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Sarhad J. Agric, Vol.27, No.

2, 2011

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EFFECT OF NAPHTHALENE ACETIC ACID AND PHOSPHORUS LEVELS ON THE YIELD POTENTIAL OF TRANSPLANTED COARSE RICE
IMAM BAKHSH, HIMAYAT ULLAH KHAN, MOHAMMAD QASIM KHAN and SADAF JAVARIA Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan Pakistan. ABSTRACT The effect of various levels of NAA and phosphorus on the yield and yield components of transplanted coarse rice, was studied. The study was conducted at Research Area at Rukh Bibi Campus Gomal University, Dara Ismail Khan, NWFP, Pakistan during 2004 and 2005. The experimental design was RCB with split plot arrangement. Main plot consisted of four levels of NAA viz. 0, 60, 90 and 120 ml ha-1, while sub-plots consisted of five levels of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 phosphorus in the form of single supper phosphate (SSP). It was noted that plant height, productive tillers, 1000-grain weight, paddy yield, and harvest index were maximum at 90 ml followed by 60 and 120 ml ha-1 and minimum in control during both years. Where as in phosphorus levels maximum plant height, productive tillers, 1000-grain weight, paddy yield and harvest index were recorded at 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 followed by 150,200 and 50 kg P2O5 ha-1. The treatments interactive effects of plant growth regulator and phosphorus levels were maximum in 90 ml NAA x 100kg P2O5 ha-1 and minimum in control plots during both years. Key Words: Rice (Oryza sativa L.), NAA = naphthalene acetic acid, phosphorus. Citation: Bakhsh, I., H.U. Khan, M.Q. Khan and S. Javaria. 2011. Effect of naphthalene acetic acid and phosphorus levels on the yield potential of transplanted coarse rice. Sarhad J. Agric 27(2): 161-165 INTRODUCTION Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important food crop of the world and 2nd most important staple food crop after wheat in Pakistan. Pakistan is 5th largest rice producing country of the world and is the 3rd largest crop after wheat and cotton in share of area (2581 thousand hectare) and production (5438 thousand tons) with an average yield of 2107 kg ha-1 (Anonymous, 2007), which is very low as compared to other rice producing countries. There are many factors for low yield. The most important one is imbalance use of nutrients. Phosphorus after nitrogen is the key element for crop production. Its availability is seriously affected due to alkaline calcarious nature of soils of Pakistan which is very much clear from its low recovery efficiency of 15-20% (Zia, et al. 1991) the remaining 80-85% phosphorus is left as non available. It is important for root development, increased resistant to lodging, reduced flower shedding, increased grain weight, improved seedling vigor and seed quality (Henry, et al. 1995). Therefore there is a need to improve its efficiency in crop productivity. The use of plant growth regulators in the field of agriculture has become commercialized in some advanced counties like Europe, USA and Japan. The current uses for plant growth regulators are not only in a high value horticultural crops but it also increase field crop yield directly either by increasing total biological yield or the harvest index. Growth substances can be divided into five classes as Auxin, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abcisic acid, and Ethylene. Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) belongs to synthetic forms of Auxins. Auxins play key role in cell elongation, cell division, vascular tissue, differentiation, root initiation, apical dominance, leaf senescence, leaf and fruit abscission, fruit setting and flowering (Davies, 1987). Growth and yield parameters of rice are significantly promoted in response to various Auxin levels (Zahir, et al. 1998). Planofix (Naphthalene Acetic Acid) had a significant effect on plant height, number of fruiting branches, volume of boll and yield in cotton (Abro, et al. 2004). Naphthalene Acetic Acid @ 20ppm showed better performance in enhancing the straw and grain yields of wheat cultivars (Alam, et al. 2002). Naphthalene Acetic Acid have been used for the enhancement of growth and yield of cereals (Lilani, et al. 1991). Agricultural scientists are focusing their attention to maximize the crop productivity with low inputs technology. A lot of research has been conducted and reported using various agricultural inputs in order to increase crop productivity. However, there is lake of information regarding the use of phosphorus along with plant growth regulators to improve phosphorus management and maximize its efficiency. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to introduce low inputs technology for enhancing the yield potential of coarse rice by the use of phosphorus element in conjunction with plant growth regulator (NAA). MATERIALS AND METHODS The research project on Effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) and phosphorus levels on the yield potential of coarse rice was undertaken at the Postgraduate Agriculture Research Farm, Gomal University, Dera

