Anda di halaman 1dari 41

difference Between Jihad And Terrorism

Categorized under Miscellaneous

palestinian-militantsJihad vs Terrorism
Jihad is an Islamic term used to describe ones dut! towards Islam" Terrorism on the other hand
is the act of tr!ing to instill feelings of terror in the general population b! acts or deeds"
Jihad as per Islam stands for struggle" This struggle can be to protect ones countr!# religion#
famil!# or to save someone elses life" Jihad can even be ones struggle to ma$e himself a
better human being" This has been called as the greater %ihad b! some" Terrorism# however#
is never to protect" The sole purpose of terrorism is to cause enough harm# pain and agon!
to someone to ma$e him feel insecure" The word Terrorism would normall! be used when
to s!stematic episodes of mass destruction or $illings" It would not be normall! used to pett!
crimes" It has nothing to do with religion as neither Islam nor an! other religion in the world
preaches destruction and $illings"
Terrorism is often fueled b! materialistic or territorial goals generall! with no regard to
religion whereas a %ihad is the struggle in the path of god and has no other goal apart from
Terrorism is alwa!s directed towards the $illing of innocent civilians and ma! be b! wa! of
e&plosions# attac$s# etc# while# %ihad is not permitted against innocent"
Both these terms are vastl! misused" 'hile politicians the world over have often discredit
their political rivals b! calling or classif!ing them as terrorists and their struggles as
terrorism# terrorists on the other hand have alwa!s tried to %ustif! their acts and deeds b!
calling and categorizing them as %ihad# however# there is no reference in Islam or an! other
religion where %ihad %ustifies the $illing of innocent people or damage to propert!"
)" Jihad is the term used to describe ones dut! towards Islam while terrorism is an act
committed to instill fear in the population"
*" Jihad need not alwa!s be violent however terrorism is alwa!s violent"
+" Jihad is alwa!s performed for ,od# while terrorism alwa!s has materialistic goals"
-" Terrorism is alwa!s directed to harm innocent civilians while Jihad does not permit this"
'h! are there verses in the .uran that encourage Muslims to $ill non-believers wherever
the! find them/ Boo$mar$ and (hare
The Importance of Conte&t
The word 0conte&t has two dictionar! meanings1
)" The parts of a written or spo$en statement that precede or follow a specific word or
passage# usuall! influencing its meaning or effect" *" The set of circumstances or facts that
surround a particular event# situation# etc"
An! discussion on .uranic verses that refer to violence would be meaningless# without a stud! of
the surrounding conte&t" Before we stud! the verses in 2uestion# therefore# let us e&amine this
issue in a wider perspective1
The (anctit! of 3ife
The ,lorious .uran sa!s1
45ta$e not life# which ,od hath made sacred# e&cept b! wa! of %ustice and law1 thus doth 6e
command !ou# that !e ma! learn wisdom"7 8Al-.uran 91):);
Islam considers all life forms as sacred" 6owever# the sanctit! of human life is accorded a
special place" The first and the foremost basic right of a human being is the right to live"
The ,lorious .uran sa!s1
45if an! one slew a person - unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land - it
would be as if he slew the whole people1 and if an! one saved a life# it would be as if he
saved the life of the whole people"7 8Al-.uran :1+*;
The value of human life is so great# that the .uran e2uates the ta$ing of even one human life
un%ustl! with the $illing of all humanit!"
The <erses of 'ar
The words that often cause consternation among those unfamiliar with Islam# are1 45and sla!
them wherever !e catch them57
The truth is that this is onl! part of verse )=) of Chapter * of the .uran" 3et us read the
verses )=> to )=) in order to get a complete picture1
4?ight in the cause of Allah those who fight !ou# but do not transgress limits@ for Allah
loveth not transgressors" And sla! them wherever !e catch them# and turn them out from where
the! have Turned !ou out@ for tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter@ but fight them
not at the (acred Mos2ue# unless the! AfirstB fight !ou there@ but if the! fight !ou# sla! them" (uch
is the reward of those who suppress faith"7 8Al-.uran *1)=>-)=);
It is a well-$nown fact of Islamic histor!# that fighting against aggressors was prohibited
during the first thirteen !ears of the Crophets mission" After Muslims migrated to Medina#
the verses above were revealed to enable the communit! to fight in self-defense" The verses
that follow clearl! indicate Islams prohibition on aggression and inclination towards peace1
4But if the! cease# Allah is Dft-forgiving# Most Merciful" And fight them on until there is no
more tumult or oppression# and there prevail %ustice and faith in Allah@ but if the! cease# let
there be no hostilit! e&cept to those who practise oppression"7 8Al-.uran *1)=*-)=+;
The verses above specificall! refer to fighting against oppression and in defense of religious
freedom as the ,lorious .uran sa!s1
43et there be no compulsion in religion7 8Al-.uran *1*:9;
?air-Eealing Towards All
'hen read in conte&t# the above verses do not even remotel! suggest an e&hortation for Muslims
to be vicious or hateful towards people of other faiths" ?ar from this# the .uran actuall!
re2uires that Muslims conduct themselves with fairness and dignit! in all matters# and
especiall! in regard to interfaith relations# as indicated b! the following verse1
4Allah forbids !ou not# with regard to those who fight !ou not for A!ourB ?aith nor drive !ou
out of !our homes# from dealing $indl! and %ustl! with them1 for Allah loveth those who are
%ust"F 8Al-.uran 9>1G;
,uidance from the 6ol! .urHan
Jihad - (upreme Ifforts in the 'a! of Allah
Jihad means# e&erting oneHs utmost power contending with an ob%ect of disapprobation# and this
is of three $inds# namel!# A)B with a visible enem!# A*B with (atan# and A+B with oneHs self"
The .uran teaches that when war brea$s out# it should be waged in such a wa! as to cause the
least possible amount of damage to life and propert!@ and that hostilities should be brought
to a close as 2uic$l! as possible"
**1-> Cermission to fight is given to those against whom war is made# because the! have
been wronged - and Allah indeed has power to help them -
**1-) Those who have been driven out from their homes un%ustl! onl! because the! said#
HDur 3ord is AllahH - And if Allah did not repel some men b! means of others# there would
surel! have been pulled down cloisters and churches and s!nagogues and mos2ues# wherein the
name of Allah is oft commemorated" And Allah will surel! help one who helps 6im" Allah is
indeed Cowerful# Might! -
9>1= Allah forbids !ou not# respecting those who have not fought against !ou on account of
!our religion# and who have not driven !ou forth from !our homes# that !ou be $ind to them and
act e2uitabl! towards them@ surel! Allah loves those who are e2uitable"
9>1)> Allah onl! forbids !ou - respecting those who have fought against !ou on account of
!our religion# and have driven !ou out of !our homes# and have helped others in driving !ou out#
that !ou ma$e friends of them# and whosoever ma$es friends of them-it is these that are the
9)1)) D !e who believeJ shall I point out to !ou a bargain that will save !ou from a painful
9)1)* That !ou believe in Allah and 6is Messenger# and strive in the cause of Allah with
!our wealth and !our persons" That is better for !ou# if !ou did not $now"
*=1K> And as for those who strive in Dur path-'e will surel! guide them in Dur wa!s" And
veril! Allah is with those who do good"
=1*> Those who believe and emigrate from their homes for the sa$e of ,od and strive in the
cause of Allah with their propert! and their persons have the highest ran$ in the sight of Allah"
And it is the! who shall triumph"
=1))) (urel!# Allah has purchased of the believers their persons and their propert! in
return for the ,arden the! shall have@ the! fight in the cause of Allah# and the! sla! and are
slain - a promise that 6e has made incumbent on 6imself in the Torah# and the ,ospel# and the
.urHan" And who is more faithful to his promise than Allah/ Le%oice# then# in !our bargain which
!ou have made with 6im@ and that it is which is the supreme triumph"
-1=9 Those of the believers who sit still# e&cepting the disabled ones# and those who strive
in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their persons# are not e2ual" Allah has e&alted in
ran$ those who strive with their wealth and their persons above those who sit still" And to
each Allah has promised good" And Allah has e&alted those who strive above those who sit still#
b! a great reward"
?rom (elected <erses of the 6ol! .urHan Taliban and Jihad M whats the thought
'hat if we read 6ol! .uran and 6adiths of 6ol! Crophet Apeace be upon himB without the
of Jihad# there could be number of people# both in 'est N Iast# who would feel happier than
before/ Because the! feel that the root cause of toda!s crisis is Jihadi approach of radical
Muslims" If radicals could give it up then the world would be much saferJ
This argument for worlds peace loo$s 2uite appealing however we need to review as wh! Islam
Muslims present Jihad and in what perspectiveJ
Oon-radical Muslims are mostl! inclined towards the glittering of 'estern or materialistic
societ! and the! are wor$ing towards achieving such goalsJ 6ence the real fight is between
radical Muslims versus non-practicing MuslimsJ Theres onl! one e&ception to this formula"
Ladical Muslims are not violent against those non-Muslims who are not violent against them tooJ
Dnce we understand this ground formula we would be able to understand the Jihadi approach of
radical Muslims"
Islam feels that the s!stem of governance# it is putting forward to humanit!# is a sort of
divine revelation and based on that worlds peace could be achieved" In a wa!# Islam sets up a
direct lin$ between peace N Jihad" It sa!s# 4Jihad is mandator! against all the oppressors# as and
when needed# where ever it e&ists"7
3oo$ing bac$ at the histor!# 6ol! Crophet Muhammad ACeace be upon himB once strengthen the
s!stem of governance in the cit! of Madinah# had started sending letters to rulers of his time#
inviting them towards the true path of Islam" And for those who had re%ected his preaching
AEawatB# he had sent soldiers to fight with them and install new rulers who were li$el! to embrace
B! loo$ing at the Islamic histor!# we could formulate few rules easil!1
)" Islam# in its approach# is the onl! right divine revelation# came to correct the past
revelations Abrought b! Jesus or MosesB those became distorted in Kth centur! AE
*" 6ence# the s!stem of societ! which Islam has formulated# is the one N onl! s!stem# that
could lead the humanit! towards the path of survival and peace
+" Basis on that# 6ol! Crophet Apeace be upon himB had penned down man! letters to various
heads of states# during his time# to embrace Islam and adopt its s!stem and approach" If !ou are
den!ing to do so then be read! until it would be decided in the battle field and if we would be
successful we would install the s!stem of societ!# which is Islam
-" After 6ol! Crophet# all four Muslim rulers APhulfa e LashideenB had continued this Jihad
philosoph! and conducted it with full religious zeal
:" Iven after that# Muslims rulers# who were not termed as Phalifas# continued to conduct
Jihad and to spread Islam far N wide
9" To eradicate the evils and wrongs# now rooted in societ!# Jihad is the wa!" But an!
practising individual has not been given an! right to combat against an! non-practising Muslim
or non-Muslim# violentl! or ta$ing his or her live
K" To align with true spirit of Jihad# a s!stem of Islamic governance is mandator! that
could perform dual chec$ over the fighting armies as the! should be align per the war guidelines
chal$ed out b! Islam" ,eneva Convention for CD' has borrowed number of items from the same
charter documented b! 6ol! prophet centuries ago"
G" Crivate armies couldnt fight against each other or in the name of Allah against non
Muslims" 3i$e in Ca$istan bordering areas# each Islamic seminar!# initiall! inspired b! their
Afghan counterparts# has become the source of such struggle
=" Islam didnt consider the fight among the private Muslims armies as Jihad
)>" An agreed sincere ruler is mandator!# such as Phalifa# not necessaril! he would be termed
as Phalifa
))" The essence of Jihad is to install the Islamic s!stem of governance in that area# rather
than e&pansion of Islamic government or setting up individuals authorit!
B! $nowing these simple facts about Jihad and its operation# we need to loo$ at the thoughts of
radical Muslims# as how the! feel about their Q(-inclined fellows" The! term in toda!s
world M main issues are as under1
)" ,enerall!# Muslims all over the world# are divided into two categories M practising and
non-practising# those who are inclined towards the materialistic civilization"
*" In sub continent this inclination credit goes to late (ir (!ed Ahmed Phan# who had
advised Muslims of his time to accept British language# scientific $nowledge
Aall were in Inglish languageB# and inter-mi&ing with Inglish societ! to defeat the rising
6indus# who were populous" In an environment of defeat# unfortunatel! British culture came
along with the lines of education and hence traditional Iastern culture had lost its ground"
6ow much (ir (!ed was successful# we could see that the division between Madrsahs N
are far N wide and couldnt be bridgedJ The height of this gap comes to a level that religious
seminaries students# now termed as Taliban collectivel!# ma! conclude that the time is not far
awa! when so-called Ca$istani writers or intellects could term the battle of Badr as 0<iolence
against Abu Jehal"
+" This division is resulting fights among Muslims onl!" If !ou loo$ at Ca$istan # (wat Arm!
Dperation against Taliban# both sides are raising Allah o A$bar slogans against each other in
the battle field" ,overnment of Ca$istan and its arm! feels that the! are the one who is on the
right path" Thats how the! termed their operation as Dperation Lahe e Last where as Taliban
that the! are fighting against those Muslims who are partnering with Q( and Allied forces" And Q(
forces are being conducting atrocities in neighbouring Afghanistan # hence fight against Ca$istan
or its Arm! is the true path of toda!s Islamic need
-" Beside ethnic warfare in southern Cun%ab of Ca$istan# students of religious seminaries
feel that their non practising brothers N sisters are getting out of Islamic circle and hence
few# became 2uite violent in their approach# have started $illing each other through various
means" (uicide attac$s are one of the e&amples of some religious fanatic against his own
:" 'ith this internal division# and surrounded b! number of enemies A?or e&ample Ca$istan#
where India in Iast and Indian aligned Afghanistan in 'est harbouring number of conspiracies
against itB# in Muslims states democrac! could bring real fruits# up to a level where a societ!
could be formed within the guidelines of Islam and social %ustice
9" The failure of democrac!# especiall! in illiterate Muslim world# is 2uite evident" In a
countr! li$e Ca$istan # where democrac! is hi%ac$ed b! feudal lords since last 9> !ears# has
paved the wa! towards internal division of religious forces# due to their thoughts too# and
hence internal frustration is paving the wa! towards violent activities those are ta$ing ground
swiftl!" Ithnic fights are one of the main out come of internal divisions
K" Qltimatel!# the concept of nation state had developed a societ!# s!stem# force# arm! but
all without the governance guidelines of Islam" An! one who is part of that s!stem or societ!#
if practices Islam# does it personall!" (o !ou ma! find a soldier# who has grown beard or pra!s
five times da!# but all based on his personal intuition
G" 6ence# with this half-ba$ed democrac!# theres no Islamic s!stem of government e&ist in
an! of the Muslim countries with the e&ception of Iran " Crobabl!# the root cause is the concept
of Oation (tate# which has evolved in last centur!" Qltimatel! the concept of Qmmah has also
to bac$ground"
'ithin this conte&t when a religious student loo$s at the state of affairs surrounding him# he
feels threatened b! his own wea$ness and finds no wa! to change the societ!" If !ou loo$ at (ufi
Muhammad# or ?azlullah or Muslim or Izzat Phan or an! religious activist in Oorthern areas of
Ca$istan# !ou could find that the! are much inspired b! the success of Taliban in Afghanistan#
now willing to implement the (hariah# of their own faction# b! force"
Beside them# number of infiltrators within Taliban forces# either b! India or Parzai govt for
their own vested motives# is serving two purposes1 defamation against Islamic s!stem of
governance or punishments and building pressure upon present Ca$istani wea$ govt to get e&tra
leverage in terms of Q( logistic support"
3ast# the presence of Q( forces in Afghanistan or Ca$istani border areas# where wee$l! drone
attac$s are $illing number of innocents# is provo$ing the emotions of revenge# which is 2uite
obvious in an! tribal societ!"
