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# ]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

W
K

? ? ? ?
K

W
K

Statics
K

EStaticsF

EF
K
W
W
K J
EF J

## KFree Body Diagram J

K J
J
K

KEF J
Truss System J

]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

W
W

K100W

KVectors

--

Vector
K

KW K
{
Coplanar VectorsE

F3

F1
F2

Colinear Vectors E

K
F2

F1

Concurrent Vectors E3

K
F3

F2

F1

--

{
K

F2
F1

F1 + F2
F1
F2

W
A+B=B+A

K
{
( ) BA
A.B = A.B.Cos()

Kvector scalar

--

K{

EFC, B,A

W
A = Acos(1) + ASin(1)
B = BCos(2) + BSin(2)
C = CCos(3) + CSin(3)

KC, B, A 321
y

Cy

Dy
By
Ay
O

B
A
Ax

Bx

Cx

Dx

yxD
W

## Dx = A.Cos(1) + B.Cos( 2) + C.Cos(3)

Dy = A.Sin(1) + B.Sin( 2) + C.Sin(3)

--

WD

D =

D x2 + D y2

Tan ( ) =

Dy

= Tan

Dx
Dy

Dx)

KD

{
K

vector

KNkN
K

KEFEFW

FxWW

KF Fy

--

Fy

Fx

Fx = FCos ( )

Fy = FSin( )
WF

F =

F x + F y2

= Tan

Fy
Fx

W
F1 = 25 kN, F2 = 50 kN, F3 = 100 kN
W

KEFKy

--

50 kN

F2y

30
F3

100 kN

F2x

F2

25 kN

F1y F1
60
45
F1x

F3y

F3x

## F1x = F1cos 45 = 25cos 45 = 17.68 kN

F1y = F1sin 45 = 25sin 45 = 25 kN
F2x = J 50cos (60 ) = -25 kN
F2y = 50sin (60 ) = 43.30 kN
F3x = 100cos( 30 ) = -86.60
F3y = 100 sin( 30 ) = - 50 kN