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Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, during rice growing seasons of 2004 and 2005. The nature of soil was clay with pH value of 7.9 and 8.1. The experiment was laid out in RCB design with split plot arrangement, replicated four times. All the collected data were tabulated and analyzed statistically using analysis of variance technique and subsequently using Least Significance difference (LSD at 1%) for comparing the treatment means, by MStatC computer software (Steel and Torrie, 1980). Phytofix (Naphthalene Acetic Acid 4.5% in sodium salt) was applied with the help of skilled labour by hand pump sprayer. The plant growth regulator levels were kept in main plot and phosphorus levels were kept in sub plots. The sub-plot size was 3 x 5 m-2. Four different levels of Phytofix i.e. 0, 60, 90 and 120 ml ha-1 were applied at the time of panicle initiation whereas phosphatic fertilizer levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 which was applied at the time of seed bed preparation before transplanting the rice nursery. Recommended level of (120 kg N ha-1) was applied in two split levels, half at the time of transplanting and remaining half at the time of panicle initiation. Treated and sprouted seed of well adapted, non-aromatic coarse rice variety IR-6 which belongs to the Indica rice group was sown at well prepared nursery seed bed for the experiment. The 35 days old seedlings, free of pests and disease were transplanted in the plots using row to row and plant to plant spacing of 20 x 20 cm with two seedlings per hill by trained manual labors on 15th Jun each year. All other agronomic practices were maintained till the harvesting and threshing of crop. Data were recorded on plant height (cm), productive tillers (m-2), 1000-grain weight (g), paddy yield (t ha-1) and harvest index (%). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Plant Height (cm) Data recorded on plant height are presented in (Table I). The data indicated that levels of NAA differed significantly from each other in relation to plant height during both the cropping seasons. Plant growth regulator (NAA) level of 90 ml ha-1 showed maximum plant height (129.4 and 131.4 cm) during 2004 and 2005, respectively. It is obvious from the data that smallest plants were recorded in plots with no plant growth regulator application. Islam et al. (2005) also reported that the highest plant height was observed where GA3 was applied @ 75 g ha-1. As far as the effect of phosphatic fertilizer levels on plant height of rice crop is concerned, it was observed that various levels of phosphatic fertilizer significantly affected the plant height. During both years, the tallest plants (131.8 and 135 cm) were recorded in the treatment with 100 kg P2O5 ha-1, followed by 150 and 200 kg P2O5 ha-1 treatment. However during both years of the study smallest plants were observed in the plots without phosphorus application. Kumar and Reddy, (2003) showed that application of phosphorus at high level increased seedling height but up to some level. The interaction of plant growth regulator and phosphatic fertilizer levels were also highly significant during both the years. During 2004 and 2005 the treatment having plant growth regulator level of 90 ml ha-1 with 100 kg ha-1 phosphatic fertilizer was on top in plant height having 139 and 142 cm plant height, respectively. The smallest plants were measured in treatments with no level of plant growth regulator and without phosphatic fertilizer application during both the years of study. Productive Tillers (m-2) The data recorded on number of productive tillers m-2 are presented in (Table I). The data indicated that levels of plant growth regulator (NAA) significantly affected the number of productive tiller during both the cropping seasons. It revealed that the plant growth regulator level of 90 ml ha-1 showed maximum number of productive tillers (363.6 and 366.00 m-2) during 2004 and 2005, respectively. It is obvious from the data that lowest number of productive tillers (m-2) were recorded in plots with no growth regulator application. Zahir, et al. (1998) depicted similar results by the application of Tryptophan @ 105 M. As far as the effect of phosphatic fertilizer levels on number of productive tillers of rice crop is concerned, it was observed that various levels significantly affected the productive tillers during both the years. Maximum number of productive tillers were recorded in the treatment with 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 (362.3 and 364.3 m-2), followed by 150 (352.5 and 354.5 m-2) and 200 kg P2O5 ha-1 (352.0 and 354.0 m-2), but the difference was significant. However during both the years of study the lowest number of productive tillers were observed in the plots without phosphatic fertilizer. Similar results were observed by Qadir and Ansari (2006) who reported that high phosphorus levels were needed for maximum fertile tillers in rice crop. The interaction of plant growth regulator levels and phosphatic fertilizer was highly significant during 2004 and 2005. The treatment having plant growth regulator level of 90 ml ha-1 with 100 kg ha-1 phosphatic fertilizer was on top with maximum number of productive tillers (374.0 and 376.0 m2) during both the experimental years. The lowest number of productive tillers were noticed in treatment with no level of plant growth regulator and without phosphatic fertilizer application during both years of study having 325.0 and 324.5 (m-2) productive tillers during the 1st and 2nd year of study, respectively.

