Technical Group

Manager Technical development

POWER PLANT AND PROCESS INDUSTRIES

Process design and mechanical equipment Piping Electrical and I&C

1998
ENERGI

POWER PLANT, PROCESS INDUSTRY, CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, OIL & GAS INDUSTRY AND AGROINDUSTRY

Civil structure & architecture

R&D Lab Scale Prototype Pilot/Demo Plant commercial R&D Coordination Technical services

Laboratory team

FACILITIES
Chemical Laboratory Pilot Plant Biodiesel Engineering Room Workshop Software
Plant Design System Isogen Pro II X-Steel Staad Pro Microstation Cesar APV Simplicity HMI Scada Etc.

RECENT & FUTURE ACTIVITIES


Biodiesel commercial plant Integrated CPO mill and Biodiesel plant Glycerol Plant for other product Biomass Power Plant from Palm Oil Residue Bio-ethanol Plant, detail engineering Grid Operation Supporting System for small scale and remote power plant Steam Power Plant, 2 x 7 MW Sangatta, detail engineering Nuclear Power Plant, AP600/1000 MW, Westinghouse USA, Detail Engineering Biodiesel Analysis Etc.

Refining and Processing Technology (Engineering Center BPPT)


2001 2002 2003

QUALITY PRODUCT TESTING


(Engineering Center BPPT)
2001
PRODUCTION AND PROCESS OPTIMATION PRODUCT SPECIFICATION TEST

PRODUK MEET NATIONAL STANDARD

Lab scale biodiesel production (400 L)

Engineering design and fabrication of 1.5 ton/day capacity biodiesel plant (Modularised, skid mounted and movable)

2006 2006 2004

Variation of raw material: CPO standard (FFA < 5 %) CPO off grade (FFA 5-20%) Waste CPO (FFA 20-70 %) PFAD, CFAD (FFA > 70 %) RBDPO RBDPS Used Cooking Oil Jatropha Oil

PERFORMANCE TEST

COMMERCIAL

ROAD TEST

2005 2002

Source : Lurgi

Basic Design and Engineering of Biodiesel Plant Cap. 30.000 ton/year

EPC of Biodiesel Pilot Plant l Capacity of 3 ton/day

EPC of Biodiesel Pilot, Capacity of 8 ton/hari

2005

SOCIALIZATION

EC - BPPTS CURRENT BIODIESEL PROCESSING

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
From Laboratory works and calculation Product :
Process Flow diagram Mass & Heat balance

Methanol Catalyst

Plant Oil

Preparation

Trans-esterification

Biodiesel from any feed stock :

Washing Methanol Recovery Purification Glycerol By Product

Drying

CPO standard (FFA < 5 %) CPO off grade (FFA 5-20 %) Waste CPO (FFA 20-70 %) PFAD and CFAD (FFA > 70 %) RBDPO RBDPS Jatropha Curcas oil (Laboratory Scale)

BIODIESEL Product

BASIC DESIGN
From calculation, simulation, design, and engineering From operation data (bench or pilot scale) Product
General Piping & Instrumentation Diagram Equipment Sizing General Arrangement

DETAIL DESIGN
From calculation, simulation, design, engineering Product :
Piping & Instrumentation Diagram Piping Layout Civil & Structure Stress Analysis Instrumentation & Control Electrical & Raceway

CONSTRUCTION

CONSTRUCTION

8 ton/day, 2006 1 ton/day, 2003

3 ton/day, 2006 6 ton/day, 2007

1 ton/day, 2006

10 ton/day, 2004

Current Problem
1. Biodiesel still classified as a non- subsidized fuel. 2. FAME price is tend to increase and passing the MOPS price. 3. Biofuel mandatory has been issued by the government. The following biodiesel related questions are often asked by industries: - Price (raw material, cost production) - Quality product guarantee - OEM (Owner Equipment Manufacture) guarantee - Quick property test (B100 and BXX) - Effect to engine safety/life, performance and emission - Effect to fuel consumption - Application of biodiesel on generator, gas turbine and boiler - How to handling (blending, transportation, storage) - Stability (oxidation)
120