## Rx = F1x + F2x + F3x = 17.68 25 -86.60 = - 93.92 kN

Ry = F1y + F2y + F3y = 17.68 + 43.30 50 = 10.98 kN

WR

--

R =

R x + R y2

= Tan

Ry
Rx

)
W

kN

## = Tan1(10.98/ 93.92) = 6.670

Graphical Method {

W
F2 = 30 kN F1= 20 kN
K

F1 = 20 kN

F2 = 30 kN

10 kN

--

20 kNO
RK30 kN
K

RK

F1 = 20 kN

O
F1 = 20 kN

OF1 = 20 kN

F1 = 20 kN

F1 = 20 kN

K
Particle{

KK

--

{
EF

KEF

WEF
F = Fx + Fy + Fz
Fx = F Cos(x )
Fy = F Cos(y)
Fz = F Cos(z)
W

xx
yy

z z
W
F =

## Fx2 + Fy2 + Fz2

y
Fy

z
Fz

Fx

B
z

--

K K

kN

kN
110

E F

kN

0 kN
kN

20 kN

EF

E F

K K
KK
kN
kN

kN

K K
KK
kN
kN

kN

--

KA
KEF
KEF

40 kN

0 kN

0 kN

--

]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

W
W

K100W

W
K

- -

{
KO EF O
W

EFxEFZ
Moment = Force x Perpendicular Distance
M=Fxd

W
kN.mN.mO F M

KmOF d

- -

W
KOF= 400 N
:
F = 400 N
2m

WO

K
W
KF= 250 kNO

10 m

250 kN

WO

## Mo = - 250 x 10 = - 2500 N.m

K

- -

W
KO

500 kN

W
d O
WKO

Mo = 500 x 0 = 0 kN.m

{

K
W

KA

50 kN
100 kN

100 kN

50 kN 1m

1m
3m

3m

- -

50 kN
2m

2m

W
A

K KA

=

H200 J 300

H300 J 50

= H150 kN.m

50 kN

AA
KA

## Varignons Theorem ??{

OFE F??
O
K

W
KOF = 100 kN

100 kN

10 m

O
40 m

- -

30
10 m

kN

40 m

W
F = 100 kN

KO

WEFF

Fx = Fcos(30) = 100xcos(30) = 87 kN W

## Fy = Fsin(30) = 100xsin(30) = 50 kNW

ZO
H87 x 10 = H870 kN.m

WO
- 50x40 = -2000 kN.m
K

WOF
Mo = -2000 +870 = -1130 kN.m
- -

KEFAF = 1000 N
3m

3m

Fx = 1000Cos(50)

50

500

Fy = 1000Sin(50)

10 m

10 m

EF

E F

W
EF Fy FxF
KA

## Fx = Fcos(50) =1000xCos(50) = 642.78 N

Fy = Fsin(50) = 1000xSin(50) = 766 N

WA

## Mx = +642.78x10 = +6427.8 N.m

WA
My = +766x3 = +2298 N.m
WAF
MA = +6427.8 +2298= +8725.8 N.m
K

- -

Couple{

Mo

K
A

WK h/2
M1 = Fxh/2
M2 = Fxh/2
Z

## M1 + M2ZF(h/2 + h/2)ZFxh/2 + Fxh/2 ZFxh

- -

M = Fd

dF
K

F
O

KhEFO
WO
Mo = Fx(d + h) Fxh
= Fxd + Fxh Fxh = Fxd

- -

50 kN

50 kN
10 m

W
C = J 50 x 10 = -500 kN.m

K
K500 kN

500 kN.m

- -

K
FBAF
BF F
EEF
KEFAF

BFAF

WEF

C = -Fxd

KEF

-F

d
A

EF

d
A

EF

B
d

A C =F.d

EF

W
ABF = 20 kN
KEF

1`

- -

20 kN

20 kN

d
A

EF

450

20 kN

0 m

0 m

0 m

450

20 kN

EF

C = 282.8
kN m

450

20 kN

EF

W
A F
BKEF20 kN

A
WC

C = +20xd kN.m
Wd
0
d = 20xSin(45 ) = 20x0.707 = 14.14 m
W
C = +20x14.14 = +282.8 kN.m
K
ABF

EF+282.8 kN.mA
KEFEF

- -

F = 50 kNO

kN
30

O
5m

KAFE

F = 100
kN

O F
K

- -

50
kN

20
kN

5m

5m

15 m

KA

20 kN

B
10 kN

25 kN

KB

100

200
kN

kN
B

20 m

- -

]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

W
free EF
Kbody digram

W
W

K100W

- -

{
K
E F

K

K
Roller Support {

(Ax = 0F
EAFA

x
A

Ay

Ay

Ay

Hinge Support {

KEFA
KEF

- -

Ax

Ay

EF

E F

## Fixed or Cantiliver Support {

W
KEF3
KEFA

MA

Ax

A
Ay

()

()

Equilibrium Conditions{

- -

{
4
F2y

F1

F2

F2x

F4

F
R1

R2

yx
W

WxE

=0

F4 F2x F3 =0

WyE2

Fy = 0

R1 + R2 F1 F2y = 0
E
FE3

M = 0

K??