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Table-I

Plant height and productive tillers as affected by plant growth regulator (NAA) and phosphorus levels in transplanted coarse rice during 2004 2005 Plant Height (cm) Productive Tillers (m-2) Treatments (ha-1) 2004 2005 2004 2005 Growth Regulator (G) ml G0 0 113.8 C 116.2 C 339.8 C 340.7 C G1 60 120.8 B 123.6 B 349.8 B 352.2 B G2 90 129.4 A 131.4 A 363.6 A 366.0 A G3 120 120.6 B 123.0 B 349.8 B 351.8 B LSD 2.957 2.336 3.224 3.005 Phosphorus P (kg) P0 0 106.5 D 108.5 D 339.5 D 341.0 D P1 50 117.5 C 120.0 C 347.5 C 349.5 C P2 100 131.8 A 135.0 A 362.3 A 364.3 A P3 150 124.8 B 126.8 B 352.5 B 354.5 B P4 200 125.3 B 127.5 B 352.0 B 354.0 B LSD 2.631 2.689 3.929 3.136 G0 X P0 95.00 J 97.00 K 325.0 J 324.5 J G0 X P1 110.0 I 113.0 IJ 337.0 I 336.0 I G0 X P2 125.0 DE 128.0 DE 350.0 DEFG 352.0 DEF G0 X P3 119.0 FGH 121.0 FGH 344.0 FGHI 346.0 FGH G0 X P4 120.0 EFGH 122.0 FGH 343.0 GHI 345.0 GH G1 X P0 106.0 I 108.0 J 338.0 I 340.0 HI G1 X P1 116.0 H 118.0 HI 346.0 EFGH 350.0EFG G1 X P2 131.0 BC 134.0 BC 362.0 BC 364.0 BC G1 X P3 125.0 DE 128.0 DE 352.0 DE 354.0 DE G1 X P4 126.0 CD 130.0CDE 351.0 DEF 353.0 DE G2 X P0 118.0 GH 120.0 GH 355.0 CD 358.0 CD G2 X P1 127.0 BCD 130.0 CDE 360.0 BC 363.0 BC G2 X P2 139.0 A 142.0 A 374.0 A 376.0 A G2 X P3 131.0 BC 132.0 BCD 364.0 B 366.0 B G2 X P4 132.0 B 133.0 BCD 365.0 B 367.0 B G3 X P0 107.0 I 109.0 J 340.0 HI 342.0 HI G3 X P1 117.0 H 119.0 H 347.0 EFGH 349.0 EFG G3 X P2 132.0 B 136.0 B 363.0 B 365.0 B G3 X P3 124.0 DEF 126.0 EF 350.0 DEFG 352.0 DEF G3 X P4 123.0 DEFG 125.0 EFG 349.0 DEFG 351.0 EFG LSD 5.263 5.378 7.858 6.271

