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. .
" .
.... VAJIRAM & .

ttfl' . s
vil upports the Gov

bl' ernment
delivefi ng pu 1c services. Th'
n developing d
and need to meet the highest Civil Implementing Its policies,
nservices reflect this. e standards in all that accountable to the public
Ctvil ey do. The core values of
I II servants have special obligations b
entrusted to by the they are responsible for managing
services to the and because they they provide and deliver
spects of a community s hfe. The community h Important decisions that affect all
fairly, impartially and efficiently. It is a .right to expect the civil service
rust and have confidence In the Integrity f th nttal that the community must be able
to . II I I I o e civil serviced I I
Within the ctv serv ce tse f, It needs to be ensured ec s process.
servants reflect the policies of the government of that the decisions and acttons of ,civil
mmunity expects from them as government the day and the standards that the
corvice will maintain the same standard ,servants. The expectation that the civil
se s o professionalism re d
. rtiality in serving successive political . sponstveness an
polity functions. governments ts a key element of the way our
The current of values for. the civil services are conduct rules which prohibit a set of
common act1v1ties that constttute undesirable conduct and behaviour for civil servants
what we do not have is a statement of values which should guide the civil servants in
discharge of their duties. There is need for more generic norms to be laid down by way
of accepted conduct for the civil servants. It is necessary to have a declaration of values
tor the civil services, reflecting public expectations of the relationship between the civil
service and the government, the legislature, and the members of the public, with specific
reference to political impartiality, maintenance of the highest ethical standards,
accountability for actions and responsibilities to the government of the day. Another key
consideration Is to set up appropriate instttutional mechanisms to promote and enforce
the values and code of conduct and to evaluate the extent to which they are incorporated
and upheld throughout the civil service.
The experience of the countries in reforming their clvtl services, It
dopted comprehensive a'" se, ......... ""
most of the reforming countries a and characteristiCS which eteate
which describe and establish the core servtce. It has also been obMMd
the distinctive culture and ethics of the reformed wfthln which the clvlseMoe
how these legislations provided a clear, unlftad ffa
carry out Its distinctive role and teaponsft)llltles. _.ibU&S tot the liQII\Itllrw
A legislative framework Is 1M.,....,
In India to express Important pubRc ....... 1M
would want in the civil service, and hoW..._
. tD
VAJIRAM & RAVI -----..................
those within the civil service and
. unambiguous statement to Articulation of civil service values U.
should also be ,an ectad of the civil service. f shared values and vision aetO\JQI\
of clear a unifying and motivating force
In the civil service law will ?dre the foundation for a unity of OUtlook
unam g I . it will also prov' -JQ
civil service as a who e,
behaviour across the civil serv ce. I h s consistent with best practices globau
Moreover II will represent an the values and ethical standards u{
At the the legislation a. the Constitution, adherence to the hlghe e
' 1 1 enshnned 'n ltl ' at
commitment to the princ pes d t ommitment to the c zens concerns and
standards of probity, Integrity and c,on I dealings, empathy for the vulnerable
public good, Impartiality and objectiv ty n
sections of society.
rs Parliament to create the All India Services
Article 312 of the Constitution . . Th
dian Administrative and Pollc
(AIS) on the fulfilment of certam conditions. ell n ent under this Article. Section e3
Services are deemed to be services created by Par am .
of the AIS Act 1951 and the rules and regulations made by the government prescnbe
the selection for the lAS. Similar provisions exist for the 1:s the The
key objectives of government in creating the AIS are (a) .unity and
integrity and uniform standards of administration (b) neutrality and - non-
political, secular and nonsectarian outlook (c) competence, eff1c1ency and
professionalism - at entry by attracting the best and brightest and throughout the career
(d) integrity and e) Idealism.
The roots of the civil service go back a long way in human history. The key to the
survival of the ancient Egyptian civilization that flourished as early as 3,000 BC was the
civil service - the historical model of all later bureaucracies. The waterways for the whole
oountry needed central management, which required a body of scribes and officials.
Once in place, the scribes and officials found their second realm of business in the
extensive construction activities which were organized along military lines. It was only a
matter of time before they took over the administration of the entire state.
In China where the civil service has lasted from at least 200 BC, it played a crucial role in
the preservation of the Chinese Empire from the time of Shi Hwangti. In China, the civil
servants were recruited on the basis of merit and enjoyed a well-defined career path and
security of tenure. Serving the state was considered a great bestowed only on a
chosen tew with demonstrated talents. In Japan, the civil .service provided continuity of
admi1istration since the Taika reforms of 645 AD, and that too, in spite of change of
systems and transfer of power from one regime to another. The numerous Negro
.,.,_ existed only briefly because they Jacked an apparatus of officials. The unity of
11w Cstollnglan empire was under serious strain once Its organization of officials
_.....,----& VAJlRAM n
............. .
ei of Intensive modern stat .
nu es 1n the
111e cratic structures. Oevelopln . middle Ages de
n-buildlng In Europe. ihe civil service was an concomitantly with
of natiO pt was considered such bodern bureaucratic stat sen\lal step in the process
conce a reaK\hrou h . e evolved In Europe wh
t119 orted to other countries. So the g In administrative techn I ' ere
transP ncipalltles and Ru I concept journeyed o ogy that It was
rff'lan pn ss a. In Prussia \h eastward In Europe to the
(39 ulations to modernise the economy and the 'ed e Introduced extensive
reQ ch' the system worked well only because th system on the pattern of the
fren the process of bureaucratisation CIVIl society was sufficiently developed
a the state became excessively the concept travelled further east to
RusSI . 't
. crat1c In \he abs
. tY to restram 1 . n sp1te of valiant efforts by P ence of a developed-civil
soclecent times, the civil society in Russia has the great, and Mikhail Gorbachev
In re n European model and act as a check h been able to develop Itself on the
wester on t e bureaucratic state.
In India. the legendds of the speak of the evolution of the administrative
s The go s, at war w1th the demon
appara s, were on the verge of defeat. In
desperation they. got together and elected a king to lead them. ihe origins of the ear\y
Aryan administrative system may perhaps be traced to these legends.
tilya's Arthasastra stipulates seven basic elements of the administrative apparatus.
KaU b d' d h d
These elements are em o 1e m t e octnne of the PraKrlts. lhey are: Swamin ttne
ruler) , Amatya (the bure(aucracy), (territory), Durga (the fortified capital), Kosa
h treasury), Oanda the army), and M1tra (the ally). According to Arthasastra, the
{t. bureaucracy consisted of the mantrins and the amatyas. While the mantr\ns were
highest advisors to the King, the amatyas were the cMI servants. There were three
t . e d of amatyas: the highest, the intermediate and the lowest, based on the
k!O possessed by the civil servants. The key civil servant was the samahartr,
1 1
re ared the annual budget, kept accounts and fixed the revenue to be co\\ec\ed.
key civil servant was the samnidhatr who kept records of the body ot taxes
realised and was in charge of the stores. . .
f h dministrative order came at the time of Oe\h\
A new stage in the evolution o t e a . d it was necessary tor
Sultanate The Sultanate was initially a :ntro\ over the ne-My
the to establish and consolidate thel.r o\ nd on a temporary basis to the
. as done by asslgntng a t the
conquered territories. IS w wt,.\ at the same time, by trans emng
followers who became the civil servants, I e, ssib1e to estab\ish contro\ over tnem.
holders these assignments a';ropriatinQ a sizeabtS part ot.the soda.\
Such a system - the system of stmultane f ruing elite- so successtully
't t the members
lside the SUltanate
surplus and distnbuttnQ ' o ternPOf'IY MateS ou
by the Delhi Sultanate - was adopted by con
as in Orissa and Vijayanagara. eM' seMce
f bringing abOU! a d tt general. \hi ....,.
This system was responsible or hefJiaUIJift .....