- -

W{

Colinear Forces E

F2F1K

KF1

=0

F2 -F1= 0
F1 = F2

F2

F1

Concurrent Forces E

K
OW

Kyx

- -

F2

F3

F1

Parallel Forces E

WK

=0

M = 0

K Fy =0

- -

Opposite Couples E

+M

-M

Free-Body Diagram{

Free-Body Diagram
KEF

W
KEFAB
W
AB
hinge AK

BAyAxsupport
FByroller support

KEFABE
- -

BA
W

= 0 WE

Ax = 0
WAE

MA = 0
+100x2 +100x4 Byx6 = 0
+200 +400 6By = 0
+6By = 600
By = + 600/6 = + 100 kN

+100 kN BBy
Kyx

AEFA
KAy

WE

Fy =0

Ay + By -100 -100 =0
Ay = 200 -By

WAyEFBy = +100 kN
Ay = 200 100 = +100 kN

100 kN

100 kN

A
2m

2m

EF
- -

B
2m

100 kN

100 kN

y
Ax
A
Ay

By

WEF

W
AEF
KB

100

100 kN

450
B

A
2m

2m

2m

WEF

W
AB
AK

BAyAxhinge support
Byroller support

ABEF
- -

KEF
W

+70.7 kN = +100Cos(45) W

+70.7 kN = +100Sin(45) W

Ax +70.7 = 0

= 0 WxEF

Ax = - 70.7 kN

Kx

M A = 0 WAE

## +100x2 + 70.7x4 Byx6 = 0

+200 + 282.8 = 6By
By = +482.8/6 = + 80.47 kN

KAA

F =0WE
y

Ay + By -100 -70.7 = 0
Ay + By = +170.7
Ay = +170.7 By = +170.7 80.47 = +90.23 kN
Ay = +90.23 kNWAAy

- -

100

100 kN
50cos(45)

Ax

450
B

A
Ay

2m

2m

2m

50sin(45)

By

WEF

W
50 EF

KCkN

10 m

2m
A

C
1000

5m

WEF

W
EFEF

WE

= 0 Wx

Bx Ax =0
- -

Wy

F =0

Ay 50 -1000 = 0
Ay = + 1050 kN

EF M A = 0 WA
+1000x10 + 50x2 Bxx5 = 0
+10000 +100 -5Bx = 0
+10100 = 5Bx
Bx = +10100/5 = +2020 kN

WAxBx
Bx Ax = 0
Ax = Bx = +2020 kN

AxAx

KxAx

10 m

2m
Ax

Ay

5m
Bx

50 kN

1000

: EF
- -

EFEF

500 kN

5m

5m

500 kN

B
3m

C
B
3m

3m

EF

3m

EF

EF
K

100 N

10 N

B
6m

6m

EF

6m

- -

10 N

240 N

100 N
A

B
m

EF

240 N
M = +100 kN.m
A

EF

300 kN

250 kN

600
A

B
m

5m

EF

B
m

- -

K
E

800 kN
3m

3m
500 kN

B
2m

1m

- -

]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

W
W

K100W

- -

{
EF
KEF

{
KEF
W
EFSimple Beam

KEF

EFContinuous Beam

EFCantiliver Beam

KEF

K
EFOverhanging Beam

KEF

EFBuilt-in Beam

## End-supported Cantiliver Beam

EF

K
- -

Compound Beam

EFEF

hinge

roller

Simple BeamWEF

Continuous Beam

WEF

Cantiliver BeamWEF

- -

WEF

Built-in Beam

WEF
End-supported cantiliver Beam

WEF

Compound Beam composed of cantiliver and simple beam connected by internal hinge

WEF

Compound Beam composed of cantiliver and simple beam connected by internal roller

- -

{
W E
EF
K

W E

KEF

W E

KEF

W E

KEF
W E
KEF
KEFW

- -

F kN
y

WEF

w kN/m

WEF
w2 kN/m

w1 kN/m

WEF
w (kN/m)

WEF
- -

M (kN.m)