This is eleventh hour for Ca$istan M not govt onl! but common men too# to re thin$ about the
choices for which this countr! came into e&istence" In last 9> !ears social in%ustices have torn
apart the entire nation" A silent revolution# a sense of hatred against elites is being
developed among poors" Crobabl!# the recent arm! operation or ,ovt supported Q(-controlled
Erone attac$s ma! gain some success over Taliban and the! might get crushed as of now" But in
long run# Taliban or radical forces have laid the foundations to defeat super powers" The painful
histor! from *>>) till *>>= has taught that religious forces# even if the! are partiall! astra!#
couldnt be curbed b! drones or missiles or bullets"
Theres a need to anal!se the concept of Taliban (hariah and after cleansing Taliban approach
from Afghan or tribal culture or traditions# there would be no choice for people of Ca$istan to
decide M the wa! or to wait for AllahJ
6istor! of the Taliban1 'ho The! Are# 'hat The! 'ant
B! Cierre Tristam# About"com ,uide
(ee More About1
R taliban
R afghanistan
R pa$istan
R terrorism
R religious fundamentalism
) of K
Crev Oe&t
The Taliban1 An Introduction
FTaliban are bac$F
The Taliban are bac$
Moslihh via ?lic$r Aflic$r"comSphotosSmoslihSB
The TalibanTfrom the Arabic word for student# 4taleb7Tare fundamentalist (unni Muslims# mostl!
from Afghanistans Cashtun tribes" The Taliban dominates large swaths of Afghanistan and a
part of Ca$istans ?ederall! Administered Tribal Areas"
The Taliban see$ to establish a puritanical caliphate that neither recognizes nor tolerates
forms of Islam divergent from their own" The! scorn democrac! or an! secular or pluralistic
political process as an offense against Islam" The Talibans Islam# however# a close $in of
(audi Arabian 'ahhabism# is far more perversion than interpretation" The Talibans version of
Islamic law# or (haria# is historicall! inaccurate# contradictor!# self-serving and fundamentall!
deviant from prevailing interpretations of Islamic law and practice" The TalibanHs Drigins
A !oung bo! carries a heav! bag in a refugee camp in Pabul# Afghanistan in June *>>G" The
upsurge of fighting in southern Afghanistan during *>>9 has compelled tens of thousands of
people to flee their homes"
Manoocher EeghatiSILIO
There was no such thing as a Taliban until the Afghanistans civil war in the wa$e of (oviet troops
withdrawal in )=G=# after a decade-long occupation" But b! the time their last troops withdrew in
?ebruar! )=G=# the!d left a nation in social and economic shards# )": million dead# millions of
refugees and orphans in Iran and Ca$istan# and gaping political vacuum that warlords attempted
to fill" Afghan mu%ahideen warlords replaced their war with the (oviets with a civil war"
Thousands of Afghan orphans grew up never $nowing Afghanistan or their parents# especiall!
their mothers" The! were schooled in Ca$istans madrassas# religious schools which# in this case#
were encouraged and financed b! Ca$istani and (audi authorities to develop militantl! inclined
Islamists" Ca$istan nurtured that corps of militants as pro&! fighters in Ca$istans ongoing conflict
with over Muslim-dominated Aand disputedB Pashmir" But Ca$istan consciousl! intended to use
the madrassas militants as leverage in its attempt to control Afghanistan as well"
As Jeri 3aber of 6uman Lights 'atch wrote in the Oew Uor$ Leview of Boo$s of the origins of the
Taliban in refugee camps Arecalling an article hed written in )=G9B#
6undreds of thousands of !ouths# who $new nothing of life but the bombings that destro!ed
their homes and drove them to see$ refuge over the border# were being raised to hate and to
fight# 4in the spirit of Jihad#7 a 4hol! war7 that would restore Afghanistan to its people" 4Oew $inds
of Afghans are being born in the struggle#7 I reported" 4Caught in the midst of a grownups war# the
!oung Afghans are under intense political pressure from one side or another# almost from birth"F
8"""; The children that I interviewed and wrote about in )=G9 are now !oung adults" Man! are now
with the Taliban" Mullah Dmar and the TalibanHs Lise in Afghanistan
FMullah Muhammad Dmar of the TalibanF
An undated photograph believed to be of the TalibanHs Mullah Muhammad Dmar# who is said
never to allow himself to be photographed"
,ett! Images
As civil war was ravaging Afghanistan# Afghans were desperate for a stabilizing counter-force that
would put an end to the violence"
The Talibans most original aims were# as Ahmed Lashid# the Ca$istani %ournalist and author of
Taliban A*>>>B# wrote# to 4restore peace# disarm the population# enforce (haria law and defend
the integrit! and Islamic character of Afghanistan"
As most of them were part-time or full-time students at madrassas# the name the! chose for
themselves was natural" A talib is an Islamic student# one who see$s $nowledge compared to the
mullah who is one who gives $nowledge" B! choosing such a name the Taliban Aplural of TalibB
distanced themselves from the part! politics of the mu%ahideen and signaled that the! were a
movement for cleansing societ! rather than a part! tr!ing to grab power"7
?or their leader in Afghanistan# the Taliban turned to Mohammed Dmar# an itinerant preacher
li$el! born in )=:= in Oodeh village near Pandahar# in southeastern Afghanistan" 6e had neither
tribe nor religious pedigree" 6e had fought the (oviets and been wounded four times# including
once in the e!e" 6is reputation was that of a pious ascetic"
DmarHs reputation grew when he ordered a group of Taliban militants to arrest a warlord who had
captured two teenage girls and raped them" The +> Talibs# with %ust )9 rifles between themTor so
goes the stor!# one of man! near-m!thical accounts that have grown around Dmars histor!T
attac$ed the commanders based# freed the girls# and hanged the commander b! their favorite
means1 from the barrel of a tan$# in full view# as an e&ample of Taliban %ustice"
The Talibans reputation grew through similar feats" Benazir Bhutto# Ca$istanHs Intelligence
(ervices and the Taliban
Leligious indoctrination in Ca$istans madrassas and Dmars campaigns against rapists alone
were not the light that lit the Taliban fuse" The Ca$istani intelligence services $nown as the Inter-
(ervices Intelligence Eirectorate# or I(I# the Ca$istani militar! and Benazir Bhutto# who was prime
minister of Ca$istan during the Talibans most politicall! and militaril! formative !ears A)==+-=9B#
all saw in the Taliban a pro&! arm! the! could manipulate to Ca$istans ends"
In )==-# Bhuttos government appointed the Taliban as protector of Ca$istani convo!s through
Afghanistan" Controlling trade routs and the lucrative windfalls those routes provide in
Afghanistan is a ma%or source of lucre and power" The Taliban proved uni2uel! effective# swiftl!
defeating other warlords and con2uering ma%or Afghan cities"
Beginning in )==-# The Taliban rose to power and established their brutal# totalitarian rule over =>
percent of the countr!# in part b! leading a genocidal campaign against Afghanistans (hiite# or
6azara" The Taliban and the Clinton Administration
?ollowing Ca$istans lead# the Clinton administration initiall! supported the Talibans rise" Clintons
%udgment was clouded b! the 2uestion that has often led American polic! astra! in the region1
'ho can best chec$ Irans influence/ In the )=G>s# the Leagan administration armed and
financed (addam 6ussein under the assumption that a totalitarian Ira2 was more acceptable than
an unbridled# Islamic Iran" The polic! bac$fired in the form of two wars# one of which has !et to
In the )=G>s# the Leagan administration also funded the mu%ahideen in Afghanistan as well as
their Islamist supporters in Ca$istan" That blowbac$ too$ the form of al-.aeda" As the (oviets
withdrew and the cold war ended# American support for Afghan mu%ahideen stopped abruptl!# but
militar! and diplomatic support for Afghanistan did not" Qnder the influence of Benazir Bhutto# the
Clinton administration voiced itself willing to open a dialogue with the Taliban in the mid-)==>s#
especiall! as the Taliban was the onl! force in Afghanistan capable of guaranteeing another
American interest in the region T potential oil pipelines"
Dn (ept" *K# )==9# ,l!n Eavies# a (tate Eepartment spo$esman# e&pressed hope that the
Taliban 4will move 2uic$l! to restore order and securit! and to form a representative interim
government that can begin the process of reconciliation nationwide"7 Eavies called the Talibans
e&ecution of former Afghan Cresident Oa%ibullah merel! 4regrettable#7 and said the Qnited (tates
would send diplomats to Afghanistan to meet with the Taliban# potentiall! to re-establishing full
diplomatic ties" The Clintons administrations flirtation with the Taliban did not last# however# as
Madeleine Albright# incensed b! the Talibans treatment of women# among other regressive
measures# halted it when she became secretar! o The TalibanHs Lepressions and Legressions1 A
'ar on 'omen
Fbuddhist statues at bami!anF
'here the Buddhist colossus once stood# withstanding the barbarism of ,enegis Phan and that
of invaders before and since--until the Taliban demolished it in ?ebruar!-March *>>)"
Choto b! John MooreS,ett! Images
The TalibanHs long lists of edicts and decrees too$ an especiall! misog!nistic view of women"
(chools for girls were closed" 'omen were forbidden to wor$ or leave their homes without
verifiable permission" 'earing non-Islamic dress was forbidden" 'earing ma$e-up# sporting
western products li$e purses or shoes# was forbidden" Music# dancing# cinemas# an! form of non-
religious broadcasting and entertainment were banned" 3awbrea$ers were beaten# flogged# shot
or beheaded"
In )==-# Dsama bin 3aden moved to Pandahar as a guest of Mullah Dmar" Dn Aug" *+# )==9# bin
3aden declared war on the Qnited (tates and e&erted increasing influence on Dmar# helping to
fund the Talibans offensives against other warlords in the north of the countr!" That lavish
financial support made it impossible for Mullah Dmar not to protect bin 3aden when (audi Arabia#
then the Qnited (tates# pressured the Taliban to e&tradite bin 3aden" The fates and ideolog! of al-
.aeda and the Taliban became intertwined"
At the height of their power# in March *>>)# the Taliban demolished the two enormous# centuries-
old Buddha statues of Bami!an# an act that showed to the world in wa!s that the Talibans wanton
massacres and oppression should have much earlier the ruthless# distorted Curitanism of the
Talibans interpretation of Islam" The TalibanHs *>>) Eownfall
Ftaliban in tribal areas of pa$istanF
A Taliban militant sporting the beard re2uired b! Taliban edict contributes mone! at a table for
Hmu%ahideenH in the village of Poza Bandi in the (wat <alle!# Ca$istan# a tribal area controlled b!
the Taliban"
John MooreS,ett! Images
The Taliban were overthrown in the *>>) American-bac$ed invasion of Afghanistan" The Taliban
were never defeated# however" The! retreated# regrouped# especiall! in Ca$istan# and b! *>>9
were again controlling vast swaths of southern and western Afghanistan while inflicting heav!
casualties on OATD and American forces"
The Ca$istani Taliban is %ust as powerful" It now controls Ca$istans ?ederall! Administered Tribal
Areas# virtuall! immune from Ca$istani law and authorit!" Mullah Dmar and bin laden are believed
to be hiding in those tribal areasTand planning strateg! against the OATD-American presence in
Afghanistan# against Ca$istans secular rulers# as well as tacticall! directing al-.aeda attac$s
elsewhere in the world" In *>>K# al-.aeda was responsible for close to +> attac$s# the most# for a
single !ear# in its histor!".uestion1 'hat is Jihad/
The word Jihad stems from the Arabic root word J-6-E# which means Fstrive"F Dther words
derived from this root include Feffort#F Flabor#F and Ffatigue"F Issentiall! Jihad is an effort to
practice religion in the face of oppression and persecution" The effort ma! come in fighting the
evil in !our own heart# or in standing up to a dictator" Militar! effort is included as an option# but as
a last resort and not Fto spread Islam b! the swordF as the stereot!pe would have one believe"
Answer1 The .urHan describes Jihad as a s!stem of chec$s and balances# as a wa! that Allah set
up to Fchec$ one people b! means of another"F 'hen one person or group transgresses their
limits and violates the rights of others# Muslims have the right and the dut! to Fchec$F them and
bring them bac$ into line" There are several verses of the .urHan that describe %ihad in this
manner" Dne e&ample1
FAnd did not Allah chec$ one set of people b! means of another#
the earth would indeed be full of mischief@
but Allah is full of Bount! to all the worldsF
-.urHan *1*:)
Islam never tolerates unprovo$ed aggression from its own side@ Muslims are commanded in the
.urHan not to begin hostilities# embar$ on an! act of aggression# violate the rights of others# or
harm the innocent" Iven hurting or destro!ing animals or trees is forbidden" 'ar is waged onl! to
defend the religious communit! against oppression and persecution# because the .urHan sa!s
that Fpersecution is worse than slaughterF and Flet there be no hostilit! e&cept to those who
practice oppressionF A.urHan *1)=>-)=+B" Therefore# if non-Muslims are peaceful or indifferent to
Islam# there is no %ustified reason to declare war on them"
The .urHan describes those people who are permitted to fight1
FThe! are those who have been e&pelled from their homes
in defiance of right# for no cause e&cept that the! sa!#
HDur 3ord is Allah"H
Eid not Allah chec$ one set of people b! means of another#
there would surel! have been pulled down monasteries# churches#
s!nagogues# and mos2ues# in which the name of ,od is commemorated
in abundant measure"""F
-.urHan **1->
Oote that the verse specificall! commands the protection of all houses of worship" ?inall!# the
.urHan also sa!s# F3et there be no compulsion in religionF A*1*:9B" ?orcing someone at the point
of a sword to choose death or Islam is an idea that is foreign to Islam in spirit and in historical
practice" There is absolutel! no 2uestion of waging a Fhol! warF to Fspread the faithF and compel
people to embrace Islam@ that would be an unhol! war and the peopleHs forced conversions would
not be sincere"uestion1 'hat does the .urHan sa! about terrorism/
Muslims claim that their faith promotes %ustice# peace# and freedom" Critics of the faith Aand some
Muslims themselvesB cite verses from the .urHan that seem to promote violent# armed warfare"
6ow can these different images be reconciled/
Answer1 The entire .urHan# ta$en as a complete te&t# gives a message of hope# faith# and peace
to a faith communit! of one billion people" The overwhelming message is that peace is to be
found through faith in ,od# and %ustice among fellow human beings"
At the time the .urHan was revealed AKth centur! A"E"B# there was no Qnited Oations or Amnest!