tcw '*""'-
through radically different trom t
and role of public ..-1f,m
was based on the mansabdari
----- VAJIRAM & RAVI .
ltlon In the Mughal bureaucracy In
and) which determined his servants available for cl.vll or , ..;lllta'
rank or a comm was essentially a pool of c evolved became a combination ot I ry
mansabdarl v:te:ansabdan system, as. it finally all rolled' Into an omnibus civil servt'
deployment. e e and the army, ce
higher civil service, the peerag
organization. . the British times was based essentially on the
The civil service system In India But the big changes came With the
Mughal system, albeit with certa1n ref M caulay Report recommended that only the
Implementation of Macaulay's Report. The d' a Civil Service. The Report said, 'It Is
best and brightest would do for ftle In
anf the Company should have received the
undoubtedly desirable that the that the native country affords'. The
best, the most liberal, the most fmlshed h Company should have taken their first
Report Insisted that the civil servants 0 t e
degree in arts at Oxford or Cambridge.
d f r Its enthusiasm to get the best and the
The Macaulay Committee cannot faulte
e Em Ire Itself demanded that the civil
brightest for the ICS. After all, the mterests of th f British universities. The Report
service of colonial India attract the best talents o I I I administrator should be even
suggested that the educational of the co on aEn land. In the words of the
more comprehensive than that of the CIVIl servant In g
Committee 'Indeed in the case of the civil servant of the a good general
education even desirable than in the case of the English professional man; for
the duties even of a very young servant of the Company are more important than those
which ordinarily fall to the lot of a professional man In England'. The advocacy the
best talents of Eng/and to look after the imperial interests in India could not have oeen
done with greater sophistry.
In 1835, Lord Macaulay did admit before the British Parliament: "I have travelled across
the length and breadth of. India and 1 have not seen one person who is a beggar, who is
a thief. Such wealth I have seen in this country, such high moral values, people of such
calibre, the very backbone of this nation, which Is her spirl tual and cultural heritage". But
Macaulay's Report was a product of the times. At the time that the Committee reported,
British political supremacy In India had matured into a paramount sovereign power
capable of Imposing Its will through its bureaucratic agency. From Wellesley through the
Marques of Hastings to Dalhousie, the political authority of the British in India kept
growing; and the scope of operations of the Empire had increased substantially. Clearly,
the SfJ!Vioes of the best and brightest were called for to sustain the Empire, maintain its
tenitorial integrity and impose order.
The ICS men were trusted agents of the British Government even though there were
also many patriots among them. The res was the instrument of the Imperial power, and
the leaders ot the Indian National Congress had made it clear during their struggle for
indeperJdence lhat they wanted to abolish the res and all It stood for. Jawaharlal Nehru
.,.. ,_.. .w.-ln 1934 that 'no new order can be built In India so long as the spirit of the
Indian C1vJ SeMce pervades our administration and our public Services', It being
,.,._ eentlal that the ICS and similar services must disappear completely', Yet In
....... ----- VAJIRA'M & n ...,
........- lilillillllil ars afterwards the ICS tradition n t
e ye k d o Only sur/ d
tl1 NehrU was as e at a private meer b IVe It prospered. In the spring ot
eatest failure as India's first friends what he considered to be
nls gr e the administration, it is still a col reportedly replied, 'I could not
cnanQ ate his belief that the continuation admm,.stration'. Nehru then went on to
uses of India's inability to solve the abtl colonia\ administration 'was one of the
rflaln ca . pro em of poverty'.
Minister lnd1ra Gandhi was even ..
ent's address in the Parliament to the on the
presld 'revolution in the ad . . . \966, she sa1d, "what \nd1a needed
today. was a ht b t . mmlstrallve system without which no enduring change
ould be broug a

any field". In an interview she gave to a news agency on

c leting 1 00 days m off1ce, she observed:
Problem of administration has added to the difficulties ot the country All along the "'fhe . . . .
ine. admin1strat1on has detenorated - .at the Centre, in the States, and even in the lower
unQS of the governmental set up. Toning up would have to be done, new procedures
r . ht have to be evolved, and even fresh recruitment at all levels would have to be
ll119 d"
convocation address to the University of in November 1967, she noted
In her "Administrators sometimes lag behind the situations they are supposed to
that,. . If a large proportion of the investment we have made under the plans
dm1mster. .
a . unutilized, the cause is to be found in administrative shortcomings
remains 1 service
. . nical that there has been no sincere attempt to restructure the ifferent
It IS lro e than six hundred committees and commissions have looked mto d bee
administration in the counlly. Ralher,llle In:: :::::;:,.,.
conservative, with impacl reform measures
. 'I service recruitment and tralnmg procedu. .' .t. ens' grievance organizations,
c1v1 . m'ttees and comm1Ss1ons, c1 tz . ved very
such as O&M, vigilance -com . I . titutions of Lok Ayukta have achle
Whitleyism, manpower an.d enhanced the efficiency nor =
. C"vil service reform '" India . gf I manner. As S.R.Mahesh.
httle. I 'vii service in any meamn u . r to the inherited
at reform have ':u service reform
comm?n . ' t m' Maheshwari was being an . . the nature of endorsement
admimstrat1ve sys e t' slips _ they were more 1n
efforts were not even correc IOn and
slips. . place in . the political,
h ges are taking 1 1 serv\ce fat'.-"'
and fundamental c :u for major changes in a -tent. wei-
technological fields. These have made it necess&'Yced b" glob&fizatlon. countnes
. h lobal economy t chanQBS lndu ' ualltY at "'*
changes 1n 9 . As a result of recen place but alsO on the q anct
functioning not only in of deregulatiOn. ...
are compettng lnterna The chaf\98d .,...-, dvi\ seMce emphaSWAQ
governance structures. ted a new role tor and more 111111
competition has sugges y In
management of the econom t51
ew demands related to control
h economic structure raise dnflnltlons of professional obllgatlonsand
The cll:;;r,:s oM/ service as wall and ollhe prlvale sacoo; ::
accounl Y I nd Importance of civil soc I have Increased subslanllal/y over llle
lha ro a a Y and lha soc/ely In nls lo sao tha private soclor and c/ i
the lndtan econo,tmlt Is Important for the ciVIl servaf economic and social development \Iff
years. As a resu , rs In the process o o
society organizations as partne
the country. ts have to be ready for change, ihe
Ice civil servan h dd d
As Instruments of public serv ' the resist changes as t ey are we e to their
common experience, however, Is that Y b ome ends In themselves. In the Political
privileges and prospects and thereby, have h have brought about maJor
field the 73rd and 74th Amendments to t eh
been enabled to become institutions
' b 1 al governments av f d I I
changes. Rural and ur: an oc .
1 1
the existing system o a m n strau
of self government. In order to make It undergo fundamental changes. ihls
of departments and the District Collectorate
of the principal reasons is the marked
has not to the extent n cept the changes in control and
reluctance on the part of the clvtl servrce to ac his Is because of the 1
accountability as well as the altered roles and T nner that
that most of the civil servants have been soclahzed to act In a ma . . es
command and control methods rather than respond to people's needs and asptrattons.
Despite these momentous changes, the altitude of civil se.rvants does not seem to.
changed at all. This is because the civil servants still believe in the Hegelian prescnptton
that they represent the universal interest of the society. Hegel argued that the most
Important institution In the state was the bureaucracy which represented ''the absolutely
universal interests of the state proper". To Hegel, the bureaucracy was a transcendent
entity, a mind above Individual minds. He regarded the bureaucracy as the universal
class, synthesizing the particularism of the civil society with the general interests of the
state. For Hegel, the exercise of power by the bureaucracy was a mission sanctioned by
God. (1 0"' ARC Report).
h will not be an exaggeration to say that the civil service in India has continued to be
faithful to the Hegelian dictum. It believes that its authority and leg.itlmacy Is derived not
from the mandate of the people but from an Immutable corpus of rules that it has
preSCribed for itself, without any correspondence to the needs and aspirations of the
people It serves and the democratic ethos. That is why the functioning of the civil service
is characterizedby a great deal of lack of responsiveness to what the people
want and the dictates of democracy. ft ts sad but true that the civil service in India
e11111<eslhe metaphors of what Michel Crozier calls 'bureaucratic behavJou( the normal
association that people have with the "vulgar and frequent use of the word '"
.,., as Crozier explains, "evokes the slowness, the ponderousness, the
Dl j)I"IJYC>adums, and the maladapted responses ot 'bureau I' ,
ro the needs which they should satisfy, and the frustrations whiCh