Means followed by different letter(s) are significantly different at 1% level of probability using LSD test. 1000-Grain Weight (g) The (Table II) revealed that the effect of plant growth regulator (NAA) levels differed significantly from each other during both the cropping seasons with respect to 1000-grain weight. It revealed that the plant growth regulator level of 90 ml ha-1 showed maximum 1000-grain weight (20.65 and 20.7 g) during 2004 and 2005, respectively, followed by plant growth regulator level of 60 and 120 ml ha-1. It is obvious from the data that lowest 1000-grain weight (19.37 and 19.61 g) were recorded in plots with no growth regulator application during 2004 and 2005. Zahir, et al. (2000) reported that L-Tryptophan application to different crops significantly increased all yield components. As far as the effect of phosphatic fertilizer levels on 1000-grain weight is concerned, it was observed that various phosphatic fertilizer levels significantly affected the 1000-grain weight at P<0.01. During both the years, the maximum 1000-grain weight was recorded in the treatment with 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 (20.62 and 20.77 g), followed by 150 kg P2O5 ha-1. However during both the years of study the lowest 1000-grain weight (19.44 and 19.67 g) were observed in the plots without phosphatic fertilizer. The results are similar with the findings of Qadir and Ansri, (2006). They found that increasing levels of phosphatic fertilizer increased 1000-grain weight of rice. The interaction of plant growth regulator and phosphatic fertilizer levels was highly significant during 2004 and 2005 with respect to 1000-grain weight. The treatment having plant growth regulator level of 90 ml ha-1 with 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 phosphatic fertilizer was on top in relation to 1000-grain weight (21.46 and 21.5 g), followed by 90 ml ha-1 with 150 kg ha-1 phosphatic fertilizer (20.6 and 20.7 g) during 2004 and 2005, respectively. The lowest 1000-grain weight was noticed in treatments with no application of plant growth regulator and without phosphatic fertilizer application during both years of study.

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Data presented in (Table II) shows that the effect of plant growth regulator (NAA) levels differed significantly from each other during both the years of study with respect to paddy yield. The plant growth regulator (NAA) level of 90 ml ha -1 showed significantly maximum paddy yield (7.54 and 7.62 t ha-1) during 2004 and 2005, respectively, followed by plant growth regulator level of 60 and 120 ml ha-1 and it is obvious from the data that lowest paddy yield (5.52 and 5.70 t ha-1) were recorded in plots with no growth regulator application during 2004 and 2005, respectively. The results are in line with those of Zahir, et al. (2000). As far as the effect of phosphatic fertilizer on paddy yield is concerned, it was observed that phosphatic fertilizer levels highly significantly affected the paddy yield during both the years of study and significantly maximum paddy yield (7.62 and 7.82 t ha-1) was recorded in the treatment with 100 kg P2O5 ha1 , followed by 150 and 200 kg P2O5 ha-1 levels. However during both the years of study significantly lowest paddy yield (5.40 and 5.61 t ha-1) was observed in the plots without phosphatic fertilizer application during both the years of experimentation. The results are in line with that of Maqsood, et al. (2001), who reported that higher paddy yield was obtained in plots receiving 120-100 kg NP ha-1 than the plot having 40-20, 60-40, 100-80 kg NP ha-1. The higher paddy yield with 120-100 kg NP ha-1 was probably due to higher number of filled grain and kernels weight panicle-1. The results are also in line with that of Sudhakar et al. (2004) and Qadir and Ansari, (2006). They stated that high phosphorus levels needed for grain yield enhancement. The interaction of plant growth regulator and phosphatic fertilizer levels was also highly significant during both the years of study with respect to paddy yield. The treatment having plant growth regulator level of 90 ml ha-1 with 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 was on top, with maximum paddy yield (8.7 and 8.9 t ha-1) during 2004 and 2005, respectively. The lowest paddy yield was obtained in treatments with no level of plant growth regulator and without phosphatic fertilizer application during both years of study, showing 4.60 and 4.75 t ha-1 during 2004 and 2005, respectively. Ezehiel, et al. (2006) also reported that grain yield was increased by N and plant growth regulators. Prakash et al. (2007) reported that addition of phosphorus with or without rice hull ash as a source of silicon increases the paddy yields. Table-II 1000-grain weight, paddy yield and harvest index as affected by plant growth regulator (NAA) and phosphorus levels in transplanted coarse rice during 2004 2005 1000-grain Weight (g) Paddy Yield (t ha-1) Harvest Index (%) Treatments (ha-1) 2004 2005 2004 2005 2004 2005