International to $eep the peace or e&pose in%ustice" Inter-tribal violence and vengeance was
commonplace" As a matter of survival# one must have been willing to defend against aggression
from all sides" Oevertheless# the .urHan repeatedl! urges forgiveness and restraint# and warns
believers not to FtransgressF or become Foppressors"F (ome e&amples1
If an!one sla!s a person
- unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land -
it would be as if he slew all people"
And if an!one saves a life#
it would be as if he saved the life of all people"
.urHan :1+*
Invite all to the wa! of !our 3ord
with wisdom and beautiful preaching"
And argue with them
in wa!s that are best and most gracious"""
And if !ou punish#
let !our punishment be proportional
to the wrong that has been done to !ou"
But if !ou show patience# that is indeed the best course"
Be patient# for !our patience is from ,od"
And do not grieve over them#
or distress !ourself because of their plots"
?or ,od is with those who restrain themselves#
and those who do good"
.urHan )91)*:-)*G
Dh !ou who believeJ
(tand out firml! for %ustice# as witnesses to ,od#
even against !ourselves# or !our parents# or !our $in#
and whether it be against rich or poor#
for ,od can best protect both"
?ollow not the cravings of !our hearts# lest !ou swerve#
and if !ou distort %ustice or decline to do %ustice#
veril! ,od is well ac2uainted with all that !ou do"
.urHan -1)+:
The recompense for an in%ur!
is an in%ur! e2ual thereto Ain degreeB#
but if a person forgives and ma$es reconciliation#
his reward is due from ,od#
for ,od loves not those who do wrong"
But indeed# if an! do help and defend themselves
after a wrong done to them#
against such there is no cause of blame"
The blame is onl! against those who oppress men
with wrongdoing and insolentl! transgress
be!ond bounds through the land#
def!ing right and %ustice"
?or such there will be a penalt! grievous Ain the 6ereafterB"
But indeed# if an! show patience and forgive#
that would trul! be an affair of great resolution"
.urHan -*1->--+
,oodness and evil are not e2ual"
Lepel evil with what is better"
Then that person with whom there was hatred#
ma! become !our intimate friendJ
And no one will be granted such goodness
e&cept those who e&ercise patience and self-restraint#
none but people of the greatest good fortune"
.urHan -)1+--+:
But what about those passages of the .urHan that seem to promote wanton violence/ ?or a full
discussion of such verses# please visit the ?A. page1 Are there verses of the .urHan that
condone F$illing the infidel/F
(uggested Leadingf state in Januar! )==K"(uicide Bombers
'h! do the! do it# and what does Islam sa! about their actions/FAnd fight in the wa! of Allah
those who fight !ou" But do not transgress limits" Trul! Allah loves not the transgressors"F
- .urHan# (urah Al-Ba2arah A*1)=>B
The dangerous escalation of violence in the world is disturbing to all people of conscience# from
(eptember )) to the Middle Iast battles# and other random acts of violence perpetrated at
innocent civilians"
In Islam# several things are clear1
R (uicide is forbidden" FD !e who believeJ""" 8do not; $ill !ourselves# for trul! Allah has been to
!ou Most Merciful" If an! do that in rancour and in%ustice# soon shall 'e cast him into the ?ire"""F
A.urHan -1*=-+>B"
R The ta$ing of life is allowed onl! b! wa! of %ustice Ai"e" the death penalt! for murderB# but even
then# forgiveness is better" FOor ta$e life - which Allah has made sacred - e&cept for %ust cause"""F
R In pre-Islamic Arabia# retaliation and mass murder was commonplace" If someone was $illed#
the victimHs tribe would retaliate against the murdererHs entire tribe" This practice was directl!
forbidden in the .urHan A*1)KG-)K=B" ?ollowing this statement of law# the .urHan sa!s# FAfter this#
whoever e&ceeds the limits shall be in grave chastisementF A*1)KGB" Oo matter what wrong we
perceive as being done against us# we ma! not lash out against an entire population of people"
R The .urHan admonishes those who oppress others and transgress be!ond the bounds of
what is right and %ust" FThe blame is onl! against those who oppress men with wrongdoing and
insolentl! transgress be!ond bounds through the land# def!ing right and %ustice" ?or such there
will be a chastisement grievous Ain the 6ereafterBF A-*1-*B"
R 6arming innocent b!standers# even in times of war# was forbidden b! the Crophet
Muhammad Apeace be upon himB" This includes women# children# noncombatant b!standers#
and even trees and crops" Oothing is to be harmed unless the person or thing is activel!
engaged in an assault against Muslims"
The predominant theme in the .urHan is forgiveness and peace" Allah A,odB is Merciful and
?orgiving# and see$s that in 6is followers" Indeed# most people who spend time on a personal
level with ordinar! Muslims have found them to be peaceful# honest# hard-wor$ing# civic-minded
In the fight against terrorism of all forms# it is important to understand who or what is our enem!"
'e can onl! fight against this horror if we understand its causes and motivations" 'hat
motivates a person to lash out in this violent# inhumane wa!/ As the About"com ,uide to
Terrorism Issues points out# researchers conclude that religion neither causes nor e&plains
suicide terrorism" The true motivation of such attac$s is something that all of us -- mental health
professionals# politicians# and common people -- need to understand# so that we can address the
issues more honestl!# prevent more violence# and find wa!s to wor$ towards lasting peace"
Clease visit the lin$s below to read what Muslim scholars and Islamic governmental leaders have
recentl! declared about this sub%ect"
FD !e who believeJ Lemain steadfast for Allah# bearing witness to %ustice" Eo not allow !our
hatred for others ma$e !ou swerve to wrongdoing and turn !ou awa! from %ustice" Be %ust@ that is
closer to true piet!"F
- .urHan# (urah al-Maidah A:1GB
Ch!sical e&ercise
?rom 'i$ipedia# the free enc!clopedia
Jump to1 navigation# search
F'or$outF redirects here" ?or the television series# see 'or$ Dut"
FI&erciseF redirects here" ?or other uses# see I&ercise AdisambiguationB"
Q"(" Marine emerging from the swim portion of a triathlon"
Ch!sical e&ercise is an! bodil! activit! that enhances or maintains ph!sical fitness and overall
health" It is performed for man! different reasons" These include strengthening muscles and the
cardiovascular s!stem# honing athletic s$ills# weight loss or maintenance and for en%o!ment"
?re2uent and regular ph!sical e&ercise boosts the immune s!stem# and helps prevent the
Fdiseases of affluenceF such as heart disease# cardiovascular disease# T!pe * diabetes and
obesit!"8);8*; It also improves mental health# helps prevent depression# helps to promote or
maintain positive self-esteem# and can even augment an individualHs se& appeal"8citation needed;
Childhood obesit! is a growing global concern8+; and ph!sical e&ercise ma! help decrease the
effects of childhood obesit! in developed countries"
R ) Classification
o )") T!pes of e&ercise
o )"* Categories of ph!sical e&ercise
R * Benefits
o *") Iffect on the immune s!stem
o *"* Iffects on brain function
R + Cublic health measures
R - Common misconceptions
o -") Targeted fat reduction
o -"* Muscle and fat tissue
R : I&cessive e&ercise
R 9 I&ercise trends
R K Outrition and recover!
R G 6istor!
R = (ee also
R )> Leferences
R )) (ources
R )* ?urther reading
8edit; Classification
8edit; T!pes of e&ercise
I&ercises are generall! grouped into three t!pes depending on the overall effect the! have on the
human bod!1
R ?le&ibilit! e&ercises# such as stretching# improve the range of motion of muscles and %oints"8-;
R Aerobic e&ercises# such as c!cling# swimming# wal$ing# rowing# running# hi$ing or pla!ing
tennis# focus on increasing cardiovascular endurance"8:;
R Anaerobic e&ercises# such as weight training# functional training or sprinting# increase short-
term muscle strength"89;
8edit; Categories of ph!sical e&ercise
R Aerobic e&ercise
R Anaerobic e&ercise
R (trength training
R Agilit! training
(ometimes the terms Hd!namicH and HstaticH are used" HE!namicH e&ercises such as stead! running#
tend to produce a lowering of the diastolic blood pressure during e&ercise# due to the improved
blood flow" Conversel!# static e&ercise Asuch as weight-liftingB can cause the s!stolic pressure to
rise significantl! Aduring the e&erciseB"
8edit; Benefits
A common elliptical training machine"
Ch!sical e&ercise is important for maintaining ph!sical fitness and can contribute positivel! to
maintaining a health! weight# building and maintaining health! bone densit!# muscle strength# and
%oint mobilit!# promoting ph!siological well-being# reducing surgical ris$s# and strengthening the
immune s!stem"
I&ercise also reduces levels of cortisol# thereb! benefiting health" Cortisol is a stress hormone
that builds fat in the abdominal region# ma$ing weight loss difficult" Cortisol causes man! health
problems# both ph!sical and mental"8K;
?re2uent and regular aerobic e&ercise has been shown to help prevent or treat serious and life-
threatening chronic conditions such as high blood pressure# obesit!# heart disease# T!pe *
diabetes# insomnia# and depression"8G; Indurance e&ercise before meals lowers blood glucose
more than the same e&ercise after meals"8=;
There is some evidence that vigorous e&ercise A=>-=:V of <D* Ma&B is more beneficial than
moderate e&ercise A-> to K>V of <D* Ma&B"8)>; (ome studies have shown that vigorous e&ercise
e&ecuted b! health! individuals can effectivel! increase opioid peptides Aa"$"a" endorphins#
naturall! occurring opioids that in con%unction with other neurotransmitters are responsible for
e&ercise-induced euphoria and have been shown to be addictiveB# positivel! influence hormone
production Ai"e"# increase testosterone and growth hormoneB#8)); benefits that are not as full!
realized with moderate e&ercise" More recent research8)*;8)+; indicates that anandamide ma!
pla! a possibl! greater role than endorphins in FrunnerHs highF and other e&ercise benefits"
Both aerobic and anaerobic e&ercise also wor$ to increase the mechanical efficienc! of the heart
b! increasing cardiac volume Aaerobic e&erciseB# or m!ocardial thic$ness Astrength trainingB" (uch
changes are generall! beneficial and health! if the! occur in response to e&ercise"
Oot ever!one benefits e2uall! from e&ercise" There is tremendous variation in individual response
to training1 where most people will see a moderate increase in endurance from aerobic e&ercise#
some individuals will as much as double their o&!gen upta$e# while others will never get an!
benefit at all from the e&ercise"8)-;8):; (imilarl!# onl! a minorit! of people will show significant
muscle growth after prolonged weight training# while a larger fraction e&perience improvements in
strength"8)9; This genetic variation in improvement from training is one of the $e! ph!siological
differences between elite athletes and the larger population"8)K;8)G; (tudies have shown that
e&ercising in middle age leads to better ph!sical abilit! later in life"8)=;
8edit; Iffect on the immune s!stem
Although there have been hundreds of studies on e&ercise and the immune s!stem# there is little
direct evidence on its connection to illness" Ipidemiological evidence suggests that moderate
e&ercise appears to have a beneficial effect on the human immune s!stem while e&treme
e&ercise appears to impair it# an effect which is modeled in a J curve" Moderate e&ercise has
been associated with a *=V decreased incidence of upper respirator! tract infections AQLTIB# but
studies of marathon runners found that their prolonged high-intensit! e&ercise was associated
with an increased ris$ of an infection# although another stud! did not find the effect" Immune cell
functions are impaired following acute sessions of prolonged# high-intensit! e&ercise# and some
studies have found that athletes are at a higher ris$ for infections" The immune s!stems of
athletes and nonathletes are generall! similar" Athletes ma! have slightl! elevated OP cell count
and c!tol!tic action# but these are unli$el! to be clinicall! significant"8*>;
(upplementation with the antio&idants vitamin C and I has been found to decrease the release of
interleu$in-9 AI3-9B# which would be e&pected to decrease the depression of the immune s!stem"
?urther# vitamin C supplementation has been associated with lower QLTIs in marathon runners"
6owever# the decreased release of I3-9 limits the anti-inflammator! effect of e&ercse and could
limit the positive adaptation effects of e&ercise"8*>;
Biomar$ers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein# which are associated with chronic
diseases# are reduced in active individuals relative to sedentar! individuals# and the positive
effects of e&ercise ma! be due to its anti-inflammator! effects" The depression in the immune
s!stem following acute bouts of e&ercise ma! be one of the mechanisms for this anti-
inflammator! effect"8*>;
8edit; Iffects on brain function
In the long term# e&ercise is beneficial to the brain b!1
R increasing the blood and o&!gen flow to the brain
R increasing growth factors that help create new nerve cells8*); and promote s!naptic
R increasing chemicals in the brain that help cognition# such as dopamine# glutamate#
norepinephrine# and serotonin8*+;
A *>>G review of cognitive enrichment therapies Astrategies to slow or reverse cognitive declineB
concluded that Fph!sical activit!# and aerobic e&ercise in particular# enhances older adults
cognitive functionF"8*-;
I&ercise has been shown to improve cognitive functioning via improvement of hippocampus-
dependent spatial learning# and enhancement of s!naptic plasticit! and neurogenesis"8*:; In
addition# ph!sical activit! has been shown to be neuroprotective in man! neurodegenerative and
neuromuscular diseases"8*9; ?or instance# it reduces the ris$ of developing dementia"8*K;
?urthermore# anecdotal evidence suggests that fre2uent e&ercise ma! reverse alcohol-induced
brain damage"8*G;
Ch!sical activit! is thought to have other beneficial effects related to cognition as it increases
levels of nerve growth factors# which support the survival and growth of a number of neuronal
8edit; Cublic health measures
(igns that encourage the use of stairs# as well as communit! campaigns# have been shown to be
effective in increasing e&ercise in a population"8+>; The cit! of Bogota# Colombia# for e&ample#
bloc$s off ))+ $ilometers AK> milesB of roads on (unda!s and holida!s to ma$e it easier for its
citizens to get e&ercise" These pedestrian zones are part of an effort to combat chronic diseases#
including obesit!"8+);
8edit; Common misconceptions
Man! m!ths have arisen surrounding e&ercise# some of which have a basis in realit!# and some
which are completel! false" M!ths include1
R That e&cessive e&ercise can cause immediate death" Eeath b! e&ercise has some small
basis in fact" 'ater into&ication can result from prolific sweating Aproducing electrol!te lossesB
combined with consumption of large amounts of plain water and insufficient replenishment of
electrol!tes# especiall! salt and potassium Ae"g" when running a marathonB" It is also possible to
die from a heart attac$ or similar affliction if overl! intense e&ercise is performed b! someone who
is not at an appropriate level of fitness for that particular activit! or has an undiagnosed rare
condition li$e h!pertrophic cardiom!opath!" A doctor should alwa!s be consulted before an!
radical changes are made to a personHs current e&ercise routine" Lhabdom!ol!sis is also a ris$"
Dther common dangers ma! occur from e&treme overheating or aggravation of a ph!sical defect#
such as a thrombosis or aneur!sm"
R That weightlifting ma$es !ou short or stops growth" Dne highl! debated caveat is that heav!
weight training in adolescents can damage the epiph!seal plate of long bones"8citation needed;
8edit; Targeted fat reduction
(pot reduction is a m!th that e&ercising and training a particular bod! part will preferentiall! shed
the fat on that part" ?or e&ample# doing sit-ups is not the best wa! to reduce subcutaneous bell!
fat" Dne cannot reduce fat from one area of the bod! to the e&clusion of others" Most of the
energ! derived from fat gets to the muscle through the bloodstream and reduces stored fat in the
entire bod!# from the last place where fat was deposited" (it-ups ma! improve the size and shape
of abdominal muscles but will not specificall! target bell! fat for loss" (uch e&ercise might help
reduce overall bod! fat percentage and shrin$ the size of fat cells"
8edit; Muscle and fat tissue
Dne misconception is that muscle tissue will turn into fat tissue once a person stops e&ercising"
This is not literall! true T fat tissue and muscle tissue are fundamentall! different T but the
common e&pression that Fmuscle will turn to fatF is truthful in the sense that catabolism of muscle
fibers for energ! can result in e&cess glucose being stored as fat"8+*; Moreover# the composition
of a bod! part can change toward less muscle and more fat# so that a cross-section of the upper-
arm for e&ample# will have a greater area corresponding to fat and a smaller area corresponding
to muscle" This is not muscle Fturning into fatF however T it is simpl! a combination of muscle
atroph! and increased fat storage in different tissues of the same bod! part" Another element of
increased fatt! deposits is that of diet# as most trainees will not significantl! reduce their diet in
order to compensate for the lac$ of e&erciseSactivit!"
