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Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to determine the concentration of acetic acid through a titration with sodium hydroxide.

Theory: In the lab, the goal is to obtain the equivalence point of a titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide, as well as oxalic acid with sodium hydroxide. Mass by difference: The mass was determined through the use of mass by difference. The masses of both the graduated cylinder used to measure the acetic acid and the paper boat used to measure the oxalic acid must first be obtained on the electronic scale. Then, the masses of the graduated cylinder with acetic acid in it and the paper boat with oxalic acid in it must be determined on the scale as well. Through taking away the masses of the graduated cylinder and paper boat from the mass of the graduated cylinder with acetic acid and the paper boat with oxalic acid, the masses of the acetic acid and oxalic acid alone are obtained. Titrations Titrations are performed to determine the concentration of a substance. This is accomplished by adding a buret full of substance with unknown concentration to a beaker full of another substance. Once the reaction is at its equivalence point, an indicator will cause the solution to change colors. The volume of substance from the buret along with the volume of solution in the beaker and the known molarity of one substance will be used to determine the unknown molarity of the substance in the buret. Balanced Equation In this particular experiment, sodium hydroxide is the substance with the unknown concentration, which will be added to a beaker containing acetic acid. The reaction is as follows: NaOH (aq) + HC2H3O2 2H2O (aq) H2O (l) + NaC2H3O2 (aq) Molarity The molarity measures the concentration of a solution. It is measured in number of moles per liter. Molarity= Molessolute/Volumesolution Unknown Molarity The unknown molarity of NaOH must be determined through calculations. To obtain the molarity, the product of the volume of the solvent, molarity of the solvent, and the mole ratio is determined. The molarity of the solute is the quotient of this product and the volume of the solute. Molarity= (Volumesolvent x molessolvent/Vsolvent x molessolute/molessolvent) / Volumesolute Percent Mass

The percent mass is determined by calculating the quotient of the mass of a substance and the mass of the total substance. The product of this number and 100 determined the percent mass. %Mass = (grams of solute/ grams of solution) x 100 Percent Volume The percent volume is the quotient of the mass of part of a substance and the volume of the total substance. %Mass by Volume= (grams of solute/Liters of solution) x 100 Procedure: 1. A 100 mL solution of NaOH is prepared to use in the experiment. 2. A paper boat is massed on an electronic scale to obtain the mass. 3. A sample of oxalic acid is massed with the paper boat on the same electronic scale. 4. The oxalic acid is placed in a flask with enough water for the oxalic acid to dissolve completely. 5. 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein are added to the oxalic acid solution as an acidbase indicator. 6. 50 mL of NaOH is poured into the buret. 7. The NaOH is poured out of the buret and into the solution of oxalic acid until the solution turns to a faint pink. 1. A 10.00mL graduated cylinder is massed, and 10.00 mL of acetic acid solution is placed in the cylinder. 2. The cylinder with the acetic acid is massed. 3. The acetic acid is placed into a flask. 8. 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein are added to the acetic acid solution as an acidbase indicator. 4. Pour the NaOH out of the buret into the flask with acetic acid to titrate it until the solution turns to a faint pink color. Data: Mass of cylinder: 7.95g Mass of cylinder and acetic acid: 17.98g Initial Volume NaOH: 10.09 ml Final Volume NaOH: 31.32ml Mass of paper boat: 1.2017g Mass of paper boat and oxalic acid: 1.6092g Initial volume: 1.19ml Final volume: 18.41ml