Growth Regulator (G) ml


G0 0 G1 60 G2 90 G3 120 LSD 19.37 C 19.89 B 20.65 A 19.86 B 0.08 19.44 D 19.82 C 20.62 A 20.06 B 19.79 C 0.06 18.80 I 19.30 H 20.20 D 19.30 H 19.25 H 19.20 H 19.75 F 20.35 C 20.15 D 20.00 E 20.44 C 20.36 C 21.46 A 20.60 B 20.40 C 19.33 H 19.85 F 20.46 C 20.18 D 19.50 G 0.13 19.61 C 20.06 B 20.70 A 20.13 B 0.15 19.67 E 19.92 D 20.77 A 20.19 B 20.06 C 0.11 19.00 I 19.50 H 20.40 CD 19.60 H 19.55 H 19.50 H 19.90 G 20.60 BC 20.20 DEF 20.10 EFG 20.60 BC 20.29 DE 21.50 A 20.70 B 20.40 CD 19.60 H 20.00 FG 20.60 BC 20.25 DE 20.20 DEF 0.23 5.52 C 6.43 B 7.54 A 6.36 B 0.406 5.40 D 6.12 C 7.62 A 6.65 B 6.51 B 0.3673 4.60 l 5.00 kl 6.70 DEF 5.60 HIJK 5.70 GHIJK 5.30 JKL 6.00 FGHIJ 7.50 BC 6.60 DEF 6.75 DE 6.20 EFGHI 7.20 CD 8.70 A 8.00 AB 7.60 BC 5.50 IJK 6.30 EFGH 7.60 BC 6.40 EFG 6.00 FGHIJ 0.7346 5.70 C 6.59 B 7.62 A 6.42 B 0.379 5.61 D 6.11 C 7.82 A 6.69 B 6.68 B 0.3967 4.75 I 5.20 HI 6.90 DE 5.58 FGH 5.90 FGH 5.50 GHI 6.02 FG 7.70 BC 6.82 DE 6.90 DE 6.40 DEF 7.00 CD 8.90 A 8.00 B 7.80 B 5.80 FGH 6.20 EFG 7.80 B 6.20 EFG 6.12 EFG 0.7934 41.42 C 44.96 B 49.25 A 43.70 BC 2.345 40.11 C 45.18 B 48.89 A 45.16 B 44.71 B 2.832 36.59 G 40.85 FG 46.74 BCDE 40.56 FG 42.35 EF 40.87 FG 46.66BCDE 47.34BCDE 44.90 CDEF 45.03 CDEF 43.08 DEF 48.66 ABCD 53.38 A 51.94 AB 49.21 ABC 39.90 FG 44.55 CDEF 48.08 ABCD 43.22 DEF 42.26 EF 5.665 41.30 C 44.69 B 48.05 A 43.51 B 2.172 40.83 C 42.85 BC 48.92 A 44.69 B 44.65 B 2.996 36.54 G 39.13 FG 46.60 BCDE 42.04 DEFG 42.19 DEFG 40.70 EFG 44.00 BCDEF 48.22 ABC 45.96 BCDE 44.59 BCDEF 42.98 CDEF 45.50 BCDE 53.04 A 49.39 AB 49.36 AB 43.11 CDEF 42.77 CDEF 47.84 ABCD 41.37 EFG 42.47 CDEFG 5.992

Phosphorus P (kg)
P0 0 P1 50 P2 100 P3 150 P4 200 LSD G0 X P0 G0 X P1 G0 X P2 G0 X P3 G0 X P4 G1 X P0 G1 X P1 G1 X P2 G1 X P3 G1 X P4 G2 X P0 G2 X P1 G2 X P2 G2 X P3 G2 X P4 G3 X P0 G3 X P1 G3 X P2 G3 X P3 G3 X P4 LSD (0.01)

Means followed by different letter(s) are significantly different at 1% level of probability using LSD test. Harvest Index (%) The data calculated on harvest index percentage are presented in Table II. The data depicts that levels of plant growth regulator (NAA) significantly affected harvest index during both the years. Plant growth regulator level