8edit; I&cessive e&ercise
I&ercise is a stressor and the stresses of e&ercise have a catabolic effect on the bod! -
contractile proteins within muscles are consumed for energ!# carboh!drates and fats are similarl!
consumed and connective tissues are stressed and can form micro-tears" 6owever# given
ade2uate nutrition and sufficient rest to avoid overtraining# the bod!Hs reaction to this stimulus is
to adapt and replete tissues at a higher level than that e&isting before e&ercising" The results are
all the training effects of regular e&ercise1 increased muscular strength# endurance# bone densit!#
and connective tissue toughness"
Too much e&ercise can be harmful" The bod! parts e&ercised need at least a da! of rest# which is
wh! some health e&perts sa! one should e&ercise ever! other da! or + times a wee$" 'ithout
proper rest# the chance of stro$e or other circulation problems increases#8++; and muscle tissue
ma! develop slowl!" It has also been noted b! the medical field that e&pectant mothers should
never e&ercise two da!s consecutivel!"8citation needed;
Inappropriate e&ercise can do more harm than good# with the definition of FinappropriateF var!ing
according to the individual" ?or man! activities# especiall! running# there are significant in%uries
that occur with poorl! regimented e&ercise schedules" In e&treme instances# over-e&ercising
induces serious performance loss" Qnaccustomed overe&ertion of muscles leads to
rhabdom!ol!sis Adamage to muscleB most often seen in new arm! recruits"8+-; Another danger is
overtraining in which the intensit! or volume of training e&ceeds the bod!Hs capacit! to recover
between bouts"8+:;
(topping e&cessive e&ercise suddenl! can also create a change in mood" ?eelings of depression
and agitation can occur when withdrawal from the natural endorphins produced b! e&ercise
occurs" I&ercise should be controlled b! each bod!Hs inherent limitations" 'hile one set of %oints
and muscles ma! have the tolerance to withstand multiple marathons# another bod! ma! be
damaged b! *> minutes of light %ogging" This must be determined for each individual"
Too much e&ercise can also cause a female to miss her period# a s!mptom $nown as
8edit; I&ercise trends
Main article1 I&ercise trends
'orldwide there has been a large shift towards less ph!sicall! demanding wor$"8+K; This has
been accompanied b! increasing use of mechanized transportation# a greater prevalence of labor
saving technolog! in the home# and less active recreational pursuits"8+K;
8edit; Outrition and recover!
Croper nutrition is as important to health as e&ercise" 'hen e&ercising# it becomes even more
important to have a good diet to ensure that the bod! has the correct ratio of macronutrients
whilst providing ample micronutrients# in order to aid the bod! with the recover! process following
strenuous e&ercise"8+G;
Croper rest and recover! are also as important to health as e&ercise@ otherwise the bod! e&ists in
a permanentl! in%ured state and will not improve or adapt ade2uatel! to the e&ercise" 6ence# it is
important to remember to allow ade2uate recover! between e&ercise sessions" It is necessar! to
refill the gl!cogen stores in the s$eletal muscles and liver" After e&ercise# there is a +> minute
window critical to muscle recover!" Before doing an!thing else# one should drin$ something for
recover!" 3i2uids are ideal after e&ercise and there are several studies that show low-fat mil$ and
chocolate mil$ as being effective recover! beverages because of its ideal -1) combination of
carboh!drate and protein that fuels and replenishes our muscles the best"8+=;8->; Branched-chain
amino acids are also recommended for e&ercise recover!"8citation needed;
The above two factors can be compromised b! ps!chological compulsions Aeating disorders such
as e&ercise bulimia# anore&ia# and other bulimiasB# misinformation# a lac$ of organization# or a
lac$ of motivation" These all lead to a decreased state of health"
Eela!ed onset muscle soreness can occur after an! $ind of e&ercise# particularl! if the bod! is in
an unconditioned state relative to that e&ercise"8-);
8edit; 6istor!
The benefits of e&ercise have been $nown since anti2uit!" Marcus Cicero# around 9: BC# stated1
4It is e&ercise alone that supports the spirits# and $eeps the mind in vigor"78-*; 6owever# the lin$
between ph!sical health and e&ercise Aor lac$ of itB was onl! discovered in )=-= and reported in
)=:+ b! a team led b! Jerr! Morris"8-+;8--; Er Morris noted that men of similar social class and
occupation Abus conductors versus bus driversB had mar$edl! different rates of heart attac$s#
depending on the level of e&ercise the! got1 bus drivers had a sedentar! occupation and a higher
incidence of heart disease# while bus conductors were forced to move continuall! and had a
lower incidence heart disease"8--; This lin$ had not previousl! been noted and was later
confirmed b! other researchers"
Jihad Apronounced Sd h dS@ Arabic1 8d i hW d;B# an Islamic term# is a religious dut! of
Muslims" In Arabic# the word %ihd s a noun meanng "strugge." |had appears frequenty
n the Our'an and common usage as the domatc expresson "strvng n the way of
Aah (a-|had f sab Aah)".|1||2| A person engaged n |had s caed a mu|ahd, the
pura s mu|ahdeen.
A mnorty among the Sunn schoars sometmes refer to ths duty as the sxth par
of Isam, though t occupes no such offca status.|3| In Twever Sh'a Isam, however,
|had s one of the 10 Practces of the Regon.
Accordng to schoar |ohn Esposto, |had requres Musms to "strugge n the way of
God" or "to strugge to mprove one's sef and/or socety."|3||4| |had s drected
aganst Satan's nducements, aspects of one's own sef, or aganst a vsbe enemy.|1|
|5| The four ma|or categores of |had that are recognzed are |had aganst one's sef
(|had a-Nafs), |had of the tongue (|had a-san), |had of the hand (|had a-yad),
and |had of the sword (|had as-sayf).|5| Isamc mtary |ursprudence focuses on
reguatng the condtons and practce of |had as-sayf, the ony form of warfare
permssbe under Isamc aw, and thus the term |had s usuay used n fqh manuas
n reference to mtary combat.|5||6|
Meanng of word
"Fghtng for the Cause of Aah (|haad)"
-Tte of Book 52 of the Hadth.|7|
Many schoars argue that |had means to "strugge". Sunn Isams most famous Imam
Sahh a-Bukhar and the comper of the Hadth (the sayngs of the prophet), decded
that after coectng a the hadth, he w st them n chapters gvng them a ttes.
He sted a the hadth regardng |had n one chapter and decded to ca that chapter
regardng |had:
"Fghtng for the Cause of Aah (|haad) ".Sahh a-Bukhar 4:52:41
Ths suggests that A-Bukhar beeved |had meant fghtng for the cause of Aah at
the tme of the prophet.
Usage of the term
See aso: |had n Hadth
The term "|had" used wthout any quafers s generay understood n the West to be
referrng to hoy war on behaf of Isam.|5| In broader usage and nterpretaton, the
term has accrued both voent and non-voent meanngs. It can smpy mean strvng
to ve a mora and vrtuous fe, spreadng and defendng Isam as we as fghtng
n|ustce and oppresson, among other thngs.|11| The reatve mportance of these
two forms of |had s a matter of controversy.
Greater |had (controversa)
v d e
Campagns of Muhammad
Ghazah (battes whch he took part)
Caravan Rads - Waddan - Safwan - A Bawat - Du Ashr - Badr - Banu Sam - Ed -
Zakat - Banu Oaynuqa - Sawq - Th Amr - Ghatfan - Bahran - Uhud - A-Asad -
Dhatur-Rqa - Badru-Ukhra - Dumatu-|anda - Banu Nadr - Trench - Banu Ourayza -
Banu Lahyan - Banu Mustaq - Th Oerd - Hudaybyyah - Khaybar - Mu'tah - Mecca -
Hunayn - Autas - Ta'f - Hawazan - Tabouk
Srya (battes whch he ordered)
Nakha -
Wthn Isamc beef, Muhammad s sad to have regarded the nner strugge for fath
the "greater |had", prortzng t over physca fghtng n defense of the Ummah, or
members of the goba Isamc communty.|12| One famous hadth has the prophet
sayng: "We have returned from the esser |had (batte) to the greater |had (|had of
the sou)." However ths hadth s of questonabe orgn.|13||14| Ths noton has
however been chaenged by many promnent Musm schoars. The contenders hod
that the vew that war s esser |had s not based on sound sources. The terms |had-
Akbar and |had- Asghar are supposedy attrbuted to the Prophet. However, ths
attrbuton does not have a sound bass. The chan of narrators of ths narratve s
very weak. Authortes of Hadth ke Ibn Ha|r, Ibn Taymyyah and A-Ban have
convncngy chaenged the authentcty of ths narratve1. So one can safey
concude that there s no such thng as a greater |had or a esser one. The word |had
s used n the Ouran to connote strvng n the way of Aah. One partcuar form of
such a strugge s that n whch one mght have to fght for Aahs cause. Ths s aso
termed as Ota. In other words, strvng n the way of Aah n whatever form one s
abe to n accordance wth the needs that arse s what s requred from a beever.
Whether strvng n Hs way n a partcuar form s more superor than some other one
has not been ndcated n any authentc source.Is Ota a esser |had?
Musm schoar Mahmoud Ayoub states that "The goa of true |had s to attan a
harmony between sam (submsson), man (fath), and hsan (rghteous vng)."|15|
Greater |had can be compared to the strugge that Chrstans refer to as "resstng
sn", .e. fghtng temptaton, doubt, dsbeef, or detracton. The greater |had s about
hodng fast aganst any deas and practces that run contrary to the Muhammad's
reveatons (Our'an), sayngs (Hadth) and the exampes set by how he ved hs fe
(Sunnah). Ths concept of |had has does not correspond to any mtary acton.
In Modern Standard Arabc, |had s one of the correct terms for a strugge for any
cause, voent or not, regous or secuar (though a: $ifh is also usedB"8citation
needed; ?or instance# Mahatma ,andhiHs struggle for Indian independence is called a F%ihadF in
Modern (tandard Arabic Aas well as man! other dialects of ArabicB@ the terminolog! is applied to
the fight for womenHs liberation"8)9;
In modern times# Ca$istani scholar and professor ?azlur Lahman Mali$ has used the term to
describe the struggle to establish F%ust moral-social orderF#8)K; while Cresident 6abib Bourguiba
of Tunisia has used it to describe the struggle for economic development in that countr!"8)G;
3esser Jihad AJihad bil (aifB
'ithin Islamic %urisprudence %ihad is the onl! form of warfare permissible under Islamic law# and
ma! be declared against apostates# rebels# highwa! robbers# violent groups# non-Islamic leaders
or non-Muslim combatants# but there are other wa!s to perform %ihad as well# including civil
disobedience" The primar! aim of %ihad as warfare is not the conversion of non-Muslims to Islam
b! force# but rather the e&pansion and defense of the Islamic state"8:;89;8)=;
In the classical manuals of Islamic %urisprudence# the rules associated with armed warfare are
covered at great length"8)=; (uch rules include not $illing women# children and non-combatants#
as well as not damaging cultivated or residential areas"8*>; More recentl!# modern Muslims have
tried to re-interpret the Islamic sources# stressing that Jihad is essentiall! defensive warfare
aimed at protecting Muslims and Islam"8)=; Although some Islamic scholars have differed on the
implementation of Jihad# there is consensus amongst them that the concept of %ihad will alwa!s
include armed struggle against persecution and oppression"8*);
Jihad has also been applied to offensive# aggressive warfare# as e&emplified b! MuhammadHs
own policies and the entire subse2uent histor! of the spread of Islam" ?rom the first generation of
Islam# %ihad ideolog! inspired the con2uest of non-Muslim populations# forcing them to submit to
Muslim rule or accept outright conversion Aalthough conversion was not generall! demanded of
FCeoples of the Boo$#F this too could be forcibl! imposed on non-FCeoples of the Boo$FB" Jihad
ideologies also inspired internal civil conflict# as can be seen in earl! movements li$e the
Phari%ites and the contemporar! Ig!ptian Islamic Jihad organization Awhich assassinated Anwar
Al (adatB as well as Jihad organizations in 3ebanon# the ,ulf states# and Indonesia"8+; 'hen
used to describe warfare between Islamic groups or individuals# such as al-.aedaHs attac$s on
civilians in Ira2# perpetrators of violence often cite collaboration with non-Islamic powers as a
%ustification"8**; Terrorist attac$s li$e that of (eptember ))# *>>)# which was planned and
e&ecuted b! radical Islamic fundamentalists# have not been sanctioned b! more centrist groups of
Man! believe that there is no such thing as lesser %ihad# and %ihad b! the sword is considered
most important" This hadeeth about lesser %ihad also contradicts clear verses of the .urHan"
Oot e2ual are those believers who sit Aat homeB and receive no hurt# and those who strive and
fight in the cause of Allah with their goods and their persons" Allah hath granted a grade higher to
those who strive and fight with their goods and persons than to those who sit Aat homeB"
8.urHan -1=:;"
This section ma! re2uire cleanup to meet 'i$ipediaHs 2ualit! standards" Clease improve
this section if !ou can" AAugust *>>=B
Controvers! has arisen over whether use of the term %ihad without further e&planation refers to
%ihad of the sword# and whether some have used confusion over the definition of the term to their
The hadith in which Muhammad is said to spea$ of FgreaterF vs" FlesserF %ihad is of doubtful
authenticit!"It does not appear in an! of the si& collections of the 6adith# this 2uote from the
hadith is considered a forger! b! man! scholars"8*:;
FThere is a 6adith related b! a group of people which states that the Crophet said after the
battle of Tabu$1 H'e have returned from Jihad Asghar 8lesser %ihad; to Jihad A$bar 8greater %ihad;"H
This hadith has no source# nobod! whomsoever in the field of Islamic Pnowledge has narrated it"
Jihad against the disbelievers is the most noble of actions# and moreover it is the most important
action for the sa$e of man$ind"F
-Ibn Ta!mi!!ah said in Al-?ur2an CC" --M-:8citation needed;
Dne of the counter-hadith with a better chain of transmissio8clarification needed; Aand the author
2uotes others as wellB goes li$e this1 A man as$ed 8the Crophet;1 F"""and what is Jihad/F 6e
replied1 FUou fight against the disbelievers when !ou meet them Aon the battlefieldB"F 6e as$ed
again1 F'hat $ind of Jihad is the highest/F 6e replied1 FThe person who is $illed whilst spilling the
last of his blood"F 8*9; This seems to leave little doubt as to how Muhammad understood %ihad"
There are man! hadith on %ihad# and the! ma$e its meaning 2uite clear" ?irst and foremost# %ihad
meant combat on the battlefield# and specificall! against non-Muslims"8*K;
The hadith is said to be made b! Uah!a bin Al-Qla who is $nown for ma$ing false hadith# his
hadith are heavil! renounced"
Ibn 6a%ar al-As2alani A6adith scholarB said1
This was a sa!ing of Ibraaheem bin Abee Ablah# a Taabiee# and not a hadeeth of the
Messenger Asallallaahu 0ala!hi wa sallamB"
-Pashf al-Phafaa Ano")+9*B;8clarification needed;
Legarding this hadith it is said to be fabricated due to one HPhalaf bin Muhammad bin Ismael al-
6u%r ibn Adi ACompanion of the prophetB sa!s1 F6is hadith are falseF-8Tahzeeb ut-Tahzeeb ))S*9);
8clarification needed;8*G;
Middle Iast historian Bernard 3ewis argues that Fthe overwhelming ma%orit! of classical
theologians# %urists# and traditionalists 8i"e"# specialists in the hadith; """ understood the obligation
of %ihad in a militar! sense"F8*=;
(cholar Eavid Coo$ writes1
In reading Muslim literature -- both contemporar! and classical -- one can see that the
evidence for the primac! of spiritual %ihad is negligible" Toda! it is certain that no Muslim# writing in
a non-'estern language Asuch as Arabic# Cersian# QrduB# would ever ma$e claims that %ihad is
primaril! nonviolent or has been superseded b! the spiritual %ihad" (uch claims are made solel!
b! 'estern scholars# primaril! those who stud! (ufism andSor wor$ in interfaith dialogue# and b!