5. PROSPECT AND CHALLENGES

Perkembangan Harga Biofuel Tahun 2006 - 2008

100

Harga (UScent/Ltr)

80

FAME MOPS HSD

60

ETHANOL

40

MOPS GASOLINE

20

MEI

JUNI

JULI

AGUST SEPTEM OKTOBNOVEMDESEM JANUAFEBRUA MARETAPRIL MEI 2006

JUNI

JULI

AGUST SEPTEM OKTOBNOVEMDESEM JANUA FEBRUA MARETAPRIL MEI 2008

2007

ETHANOL FAME

55.26 54.96 54.70 55.01 55.30 55.43 55.42 54.84 55.24 56.82 55.94 55.42 53.65 53.98 55.18 54.24 53.84 53.42 54.73 54.73 54.73 54.73

52.57 52.06 55.07 58.57 57.16 54.70 53.91 56.96 61.63 60.40 60.87 65.18 69.32 76.07 77.59 75.11 77.19 84.98 83.53 82.91 85.79 91.20 104.31 95.28 99.88 52.94 54.01 54.26 54.27 47.70 44.76 44.02 43.87 41.56 44.41 46.25 50.47 51.34 51.51 53.93 52.20 57.05 59.80 67.93 67.21 66.48 69.94 79.39 87.00 99.76 49.82 52.70 44.39 39.07 38.06 37.33 40.69 46.75 51.19 54.45 51.88 52.22 47.07 50.35 54.14 59.97 60.10 61.63 64.45 67.60 72.48 80.50

MOPS HSD

MOPS GASOLINE

waktu

CHALLENGES
How to prepare national biodiesel industry to meet the target of National Biodiesel Roadmap
Implication: All Indonesian biodiesel stakeholders should develop a commercial biodiesel plant that has consistent product quality, reliable and cost effective in production

Developing alternative raw materials other than CPO (non edible, cheaper). Ex. Jathropa Curcas has great potential to be developed
Implication: further studies are needed to evaluate its feasibility including land availability, various aspects in the plantation, oil extraction and financial incentives for farmers.

6. FUTURE RESEARCH TOPICS

Developing new process and product from glycerine as a by product

FUTURE RESEARCH TOPICS


Characterization of Indonesian indigenous biodiesel raw materials to meet the standardized biodiesel product. Stability test for biodiesel (methyl esters) made of Indonesian Indigenous raw materials High performance reactor (consistent product quality, reliable and cost effective in production (Lower methanol loss and Lower usage of catalyst) Glycerol processing to produce more valuable product Material compatibility test for engine component using biodiesel blend (BXX) up to B100 Testing of biodiesel on industrial engine/equipment (generator, gas turbine, boiler) Integration of Biodiesel Plant, Oil Mill, Biomass Power plant, Methanol plant

INTEGRATED BIODIESEL PLANT


integrated, reliable, and low in production cost and has consistent quality of product
BIOMASS GASIFICATION Biogas Plant BIOMASS APR PROCESS GLYCERINE PURIFICATION High Quality Biodiesel Product METHANOL PLANT

BIOGAS PLANT

TBS PLANTATION PALM OIL MILL

CPO BIODIESEL PLANT

Biomass (boiler) Power Plant

CATALYST RECOVERY

Empty Bunch

Shell

Proposed Waste Management


Methane from POME
Remnant oil 792 t/y

Biodiesel Plant Biomass Power plant

Biodiesel Product Electricity Steam

EFB to Plantation (30%)

ROR

EFB to Biomass PP

EFB from others POM


79,000 t/y

Plantation

EFB

Organic Diesel Plant

Palm Oil Mill


2 x 45 t/h 28,800 t/y

Thank You.
19,000 t/y Other purposes

FFB
360,000 T/Y

CPO Production Process

Fiber Shell
23,500 /y

Excess Shell
1,400 t/y

Onsite (Steam & Electricity)

Fuel

POME Treatment

CPO

Sludge

Power Plant (Biomass Combustion)

Gasification Systems
Rural Electricity

Effluent discharge for land application


Source : TA DGEEU ADB, 2006

Electricity purchase from PLN Grid