rnMibetl. dienra, or subjects consequently endure". e1r
........ ----& VAJIRAM & RAVl _____ _
r the civil service has to change But .
111e.t IS the basic structure. It has to be at not m the Incrementalist manner that
relY touc hosis. It has to be like Avtaras In th a thorough tran81ormatlon,
tJ'rT"etal'f'IOrP afresh without any correspo d e lndu Pantheon, in which a new Avtara
8 l<es itS rmation to take place th ence to the persona of Its predecessor. For
te. a trans
. ' e
structure has to fall away and the new one
sucl'l ed; as Picasso 'unless you destroy, you cannot create'. It is like Ra\iv
creal . destroying the old Shibboleths before ushering In modernity or \Ike Manmohan
the old .before ringing In the new economic order. ihere was no
w not even the famt hint of a compromise. ihe change in the civil service has to
continU' 11 ' transformative: uncompromising and a clean rupture with the past.
equa Y
bB formative structural changes are taking place in civil service systems across
lhe Particularly transformative are the changes brought about In Commonwealth
the such as the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, with whom we have
countneS ammon ancestry of civil service traditions, mores and structures. ihe changes
shared a countries have been brought about in response to the demand that the c\vil
ln tn.ese be fully accountable to the community they seNe, reflect the and
ce. s f the citizens who pay lor its upkeep and be responsive to democratiC ethos.
rations o .
asP' d b the latest developments in the area of public administration such as the
encourage and the reinventingthHtate which the tmp<lltan:
NoW publiC esulls and highlight the outputs and outcomes lather than Inputs a t
ol on tho that people deOve lrom the use ol
processes. k to establish a framework in which It can be what to
funds and been achieved in enhancing the quality of the serv\ce.
ouocomes ha. 'I service is the lnstrumenl created tor the ends do Prospecls. this
realize that CIVI that wedded to their permanent pnvlleges and p f rm essential
II is sad I has become an end in ttseH: 1\s a to extent, tho
instrumen ' . . e which is citizen-onented, ts resls
f ant pubhc servtc , . ed
for e ICt . t f the people is jeopardlz .
concept of soveretgn Yo
Today India needs a civil service . u tb source of expert, ob}ect\ve po\\cy
That is valued by ministers, and IS a s pe . .
advice; rvlces, day-in and day-out,
customer-focused se
That delivers
frequently in partnership, very area of the society;
ts the best talents from e .-..rtial. and act wt\h \ntegdly,
That attrac st oblectivt,ln...-.. tn
In which the civil servants are resuft-Orientad and
. 'I servants are
In which the CIVI abOUt \hilt wo*.
their dealings; piGUd and passlal":.t \Ida ...
. 11 servants are ...,,_"" ,_. Ml _... _.
In which the cw wnat tttertwlt'tovM\\M1lQhtpifAt:llltl
committed to dolngty-tlrat cet*'i ancl
expects In the twen
fldence and respect of the PUblic It
f which commands the con "''-
Every part o
CODE OF CONDUCT b prescri bed by organizations to Put lh
duct Is required
10 9
the goals of the organization rear e
A nght coda ol on the Oghl track and get each one will have their own wo''"
employeeslporsonna loyees to do the same (1 O"' ARC report). Y Of
because it left to the emp I to disharmony and chaos
doing so and that will lead on Y
Code ot conduct ot civil servants:
a) Restrictions on polllical activities.
b) Political neutrality. . t lders and Indulging In criticism
I h ass medta, ou s o
c) Restrictions on relation w t m . ns and accepting gifts/presents. '
overnment as well as public demonstratto
g business/employment, property apart from
d) Restrictions on matter of private
speculation that he Is privy to that could
government sanctioned ones _lnvestmen bs efit (like stock market trading etc).
cause him or any private orgamzatton undue en . .
r to anyone not authonzed to receive
e) No disclosure of Official documentslinforma ton
the same.
Administrative Ethics for Clvlf Servants
Manipulation and lack of ethics lead to humongous negative effects and reduce
efficiency in an organization. Therefore the enforcement and development of
admmistrative ethics in public servants in today's welfare state times as well as the
sensitive position they occupy is of utmost priority and urgency.
The essentials to. ensure the practice of ethics In administration are:
a) Faith, determination towards pursuit of excellence of service In their professional
activities via methods of rrainlng and sensitization.
b) Infusion of ethics into politics through trainings etc so that it Is passed on to their sub
ordinates that are the civil servants.
c) Relations belween citizens and personnel to create favourable opinion of society and
people towards public services and servants.
d) Nee tor character building in PUblic servants through education, adult education and
functional or job responsibility literacy.
e} be practiced and encouraged.
f) Polltk:al neutrality In civil servants.
111 Edt..., o1,..,. and IIOCiety regamlng their rights the WOtk of PUblic servants and
....,..., ro !he people against them and the QOvemment.
,. ndetlons ot Second Administrative

to values & Ethics ot Civil Services! Rle fonn Commission's ,ou. report
tnQ n ndla

s ervices Bill may be drafted The f
w Civil d Bill
OWing salient features may be included 1- ns propose .
il'l Bill may be called 'The Civil Services am.
f. "Civil Services shan compose 01 all personnel holding civil !IOats unde
If. t.Jnlofl.
vii service Vatu?s: The Civil Services Ond the ClvU SeN- shall be
If/. addition to a commitment to Upho\d the ConsutuUon, the
1ne fol of their functions:
diSC Absolute Integrity at all times .
Impartiality and non-partisanship u.
Dedication to public service
Empathy towards weaker sections
v. f Departments shall be responsible for promoting these values in the\r
TM t1eads
The central Civil Services Authority may tmm lima to tlmo -the
to ana implementation of the Civil Service Values
adoption, ts or organizations under the Union.
depart men
. thods measures, prlnclP'es.
' t of consistency of actions, me I as the honesty
Integrity ts a outcomes In ethics, Integrity " tegarded tded as the OllllOsittt
expectations, an ccuracy's actions. lntegrlty can be'":. and suggests that
and truthfulness or a tegrlty regatds intetnal consistency as: Vllhe discnlpanCY or-
of hypocrisy' m that m I onf\lcting values should account or
arties holding apparent Y c
nal \ntereata.
their beliefs. bile service above your own perso
. h bllgations of pu CODE PfUift.S \0
'Integrity' Is putttng t
9 0
ONT's were provided nsttrufionll Retonn and Go ._
Further, Dos & D ron
(5) of the Co 10 .....
Parliament pursuant to succmtlY ,..,.. thl
2010. These Do's & Dont s .
virtue of Integrity
DO's . ...,...,.
Fulfill your duties and obllgatlORt
, ..
VAJIRAM & RAVI ----... ........_
f slonal and that deserves and retar
that is pro

Always act In a way h m you have dealings, "''
t II those with w o
confidence o a ponslbly (that Is make sure PUblic
obligations res
Cany out your flductary erly and efficient y : .,
es are used prop
and other resourc . affairs fairly. efficiently, promptly, effectively Cl
Deal with the publtc and their . . . . 'lO
h best of your ab1hty,
sensitively, ro I
d handle lnlormalion as openly as Posab
Keep accurate official records an I le
within the legal framework; and .
hold the administration of jusltce.
Comply with the law and up
OONT's f r
. xam le by using m orma ton acqUired in lhe
Mtsuse your official postllon, for e p r private interests or those of others
course of your official duties to further you . '
. . receive other benefits from anyone whrch might
Accept gifts or hospttallty or . al judgment or integrity; or
reasonably be seen to compromtse your person
Disclose official information without authority. This duty continues to apply after
you leave the Civil Service.
As directed by ARC commission it is the duty of Supervisory fo.r ensuring the
integrity and devotion to duty. Under Rule 3 (2} (i} of the Central Crvrl Servrces (Conduct)
Rules, 1964, every Government servant holding a supervisory post shall take all
possible steps to ensure the integrity and devotion to duty of all Government servants for
the time being under his control and authority".
The National Council set up under the Machinery tor Joint Consultation and Compulsory
Arbitration in its meeting held on 28
h July, 1972 adopted a recommendatiof:l of the
committee set up by the Council to consider the item "Amendment of the Central Civil
Services (Conduct) Rules, 1964, to the effect that clarification may be issued that sub-
rule (i) of rule 3 (2) is intended to be invoked only in cases. where there has been a
tanuro on /he part of supervisory officer concerned to take all reasonable and necessary
steps to ensure the integrity and devotion to duty of Government servants under his
control and authority. [Cabinet Secretariat, Department of Personnel OM No. 25/2/72-
Ests. (A), dated 1 0.01.1973] .
n is the Political neutrality of Government servants, The Government have revewed
the policy In to the social, cultural and similar other organizations
There have that the activities of
__ , organ ""'ns ou uti' regarded as pollt1ca1 1n character. Wh'l h
1 e sue
--.uuns are 1n orce, a CIV servant would be l1able to disciplinary action it he
'th . d . h . were to
.. ,,_, WI any organiZation ment1one 1n sue mstructions. But th
162 ere are
......... ----& VAJIRAI\1 & RAVtz
.,... organizations In regard to Whi h ............ Gil
r ther h ccs c such lnst -
,sf o rule 5 of t e (Conduct) Au ructions have not .
.-;:.,,., not maintain Political