Muslim apologists who are tr!ing to present Islam in the most innocuous manner possible"8+>;
And according to Eouglas (treusand# Fin hadith collections# %ihad means armed action@ for
e&ample# the )== references to %ihad in the most standard collection of hadith# (ahih al-Bu$hari#
all assume that %ihad means warfare"F8+);
(ome fundamentalist Muslim traditionalists see that the world is divided into two houses1 the
6ouse of Islamic Ceace AEar al-(alamB# in which Muslim governments rule and Muslim law
prevails# and the 6ouse of 'ar AEar al-6arbB# the rest of the world# still inhabited" The
presumption is that b! natural law these domains will compete and fighting is inevitable therefore
the dut! of %ihad will continue# interrupted onl! b! truces# until all the world either adopts the
Muslim faith or submits to Muslim rule" Those who fight in the %ihad 2ualif! for rewards in both
worlds T treasure in this one# paradise in the ne&t" ?or most of the recorded histor! of Islam#
from the lifetime of the Crophet Muhammad onward# the word %ihad was used in a primaril!
militar! sense"8+*;
Oevertheless# the hadith is there# and the fact remains that ideas regarding which hadith are to be
considered FcontroversialF are more often than not based upon the preconceived ideolog! of
certain factions rather than the consensus of the ummah# or even historical or theological
e&egesis" ?urthermore# all of the greatest saints AwaliB of Islam and the ma%orit! of the ummah
have supported MuhammadHs interpretation of %ihad according to this hadith# as well as that of the
.urHan itself# as being critical to dail! religious practice in which the believer is urged to engage in
struggle A%ihadB within oneself AnafsB against the incessant promptings of the evil one"8++;
A number of Islamic scholars8who/; have distinguished %ihad# as legitimate struggle# from fasad#
as illegitimate violence and troublema$ing# and argue that terrorism should be called fasad# not
6istor! of Jihad
The beginnings of Jihad are traced bac$ to the words and actions of Muhammad and the .uran"
8+-; This word of Allah e&plicitl! encourages the use of Jihad against non-Muslims"8+:; (ura *:#
verse :* states1 4Therefore# do not obe! the disbelievers# and strive against them with this# a
great striving"78+9; It was# therefore# the dut! of all Muslims to strive against those who did not
believe in Allah and too$ offensive action against Muslims" The .uran# however# never uses the
term Jihad for fighting and combat in the name of Allah@ 2ital is used to mean 4fighting"7 The
struggle for Jihad in the .uran was originall! intended for the nearb! neighbors of the Muslims#
but as time passed and more enemies arose# the .uranic statements supporting Jihad were
updated for the new adversaries8+:;" The first documentation of the law of Jihad was written b!
0Abd al-Lahman al-Awzai and Muhammad ibn al-6asan al-(ha!bani" The document grew out of
debates that had surfaced ever since MuhammadHs death"8+-;
Iarl! Instances of Jihad
The first forms of militar! Jihad occurred after the migration Ahi%raB of Muhammad and his small
group of followers to Medina from Mecca and the conversion of several inhabitants of the cit! to
Islam" The first revelation concerning the struggle against the Meccans was surah **# verses +=-
4 To those against whom war is made# permission is given Ato fightB# because the! are
wronged@- and veril!# Allah is most powerful for their aid" AThe! areB those who have been
e&pelled from their homes in defiance of right#- Afor no causeB e&cept that the! sa!# Four 3ord is
AllahF" Eid not Allah chec$ one set of people b! means of another# there would surel! have been
pulled down monasteries# churches# s!nagogues# and mos2ues# in which the name of Allah is
commemorated in abundant measure" Allah will certainl! aid those who aid his AcauseB@- for veril!
Allah is full of (trength# I&alted in Might# Aable to enforce 6is 'illB" 7
TAbdullah Uusuf Ali
At this time# Muslims had been persecuted and oppressed b! the Meccans"8+G; There were still
Muslims who couldnHt flee from Mecca and were still oppressed because of their faith" (urah -#
verse K: is referring to this fact1
4 And wh! should !e not fight in the cause of Allah and of those who# being wea$# are ill-
treated Aand oppressedB/- Men# women# and children# whose cr! is1 FDur 3ordJ Lescue us from
this town# whose people are oppressors@ and raise for us from thee one who will protect@ and
raise for us from thee one who will helpJ 7
TAbdullah Uusuf Ali
The Meccans also refused to let the Muslims enter Mecca and b! that denied them access to
thePaHaba" (urah G# verse +-1 XXc2uoteYBut what plea have the! that Allah should not punish
them# when the! $eep out AmenB from the sacred Mos2ue - and the! are not its guardians/ Oo
men can be its guardians e&cept the righteous@ but most of them do not understand"Y-ZAbdullah
Uusuf Ali[
6owever hadith from (ahih Bu$hari formalized the rules for warfare# which legitimized warfare
based on disbelief"
It has been reported from (ulaiman b" Buraid through his father that when the Messenger of
Allah Ama! peace be upon himB appointed an!one as leader of an arm! or detachment he would
especiall! e&hort him to fear Allah and to be good to the Muslims who were with him" 6e would
sa!1 ?ight in the name of Allah and in the wa! of Allah" ?ight against those who disbelieve in
Allah" Ma$e a hol! war"""F8+=;
'hich ta$es as its basis the 2uranic verse =1*=
4 ?ight those who believe not in Allah nor the 3ast Ea!# nor hold that forbidden which hath
been forbidden b! Allah and 6is Messenger# nor ac$nowledge the religion of Truth# Aeven if the!
areB of the Ceople of the Boo$# until the! pa! the Jiz!a with willing submission# and feel
themselves subdued"" 7
TAbdullah Uusuf Ali
The main focus of Muhammads later !ears was increasing the number of allies as well as the
amount of territor! under Muslim control"8->; The .uran is unclear as to whether Jihad is
acceptable onl! in defense of the faith from wrong-doings or in all cases"8+-;
Ma%or battles in the histor! of Islam arose between the Meccans and the Muslims@ one of the
most important to the latter was the Battle of Badr in 9*- AE"8->; This Muslim victor! over
pol!theists showed 4demonstration of divine guidance and intervention on behalf of Muslims#
even when outnumbered"78-); Dther earl! battles included battles in Qhud A9*:B# Phanda2 A9*KB#
Mecca A9+>B and 6una!n A9+>B" These battles# especiall! Qhud and Phanda2# were unsuccessful
in comparison to the Battle of Badr"8->;" In relating this battle# the .uran states that Allah sent an
4unseen arm! of angels7 that helped the Muslims defeat the Meccans"8-*;
Jihad and the Crusades
The Iuropean crusaders con2uered much of the territor! held within the Islamic state# dividing it
into four $ingdoms# the most important being the state of Jerusalem" The Crusades originall! had
the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the 6ol! 3and Aformer Christian territor!B from Muslim rule
and were originall! launched in response to a call from the Iastern Drthodo& B!zantine Impire
for help against the e&pansion of the Muslim (el%u$ Tur$s into Anatolia" There was little drive to
reta$e the lands from the crusaders# save the few attac$s made b! the Ig!ptian ?atimids" This
changed# however# with the coming of \angi# ruler of what is toda! northern Ira2" 6e too$ Idessa#
which triggered the (econd Crusade# which was little more than a -K-!ear stalemate" The
stalemate was ended with the victor! of (alah al-Ein al-A!!ubi A$nown in the west as (aladinB
over the forces of Jerusalem at the 6orns of 6attin in ))GK" It was during the course of the
stalemate that a great deal of literature regarding Jihad was written"8->; 'hile amassing his
armies in (!ria# (aladin had to create a doctrine which would unite his forces and ma$e them
fight until the bitter end# which would be the onl! wa! the! could re-con2uer the lands ta$en in the
?irst Crusade" 6e did this through the creation of Jihad propaganda" It stated that an! one who
would abandon the Jihad would be committing a sin that could not be washed awa! b! an!
means" It also put his amirs at the center of power# %ust under his rule" 'hile this propaganda was
successful in uniting his forces for a time# the fervor burned out 2uic$l!" Much of (aladinHs
teachings were re%ected after his death"8-+;
Islamic (pain and Cortugal
Medieval (pain was the scene of almost constant warfare between Muslims and Christians"
Ceriodic raiding e&peditions were sent from Al-Andalus to ravage the Christian Iberian $ingdoms#
bringing bac$ treasure and slaves" In raid against 3isbon in ))G=# for e&ample# the Almohad
caliph Ua2ub al-Mansur too$ +#>>> female and child captives# while his governor of Crdoba# in a
subse2uent attac$ upon (ilves in ))=)# too$ +#>>> Christian slaves"8--;
The Almohad E!nast! A?rom Arabic i>.I al-Muwahhidun# i"e" Fthe monotheistsF or Fthe
QnitariansFB# was a Berber# Muslim d!nast! that was founded in the )*th centur!# and con2uered
all Oorthern Africa as far as 3ib!a# together with Al-Andalus AMoorish (painB" The Almohads# who
declared an everlasting Jihad against the Christians# far surpassed the Almoravides in
fundamentalist outloo$# and the! treated the dhimmis harshl!"8-:; ?aced with the choice of either
death or conversion# man! Jews and Christians emigrated"8-9;8-K; (ome# such as the famil! of
Maimonides# fled east to more tolerant Muslim lands#8-9; while others went northward to settle in
the growing Christian $ingdoms"8-G;8-=;
Indian subcontinent
(ir Jadunath (ar$ar contends that several Muslim invaders were waging a s!stematic Jihad
against 6indus in India to the effect that FIver! device short of massacre in cold blood was
resorted to in order to convert heathen sub%ects"F8:>; In particular the records $ept b! al-Qtbi#
Mahmud al-,hazniHs secretar!# in the Tari$h-i-Uamini document several episodes of blood!
militar! campaigns" In ):*K# Babur ordered a Jihad against La%puts at the battle of Phanwa"
Cublicl! addressing his men# he declared the forthcoming battle a Jihad" 6is soldiers were facing
a non-Muslim arm! for the first time ever" This# he said# was their chance to become either a
,hazi Asoldier of IslamB or a (haheed AMart!r of IslamB" The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb waged a
Jihad against those identified as heterodo& within IndiaHs Islamic communit!# such as (hiHa
Timur 3en$# a )-th centur! Turco-Mongol con2ueror of much of western and central Asia# thought
of himself as a ghazi# although his wars were also against Muslim states"8:+;
?ulani %ihads
The ?ula or ?ulani %ihads# were a series of independent but loosel! connected events across
'est Africa between the late )Kth centur! and Iuropean colonization# in which Muslim ?ulas too$
control of various parts of the region"8:-; Between )K:> and )=>># between one- to two-thirds of
the entire population of the ?ulani %ihad states consisted of slaves"8::;
In )KG-# Imam (hei$h Mansur# a Chechen warrior and Muslim m!stic# led a coalition of Muslim
Caucasian tribes from throughout the Caucasus in a ghazavat# or hol! war# against the Lussian
invaders"8:9; (hei$h Mansur was captured in )K=) and died in the (chlusselburg ?ortress"
Avarian Islamic scholar ,hazi Muhammad preached that Jihad would not occur until the
Caucasians followed (haria completel! rather than following a mi&ture of Islamic laws and adat
Acustomar! traditionsB" B! )G*=# Mullah began prosel!tizing and claiming that obe!ing (haria#
giving za$at# pra!er# and ha%% would not be accepted b! Allah if the Lussians were still present in
the area" 6e even went on to claim that marriages would become void and children bastards if
an! Lussians were still in the Caucasus" In )G*= he was proclaimed imam in ,himr!# where he
formall! made the call for a hol! war" In )G+-# ,hazi Muhammad died at the battle of ,himri# and
Imam (hamil too$ his place as the premier leader of the Caucasian resistance" Imam (hamil
succeeded in accomplishing what (hei$ Mansur had started1 to unite Oorth Caucasian
highlanders in their struggle against the Lussian Impire" 6e was a leader of anti-Lussian
resistance in the Caucasian 'ar and was the third Imam of Eagestan and Chechn!a A)G+--
Mahdists in (udan
Euring the )GK>s# Iuropean initiatives against the slave trade caused an economic crisis in
northern (udan# precipitating the rise of Mahdist forces"8:=;89>; Muhammad Ahmed Al Mahdi was
a religious leader# who proclaimed himself the Mahdi - the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will
appear at end times - in )GG)# and declared a Jihad against Dttoman rulers" 6e declared all
FTur$sF infidels and called for their e&ecution"89); The Mahdi raised an arm! and led a successful
religious war to topple the Dttoman-Ig!ptian occupation of (udan" <ictor! created an Islamic
state# one that 2uic$l! reinstituted slaver!" In the 'est he is most famous for defeating and later
$illing British general Charles ,eorge ,ordon# in the fall of Phartoum"89*;
The (audi (alafi shei$s were convinced that it was their religious mission to wage Jihad against
all other forms of Islam" In )G>) and )G>*# the (audi 'ahhabists under Abdul Aziz ibn
Muhammad ibn (aud attac$ed and captured the hol! (hia cities of Parbala and Oa%af in Ira2#
massacred the (hiites and destro!ed the tombs of the (hiite Imam 6usa!n and Ali bin Abu Talib"
In )G>* the! overtoo$ Taif" In )G>+ and )G>- the 'ahhabis overtoo$ Mecca and Medina"89+;89-;
Dttoman Impire
Qpon succeeding his father# (uleiman the Magnificent began a series of militar! con2uests in
Iurope"89K; Dn August *=# ):*9# he defeated 3ouis II of 6ungar! A):)9M*9B at the battle of Moh
_cs" In its wa$e# 6ungarian resistance collapsed and the Dttoman Impire became the
preeminent power in Central and Iastern Iurope"89G; In Jul! )9G+ (ultan Mehmet I< proclaimed
a Jihad and the Tur$ish grand vizier# Para Mustafa Casha# laid siege to the <ienna with an arm!
of )+G#>>> men"89=;8K>;8K);
Dn Oovember )-# )=)-# in Constantinople# capital of the Dttoman Impire# the religious leader
(hei$h-ul-Islam declares Jihad on behalf of the Dttoman government# urging Muslims all over the
world - including in the Allied countries - to ta$e up arms against Britain# Lussia# ?rance and
(erbia and Montenegro in 'orld 'ar I"8K*; Dn the other hand# (hei$h 6ussein ibn Ali# the Imir of
Mecca# refused to accommodate Dttoman re2uests that he endorse this %ihad# a re2uirement that
was necessar! were a %ihad to become popular# on the grounds that1
Hthe 6ol! 'ar was doctrinall! incompatible with an aggressive war# and absurd with a Christian
all!1 ,erman!H8K+;
Ahmad (hah# founder of the Eurrani Impire# declared a %ihad against the Marathas# and warriors
from various Cashtun tribes# as well as other tribes answered his call" The Third battle of Canipat
AJanuar! )K9)B# fought between largel! Muslim and largel! 6indu armies who numbered as man!
as )>>#>>> troops each# was waged along a twelve-$ilometre front# and resulted in a decisive
victor! for Ahmad (hah"8K-;
In response to the 6azara uprising of )G=*# the Afghan Imir Abdur Lahman declared a FJihadF
against the (hiites" The large arm! defeated the rebellion at its center# in Druzgan# b! )G=* and
the local population was severel! massacred" According to (" A" Mousavi# Fthousands of 6azara
men# women# and children were sold as slaves in the mar$ets of Pabul and .andahar# while
numerous towers of human heads were made from the defeated rebels as a warning to others
who might challenge the rule of the AmirF" Qntil the *>th centur!# some 6azaras were still $ept as
slaves b! the Cashtuns@ although Amanullah Phan banned slaver! in Afghanistan during his
reign#8K:; the tradition carried on unofficiall! for man! more !ears"8K9;
The ?irst Anglo-Afghan 'ar A)G+GM-*B was one of Britains most ill-advised and disastrous wars"
'illiam Br!don was the sole survivor of the invading British arm! of )9#:>> soldiers and civilians"
8KK; As in the earlier wars against the British and (oviets# Afghan resistance to the American
invaders too$ the traditional form of a Muslim hol! war against the infidels"8KG;
Euring (eptember *>>*# the remnants of the Taliban forces began a recruitment drive in Cashtun
areas in both Afghanistan and Ca$istan to launch a renewed F%ihadF or hol! war against the pro-
'estern Afghan government and the Q"(-led coalition" Camphlets distributed in secret during the
night also began to appear in man! villages in the former Taliban heartland in southeastern
Afghanistan that called for %ihad"8K=; (mall mobile training camps were established along the
border with Ca$istan b! al-.aeda and Taliban fugitives to train new recruits in guerrilla warfare
and terrorist tactics# according to Afghan sources and a Qnited Oations report"8G>;
Most of the new recruits were drawn from the madrassas or religious schools of the tribal areas of
Ca$istan# from which the Taliban had originall! arisen" As of *>>G# the insurgenc!# in the form of a
Taliban guerrilla war# continues"
Alhough there is no evidence that the CIA directl! supported the Taliban or Al .aeda# some basis
for militar! support of the Taliban was provided when# in the earl! )=G>s# the CIA and the I(I
ACa$istanHs Interservices Intelligence Agenc!B provided arms to Afghan mu%ahideens resisting the
(oviet invasion of Afghanistan#8G); and the I(I assisted the process of gathering radical Muslims
from around the world to fight against the (oviets" Dsama Bin 3aden was one of the $e! pla!ers
in organizing training camps for the foreign Muslim volunteers" The Q"(" poured funds and arms
into Afghanistan# and Fb! )=GK# 9:#>>> tons of Q"("-made weapons and ammunition a !ear were
entering the war"F8G*;
In )G+># Algeria was invaded b! ?rance@ ?rench colonial domination over Algeria supplanted what
had been domination in name onl! b! the Dttoman Impire" 'ithin two !ears# ]Abd al-.dr was
made an amr and wth the oyaty of a number of trbes began a |had aganst the
French. He was effectve at usng guerra warfare and for a decade, up unt 1842,
scored many vctores. He was noted for hs chvary. On December 21, 1847, Abd a-
Odr was forced to surrender.|83|
Abd a-Oadr s recognzed and venerated as the frst hero of Ageran ndependence.