WEF

{
Kxy
Kyx
K

{
E

F =0
Fy =0
M = 0

K
BA

- -

W E

EF

OF Kx
EEFA x
KEFOB AOF
WVx

Ax Vx
OVx K
KEF

KEF
WMx

C CMx
KOOB AO
W E
K

- -

y
P
x

WEF
P

Vx

Mx

Mx

A
RA

Vx
EF

+V

RB

+M

WEF

- -

W
KEFC

10 kN
5m

5m

3m

WEF4

10 kN
5m

5m

RB = 5 kN

RA = 5 kN

10 kN
MC

MC
5m

3m

VC

VC
RB = 5 kN

RA = 5 kN

WEF4

- -

W
C E

WAC

F =0

RA Vc =0

Vc = RA = + 5 kN

WACCCE

M = 0

RA.3 Mc = 0

Mc = 5x3 = + 15 kN.m
{

E F

W
KEFEF
KRA = RB = +5kN W

10 kN
5m

A
x

5m

RB = 5 kN

RA = 5 kN

W
- -

AxCAa-a
K

K
W

F =0
y

5V=0
V = 5 kN
K+5kNx

= 0 Wa-a

5.x M = 0
M = 5x

Kx
WEmxFx

EmFx

25

20

15

10

M
kN.m

x
M
V
5 kN

a-aW

- -

AxBCb-b
K7

b- K
KExFWb

F =0
y

5 10 -V = 0
V = -5 kN

K-5 kNx

=0

Wb-b

5.x .(x 5) -M = 0
M = 5x -10.x +50 = 50 5.x = 5(10 x)

10 kN

5m

M
x

5 kN

b-bW7

Kx
WE10 mxFx

- -

EmFx

M
kN.m

x
10 kN

5m

5 kN

5m

5 kN

+5 kN

Shear Force
V

- 5 kN

Bending
Moment
M

+25 kN.m

W
- -

W
K
W

E
W
P = 5x10 = 50 kN

WEF
RA = RB = 50/2 = +25 kN
a-a E

9Axa-a
KK10

x a-ax

P = 5.x

WEF

KAx/2

F =0
y

25 5.x - V = 0
V = 25 5x
xFx

- -

KE 10 m
a

= 0 Wa-a

25 . x 5 x .