It Is

LJid not partiCipate In the activities of should also aPPear to do so and
. n In respect of Which there is th '

associate themselves w'th

tf181 a\10 I' . I ( e shghtest I any
.. on haS po lllca aspect. MHA OM No. 61616 - reason to think that the
9 Ests.(B), dated t 8.07. t 9891
carry out your responsibilities in a way th . .
eflects the Civil Service commitment to at
fair, iust and equitable and
r equality and diversity.
serve the Government, whatever its porr
ability in a way which maintains to the best of yout
uirements of this Code no matte h mpartlality and ls in line wlth the
req ' r w at Yoyr own political beliefs are;
Act in a way.which and retains the confidence of Ministers, while at
the ensunng that you be able to establish the same
relationship With those whom you may be required to serve in some future
Government; and
Comply with any restrictions that have been laid down on your political
Act in a way that unjustifiably favours or discriminates against particular
individuals or interests.
Act in a way that is determined by party. political considerations, or use olficial
resources for party political purposes; or
Allow your personal political views to determine any advice you give or your
Taking part in politics and elections .
t of rules pertaining to the connection between dvit
Government of India has clear se all aspects of politics like election, campaigns
servants and politics. These rules rtl lity & non partisanship behaviour hom
etc. These rules are necessary to elicit lmpa a
civil servants. Following are the rules: rwl ssociatad witt\, any
1) No Government servant shall be a member ha take put In,
1 which takeS pa 1" .,.,.,._ ....a..Hu
political party or any organtzat on any politiCal movement or a"" ..... ,.
t any other manner,
subscribe in aid of, or assts 1n endeaWU' to pnwent lnY
G mmant aervaM tc> tn ..., ae.r
(2) tt shall be the duty of every a;- lid al, aralllllilt(i te ._
member of his family from taking 11. at tendS ...._ or "*:".-a
man net any movement or activity .-at lkl ot ,
subversive of the Government ae
unable to prevent a member of htl ,.
VAJIRAM & RAVI ---............

ment or activity, he shall make
such move a ts.-_
. other manner, any lo
assisting In any t
h 1 Ifact to the Govemmen .
a political party or whether any org 1
a e rises whether a party
nt or activity falls within the
(3) If anyrt or whether any shall be final. Of '
takes pa I . . r h Governmen . . .
rule (
), the dectston o I e or otherwise wtth, or use his intt
(4) No Government servant to any legtslature or locar
tn connection wtth or take p flty,
Provided that - ch election may exercise his right t
IT d to vote at su . . h' ovot
(i) A Government servant qua ' te. o indication of the manner In w ICh he PropoSes e,
but where he does so, he shall gtve n to
vote or has voted; ed to have contravened the provisio
h 11 not be deem
. ns
(ii) A Government servant s a . t n the conduct of an e ectton in the d
this sub-rule by reason only that h.e assts
any law tor the time being in
performance of a duty imposed on him by or u
Government servant on his person, Vehicle
0 EXPLANATION- The display by a
nt to using his influence in connection With'
residence of any electoral symbol shal amou
an election within the meaning of this sub-rule.
Government of India Decisions
(1) Participation of Government servants in political activities Doubts have been raised
recently as to the scope of Rule 23 (i) of the Government Servants c.onduct (now
Rule 5) which lays down that no Government servant shall take m, In
of or assist in any way any political movement in India or relatmg to lnd1an affairs.
to the Explana;lon (not in the new rule) to that clause, the "political
movement" includes any movement or activities tending directly or to excne
disaffection against, or to embarrass, the Government as by law established or to
promote feelings of hatred of enmity between classes of His Majesty's subjects or disturb
the public peace. This explanation is only illustrative and is not intended in any sense, to
be an exhaustive definition of "political movement". Whether or not the aims and
activities of any organization are political is a question of fact which has to be decided on
the merits of each case. It is, in the opinion of Government, necessary, howeyer, that the
Government servants under the Ministry of Finance etc. should be warned that -
(a) It is the duty of the Government servant who wishes to join, or take part in the
activities of any association or organization positively to satisfy himself that its aim and
actMI.ies are not of such a nature as are likely to be objectionable under Rule 23 of the
Government Servants' Conduct Rules (now rule 5); and
(b) The responsibility toi the consequences of his decision and action must rest squarely
on his shoulders and that a plea ot ignorance or misconception as to Government's
SIIMudtlowalds the association or organization would not be tenable. It should also be
inp-...d on lhem UJat. in cases where the slightest doubt exists as to whether
the activJties ot an association or organization involves as Infringement of
.......... ----VAJlRAM & RAVI
,; w Rule 5), the Government serv t . .. ......... .
3 (nO MHA OM N 25 an WOUld be
viB Z periors. { o. /44/49Ests (A), dated 17 Well advised to consult his
sl.l ce by Government servants at P<ll't .09.19491
,... dan ff . Off' I teal meern
,Atten Home A airs Ice Memorandum N
gs Attention is invited to the
jslrY of (Decision No. 1 above), dealing 25/44/49'-Ests. (A), dated \he 17\h
servant's Conduct Rules (now Rul!h\ ot Rule 23 (i) ot the
56 .,erf1111 1 servant shall take part in, subscribe . . ) Which lays down that no
rfll11en ment in India.
aid ot, or assist in any way, any
GO .
1 111
have been received as to whether attendanc b
,Llines . s organized by political parties ld e Y a Government servant at
eeung wou amount to part l
liC 111 hin the meaning of the rule referr . tc1pa\ on m a po 1\lca
pO ent WI\ . . . ed to. Even m regard to this narrower
the pOSition must. necessan\y remain as stated in the Ottice Memorandum
n in paragraph 1, vtz :-
wred to
re hether or not the conduct of any particular nature amounts to participation in a
(i} lhat w ovement is a question of fact to be decided on merits and in the circumstances
pOlitical marticular case; and
teach p . . ..
he respons1b1hty for the Government Servant's conduct must rest squarely on
(ii) lhatl td rs and that a plea of ignorance or misconception as to Government's attitude
hOU e
hiS s t be tenable. .
. g observations may, however, be of assistance to Government servants tn
tollowtn .
The. . their own course of acttons:-
decldlng tr to
e at meetings organized by a political party would always be con ary
Ol 1 the Government Servants' Conduct Rules (now Rule 5) unless aU the
le 23 (1) o . . .
u . onditions are sattsfted .-
folloWing c \ r restricted
eting is a public meeting and not in any sense a pnva e o
(a) That the me
meeting; hibitory order or without permission
th meeting is not held contrary to any pro
(b) That e . . d
where permission ts needed, an . d ot h'lmselt at, or take active or
t n questton oes n . ...,.
(c) That the Government servan I . he meeting.
prominent part in organizing or conductmg, t . . wh"e occaskmBl attendance at such
d conditions are satisfied, . . ent. frequent or regu\ar
(ii) Even where the sal rticipation a politiCal movem litica\ party is
meetings may not be construed pant at meetings of any partbW a: obiec\S ot \hat
attendance by a is a syfr1)8thizer of the aimS\he marnber8 ot that
bound to create the c acity he may tavour or ..., "" be
party and that in his official . ap . cause tor - an
particular party. Conduct which giVeS amant tD '*'P
construed as assisting a political mov (aaldil..,.._.....a: ::-..=
(iii) Government servants have abl8C" _.
themselves Informed regarding
VAJlRAM & RAVI ----...........
se 1ntelligently their civic nghrs e.g
lves to exercr . . . . the
rf 5 and to equtp themse L cal Sell Government mstrtullons. lMf..t.,. no._
pa te . Legislature or o 0'4 \
vote at elecltons
0 1
o t949l \
25.'44149-Ests.(A), dated 1 . .
. d decisions on rigorous analysis of the e .
'ObJeCtiVIty' Is basmg your adVIce an f the Civil Services and Is critical to
1 d"sfnguishing feature o
Objectfvtty s a '
It . state of mind that imposes the obligatio
the public's trust and confidence. IS ault from conflicts of interest or subordin . to be
impartral and tree of bias that may res at10n
01 judgment.
d d by evidence and ww
Crvrl servants should be impartial, open-mmdeckd, gUI I edge and mist tng to
different viewpoints. They should be ready to a now e es.
. . aluations Civil servants should In procedures mvolvmg comparat1ve ev . base
recommendations and decisions only on ment and any other factors expreSSly
prescribed by law.
Crvil servants should not discriminate or allow the fact that they like, or dislike
, a
partrcular person to influence their professional conduct.
Provide information and advice, including advice to Ministers, on t he basis
the evidence, and accurately present the options and facts;
Take decrsions on the merits of the case; and
Take due account of expert and professional advice.
facts or relevant considerations when providing advice or
makmg deciSions; or
Frustrate the of policies once decisions are taken by declining
to take, or abstam,ng from, action which flows from those decisions.
: of Public - Estimate Committee's recommendation in their 9
Public The Estimates Committee have 3rd Report on
Para 20 of their Ninety-third Report (
65-66 m)ade following
Public SeMces:- regard,ng the role of
VAJlRAM & n .. ,
,.....- rne time. the Committee is constra
e sa f .. t f . 'ned to me
!-1 tl'l le of lack o spin o service expected ot ntion the general leelin amon
[118 peofhe dilatory methods and tactics in their of the public a!
sfSO ofat on th.e part of the Public ngs 'Mth the public. The Committee
!e81 ttl interventiOn Of legislators Or PUblic m very Often COmpel \he public to
1< tile ature Th c en 111Tlportan 1
see of routine n . e ommittee would l"k ce or \he disposal of even
j118tters that their first obligation is to rend
G<lvernment to bnng home to \he
ces br A . er service to "'""
serl' . over. the pu IC. n Improvement in th . .... ""' not merely to exercise
ntY e attitude and
ot the common man IS necessary lor th , conduct ot services
wards us task of building the nation thro e :eople s active cooperation in the
5tupendontation; and this improvement in their d developmental planning and its
on man. The Committee hope that th u e COnduct should be visible to
thB of the welfare state undertakin
e services would realize the particular
obligauons which voluntary cooperation in anned through democratic
nods tor
e people 1s essential and which can be
only through courteous behaviour ot the public service of all levels. ihe
en "ttee therefore, cannot too strongly stress the need
Corrurn . h" h . or prompt an courteous
. . e to the pubhc w IC m turn, through courteous and help1ul attitude can be
er"'IC d th . . '
s ducated to .act towar s e services In a responsible, restrained and courteous manner.
e comm1ttee hope that Government would be ever watchful in ensuring that
rne rnment machinery as a whole and particularly such segments of it as come in direct
Gove 1 with the public, are helpful in attitude and quick in disposal of cases and that
contac t . tak .
ent and prompt ac 10n IS en agamst discourteous behav\our and dilatory
rnment has decided that the above recommendations of the Committee should be
Gove ht to the notice of all the Ministries/Departments etc., tor information and
brOllQ complaint is received against any Government servant that he has_ acted .a
. a;:Urteous manner or adopted dilatory tactics in his dealings with the publ1c and 11
::ablished that he has so acted, deterrent and prompt action should be taken aga10st
him. th. Office
. . of Finance etc. were also advised to bring the contents of IS
Mlmstry d to the notice of all the training institutions for Government employees
Memoran urn . .
e hasis in their training programs on
under t heir control and dir ect them lay bymp the Estimates Committee. The
the very salutary e were also brought to the individual no\iea
recommendations of the Estimates ommt ee . .
of all Government employees.
Code of Ethics . . ot ttlics 1\ pOOlic lte \n
. . has studied the iSsue e
The Admini strat ive Reform Commtsston . ""--ance it nas highlighted ""_.
"Ethics In UVYV"' ' 11om ......
other countries and tn tt s on Nolan Cornmltlt8 in UK. Drawing el
principles of public life enunctated by ot tbe fQiowlaQ. sbt princlfllaS in Ita Coda
the Commission suggested the incluaiO
Ethics for civil servants In India:
RAM & RAVI --...............