Not wthout cause, hs green and whte standard was adopted by the Ageran
beraton movement durng the War of Independence and became the natona fag
of ndependent Agera.
The Ageran Cv War (1991-2002) was an armed confct between the Ageran
government and varous Isamst rebe groups whch began n 1991. By 1997, the
organzed |had n Agera had dsntegrated nto crmna thuggery and Agera was
wracked by massacres of ntense brutaty and unprecedented sze.|84||85|
Vews of |had of dfferent Musm groups
Sunn vew of |had
See aso: Opnon of Isamc schoars on |had
|had has been cassfed ether as a-|hd a-akbar (the greater |had), the strugge
aganst one's sou (nafs), or a-|hd a-asghar (the esser |had), the externa, physca
effort, often mpyng fghtng (ths s smar to the shte vew of |had as we).
Gbr Haddad has anayzed the bass for the beef that nterna |had s the "greater
|had", |had a-akbar. Haddad dentfes the prmary hstorca bass for ths beef n a
par of smary worded hadeeth, n whch Mohammed s reported to have tod
warrors returnng home that they had returned from the esser |had of strugge
aganst non-Musms to a greater |had of strugge aganst ust. Athough Haddad
notes that the authentcty of both hadeeth s questonabe, he nevertheess
concudes that the underyng prncpe of superorty nterna |had does have a
reabe bass n the Our'an and other wrtngs.|86||87|
On the other hand, the Hanba schoar Ibn Oayym A-|awzyya dd beeve that
"nterna |had" s mportant|88| but he suggests those hadth as weak whch consder
"|had of the heart/sou" to be more mportant than "|had by the sword".|89|
Contemporary Isamc schoar Abduah Yusuf Azzam has argued the hadth s not |ust
weak but "s n fact a fase, fabrcated hadth whch has no bass. It s ony a sayng of
Ibrahm Ibn Ab `Abaah, one of the Successors, and t contradcts textua evdence
and reaty."|90|
Musm |ursts expaned there are four knds of |had f sabah (strugge n the
cause of God):|91|
* |had of the heart (|had b qab/nafs) s concerned wth combattng the dev and
n the attempt to escape hs persuason to ev. Ths type of |had was regarded as the
greater |had (a-|had a-akbar).
* |had by the tongue (|had b san) s concerned wth speakng the truth and
spreadng the word of Isam wth one's tongue.
* |had by the hand (|had b yad) refers to choosng to do what s rght and to
combat n|ustce and what s wrong wth acton.
* |had by the sword (|had bs saf) refers to qta f sabah (armed fghtng n the
way of God, or hoy war), the most common usage by Saaf Musms and offshoots of
the Musm Brotherhood.
Some contemporary Isamsts have succeeded n repacng the greater |had, the fght
aganst desres, wth the esser |had, the hoy war to estabsh, defend and extend
the Isamc state.|92|
Sufc vew of |had
The Sufc vew cassfes "|had" nto two; the "Greater |had" and the "Lesser |had".
Muhammad put the emphass on the "greater |had" by sayng that "Hoy s the
warror who s at war wth hmsef".|ctaton needed| In ths sense externa wars and
strfe are seen but a satanc counterfet of the true "|had" whch can ony be fought
and won wthn; no other Savaton exstng can save man wthout the efforts of the
man hmsef beng added to the work nvoved of sef-refnement. In ths sense t s
the western vew of the Hoy Gra whch comes cosest to the Sufc dea; for to the
Sufs Perfecton s the Gra; and the Hoy Gra s for those who after they become
perfect by gvng a they have to the poor then go on to become "Abda" or "changed
ones" ke Enoch who was "taken" by God because he "waked wth God".
(Geness:5:24) here the "Hoy Ones" gan the surname "Hadrat" or "The Presence".
|had as warfare
Ths artce contans too many quotatons for an encycopedc entry. Pease
hep mprove the artce by removng excessve quotatons or transferrng them to
Wkquote. Hep s avaabe. (March 2008)
Ambox scaes.svg
Ths artce has been nomnated to be checked for ts neutraty. Dscusson of
ths nomnaton can be found on the tak page. (December 2007)
See aso: Offensve |had, Defensve |had, Ghazw, Opnon of Isamc schoars on
|had, and Itmam a-hu||ah
The Ouran asserts that f the use of force woud not have been aowed n curbng
the evs by natons, the dsrupton and dsorder caused by nsurgent natons coud
have reached the extent that the paces of worshp woud have become deserted and
forsaken. As t states:
" And had t not been that Aah checks one set of peope wth another, the
monasteres and churches, the synagogues and the mosques, n whch Hs prase s
abundanty ceebrated woud have been uttery destroyed. "
|aved Ahmed Ghamd dvdes |ust warfare nto two types:
1. Aganst n|ustce and oppresson
2. Aganst the re|ecters of truth after t has become evdent to them
The frst type of |had s generay consdered eterna, but Ghamd hods that the
second s specfc to peope who were seected by God for deverng the truth as an
obgaton. They are caed wtnesses of the truth (Arabc:s.# see also Itmam al-
hu%%ahB@ the implication being that the! bear witness to the truth before other people in such a
complete and ultimate manner that no one is left with an e&cuse to den! the truth"8*); There is a
dispute among Islamic %urists as to whether the act of being FwitnessF was onl! for the
Companions of Muhammad or whether this responsibilit! is still being held b! modern Muslims#
which ma! entitle them to ta$e actions to subdue other Oon-Muslim nations" Croponents of
Companions of Muhammad as being Fthe witnessF translate the following verse onl! for the
Companions8*); while others translate it for the whole Muslim nation"8=+; As in .urHan1
4 And similarl! 8D Companions of the CrophetJ; 'e have made !ou an intermediate
group8=-; so that !ou be witnesses 8to this religion; before the nations# and the Messenger be
such a witness before !ou" 7
(imilarl!# proponents of Companions of Muhammad as being Fthe witnessF present following
verse to argue that the Companions were chosen people as witnesses %ust as ,od chooses
Messengers from man$ind" As in .urHan18*);
6e has chosen !ou# and has imposed no difficulties on !ou in religion@ it is the religion of !our
father Abraham" It is 6e 'ho has named !ou Muslims# both before and in this 8.uran;1 86e
chose !ou so that; the Messenger ma! be a witness 8of this religion; to !ou# and !ou be witnesses
of this religion to non-Muslims 8of !our times;"
T.urHan# 8.urHan **1KG;
?ollowing is the first verse of the .uran in which the Companions of Muhammad# who had
migrated from Mecca# were given permission to fight bac$ if the! were attac$ed18*);
Cermission to ta$e up arms is hereb! given to those who are attac$ed because the! have been
oppressed M Allah indeed has power to grant them victor! M those who have been un%ustl! driven
from their homes# onl! because the! said1 4Dur 3ord is Allah7"
T.urHan# 8.urHan **1+=;
The reason for this directive in Medina instead of Mecca considered b! most Muslim scholars is
that without political authorit! armed offensives become tantamount to spreading disorder and
anarch! in the societ!" As one of Islamic %urist writes1
Among Pafa!ah obligations# the third categor! is that for which the e&istence of a ruler is
necessar! e"g"# Jihad and e&ecution of punishments" Therefore# onl! a ruler has this prerogative"
Because# indeed# no one else has the right to punish another person"
T(a!!id (abi2# ?i2hul-(unnah# *nd ed"# vol" +# ABeirut1 Earul-?i$r# )=G>B# p" +>
Eirective of warfare
The directive of the Jihad given to Muslims in .urHan is18*);
These verses told Muslims that the! should not merel! fight the Banu .uraish if the! resist them
in offering 6a%%# but the .uran goes on to sa! that the! should continue to fight them until
persecution is uprooted and Islam prevails in the whole of Arabia" Initiall! Muslims were re2uired
to fulfill this responsibilit! even if the enem! was )> times stronger" Afterwards# the .urHan
reduced the burden of this responsibilit!"8*); As in .urHan1
CrophetJ Louse the believers to wage war" If there are twent! amongst !ou# patient and
persevering# the! will subdue two hundred1 if a hundred# the! will subdue a thousand of the
disbelievers1 for these are a people without understanding"
T.urHan# 8.urHan G19:;
8?rom; now# ,od has lightened !our 8tas$; for 6e $nows that there is now wea$ness amongst
!ou1 But 8ever so;# if there are a hundred of !ou# patient and persevering# the! will subdue two
hundred# and if a thousand# the! will subdue two thousand# with the leave of ,od1 for ,od is with
those who patientl! persevere"
T.urHan# 8.urHan G199;
(ome interpret above verses that Jihad never becomes obligator! unless the militar! might of the
Muslims is up to a certain level" In the times of Muhammad# when large scale conversions too$
place in the later phase# the .urHan reduced the Muslim to enem! ratio to )1*" It seems that
Muslims should not onl! consolidate their moral character# but it is also imperative for them to
build their militar! might if the! want to wage Jihad when the need arises" The .uran gave a
similar directive to Muslims of Muhammad times in the following words18*);
Muster against them all the men and cavalr! at !our disposal so that !ou can stri$e terror into
the enemies of Allah and of the believers and others beside them who ma! be un$nown to !ou#
though Allah $nows them" And remember whatever !ou spend for the cause of Allah shall be
repaid to !ou" Uou shall not be wronged"
T.urHan# 8.urHan G19>;
'hile other scholars consider the later command of ratio )1* onl! for a particular time"8=:;
A polic! was adopted regarding the e&tent of re2uirement that arose in wars that the Muslims had
to fight" In the battles of Badr# Qhud and Tabu$# the responsibilit! was much more and each
Muslim was re2uired to present his services as a combatant"8*); As in .urHan1
Oot e2ual are those of the believers who sit 8at home; without an! 8genuine; e&cuse and those
who strive hard and fight in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives" Allah has given
preference b! a degree to those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and their lives above
those who sit 8at home;" 8In realit!;# for each# Allah has made a good promise and 8in realit!; Allah
has preferred those who strive hard and fight above those who sit 8at home; b! a huge reward"
Eegrees of 8higher; grades from 6im and forgiveness and merc!" And Allah is Iver ?orgiving#
Most Merciful"
T.urHan# 8.urHan -1=:;
.urHan also states that turning bac$s in the battle field# e&cept for tactical purposes# is a big sin
and will bring wrath of ,od"8=9; As in .urHan1
D !ou who believeJ when !ou meet those who disbelieve marching for war# then turn not !our
bac$s to them" And whoever shall turn his bac$ to them on that da!-- unless he turn aside for the
sa$e of fighting or withdraws to a compan!-- then he# indeed# becomes deserving of AllahHs wrath#
and his abode is hell@ and an evil destination shall it be"
T.urHan# 8.urHan G1):;
The driving force
Islamic scholars agree that Jihad should not be underta$en to gratif! ones whims nor to obtain
wealth and riches" Man! also consider that it must also not be underta$en to con2uer territories
and rule them or to ac2uire fame or to appease the emotions of communal support# partisanship
and animosit!" Dn the contrar!# it should be underta$en onl! and onl! for the cause of Allah as is
evident from the words"8*); As in .urHan1
Those who believe# fight in the cause of Allah# and those who disbelieve# fight in the cause of
(atan" (o fight !ou against the friends of (atan" Iver feeble indeed is the plot of (atan"
T.urHan# 8.urHan -1K9;
Crophet Muhammad# at various instances# also e&plained ver! forcefull! this purport of the
R Abu Musa Ash0ari ArtaB narrates that once a person came to the Crophet AswsB and said that
some people fight for the spoils of war# some for fame and some to show off their valor@ he then
as$ed the Crophet AswsB1 4'hich one of them fights in the wa! of Allah7" The Crophet AswsB
replied1 4Dnl! that person fights in the wa! of Allah who sets foot in the battlefield to raise high the
name of Allah7" (ahih Bu$hari *G)>
R Abu 6ura!rah ArtaB narrates from the Crophet AswsB1 4I swear b! the Almight! that a person
who is wounded in the wa! of Allah M and Allah $nows full well who is actuall! wounded in 6is
wa! M he would be raised on the Ea! of Judgement such that his colour be the colour of blood
with the fragrance of mus$ around him7" (ahih Bu$hari *G>+
R Ibn Jabr narrates from the Crophet AswsB1 4A person whose feet become dust ridden because
of 8striving; in the wa! of Allah will never be touched b! the flames of 6ell7" (ahih Bu$hari *G))
R (ahal Ibn (a0ad sa!s that the Crophet AswsB once said1 4To reside in a border area for a da!
to protect 8people; against an enem! 8invasion; is better than this world and ever!thing it has7"
(ahih Bu$hari *G=*"
(imilarl! as a reward for participation in such a strive# the .urHan states1
Consider not those who are $illed in the wa! of Allah as dead" Oa!# the! are alive with their
3ord# and the! will be provided for" The! re%oice in what Allah has bestowed upon them of 6is
bount! and re%oice for the sa$e of those who have not !et %oined them# but are left behind 8not !et
mart!red; that on them too no fear shall come# nor shall the! grieve" The! re%oice in a grace and a
bount! from Allah# and that Allah will not waste the reward of the believers""
T.urHan# 8.urHan +1)9=;
Ithical limits
Main articles1 Islamic militar! %urisprudence and Islamic ethics
Islamic 3aw# based upon the .uran and practices of Muhammad has set down a set of laws to be
observed during the lesser Jihad"
.urHan forbids fighting in sacred month and similarl! within the boundaries of 6aram" But if non-
Muslims disregard these sanctities# Muslims are as$ed to retaliate in e2ual measure"8=K; It is
stated in .urHan1
A sacred month for a sacred month@ 8similarl!; other sacred things too are sub%ect to retaliation"
(o if an! one transgresses against !ou# !ou should also pa! bac$ in e2ual coins" 6ave fear of
Allah and 8$eep in mind that; Allah is with those who remain within the bounds 8stipulated b!