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of 90 ml ha-1 showed maximum harvest index (49.25 and 48.05 %) during 2004 and 2005, respectively. It was followed by the level of 60 ml ha-1. It is obvious from the data that lowest harvest index (41.42 and 41.30 %) was calculated in the plots with no growth regulator application during both the years of study. The effect of phosphatic fertilizer levels on harvest index was also highly significant at P<0.01 during both the years. The maximum harvest index was recorded in the treatment with 100 kg ha-1 phosphatic fertilizer application. Sahrawat, and Sika (2002) stated that phosphorus improves the harvest index of the rice. The interaction of plant growth regulator and phosphatic fertilizer was highly significant during 2004 and 2005 with regards to harvest index. The treatment having plant growth regulator level of 90 ml ha-1 with 100 kg phosphatic fertilizer showed maximum harvest index of 53.38 and 53.04 % during the year 2004 and 2005, respectively. CONCLUSION It has been concluded that various levels of plant growth regulator and phosphatic fertilizer significantly affected the yield of transplanted coarse rice. The interaction of plant growth regulator (NAA) level of 90 ml ha-1 and 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 had significantly beneficial effect on the yield attributes of coarse rice and increased the grain yield. It is, therefore recommended that plant growth regulator (NAA) level of 90 ml ha-1 with 100 kg P2O5 is the best combination for yield enhancement. REFERENCES Abro, G.H., T.S. Syed, M.I. Umer and J. Zhang. 2004. Effect of application of a growth regulator and micronutrients on insect pest infestation and yield components of cotton. J. Entomol. 1(1): 12-16. Alam, S.M., A. Shereen and M. Khan. 2002. Growth response of wheat cultivars to naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and ethrel. Pak. J. Bot. 34(2): 135-137. Anonymous. 2007. Economic survey of Pakistan. Advisors swing, Finan Div, Govt. of Pakistan. Islamabad. pp.18-19. Davies, P.J. 1987. Plant hormone and their role in plant growth and development. Martinus Nijhoff Publ. Dordrecht, Netherlands. Ezehiel, A. and Akinrinde. 2006. Growth regulators and nitrogen fertilization effects on performance and nitrogen use efficiency to tall and dwarf varieties of rice. Biotech. 5(3): 268-276. Henry, J.L., A.E. Slinkard and T.J. Hogg. 1995. Effect of phosphorus on establishment, yield and quality of pea, lentil and fababean. Canad. J. Plant Sci. 75: 395-398. Islam, M.S., G.J.H. Ahmad and Zulfiquar. 2005. Effect of flag leaf clipping and GA3 application on hybrid rice seed yield. IRRN. 30(1): 46-47. Kumar, K.A. and M.D. Reddy. 2003. Effect of nursery seedling date and phosphorus fertilization on rice seedling growth. IRRN. 28 (2): 50-52. Lilani, A.T., T. Joshi and R.K. Mishra. 1991. NAA-mediating growth and macro molecular changes in wheat primary leaf serial section. Indian J. Plant Physiol. 34: 311-318 Maqsood, M., N. Akhtar, A. Wajid and S. Ahmad. 2001. Growth and yield of rice (basmati-385) as influence by different NP levels. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 1(4) 291-292. Prakash, N.B., H. Nagaraj, K.T. Gurusheamy, B.N. Vishwanatha, C. Vishwanatha, N.A. Naraganaswamy, J. Gowda, N. Vasuki and R. Siddayamappa. 2007. Rice hull as a source of silicon and phosphatic fertilizers effects on growth and yield of rice. IRRN. 32 (1) 34-36. Qadir, A. and Z.M.A. Ansari. 2006. Phosphorus requirements of rice grown in soils with different sodicity. J. Plant Nut. 9(12): 2105-2117. Sahrawat, K.L. and M. Sika. 2002. Direct and residual phosphorus effects on soil tests values and their relationship with grain yield and phosphorus uptake of upland rice on an Ultisol. Common Soil. Sci. Plant Anal. 33(3/4): 321-332. Steel, R.G.D and J.H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and procedures of Statistics. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., New York. Sudhakar, P.C., J.P. Singh and K. Singh. 2004. Effect of silicon sources and fertility level on transplanted rice. IRRN. 29 (2): 55-57. Zahir, Z.A., A. Rahman, N. Asghar and M. Arshad. 1998. Effect of an auxin precursor L-tryptophan on growth and yield of rice. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 1(4): 354-356. Zahir, Z.A., M.R. Malik and M. Arshad. 2000. Improving crop yields by the application of an auxin precusor Ltryptophan. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 3(1): 133-135. Zia, M.S., M.A. Gill, M. Aslam and M.F. Hassan. 1991. Fertilizer use efficiency in Pakistan. Progress. Farm. 11: 35-38.