VAJI 1 /y by public Interest in their

'ded so e . . h . om
hould be gw ther consideration e1t er 1n C .. , servants s . cial or o
. Integrity: lVI t by any fman Cll
' k'ng and no . . ds. . .
decision ma I . t milies or thelf fnen h . official work, mcludlng funcuo,
themselves, the"
15 in canying out! e" hould take decisions baseo on
.. rtlsl/ty: Civil servan . of services etc, s l'llel!t
" Imps ltmenl, delrvery .
procumment, rocru a<tlsan considel8
n. s should deliver services in a
and tree trom any P ub/lc service: eM/ should also /unction "'ilh "'
;;;, Comm/lment to C<Vd Is are to seNe as /nstn.ments ot
ettect .. a, mpartlal ices and Publtc Servan nt of me public at large; foster so,"'
objective that Pub/",.:. services for the bettermedlversity ot the nation but "''"''
with duo regard religion, gender or class and
econom d of caste, co ' ctions
discrimination on the groun . ,/eged and weaker se .
. f oor underprrv . . .
protecting the mterest o P table for their dec1s1ons and actions
Is are accoun h.
v Open accountabllfty: civil servan ppropriate scrutiny for t IS purpose.
' . b' ct themselves to a
and should be willing to su . t n absolute and unstinting devotion
. . t should ma.n al . .
v. Devotion to duty: CIVtl servan s . And should discharge official duties
towards their duties and responsibilities at all tlmeds. d

gence responsibility, honesty
bTl care an
with competence and accounta
Y: . . nd in accordance with law.
ob}ectMty and impartiality; without d<Scnmtnatton a f th b/' .
. . h uld treat all members o e pu 1c With
vi. EJtomplory behaviour: C<V<I setVants s
. a manner that upholds the rtcn
respect and courtesy and at all times should behave
traditions of the civil services.
In India civil service values have evolved over years of tradition. These values a/so find
place in' various rules, including the Code or Conduct, The current set of 'enforceable
norms' are 'Conduct Rules', typified by the Centra/ Civil Services (Conduct) Rules - 1964
and analogous rules applicable to members of the All India Services or employees of
various State Governments. As mentioned earlier, the code of behaviour as enunciated
in the Conduct Rules, while containing some general norms /Ike 'maintaining integrity
and absolute devotion to duty' and not indulging in 'conduct unbecoming of a
government servant', are generally directed towards cataloguing specific activities
deemed undesirable for government servants.
Ethics is a set of principles of right conduct. It has been defined as a set of values and
PtOlciples Which helps guide behaviour, choice and actions, It helps to decide whether
onss actions ""' right or wrong, Organizations as wen as individuals have ethical
Blandamo. These standams help ensure that individuals belonging to an organization
In carrying out their responsibilities and making decisions.
n.e, afao-.,., that members of an ol!lanlzatlon maintain a conslstent and appropriate
......... --- VAJIRAM & RAVI ____ _
wards one another and towards I'
,.. vr to c Ients and persons outside \he
sfllt a\ues & Ethics supports good government .
ol9 care " 'ble standards in all that th c . _and ensure the achievement ol
esB st poSSI . . I'll\ Serv1ce does. This in tum helps the
'fll lligne to gam and reta1n the respect of Ministers p.,... . .
e rvice
sho ld fl ..,,,ament, the public and 1ts
. 1 se rs. _va .
. re PUblic expectations from a civil servant w\\h
pohtocal ompanaloty, mamtenance ol h<Jhest eUl;.al standaods and

TIY for actions.

re votabl I
a ceo
VAJIRAM & RAVI ----............
------ AlTITUDE
INTRODUCTION which Investigates how the behav;
. hology is that branch of psycho/of:{, environment. All of us form Of
affected by others and. the sodcpeople. We also form impressions Or
lndlvr ua s ' 'f' toprcs an 'd
f t
h king about speer rc h . behaviour. Besr es, ur own behav;
ways o m . n causes to I err OlJr
persons we meet, and and groups.
gets influenced by other rndrvr . s or attitudes about people, and .::al.
/e form vrew . W
cause of social influences, peop f behavioural tendencres. hen We me
1 1
n the form o . .
different Issues In frfe, that ex s
personal qualities. Thrs rs ca e rnpr
people, we make inferences the r le behave In the ways they do - that i
formation. We are a/so interested rn why social situations. This Process
b h ur shown rn s . . s
we assign causes to the e .
at/on and attrlbutrons are rnffuenced by
called attribution. Very often, rmpressron of mental activities related to th,
altitudes. These three processes are .exa:'out the sociaf world, collectively cau.,
gathering and lnterpretahon of is activated by cognitive units callao
social cognition. Moreover, socra/ cog t e that provides a framework
schemas (A schema is defined as a mental struc ur . '
rules or guidelines for processing information about any object).
An attitude is an expression of favour or disfavour toward a person, place, thing, or
event (the attitude object). Prominent psychologist Gordon Allport once descrrbed
aNitudes wthe most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social
ANitude can be formed from a person's past and present. Attitude is also
measurable and changeable as well as influencing the person's emotion and behaviour.
An attitude can be defined as a positive or negative evaluation of people, objects, event,
activities, ideas, or just about anything in your environment, but there is debate about
Ptecise definitions. Eagly and Chaiken, for example, define an attitude "a psychological
tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favour
or disfavour. Though it is sometimes common to define an attitude as affect toward an
object, affect (i.e., discrete emotions or overall arousal) is generally understood to be
distinct from attitude as a measure of favourability.
This definition o/ attitude allows for one's evaluation ol an aHitude object to vat)! from
.,..,.emoly negauve to extremely positive, but also admits that people can also be
COfllllasd or ambivalent toward an object meaning that they might at different times
both positive and negative attnude toward the Same ObJect. This has 18d to
VAJIRAl\'1 & lt\VI
# discussion of whether lndlvfduat can h<>fd . ........... .
.,.,.e - the .....
act ..
obl attitudes are exphc1t (i e del'be
her . ' rately 1
,.;net scious) has been a toprc of considerable rese 0""""> versus """"" o.e ..
s,f>COn re generaffy unacknoWledged or Oulsfd on allltudes,
involving people's response times to ,
: awareness, u,.. "'<>hlstfcaled
.,,;nods n tandem with explicit attlNdes
th"' to Show that lrnptfctt altitudes
pernaps to affect people's behaviour th arne Oblect). fmpfltit and
uitudeS s ociated with each other 10 different ways. They tend not \o be
atronQIY ass s poorly understood In some cases they are. The relationship
s , them r
bS Jung's definition
definition of attitude. is a of the f>SY<he to act or react in a certaln way:
J;ng des very often come rn Parrs, one conscious and the other unconscious. Within
AtiiiUd definition Jung defines several attitudes.
oroa . n (but not only) attitude dualities that Jung defines are the following. The mar .
Consciousness and the unconsc1ous: The "presence of two attitudes is extremely
frequent, one conscious and the other unconscious. This means that
onsciousness has a constellation ol contents different from that ot the
a duality particularty evident in neurosis."
E traversion and introversion: This pair is so elementary to Jung's theory ot types
th:t he labeled them the "attitude-types. .
R tiona! and irrational attitudes: "I conceive reason as an rational
aitude subdivides into the thinking and feeling psychologrcal .funCtions,
all h its attitude. The Irrational attitude subdMdes into the sellSlng anct rnturtioo
WJt h 'th 'ts attitude "There is thus a typical thinking, psycholog
cal wt . 1
f l sensation, and 1ntU1t1ve attitude.
ee 1 Social Attitudes are
Individual and social attitudes: According to
haracterize by consistency in response to social obi . ..-...a..
c 1 take an abstract a"'""'"' .. the abstract attitude. "When liari\y
In addition, Jung r sm 'CREATIONISM: By this I mean a!'""" his
Abstraction is of abstraction: For example: I hate
of thinking and feeling IS
attitude for being SarcastiC.