T.urHan# 8.urHan *1)=-;
Dbservance of treaties and pacts is stressed in .urHan" 'hen some Muslims were still in Mecca#
and the! couldnHt migrate to Medina# the .urHan stated1
And to those who accepted faith but did not migrate 8to Madinah;# !ou owe no dut! of
protection to them until the! migrate@ but if the! see$ !our help in religion# it is !our dut! to help
them e&cept against a people with whom !ou have a treat! of mutual alliance@ and Allah is the All-
(eer of what !ou do"
T.urHan# 8.urHan G1K*;
(imilar reports are attributed to Muhammad1
R Abu (a0id ArtaB narrates from the Crophet AswsB1 4Dn the Ea! of Judgment# to proclaim the
traitorship of a traitor and the betra!al of a person who betra!ed his words# a flag shall be hoisted
which would be as high as 8the e&tent of his; traitorship7# and 8the Crophet AswsB also said;1
4Lemember that no traitor and betra!er of promises is greater than the one who is the leader and
ruler of people7" (ahih Muslim )K+G
The basic principle in fighting in the .uran is that other communities should be treated as oneHs
own" ?ighting is %ustified for legitimate self-defense# to aid other Muslims and after a violation in
the terms of a treat!# but should be stopped if these circumstances cease to e&ist"8=G;8==;8)>>;
8)>); The principle of forgiveness is reiterated in between the assertions of the right to self-
Euring his life# Muhammad gave various in%unctions to his forces and adopted practices toward
the conduct of war" The most important of these were summarized b! MuhammadHs companion#
Abu Ba$r# in the form of ten rules for the Muslim arm!18)>*;
4 (top# D people# that I ma! give !ou ten rules for !our guidance in the battlefield" Eo not
commit treacher! or deviate from the right path" Uou must not mutilate dead bodies" Oeither $ill a
child# nor a woman# nor an aged man" Bring no harm to the trees# nor burn them with fire#
especiall! those which are fruitful" (la! not an! of the enem!Hs floc$# save for !our food" Uou are
li$el! to pass b! people who have devoted their lives to monastic services@ leave them alone"
These in%unctions were honored b! the second Caliph# Qmar# during whose reign A9+-M9--B
important Muslim con2uests too$ place"8)>+; These principles were also honoured during the
Crusades# as e&emplified b! sultans such as (aladin and al-Pamil" ?or e&ample# after al-Pamil
defeated the ?ran$s during the Crusades# Dliverus (cholasticus praised the Islamic laws of war#
commenting on how al-Pamil supplied the defeated ?ran$ish arm! with food18)>-;
4 F'ho could doubt that such goodness# friendship and charit! come from ,od/ Men
whose parents# sons and daughters# brothers and sisters# had died in agon! at our hands# whose
lands we too$# whom we drove na$ed from their homes# revived us with their own food when we
were d!ing of hunger and showered us with $indness even when we were in their power"F8)>:;
Euring the Battle of (iffin# the Caliph Ali stated that Islam does not permit Muslims to stop the
suppl! of water to their enem!"8)>9; In addition to the Lashidun Caliphs# hadiths attributed to
Muhammad himself suggest that he stated the following regarding the Muslim con2uest of Ig!pt1
4 FUou are going to enter Ig!pt a land where 2irat Amone! unitB is used" Be e&tremel! good
to them as the! have with us close ties and marriage relationships" 'hen !ou enter Ig!pt after
m! death# recruit man! soldiers from among the Ig!ptians because the! are the best soldiers on
earth# as the! and their wives are permanentl! on dut! until the Ea! of Lesurrection" Be good to
the Copts of Ig!pt@ !ou shall ta$e them over# but the! shall be !our instrument and help" Be
Lighteous to ,od about the Copts"F 7
The earl! Islamic treatises on international law from the =th centur! onwards covered the
application of Islamic economic %urisprudence# ethics and militar! %urisprudence to international
law#8)>G; and were concerned with a number of modern international law topics# including the law
of treaties@ the treatment of diplomats# hostages# refugees and prisoners of war@ the right of
as!lum@ conduct on the battlefield@ protection of women# children and non-combatant civilians@
contracts across the lines of battle@ the use of poisonous weapons@ and devastation of enem!
Db%ectives of warfare
According to verses 8.urHan G1+=;# the .urHan implies two ob%ectives18*);
)" Qproot fitnah A<..sB or persecution
*" Istablish supremac! of ,od# through Islam# in the Arabian Ceninsula
Against persecution
Eirectives for action against persecution and unbelief1
And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression# and there prevail %ustice and faith
in Allah altogether and ever!where@ but if the! cease# veril! Allah doth see all that the! do"
T.urHan# 8.urHan G1+=;
And what has come over !ou that !ou fight not in the cause of Allah# and for those wea$# ill-
treated and oppressed among men# women# and children# whose cr! is1 0Dur 3ordJ Lescue us
from this town whose people are oppressors# and raise for us from Uou one who will protect# and
raise for us from Uou one who will help" 8Uou should $now that; those who believe fight in the
cause of Allah# and those who disbelieve# fight in the cause of (atan" (o fight !ou against the
friends of (atan" Iver feeble indeed is the plot of (atan"
T.urHan# 8.urHan -1K:;
Most Muslim scholars consider it an eternal directive and believe that all t!pes of oppression
should be considered under this directive"8*);8)>=; (imilarl!# if a group of Muslims commit
unwarranted aggression against some of their brothers and does not desist from it even after all
attempts of reconciliation# such a group according to the .uran should be fought with1
And if two parties or groups among the believers start fighting# then ma$e peace between them
both" But if one of them outrages against the other# then fight !ou against the one which outrages
till it complies with the command of Allah" Then if it complies# ma$e reconciliation between them
%ustl!# and be e2uitable" <eril!J Allah loves those who are the e2uitable" The believers are
brothers to one another" (o ma$e reconciliation between !our brothers# and fear Allah that !ou
ma! receive merc!"
T.urHan# 8.urHan -=1=;
'hen as$ed what to do in the event that Muslims did not have a state# Muhammad directed
Muslims to dissociate themselves from all other groups1
I as$ed1 If there is no state or ruler of the Muslims/ 6e replied1 In this situation# dissociate
!ourself from all groups# even if !ou have to chew the roots of a tree at the time of !our death"
(ahih Bu$hari K>G-
(upremac! of Islam in the Arabian peninsula
It is stated in .urHan1
Indeed those who are opposing Allah and 6is Messenger are bound to be humiliated" The
Almight! has ordained1 00I and M! Messengers shall alwa!s prevail" Indeed Allah is Might! and
T.urHan# 8.urHan :G1*>;
After Itmam al-hu%%ah Aclarification of religion to the addressees in its ultimate formB# Jews were
subdued first# and had been granted amnest! because of various pacts" Those among them who
violated these pacts were given the punishment of den!ing a Messenger of ,od"8*); Muhammad
e&iled the tribe of Banu .a!nu2a to Ph!ber and that of Banu Oadir to (!ria"8))>; The power the!
wielded at Ph!ber was crushed b! an attac$ at their strongholds"8))); Crior to this# Abu al-Lafi
and PaHb ibn al-Ashraf were put to death in their houses"8))*; The tribe of Banu .ura!za was
guilt! of treacher! and dislo!alt! in the battle of the Ahzab"8))+; 'hen the clouds of war
dispersed and the chances of an e&ternal attac$ no longer remained# Muhammad laid siege
around them" 'hen no hope remained# the! as$ed Muhammad to appoint (aHd ibn MuaHdh as an
arbitrator to decide their fate" Their re2uest was accepted" (ince# at that time# no specific
punishment had been revealed in the .uran about the fate of the Jews# (aHd ibn MuaHdh
announced his verdict in accordance with the Torah" As per the Torah# the punishment in such
situations was that all men should be put to death@ the women and children should be made
slaves and the wealth of the whole nation should be distributed among the con2uerors"8))-;8)):;
In accordance with this verdict pronounced# all men were e&ecuted"8))9; John Isposito writes
that MuhammadHs use of warfare in general was alien neither to Arab custom nor to that of the
6ebrew prophets# as both believed that ,od had sanctioned battle with the enemies of the 3ord"
Oo other incident of note too$ place regarding the Jews until the revelation of At-Tawba# the final
%udgement# was declared against them18*);
?ight those who believe not in Allah or the 3ast Ea!# nor hold that forbidden which has been
forbidden b! Allah and 6is Messenger# nor ac$nowledge the Leligion of Truth# from among the
Ceople of the Boo$# until the! pa! the Jiz!ah with willing submission and are subdued"
T.urHan# 8.urHan =1*=;
This directive related to both the Jews and the Christians" The punishment mentioned in these
verses is a show of lenience to them because the! were originall! adherents to monotheism" The
stor! holds that the! did not benefit from this lenience because# after MuhammadHs death# the!
once again resorted to fraud and treacher!"8))G;8))=;8)*>;8)*); Conse2uentl!# the Jews of
Ph!ber and the Christians of Oa%ran were e&iled once and for all from the Arabian peninsula b!
Qmar" This e&ile actuall! fulfilled the following declaration of the .uran about them18*);
And had it not been that Allah had decreed e&ile for them# 6e would certainl! have punished
them in this world@ and in the 6ereafter theirs shall be the torment of the ?ire"
T.urHan# 8.urHan :=1+;
'hen the pol!theists of Arabia had been similarl! subdued# it was proclaimed in At-Tawba that in
future no pact would be made with them" The! would be given a final respite of four months and
then the! would be humiliated in retribution of their deeds and would in no wa! be able to escape
from this punishment" After this time limit# the declaration is made in the .uran18*);
And a declaration should be made from Allah and 6is Messenger to these people on the da! of
the great 6a%% that Allah is free from 8all; obligations to these Idolaters and so is 6is Messenger"
(o if !ou 8D IdolatersJ; repent# it is better for !ou# but if !ou turn awa!# then $now that !ou cannot
escape from the grasp of Allah" And give tidings 8D Muhammad AswsB; of a painful torment to
these disbelievers" I&cept those of these Idolaters with whom !ou have a treat!# and who have
not shown treacher! in it nor have supported an!one against !ou" (o fulfill their treat! to the end
of their term" Indeed# Allah loves those who abide b! the limits" Then when the sacred months
8after the 6a%%; have passed# $ill these Idolaters wherever !ou find them# and capture them and
besiege them# and lie in wait for them in each and ever! ambush" But if the! repent and establish
the pra!er# and give \a$ah# then leave them alone" Indeed# Allah is Iver ?orgiving# Most Merciful"
T.urHan# 8.urHan =1+;
After the Treat! of 6uda!bi!!ah# Muhammad himself singled out nations b! writing letters to
them" In all# the! were written to the heads of eight countries"8)**; Conse2uentl!# after
consolidating their rule in the Arabian peninsula# the Companions launched attac$s against these
countries giving them two options if the! wanted to remain alive1 to accept faith or to accept a life
of sub%ugation b! pa!ing Jiz!a" Oone of these nations were considered to be adherents to
pol!theism# otherwise the! would have been treated in the same wa! as the Idolaters of Arabia"
'arfare in Muslim societies
6istor! records instances of the Fcall for %ihadF being invo$ed b! Islamic leaders to legitimate wars
of con2uest" The ma%or imperial Muslim d!nasties of Dttoman Tur$e! A(unniB and Cersia A(hiaB
each established s!stems of authorit! around traditional Islamic institutions" In the Dttoman
empire# the concept of ghaza was promulgated as a sister obligation to %ihad" The Dttoman ruler
Mehmed II is said to have insisted on the con2uest of Constantinople AChristian B!zantiumB b!
%ustif!ing ghaza as a basic dut!" 3ater Dttoman rulers would appl! ghaza to %ustif! militar!
campaigns against the Cersian (afavid d!nast!" Thus both rival empires established a tradition
that a ruler was onl! considered trul! in charge when his armies had been sent into the field in the
name of the true faith# usuall! against giaurs or heretics T often meaning each other" The
Hmissionar!H vocation of the Muslim d!nasties was prestigious enough to be officiall! reflected in a
formal title as part of a full ruler st!le1 the Dttoman Aman! also had ,hazi as part of their nameB
(ultan Murad Phan II Pho%a-,hazi# 9th (overeign of the 6ouse of Dsman A)-*) - )-:)B# literall!
used (ultan ul-Mu%ahidin8citation needed;"
The so-called ?ulbe %ihad states and a few other %ihad states in western Africa were established
b! a series of offensive wars"8)*+;
The commands inculcated in the .uran Ain five suras from the period after Muhammad had
established his powerB on Muslims to put to the sword those who will neither embrace Islam nor
pa! a poll-ta& AJiz!aB were not interpreted as a general in%unction on all Muslims constantl! to
ma$e war on the infidels Aoriginall! onl! pol!theists who claimed to be monotheists# not FCeople
of the Boo$F# Jesus is seen as the last of the precursors of the Crophet Muhammed@ the word
infidel had different historical uses# notabl! used b! the Crusaders to refer to the Muslims the!
were fighting againstB" It was generall! supposed that the order for a general war can onl! be
given b! the Caliph Aan office that was claimed b! the Dttoman sultansB# but Muslims who did not
ac$nowledge the spiritual authorit! of the Caliphate Awhich is vacantB# such as non-(unnis and
non-Dttoman Muslim states# alwa!s loo$ed to their own rulers for the proclamation of a %ihad@
there has been in fact no universal warfare b! Muslims on non-believers since the earl! caliphate"
(ome proclaimed Jihad b! claiming themselves as mahdi# e"g" the (udanese Mahommed Ahmad
in )GG*"
Jihad as the +rd best deed
'hen Crophet Muhammed was as$ed about the best deeds# he replied that %ihad was the third
In the hadith it is said that when as$ed FD AllahHs ApostleJ 'hat is the best deed/F 6e replied# FTo
offer the pra!ers at their earl! stated fi&ed times"F I as$ed# F'hat is ne&t in goodness/F 6e
replied# FTo be good and dutiful to !our parents"F then further as$ed# what is ne&t in goodness/F
6e replied# FTo participate in Jihad in AllahHs Cause"F (ahih al-Bu$hari )1*1*: 8)*-;
Oon-Muslim opinions
Modern views
The Qnited (tates Eepartment of Justice has used its own ad hoc definitions of %ihad in
indictments of individuals involved in terrorist activities1
R FAs used in this ?irst (uperseding Indictment# HJihadH is the Arabic word meaning Hhol! warH" In
this conte&t# %ihad refers to the use of violence# including paramilitar! action against persons#
governments deemed to be enemies of the fundamentalist version of Islam"F8)*:;
R FAs used in this (uperseding Indictment# Hviolent %ihadH or H%ihadH include planning# preparing
for# and engaging in# acts of ph!sical violence# including murder# maiming# $idnapping# and
hostage-ta$ing"F8)*9; in the indictment against several individuals including Jos^ Cadilla"
In her boo$ Muhammad1 a Biograph! of the Crophet# B"A" Lobinson writes1
F?ighting and warfare might sometimes be necessar!# but it was onl! a minor part of the whole
%ihad or struggle"F8)*K;
Ma&ime Lodinson# an Drientalist# wrote that FJihad is a propagandistic device which# as need be#
resorts to armed struggle M two ingredients common to man! ideological movements"F8)*G;
In Inglish-spea$ing countries# especiall! the Qnited (tates# the term %ihadist# technicall! a
derogator! term for mu%ahid# is fre2uentl! used to describe militant Islamic groups# including but
not restricted to Islamic terrorism"
Islam# Jihad# and Terrorism
Jihad1 one of the most misunderstood concepts in Islam
b! M" Amir Ali# Ch"E"
FIslamF and other various Islamic terms and concepts are grossl! misunderstood in the 'est"
Muslims can hardl! find an!one to blame but themselves because AaB the! have failed to live b!
the Islamic tenants in our times# and AbB the! have failed to promote understanding of Islam in the
'est through outreach pro%ects" This brochure is a humble attempt to briefl! e&plain the terms
given in the title" The Institute of Islamic Information N Iducation AIIINIB has published almost fift!
brochures and several articles for promoting understanding of Islam among Muslims and non-
Muslims e2uall!" Clease write to the IIINI or visit their web site for more information"
(ome of the Islamic Terms
Islam1 means a commitment to live in peace through submission to the 'ill of ,od AAllahB"
Muslim1 is a person who ma$es a commitment to live in peace through servitude to Allah"
Jihad1 means FstruggleF and FstriveF against evil thoughts# evil action and aggression against a
person# famil!# societ! or countr!" Jihad ma! be a F%ustifiable warF# borrowing the Christian term"
Mu%ahid1 is a person who engages in Jihad for the sa$e of Allah according to the .uran AMuslimHs
source boo$ for guidanceB and (unnah Athe teachings of Crophet Muhammad Apeace be upon
himB" Mu%ahidin is the plural of Mu%ahid"
FIslamic terrorismF1 There is no such phrase or term in the Islamic source boo$s of the .uran or
the (unnah and has no place in Islam"
(unnah1 (unnah is the preferred wa! of the Crophet Muhammad that includes his teaching" The
sources of the (unnah are authentic 6adith Areports of the CrophetHs sa!ings# doings and
approvalsB collections"
The True Meaning of FJihadF
Jihad is usuall! associated with Islam and Muslims# but in fact# the concept of Jihad is found in all
religions including Christianit!# Judaism and politicalSeconomic ideologies# such as# Capitalism#
(ocialism# Communism# etc" Islam defines Jihad as striving and struggling for improvement as
well as fighting bac$ to defend oneHs self# honor# assets and homeland" Also# Jihad is interpreted
as the struggle against evil# internal or e&ternal of a person or a societ!" Jihad# in Islam# means
doing an! or all but not limited to the following1
3earn# teach# and practice Islam in all aspects of oneHs life at all times to reach the highest and
best education in order to benefit oneself# famil! and societ!"