x
M = 0
2

x2
M = 0
2
5
M = 25 x x 2
2

25 x 5

Kx

ExFx

10 9
-25
0

EmFx

-5

15

25

-20

-15

-10

10

20

22.5

40

kN

kN.m

K x=5 m

K
F

KE

- -

5 kN/m

B
10 m
a

x
25 kN

25 kN

W9

5 kN/m

M
x

25 kN
5.x kN

x/2
x

M
V

25 kN

a-aW10

- -

5 kN/m

A
5m

B
5m

25 kN

25 kN

+25 kN

- 25 kN

++

- -

K
K

K
Dr. BeamPro
K

Dr. BeamPro :
- -

W{

10 kN/m
A

3m

20 kN

3m

5m

3m

15 kN

10 kN

6m

5 kN
6m

12 m

10 kN/m
A
3m

5m

B
3m

10 kN/m
A

5m

5m

- -

kN
0 kN/m
A

5m

5m

20 kN

20 kN
10 kN/m

2m
A

2m

2m

2m

5m

20 kN

10 kN/m
A

5m

3 m

5 kN/m

10 m

10 kN

5 kN
C

A
2m

2m

D
2m

- -

2m

]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

W
W

EF

K100W

K
- -

{
E F

jointK

K

K

K

## Kstatically determinate trusses

- -

PRATT

ENGLISH HOWE

W
- -

PRATT

WARREN

WEF

PRATT

BAILEY

W
- -

WARREN

WEF

Determinacy{

EF

Kjoints

W
HEFZ

EFbW
r

jointsEFJ

b + r Z

F =0 F =0W
y

Kb + rZ2JZ
K

- -

unstableEF

b + r 2J

b + r = 2J

statically determinate

EF

statically indeterminate

b + r 2J

KEF b + r 2J W

EFKrigid frameEF
nonrigid frameEF

EFB

FEF
KDBCAE

EF

E F
W
- -

W
K

W
b J
W3 r
b + r = 9 + 3 = 12
2J = 2x6 = 12
b + r = 2JW
KstableEF

W
K
W

J = 5 EF
b = 6

r = 3

b+r=6+3=9
2J = 2x5 = 10

- -

b + r 2J W

KunstableEF

J {
Section MethodJoints MethodW

EF
K

Joints Method

EFE

E

FK
KE

KEF

- -

W
E F

Kjoints method

3 kN
E

F
15 m
C

A
20 m
RA

20 m
9 kN

20 m
12
kN

RB

W
K

M D = 0 WDE

## RA.60 9x40 3x40 12x20 = 0

Rax60 = 720
RA = 720/60 = 12 kN

F =0W
y

RA + RB 9 3 -12 = 0
RA + RB = +24
RB = 24 - RA = 24 12 = 12 kN

- -

WE
EFA E

AE
K

FAE

A
FAB

RA = 12 kN

FAEyFAExFAE
FAEy = 3/5 FAE

## 4/5 FAE ZFAEx

WA

RA + FAEy = 0
12 + (3/5)xFAE = 0
FAE = - (5/3)x12 = - 20 kN

F =0
y

AE

WA
FAB + FAEx = 0
FAB + (4/5)xFAE =0
FAB = - (4/5)xFAE = -(4/5)x (-20) = +16 kN
- -

Fx=0

AB
K

BE

FBE

FBC

FBA = 16 kN

kN

FBC 16 = 0
FBC = + 16 kN

Fx = 0
Tension

FBE J 9 = 0
FBE = + 9 kN Tension

F =0
y

EE

3 kN

FEF

20 kN

9 kN

FEC

F =0
y

- -

-9 -3 (3/5)xFEC + (3/5)x20 = 0
(3/5)xFEC = 12 -12 = 0 kN
FEC = 0

Fx=0

## FEF + (4/5) FEC + (4/5)x20 = 0

= -(4/5)x20 (4/5)xFEC = - 16 kN Compression

FEF

CE

FCF

FCE = 0

FBC

FCD

FCD

12 kN

FCD - FBC = 0
= FBC = + 16 kN Tension

FCF - 12 = 0
FCF = +12 Tension

Fx=0

F =0
y

FE

FEF
12 kN

- -

FFD

FFD

Fx=0

## (4/5) xFFD + FEF = 0

(4/5)xFFD = -FEF = - 16 kN
= - (5/4)x16 = - 20 kN Compression

KH

3 kN
E

12
kN

0 kN

B
+ 16 kN

+ 16 kN
9 kN

F
+ 12 kN

- 16 kN

+ 9 kN

- 20 kN

W
J

- 20 kN
C

+ 16 kN
12
kN

12
kN

Section Method

K
K
K

W
- -

W
CEEF BCE F

Ksection method

W

CEEFBCa-aK

3 kN

RA

B
9 kN

12
kN

RB

a-a
KCEEFBC

KEF

- -

3 kN
FEF

FEF

15 m

FEC
FEC
A

FBC

20 m

FBC
12
kN

9 kN

12
kN

12
kN

12

Ca-a
WFEF
WC E

MC =0
-FEF x 15 -12x20 =0
FEF = -240/15 = - 16 kN Compression
Ea-a E

ME =0

W FBC

+12x20 FBCx15 = 0
FBC = +240/15 = + 16 kN Tension
a-a E

Fy=0

W FEC

12 - 9 -3 - (3/5) FEC = 0
12 - 12 - (3/5) FEC= 0
FEC= 0
EC
K
- -

{
E

Kjoints

5m

D
E

5m

5m

5m

10 kN

13

KE
A

14
E
Kjoints

- -

20 kN

5m

10 m

10 m

20 kN

Kjoints
E

10 m

10 m

10 m

D
C

10 m

10 Kn

20 Kn

Kjoints

- -

15 kN
25 kN

45

45

45

5m

5m

45

10 kN

KjointsE
150 Kn

2m

4m

150 Kn
C

120 Kn
4m

8m

section method

- -

40 m
A

30 Kn

40 Kn 40 Kn

CH, CI, BJ E

Ksection method

10 kN
10 kN
10 kN
I

10 m

10 kN
H

10 kN

G
A

5@5 = 25 m

20

- -

6x30 = 180 m

A

6m

50 kN

5m

50 kN

C
E
5m

G
2

K
5 kN

20 kN

5 kN
C

1.6 m

3m

3m

12 kN

- -

]<gj]<]<j<^]<]