-. 'l've Affective, and Behavioural (C

b'ect that have cogm' ;q8J
evaluations of an o
summa'f e beliefs, thoughts, and aUribote,
compon.,ts. I of auiludas ,.,.,. to lh n's aii/IJJde might be based Pri'lla '
The cogn/1/ve In many cases, a P""
elate with an object. For """"'"'"'>
associate wdh an attributes they devoted conside<abte auenuon
UJ'?n the posotNe a 11 bought a new car, d repair costs. In thiS e,.,.,.

when one author gas mileage, a methodical consideration Ofth'

different cars throuSglmllarly an individual's favourable
attitudes towaru e ' . f each car. ' h th . . e
. d atlve characteristiCS o b ed on the belief t at e Politician Is
poslttve an neg . might be as 1 quality
attitude toward a particular politiCian . olicies that promote SOCia e .
d has economic p .
charismatic, Intelligent, an
s or emotions linked to an attitude
. d efers to fee mg A
The affective component of attltu es r . a number of ways. pnmary Way in
object Affective responses influence attitudes. m that are aroused in response to an
which feelings shape attitudes Is through that spiders make them feel scared.
People mdlca e d 'd
attitude object. For instance, many negative attitude towar spr ers.
This negative affective response is likely to cause a . .
. . fers to past behavtours or expenences
The behsvlours/ component of . altitudes re
might guess that they must have a
regarding an aUitude object. For onstance, . peop e remember having signed a petition
negative aUitude toward tsctooy larmong, d th';;e Idea that people might infer their
agamst the unethocat treatment_ of anoma/s. T .
ted by Daryl Bem. According to
atlitudes from their previous acuons best artocu a
/ways have access to their
Bem's (1972) self-perception theooy, ondMduals do no a . s b thinkin about
opinions about different objects and sometimes infe.r attitude Y 9
how they have behaved with respect to the attitude ObJect rn the past.
Perhaps the best evidence shoWing that the CAB components are not the same comes
from research conducted by Steven Breckler (1984). In one experiment, Breckler had
Participants report their cogntHve, affective, and behavioural responses about
Whilst in the presence of a real snake, participants indicated whether (i) snakes are
and cruet (cognmon}, (ff} snakes make them feel anxious and happy (affect), and (m)
/hey like to handle snakes (behaviour). Breck/er (1984} used the content of participants'
responses to compute a score tor each of the components. He found that these
COQr!Uive, affective, and behavioural scores were only moderately correlated with each other.
Thus, these components were empirically distinct While Breckler (1984) provided strong
evidence that the cognitive, affective, and behavioural components of attitude are not the
same, this does not mean that they are completely Independent of each other. For
.......,..,, one or the authors is a big fan ot the music ot Bruce Springsteen. It you asked
him tor his thoughts about Bruce Springsteen's music, he would answer that the music
has W8f-constructed lyrics that express the importance Springsteen places on equality
and SOCial iustice. ft you asked the author about the feelings he associates with the
mwic. he -.ta say that the music makes him feel happy, II you asked him about his
...... --.-
,.,... ertences With Bruce Springsteen, rnus h a
P"'' 'P has auended a Springsteen concen '\, Wax 'Yiicatt, abo llh
f'1les he nd behaviours all contribute to th . nsurprisingty the ""Si\iv u e
a e author's .. "" e C<lgM10ns,
sf!' ' en. """""' llitude toward a

gste ruce
id it isn't always the case that the CAs
ftlat sa. Instead of asking this author abo teoh.mP<lnents have the same evaluative l
ica.tto d d u IS P6rceptio a
't11P bout bloo onatlon. He would ten Yo th ns o, ruce Springsteen,
.. others; implying that he has ,:,' donation is a noble endea"'
"''' he. feelings about bloOd donation, he WOuto How.we,, you aSIIed him
recall the negative experience
-h . a llllt that It mal<.es him lee\ a! raid. He
td a so once been abb d dl b
. nurse who was unable to locate a vein in his arm l . e re.peate y y a
sadrstrchavioural responses about blood donation differ in h:s,, OOQMlve,
d be th doe not d b ence. , you're wondenng, It
an ns out this au
.' s, . onate food, though he thinks it is a great thing to do).
tur en
gether, the aectove, and behavioural components are (usually)
rak . tent In theor evaluative mptcabons, they are not simply di11e<ent ways ot .. ying
onSIS .
c me th1ng.
ttle sa
f one component than other may be present in a given attitude. Some attitudes
avily loaded with altective component White othe<S may have orientation to
are e or action component of attitude.
lly all 3 components of attitude are in hannony With each other which means a
Genera positive attitude towards a po1iticaf party w;n evaluate any action ot party
person bly also will have liking for its leader and will actually campaign tor the party
tavouraetection. Changing one of the 3 co-.,.. wm put P<essute on. individual to
dunng !her 2 components. If the emotional component is directly mod'doed, cognitive
change o ld be expected to change so that it becomes consistent With changed

is true about behavioural component e.g. it you like \Aifective)