Be a messenger of Islam ever!where# in ever! behavior and action"
?ight evil# wrongdoing# and in%ustice with all oneHs power b! oneHs hand AactionB# with oneHs tongue
AspeechB# or at least with oneHs heart Apra!erB"
Lespond to the call for Jihad with mone!# effort# wisdom and life@ !et# never fight a Muslim
brother# a Muslim countr!# or a non-Muslim societ! that respects its treaties and harbors no
aggressive designs against Islam or Muslims"
(uicide under an! prete&t is not condoned as Jihad in Islam"
Converting people to Islam b! force or coercion is never Jihad but a crime# punishable b! law"
The concept of Muslim men rushing out to $ill themselves to get FK> dancing virginsF in Caradise#
is reall! 2uite sill!"
The fact of the matter is# the Fcompanions of CaradiseF are mentioned as being pure and so much
above an!thing we might imagine on earth# so as to indicate to us the! are perpetuall! FvirginF
and are not FtouchedF b! men or devils"
The words Fperpetual virginF even in Inglish# should give an!one the understanding these are not
such as we have $nown on earth"
There can be no mista$ing the meaning in the Arabic language as to the purit! and innocence of
these companions"
The 3evels of Jihad
A personal struggle within oneHs self to submit to Allah# fight evil within oneHs self# achieve higher
moral and educational standards - Inner Jihad"
Jihad against evil# in%ustice and oppression within oneHs self# famil! and societ! - (ocial Jihad"
Jihad against all that prevents Muslims from servitude to ,od AAllahB# people from $nowing Islam#
defense of a Muslim societ! Acountr!B# retribution against t!rann!# andSor when a Muslim is
removed from their homeland b! force - Ch!sical Jihad or an armed struggle"
The .uran defines ph!sical Jihad as being the highest level of Jihad that one can underta$e" Its
reward is eternal Caradise" Muslims also $now that all humans are accountable for what the!
have done during their life on this earth" Muslims will be as$ed about what the! did with their lives
and their level of submission to Allah on the Ea! of Judgment"
Eoes Jihad mean 6ol! 'ar/
In Islam# there is no such thing as hol! war" This terminolog! was generated in Iurope during the
Crusades and their war against Muslims" Islam recognizes Jews and Christians as the FCeople of
the Boo$F because the! all follow the Crophet Abraham# believing in MosesH and JesusH teachings"
?or man! centuries# Muslims have peacefull! coe&isted with Christians# Jews# and people of
other faiths# maintaining social# business# political and economic treaties" Islam respects all
humans and faiths as long as there is no religious oppression# forbidding Muslims from serving
Allah# preventing others from learning about Islam# and not respecting treaties" ?or more
information on the topic of Jihad see the brochure Jihad I&plained or re2uest brochure _)G from
the IIINI# the publisher of this article"
'ho is authorized to call for Jihad as a war/
Jihad must be performed according to Islamic rules and regulations and onl! for the sa$e or in the
service of Allah" The ph!sical or militar! Jihad must be called b! a Muslim authorit!# such as# a
president or head of a Muslim countr! after due consultations with the learned leadership"
'hat Eoes Islam (a! about Terrorism/
The term FterrorismF does not e&ist in the .uran or the teachings of the Crophet Muhammad" If
the terms Fterrorist or terrorismF are derived from a verb used in the .uran# such as :1++
describing a FMuslimHsF terrorist acts# it is in condemnation and prescribes most severe
punishment" Islam is a religion and a wa! of life that does not separate politics from religion"
Islam is a religion of merc!# unit! and most importantl! peace with oneHs self and others# to
defend not to fight" Allah said in 6is Boo$ the .uran1
F,od does not forbid !ou from showing $indness and dealing %ustl! with those who have not
fought !ou about religion and have not driven !ou out of !our homes# that !ou should show them
$indness and deal %ustl! with them" ,od loves %ust dealers"F 8Ooble .uran 9>1G;
F?ight in the cause of ,od against those who fight !ou# but do not begin aggression# for ,od
loves not aggressors"F 8Ooble .uran *1)=>;
FIf the! see$ peace# then see$ !ou peace and trust in ,od for 6e is the 6earer# the Pnower"F
8Ooble .uran G19);
F and let not the hatred of others ma$e !ou avoid %ustice" Be %ust1 that is ne&t to piet!@ and fear
Allah# for Allah is well-ac2uainted with all that !ou do"F 8Ooble .uran :1G;
FBut Aremember that an attempt atB re2uiting evil ma!# too# become an evil1 hence whoever
pardons Ahis foeB and ma$es peace# his reward rests with Allah- for# veril! 6e does not love
transgressors"F 8Ooble .uran -*1->;
FThe good deed and the evil deed are not ali$e" Lepel the evil deed with one which is better# then
loJ 6e between whom and thee there was enmit!# Awill becomeB as though he was a bosom
friend" 8Ooble .uran -)1+-;
(ome of the Crophet MuhammadHs Teachings A(unnahB
6e prohibited Muslim soldiers from $illing women# children and the elderl!# or cut a palm tree# and
he advised them# Fdo not betra!# do not be e&cessive# do not $ill a newborn child"F
F'hoever has $illed a person having a treat! with the Muslims shall not smell the fragrance of
Caradise# though its fragrance is found for a span of fort! !ears"F
FThe first cases to be ad%udicated between people on the Ea! of Judgment will be those of
bloodshed"F Pilling is the second ma%or sin in Islam"
FTrul! !our blood# !our propert!# and !our honor are inviolable"F
FThere is a reward for $indness shown to ever! living animal or human"F
Islam and 6uman Lights
The .uran and (unnah encourage Muslims to respect the life and propert! of all man$ind"
In an Islamic (tate these rights are considered sacred# whether a person is Muslim or not"
Islam protects honor# forbids insulting others# andSor ma$ing fun of them"
Islam re%ects certain individuals or nations being favored because of their wealth# power# andSor
All Muslims believe that Allah created all humans free and e2ual# onl! to be distinguished from
each other on the basis of ,od-consciousness or piet! and never on the basis of race# color or
Islam is a practical religion that respects all human beings and it was revealed for all man$ind" Its
message is that of peace and submission to Allah" Muslims believe in all the Crophets mentioned
in the Bible# and the .uran" The .uran shares man! moral teachings of the Dld Testament and
the Oew Testament" These three religions Aand their boo$sB were founded upon the revelations b!
Dne True ,od# Allah" ?or more information on this topic please see the brochure 6uman Lights
In Islam or as$ for brochure _K from the IIINI# the publisher of this article"
Jihad in the Bible
3et us see what the Bible has to sa! about Jihad in the meaning of war and violence" The
following verses are from the Bible# Oew International <ersion AOI<B# )=G-
FEo not allow a sorceress to live" An!one who has se&ual relations with an animal must be put to
death" 'hoever sacrifices to an! god other than the 3DLE must be destro!ed"F 8I&odus **1)G-
FThis is what the 3DLE# the ,od of Israel# sa!s1 Heach man strap a sword to his side" ,o bac$
and forth through the camp from one end to the other# each $illing his brother and friend and
neighbor"H The 3evites did as Moses commanded and that da! about three thousand of the
people died"F 8I&odus +*1*K-*G;
FThe 3DLE said to Moses# HTa$e vengeance on the Midianites for the Israelites" The Israelites
captured the Midianite women and children and too$ all the Midianite herds# floc$s and goods as
plunder" The! burned all the towns where the Midianites had settled# as well as all their camps"
AMoses orderedB FOow $ill all the bo!s" And $ill ever! women who has slept with a man# but save
for !ourselves ever! girl who has never slept with a man"F 8Oumbers +)1)-)G;
AJesus saidB FBut those enemies of mine who did not want me to be $ing over them - bring them
here and $ill them in front of me"F 83u$e )=1*K;
F6e AJesusB said to them# HBut now if !ou have a purse# ta$e it# and also a bag@ and if !ou donHt
have a sword# sell !our cloa$ and bu! one"F 83u$e **1+9;
Eifferential treatment
Muslims follow a religion of peace# merc! and forgiveness" If an individual Muslim were to commit
an act of terrorism# this person would be guilt! of violating the basic tenants of Islam"
'hen Timoth! Mc<eigh bombed the D$lahoma Cit! building# no American or Christian was
labeled as a terrorist or was the target of hate crimes" 'hen Irish Christians carr! out acts of
terrorism against each other and on the British Isles# the Christian religion is not blamed but
individuals or their political agenda" Qnfortunatel!# the same is not true for American Muslims and
Arabs" The vast ma%orit! of Muslims or Arabs have no association with the violent events around
the world !et Islam is invo$ed with terrorism" It is unfair to )": billion Muslims of the world and
religion of Islam"
Criteria of guilt
Innocent until proven guilt! in an open court is an accepted universal principle of %ustice along
with libert! and freedom for all human$ind" 6owever# the Q"(" failed to practice the same
principles for those who are not Q"(" nationals" Iven worse# the Q"(" is creating militar! tribunal
for secret trials because there ma! be inade2uate evidence to prove Arabs and Muslims guilt! in
open courts"
Ma! Allah bless us all and purif! our hearts from all misunderstanding# malice# hate and anger"
Acts of Terrorism - Oot I(3AM
Terrorists are not Muslims
Acts of Terrorism attributed to the Taliban Athe Afghanistan Luling Cart!B or an! other Muslim
groups or organizations must not be e2uated with Islam" Instead# if one acts li$e a Judge or a
Jur!# he or she will evaluate their actions in the light of in%unctions of 6ol! .uran A,odHs
commands and ?inal ,uidanceB# the practice of the ?inal Crophet of ,od-Muhammad Apeace be
upon himB and his companions and the ?our rightl! guided Islamic Lulers Ama! Allah be pleased
with themB after him before sa!ing an! thing false about Islam because ,od and 6is Leligion
AIslamB are pure from in%ustice# unhol!# merciless and cruel practices" ,od Almight! Allah teaches
even to forego our rights to please one who is angr! with us or even our enem!# and to ma$e him
happ! b! such acts so that he sees the beaut! and truthfulness of ,odHs ,ift Athat is IslamB and is
liberated from the (atanHs influence and the path of 6ell ?ire" ,od commands us to do %ustice
even with our enemies because doing" Justice with all is the one of the important criteria for being
a Believer in Allah and the (ign that a Believer is not %ust a Believer but 6e is a True and
Dbedient (ervant of ,od who disli$es ma$ing 6is 3ord Angr!" 'e canHt %ust sa! that we believe in
Allah# the ,od who is Just and then in the same breathe act mercilessl! with the people#
especiall! women and children# without caring for their needs and sentiments" But how can such
people and their harsh methods and thin$ing st!le bring an! glor! to Islam and to themselves/
Time will tellJ
The! fight their own brethren among Islamic communit! and are not read! for reconciliation with
an! one" The thin$ing or intellectual level ma! not be on the same line as that of intelligent
Americans# Japanese or Iuropeans" (o# we must not thin$ as the! do" Dur thin$ing must be
based on the ideolog! taught to us b! ,od and 6is ?inal Crophet Muhammad Apeace be upon
And because an! organization bearing an! Muslim name and other people are free to sa! and do
what the! li$e" If the! are doing such acts that are at times in total disagreement with the wa! of
final Crophet of ,od and 6is successors Athe ?our Lightl! ,uided PhalifahsB# then one must not
blame Islam" A studentHs mista$es and wrong acts must not necessaril! be hurled on the
shoulders of his teachers"
Euring the time of IslamHs ?inal Crophet Muhammad Apeace be upon himB people used to do such
things which were not permitted in Islam and the! were punished b! ,odHs Crophet" But toda! in
the absence of an! Luler APhalifahB li$e Abu Ba$r# Dmar or Ali# or the one who strictl! adheres to
their wa! of thin$ing and %ustice# most of the people dare to do all such things in the name of
Islam Afrom within the fraternit! of IslamB or sa! against it such things from among those who are
without Islam" This shows how far the faith of people in ,od has eroded notwithstanding their
e&ternal features and tall tal$s" It must be noted that Allah Almight! who is Just and but at the
same time punishes severel! as well for the in%ustice and cruelt! done on others b! an! person#
not mattering whether one is Muslim or non-Muslim# upholds 6is ,uidance regarding Justice and
behavior with all people including our own relatives and all other human beings who are also
AllahHs servants or creatures" 6ere is an earnest re2uest to all people who are created b!
Almight! Allah and eat 6is F(altF not to %ump into conclusion without first referring to Al .uran and
the Traditions of 6is ?inal Crophet Muhammad Aif at all the! want to do %ustice to themselvesB"
Oone can harm ,od and Islam" But one can harm him or her" Eo !ou still insist on acting without
,odHs ,uidance/
'indows at the Islamic Center of Irving were found shot out when wor$ers arrived at the mos2ue
about 9 a"m" Oobod! was at the mos2ue when the shooting occurred and no in%uries were
About G>> people attend services at the center"
Irving police were investigating the incident"
It was not immediatel! clear if the shooting was related to Tuesda!Hs terrorist attac$s along the
Iast Coast"
FItHs ver! sad" 'eHre %ust tr!ing as an! Americans# an! Muslim-American# to comprehend what
happened and wh! it happened """ we called on our communit! for a blood drive# we set a fund for
donations and we made a special pra!er last night """ and to come in the morning and find out a
place of worship li$e this trashed#F Al$awldeh said# his voice trembling"
F'e have children# we have famil! """ we have to shut down our school operation for two da!s
now so I hope the law enforcement agenc! come also to our help as Muslims# as citizens of this
countr!#F he said"