C,B,A

W
W

K100W

W

K

- -

C,B,A

{

K

FK
FK

F F

N/mm2 N/m2

F
=
A
W

## kN/mm2, N/m2, N/mm2

kg, kN , N EFWF
m2 , cm2, mm2WA
a

F
a

Section a-aW
- -

C,B,A

W
P = 30 kN

K3cmx2cm

W
WA
A = 3x 2 = 6 cm2= 6x10 m2

-4

W30 kN
=

P 30 x10
=
= 5 x10 7 N
= 50 N

4
m2
mm2
A 6 x10

{
FL0

FL EF
WE

L
L0

m , cm, mmL
mm, cm, m L0

KEF
- -

C,B,A

F
L

L0

30 L0
K
70 kN F10 cm cm

KK0.02 cm

70 kN

10 cm

70 kN

30 cm

A=

D2 =

AE
(0.1) 2 = 7.85 x103 m 2

4
4
70 x103
F
= =
= 8.92 x106 N 2 = 8.92 MN 2
3
m
m
A 7.85 x10

- -

C,B,A

70 x103
F
= =
= 8.92 x106 N 2 = 8.92 MN 2
3
m
m
A 7.85 x10

L
0 . 02 x 10 2
=
= 0 . 67 x 10
=
L0
30 x 10 2

{
K
high-strength

Ksteel
200 N/mm2

Hooke
EElastic

KE

(/mm2)

300

200

250

150
100
50

Stress

350

0 .0 5

S tra in

0 .1

W4

- -

C,B,A

E=

WE

= E.

kN/m2 , N/mm2 W

E F

K
KE

W
WF

WA

WL0
: F : L

E=

A = F .L 0
E =
=
L

L.A
L0

- -

C,B,A

L0AEF
W

L =

F .L0
E. A

- -

C,B,A

W
EGpaFE

EF

KFb = 70 kN
Fmax

150

80

Fy

70

Fb

Elongation

W
- -

C,B,A

W
E
E

E
K1 cm

A0 =

A0

## (0.02) 2 = 0.314 x10 3 m 2

y =

Fy
A0

80 x103
= 254 x10 6 N
m2
0.314 x10 3

WE

max =

Fmax
150 x103
=
= 477 x10 6 N
m2
0.314 x10 3
A0

A=

(0.01) 2 = 0.0785 x10 3 m 2

b =

Fb
70 x103
=
= 892 x10 6 N
m2
A 0.0785 x10 3

- -

C,B,A

E
F

shear stress
W

V
A
W

kG, kN, N V
m2, cm2, mm2A

WEF

=
L

m, cm, mmWL
m, cm, mm L

K
K
W

= G
- -

C,B,A

W
kN/m2, N/mm2 G

K G 2

W E EFG

E
G
=

2(1 + )

Poissons ratio

??

W2
EGpaFG

8075

30J 26

41J 36

10 kN

10 kN

10 kN

W
- -

10 kN

C,B,A

{
8
W

M
y
I

## kG.m , N.m , kN.m WM

mm4 , cm4, m4

moment of inertia

WI

Kneutal axisWy

- -

C,B,A

KEFA
W

bh3
Ix =
12

hb3
Iy =
12

x
b
y

Ix = Iy =

R
4

D
64

- -

C,B,A

W
K

10 kN

cm

cm

RA = RB = +kNZ

M = 5 x5 = 25kN .m

b.h3 5 x103
I=
=
= 0.42 x103 cm 4
12
12

W
10
y = h = = 5cm
2 2

- -

C,B,A

25 x10 3 x10
N
N
M
=
x
5
2976
29
.
76
y=
=
=
I
0 .42 x10 3
cm 2
mm 2

{
F = 20 kN 2.5 cm
KE = 70 GN/m2

6 cm 40 cm

1 MN/m2

K
E = 200 GN/m2.