emottons. very much and hold her in high respect (Cognitive) then you. wit :'!!
her classes (Behavioural). Sometimes these 3 CO"lJJ08nnS are :c.:-)
attend e.g. if people think that death penalty ads as-= paroio(AifedNe)
each o et angry when they hear that muttlerer has been gratiS capital punishmont.
and likely to cast their vote lor a candidate h more than 90% of
are not always consistent (Breckler 1:lheart:...., (Cognitive),-
know that smoking Brown. 1987) Soma of them
30% of Americans sttll smoke ( . . s towards cigarette use (Emotional).
even smoke despite having negatiVe feeltng
Key points so far ..... .._....._
, ffectiva, and uana- llcl
Attitudes have cognitive,
tt\oughts. and atllbllelastOCil'
-- nt refers to beliefS.
The cognitive compone
with an attitude object. _... .... ..
...... MUd_.
The affective compon81t
attitude object.
t behaviours with respect to an aruru
ent refers to pas de
The behavioural compon . . .
1 11
n When an tnd1V1dua1 Posses
ob/BCt r rea so
ts have a c h typically have positive affective ' These componen ttilude object, I ey "''d
bel . fs about an a
positive te 'th the object.
avioural associations wt f I've and behavioural components "'r
rve at ec I , . f h .. e
Despite fhe/r the Further, people dof on I e degree to
quantitatively and qualtlattve Y each of the CAB .componen s.
which their attitudes are based on
ATTITUDE STRUCTURE . ther Important Issue concerns how
t of altitudes, ano th
In ad
dition to considering the con en . ed within and among e cognitive P
ositive and negative evaluattons .
is typ1catty assume t at the are orgamz d h '
affective, and behavioural compo . rs inhibits the occurrence o negahve
nents of atll u t
. f f l'ngs and behavtou h t . d' .
existence of positive bel1e s, ee
h' ssumptlon implies t a an tn IVtdual
. F example t ts a
beliefs, feelings, and behavoours. or . ' bout the New York Yankees baseball
wfth positive beliefs, feefings, and a nd behaviours about this team. In
team is unlikely fo have negatove bal!els, the positive and negative
other words, accordong to this one-dlmsnSJ . P . and people tend to experience
elements are at opposite ends ol a Single dunenSJon, .
either end of the dimension or a location in between.
This one.<Jimensional view is opposed by a Jwo. !me Tve elements and
a nsional view. This view suggests
that one dimension rellects Whether the has lew or many poso
d h t w or many negatrve elements
the other dimens1on reflects whether the att1tu e as e
(Cacioppo, Gardner, & Berntson, 1997). u this view is correct, then people can Possess
any Combination o1 positivity or negativity in their attitudes. Some of these
tit lho CJne.dlmens/onaJ viow: attitudes may consist of few positive and many negat1ve
elements, few negative and many positive elements, or few positive and few negat1ve
elements (I.e., a neutrat position). Another combination is inconsistent with the one-
dimensional \!lew: attitudes might occasionally contain many positive and many negative
elements, leading to atJJ)udina! amb!valonce. The two-dimensional perspective explicitly
alloWs for this ambivalence to occur, Whereas the one-dimensional perspective does not.
The one-dimensional ana lwo-dimensionat perspectives are presented in Figure below.
The IDp JJanel depicts the onedlmenslonaJ view of attitudes. In this panel, Person X, who
is p/olfed on an axis depicting the one-dimensional view, would be slightly negative. The
Bingle axis does not permit one to mark Person X as being both negative and positive.
7he bottom Panel of Figure below depicts the two-dimensional view of attitudes, with one
axis (from middle to top) representing variability in negative evaluations and the other
axis (from middle to right) depleting variability In posftlve evaluations. From this
a P&rson can PDssess high amounts of negativity and positivity toward an
OlJitra. Person YIn the figure could be considemd highly ambivalent
174 ...

tlonal View


. . e or Negative
Not posltrv
Not Positive
or negative
High Positive
. ntional View
Sidtme na1 ..... seems
- active is superior? At first glance, the !wo-domensoo .
Which persp h ld be superior because it allows for the same patterns of posttMty and
h it s ou . . II f ambivalence. FOf
as the one-dimensional Yotllie also a OWing or. 'mensionai
negatMty as . 0 inte ret the meaning of the neuttaJ point m on<HII
instance, it is 1972). Imagine that -le were reportnged
scales lor assesSing . tart v etable) on a mn"il<>"t scale t "' .
attitude _ e:emety favoUrable' as th::::.r'i..'"':
/rom ' 1 -extreme ble nor favourable" in the middle. H m oplton IIIII
'?ither haK-way between the most--;:== becauto n
hef attitude w response option. ..._ts of their - (e.g.,
the most extreme .., sitive and negatNe -- bal1lottoons
is a compromise between tllooghts. fee1k91. ::.::.... ..._ lo.a..
they have many poslttve a have no positive or negative
eating rhubarb) or because they . II
eaten rhubarb). :
- 11x tile naullll ..:.
h between these _....._. ambNIAanol The failure to disttnguts
chc:dy III8IIIS ......,.,
Important because measures tha
I 175"
VA.URAM & RAVI ---..............
-known outcome Is response polarization (Beu &
artery of outcomes. The best P ople who are highly ambivalent toward a
, MacDonakl Zanna,

01 !heir envlronmem lhal make
are more strongly mnuenced This causes them to behave more fav &nt 'lie
object's positive or negative are salient than when the n
toward the object when the postt ve bivalent people are less strongly intlue
r t I contrast non-am h..
elements are sa ten . n . . negative attributes. vy
the acute salience of the postttve or
attitudinal ambivalence as an Important ProPe
One mason tor lhe emergence ?
wf1 op!e some/lmes reacl In polarilfld >va"'
attitudes Is /Is pofenlial lo ,r :;"was 11/uslraled by Tara MacDonald and lo
con!roversial groups or issues. Th" no
ences of Sludenls' ambivalence
-Zanna (1998), who examined lhe found lhal some Sludemsre
fem/niSis. In an In/fiat sel of dala, lhese m>::<>sbgalorscan be labeled as cognilive- lo
bolh admire femln/Sis and diSlike lhem. ThiS pattem h the Individuals tb a Ocll,,
ambivalence, because it represents conflict between ow . . Ink (e.g.,
admiring feminists for their perceived courage) and feel (e.g., disliking. femmtsts becauSe
of their perceived stridency). MacDonald and Zanna's study an important
potential consequence of this ambivalence: polarized of a feminist's
suitability for employment. The researchers expected that ambtva/ent people would be
more strongly influenced by an innocuous prior event, .which was whether a PTior
candidate who was admirable but dislikeab/e succeeded or failed in an interview.
To feSI this hypothesis, participants firS! completed a measure assessing their
ambivatenee toward feminlsls. This questionnaire asked participants to rate the extent to
which they admired feminlsiS and liked them. Ambivalent and non-ambivalent
participants were then infonned In a subsequent experimental session that they were
taking pan In a study of how people make hiring decisions. They listened to a 1 0-mlnute
audio recording ot a jab Interview, which featured an admirable but dis/ikeable man who
was to be SUC<:essful (posffive prime condition) or unsuccessful with . his application
(flegatjve Prime condition). Participants then compteted questions about the candidate's
admttmJ!e QUa/hies IPosllive PJ1me condition) or disllkeab/e qualities (negative prime
condition). FnaUy, parficJpants read and evaluated the applications of several women,
one who had completed a thesis and jobs that suggested a feminist political
PB"'P6ccive. As part of !Ius fmaJ task, participants rated the likelihoOd that they would hire
eaa. woman. The main dependent measure was the rated likelihoOd of hiring the
,_ SPPIJcant. .
The_ results ot the study_ showed that parficipants' who exhibited a high degree ot
towanHerrnmsts '9ported stronger intentions to hire the feminist candidate
aiiM -..g the adnurable but dslkeabte male candidate succeed than aft h'
fail In ... panj ts wh . . er seemg 1m
---. "'Pan o exhibtted degree of ambivalence toward feminists
- not BIIBCIMJ by the success or fa.lure of the admirable but dlsl'k abl
....,.,., lbus, only iho BmbivaJent partlcjpants' intentions l'lllre b'y 8th 8 . rna
.. ovu e prune.
----- VAJII{AM & b
nd zanna (1998) concluded th
,- ,..atd a equences. When People Posse at Q
..,nscognilive (e.g., admitation) " ':.

- ...... ._.,,""' ha.

ti"'B ses thei r behaviour to reflect the s (e.g., them mindful
6 s cau ppear to strongly favour a Pe a lent elements "- e ements ot their
' .dEl gl"'t a . . rson Who . "':! a result

(Tll nisi) in some s1tuat1ons (e.g., after a .. 1s a target
'hei - :"'valent
tefl1l in other situations (e.g., alter a n 1>?&1\l\le event). but str r

and contradictory on the sun egatl\le event). lnus d1stavour
...s Ill" zz1ca . b' 1 ace may be . av1our that may
qUI ch there 1s am 1va ence in the underJy . eXpltcable by consid .
st:".- o whl lng attitUde enng the
e.'lel'll t otnts so far .
f<e'/ p . portant issue related to attiti.Jdes
AO tl11 . . concerns how .
ations are organtzed Wtthir, and among th Poslt1ve and negative
eva u . . e components of attitude
ne dimens1onal v1ew P<>stulates that th . .
d e Po&ttve and ne

d as oppos1te en s of a single dirnensio ga we elements are store n.
two-dimensional view postulates that Positive .
lhe d along two separate dimensions and negatiVe elements are store .
Feelings of only partly reflect the Potential ambivalence in
thoughts, feelings:_ and behavtours relevant to our attitude.
,AifiT .
Is h
old attitudes for a vanety of reasons. For example sorneone's affinity for the dua . .
l'i"' might have developed I rom relatiVes and friends supporting the party. 111
CO/l!lresstheir attitude toward abortion might be base<! on the value they place on an
..,uast, f's freedom ol choice or the sanctity ot Ute. Attitude ha>e devoted
ble attention to understanding the needs or !unctions that are lutlit!ed by
constdera The most prominent models of attitude functions were developed almost 50
att/!Udes.o (Katz, 1960; Smith et al., 1956). Smith et al.' (1956) suggested that atti1udos
years ag ary functions obj'ect-appraisal social-adjustment. and extema.lizatiOn. rve three pnm . .
" . sal refers to <he ability of attklldes to summarize the positive and negatNe
ObtectaPPrat . in our social world. For example, attitudes can he\p people to
attributes of objects b fcial for them and avoid things that are harmful to \hem
approach things that are ene' ) SjJ-adjustmentis tulfiUed by attitudes that ..
(Maio, Esses, Arnold' & Olson, 2004: oc to dissociate ITOm people whom we dislike.
us to identify with people whom we hke ar: tt drink because this drink \s endorsed by
For example, individuals may buy _a by atlltudes thel delend the sel IIQIIftt
their favourite singer. Externa/lzatl()(l ight develop an intease dislike tot' ht QIIM
internal conflict. For exarnple, bad golfers:. self-esteem.
because their poor performance threatens
. -
VAJJRAM & RAVl ---........ :..

