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Kelly Dramos 25/09/2013 Chemistry Mrs.

Sonja

Chromatography
Chromatography is different ways or techniques of separating compounds from each other (Lansing State Journal). Chromatography come from the Greek chromatos (color), its separates the compounds or chemicals and identifies them by color. To perform a chromatography test, you need two things. A matrix and a color indicator. The matrix is the medium in which the test subject is applied. Its often porous and allows the test subject to be filtered. Most matrices are made out of glass, agarose, cellulose, or duel composition polyacrylimide based compound (Affinity Chromatography). The color indicator is what will differentiate all the different element or components in the original test subject. Some of the components need to react with other elements to take color to be identified in chronogram. Chromatography works that when the test subject is applied to the medium/matrix, and the solute (substance that allows the test subject to break down), the heavier the component, the further down it moves in the medium/matrix. When youre finished youll have stripes of colors or substances (Ask). Paternal testing is a test that uses genetic fingerprinting to determine if a man is a childs biological father (Wikipedia). Other than identical twins, no one on earth has the same DNA sequence. DNA sequences are made up of enzymes (proteins). DNA restriction enzymes are used in paternity test to break down the DNA sequences. These enzymes are registered in the sequence of 4 letters (A, G, T & C). Everyone has a different DNA sequence. A child has half his mothers, and half his fathers DNA. That means that 99.9% of your DNA is from your parents. Scientist and doctors break down the DNA sequence and use the greater similarities to determine the biological parents of a child (The Tech Museum Of Innovation).

Kelly Dramos 25/09/2013 Chemistry Mrs. Sonja

Genotyping from short tandem repeat (STR) is used in analyzing DNA. STR is used in criminal investigations, paternity tests, gene mapping and many others. The current method for STR analysis is gel electrophoresis. This process takes very long, and requires a lot of hard work from the person running such test. So alternative methods such as: ion-pair reverse-phase highperformance liquid chromatography (IPRP HPLC) have been developed to overcome such problems (Devaney JM).This method is more efficient because the testing time is reduced and there is no need for waste disposal like radioisotopic, enzyme-linked, and fluorescence detection systems (Devaney JM). This therefore makes paternity tests easier and faster to run and surpasses the slab gel electrophoresis method. IPRP HPLC works like this: The liquid chromatograph is a very complex machine and is very hard to use. There are multiples steps to performing a proper IPRP HPLC. 1. Preparation of the Solvent - All the solvents (number of solvents differs from machine to machine) should be clearly labeled and visible so that there is no confusion. - In the end of every solvents bottle end there should be filter. This filter must be kept clean and uncontaminated from algae and bacteria 2. Mixing between Solvents - The composition and protocol of IPRP HPLC requires that you mix several solvents. 3. Degassing & Purging the System - Using the in-line vacuum, remove all the air in the solvent bottles - The system is then purged with the degassed solvents to wash out the previous solvents from previous tests. 4. Preparing the Column - The column (where the separation takes place) is then placed in the center of the machine. - Make sure it is not contaminated by any other sample and that you dont use excessive force when attaching it to the machine. 5. The Detector - Is in the heart of the machine (where the column is added to). - Select the wavelength for the UV detector 6. Introduction of Samples - Introduction of the sample is done through a separate valve, called the loop. Add the sample into the loop with a syringe and the loop with insert the sample into the column in a constant volume.

Kelly Dramos 25/09/2013 Chemistry Mrs. Sonja

7. Creating a Gradient - Determine how long the samples will be analyzed in each solvent, keeping a table for records and data. Example:

A graph would look like this:

8. Data Processing - Standard machines usually have their own data processer which collects and analyses the data from the machine. After the machine has finished breaking down the DNA and analyzing the data from the sample, the scientist or doctors use the results and match them to another to determine if that someone someones someone elses father (Levin). DNA testing can be very costly. Even though methods to make DNA analysis easier for things such as criminal investigations and paternity tests, they still have an impact on the economy. In the past 15 years the price of these procedures has not altered all too much. Thus, the DNA analysis required for criminal investigations and paternity tests can cost up to $10,000 each ( Economic Impact ). Therefore, you can imagine that that if there are thousands and thousands of paternity tests how much money would be paid to clinics, and laboratories. The increase in income of tax payments for such facilities would allow more money to the government. This is good, although its not a lot considering all the money a government receives in taxes it does add to the total value and allows the country do more with this new money they are receiving.

Kelly Dramos 25/09/2013 Chemistry Mrs. Sonja

Paternity tests can impact society and how people live out their lives. For example in the case of an unmarried mother, a paternity test will determine who will have to pay child support. Also the paternity tests help people make life changing decisions. Paternity tests can be done on unborn babies, so knowing the father of your child can help you determine if you want to keep the baby (Aldhous) or (if you are unmarried) know who the father is, and inform him. This therefore shows how one simple scientific innovation, such as chromatography, can change and benefit our lives.

Bibliography
Economic Impact . 2007. 29 September 2013 <http://drugdiscovery.webs.com/economicimpact.htm>. Affinity Chromatography. 28 september 2013 <http://www.bio.davidson.edu/courses/molbio/molstudents/01dacooke/affinity.html>. Aldhous, Peter. The danger of unreliable paternity tests. 1 December 2010 . 29 September 2013 <http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20827893.200-the-danger-of-unreliable-paternitytests.html#.UkhaRX-NAcI>. Ask. How Does Chromatography Work for Kids? 28 september 2013 <http://www.ask.com/question/how-does-chromatography-work-for-kids>. Devaney JM, Girard JE, Marino MA. DNA microsatellite analysis using ion-pair reversed-phase highperformance liquid chromatography. 15 Febuary 2000. 29 September 2013 <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10701274>. Lansing State Journal. What is chromatography and what is it used for? . 22 September 1993. 25 September 2013 <http://www.pa.msu.edu/sciencet/ask_st/092293.html>. Levin, Dr. Shulamit. Succesful Operation of HPLC System. 1997. 29 September 2013 <http://www.forumsci.co.il/HPLC/hplc-operation.html>. The Tech Museum Of Innovation. Genetic Testing. 1 June 2004. 28 September 2013 <http://genetics.thetech.org/ask/ask20>. Wikipedia. Parental Testing. 28 September 2013 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parental_testing>.