6 cm

P
40 cm

6 mm19 mm

K116 kN

- -

C,B,A

P = 116 kN

19 m m
6 mm

ABC

BC50 mmABP

40 MpaABK38 mm
.BC

13.3 12 mm1m

kN
K0.5 mm

12 mm

13.3 kN

1m

- -

13.3 kN

C,B,A

## q = 6.4 kN/m 3.5 m

K
(b = 140 mm, h = 240 mmF

K
q kN/m
240 mm
3.5 m

140 mm

q = 60 kN/m 2 m
K(b = 50 mm, h = 150 mmF

K E

c = 500 mmBE

Kd = 25 mm

q kN/m

150 mm
d
50 mm

L=2m

- -

C,B,A

K= 16 kN

## K(b = 100 mm, h = 250 mmF

W

E
K E

E
5.5 kN/m3

P
B

250 mm
100 mm

2.5 m
0.5 m

0.5 m

- -

C,B,A

J
Area Moments of Inertia

- -

C,B,A

J B
Areas and Volume

- -

C,B,A

1. Right Angles

a
= cos B
c
b
cos A = = sin B
c
a
tan A = = cot B
b
c
sec A = = cosec B
b
c
cosec A = = sec B
a
b
cot A = = tan B
a
sin A =

2. Derived Relationships

## b = c cos A = c sin B = a cot A = a tan B = c 2 - a 2

c=

a
a
b
b
=
=
=
=
sin A cos B sin B cos A

- -

a 2 + b2

C,B,A

3. Oblique Triangles

a- Sine Law

a
b
c
=
=
sin A sin B sin C
b- Cosine Law

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 - 2 bc cos A

b 2 = a 2 + c 2 - 2 ac cos B
c 2 = a 2 + b 2 - 2 ab cos C
4. General Trigonometric Formulas

sin A = 2 sin

1
2

A cos A =
2

1

tan A =

sin 2A
sin A
=
=
cos A 1 + cos 2A

- -

sec 2 A - 1

C,B,A

## sin (A B) = sin A . cos B sin B . cos A

cos (A B) = cos A . cos B sin A . sin B

tan (A B) =

tan A tan B
1 tan A . tan B
1

## sin A + sin B = 2 sin ( A + B) . sin (A - B)

sin A sin B = 2 cos ( A + B) . sin (A - B)

## cos A + cos B = 2 cos ( A + B) . cos (A - B)

cos A cos B = 2 sin ( A + B) . sin (A - B)
b- double-Angle Identities

## sin 2A = 2 sin A . cos A

cos 2A = cos 2 A - sin 2 A = 1 - 2 sin 2 A = 2 cos 2 A - 1

tan 2A =

2 tan A
1 tan 2 A

c- Half-Angle Identities

sin

A
=
2

1 - cos A
2

cos

A
=
2

1 + cos A
2

tan

A
sin A
=
2
1 + cos A

- -

KWKK
K

KEJ J F

KEJ J F

## . Engineering Mechanics Statics, 2nd Edition.

By Anthony Bedford and Wallace Fowler, Addison-Wesley, 1999.

Chapman & Hall, New York, 1986.. Jafar Vossoughi, Statics for Architects,

## for Engineers,. Ferdinand P. Beer and E. Russell Johnston, Vector Mechanics

McGraw-Hill Book Company, Singapore, 1990.

- -

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Free-Body Diagram{
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