(f960) proposed four allllude f
ch Daniel Ks
tzmlh et al. (1956) : knowledge
of res ed by 1 "'ly -.. In hts own progral mte to those propos
of whtch re a . .
some end va/ue-8Xf1'9ssNN blrty olallitudes to organize
-nss. ron'""''"""" 1M a. ' axlsts In attlludes that maximize
The knowledJ/0 the ut/1/tsrhm tuncr.on de objects. These luncllons
all,.,de _ob}ecrs; ::..nrs obraoned /rom all>tu Katz's ego-defensive /unci/on .,," lo
and and Is slmllat to
sm.rh or al. s 1
I orecr "" lndlwdual s ed /hal arrlludes may se"' a .,_.,
Ill <kls !hal SO'Ve to pt I Katz propos , tu

" ,. ron luncrlon. Ana/ Y exptess an individual s selt-concepr
such that an
work because she Values he:;::
central values. For example, pe
1 the envtronmen .
and wishes ro P"'se<V& fl Clualed wildly. in the decade follow
Interest m the study of attitude funct!ons has, u(l956) and Katz (1960), there
d by Smtih et a rt' I tt ""
the taxonomies develope . sons people hold pa >cu ar a >IUdes..,
consldemble lnteresr in undersrand>ng Interest In the
the impllcetlons ol holding tudes that _u ' s tasaarchers /ound It dillicult to conduo
perspective then waned lor a penod
luncllona/ theories. A new genetation
experimental studies testmg vanous

/he functional perspective. For example

tesearch has prov>ded fresh new ns.g
d a distinction between evaluar;,'
Gregory Herek (e.g., Herek,

) summarize information about t" e
f t
. h' h rt to the abJl1ty of attitu es o ,,e
unc 1ons, w tc pe am . . . h f /filled upon the expression
attitude object itself, and express1ve functiOns, whrc are u ot
an attitude.
Herek (1987)also developed a measure assessing the degree to which an altitude lui/ills
dillerenl funcflons. His Attitudes Functions Inventory (AFI) " a self-report measure
asking PartiCipants to rate the extent to which their attitude reflects various concerns.
This approach provides a simple method lor determining the primary function ot an
indMduaf's aWtude towaro a Particular object At around the same lime as the
deve/oprnenr of Herek's AFI measure, Sharon Shavitt (e.g., Shavi/1, 1990; Shavitt &
Nelson. 2000) considered whether different attitude objects are likely to fulfill a particular
function. For example, Shavitt (1990) tesled whether consumer products such as coffee,
air COnditioners, watches, and sung/asses serve a single purpose or have multiple
fUnctions. Shavitt found that, across individuals, coffee and air conditioners tended to
serve a utilitarian function (as indicated by researchers coding ot participants' thoughls
about these ilems) and that people's attitUdes toward particular brands ot these produc/s
wete most likely to be changed by utilitarian argumenrs (for example, the quality of a
P'oduct). In contrast, Shavitt found that objects such as watches and sung/asses could
fiR different functions. One person mighl wear a particular brand of sunglasses because
of the l/Uality of the brand (for example, they are effective in blocking uv rays), whereas
"?"''Ier P6rson might wear that same brand because ot /he SOcial pres/ige associated
IOilhthe brand name. This researoh has been inslrumenrat in linking lheorles ot attitude function to consumer behaviour.
........ ---- VAJlJt.\1\tt& tt.\Vl
, mseatch o", tuocuons n,.,....,..., .................... .
fll Y For instance, t ere IS evidence ind . on Particulart .
"'=""' nan!, because amtudes can .. ,;a .. that the Obio.t. u';'."" ..
of 1"'':,'; this was highlighted byp w;th 0
' n"ce accessible athtudes (Whkh lleopte '""" ""' """iou,.,
...;' re make judgments ano ";:'C\dy) '""'.,. the eaoe w;lh
11 peOP ludgments (Fazio, 1995, 2000). These,. d' eerease Physiological arousal
n,c hese f t' . n 'ngs sup""rt t"
,g t pra/sal unc >On >S mote Shongly se"'ed b . .. e oan""""n that
"'' ot>iecrP m memotY by altitudes that a.e not' ""'"""s that a.e soantaneou,
red rro 2000c). soantaneousty Cilated (Malo &
acuva 2oooa,
(jsO" recent ad'3nces In on attnudQ luna .
;re thO derstandlng attitude !unctions (Maio &
on, "-Y ll'Obl.,ns sun limit
oe In un son. 2000b, 2000c) One Problem
greSS tations In the cunent apptoaches to measunng the aru.,.., iun<:t F
P, '"' tmHerek's AFt on people's ability to know the functions

bUI evidence >nd>eates that people a: sorneumes poo, a\ knoWing the basis
rtitudes, rt'tudes (N1sbett & Wtlson,
977). Thts flroblem is particularly evident tor so-
8 ir a
tt't d h' h h l 11
me -defensive a 'u es, w " e P to defend the ego ll'ecisety because the
;ned e;:naware that the attitude is defending the sett-ooncept. (As soon as you know
pe19on ' itude is merely help>ng you to fee/ bette, about vousett, it may no Ionge, help
,rrhe all /eel better about yourself.) A secono P<eblern Is ambiguity In the distinctions
make rent attitude functions. Fo, instance, a pe...,s attitude towam partying the
"'rween dl e n exam might reflect the extent to which hem she '>lues "adlieem...-
nighl a be value-expressive. At the same time, the pe""n's value o\
and thete ell reflects a utilitanan concern. So is the attnude value O>qll9ssNe O>
achievement d
.sff rent type of taxonomy may be needed to address such issues \Maio & . n? A ' e
tilitana -
. .
. d had extremely different personalities. One of the fnends WfY
TWO very good s personality to fit the social environment in whkl\ he found hnnsolli
adept at changrng :sted that he needed to behave one way, he could act that: ..
H lite situatron sugg I d that he needed to behave the opposde way, he
lite situalion e \her /riend did not show this behavioutal vanablbty. otlteto
we/\. In contrast, t depending upon \he situation, instead he of 801-
to mold his persona'S d r (1974 1986) developed the persona -...., .._
his 1rue sell." Mark ny e be people diller in lite deg190 to ni!ors h!JPO of
moniloring in order to descn ation. Snyder described high self:""' -..., ..
/heir behaviour to suttthet their behaviour acmss s:::: Sl>jdorlllllilrl
people who are adept a msetves in the same way s .....,_Ill ...
monitors tend to present the D Bono 1985) finked
colleagues (e.g., Snyder & th;
to be lulliled .. rc llftt-
monitoring to the hese sclentisiS argued tllal ....
seH-monitors. In particular, t ality when intaractinQ
propensity to change their person '

-. , , e function. In contrast, they argu
f Ifill a social-adJUStiV
be themselves, might be lllor &d. 'hat
ttltudes that u 'ty to alwaY e
likely to hold a . en their propensl ..... function. 'Y
If-monitors, g1v xpreSSJv""
low se that tulf(ll a value e d Ken DeBono (1985) tested \\th
to hold attitudes d" s Marl< snyder an . nalizad on the basis ot being h
In a set of function le responded to different tyr::h or
ndiVidual :n would influence how DeBono (1985, Study 3) ranoo'
tow m seff-momtonng experiment, Snyder of two appeals about a new br,.ft ll'lly
appeals In one elve one . ....,d Of
persuasive self-monitors to rec . e associated With the shampoo (e
':;;"lha appeals focused '": ':::it makes your hair look"). Tho oth!;
was above avemga r . g., lhallhe product was above averag,
appeal focused on the quality of the sha p d DeBono (1985, Study 3) tested Whether
in "how clean it gets your (that is, high self-monitors) would be
people who tend to hold soc,al-adJUStlv h quality appeal, whereas people Who tend
more persuaded by the image appeal / e elf-monitors) would be more persuaded
to hold value expressive (that predictions were strongly supported
by the quality appeal than the tmag_e willingness to try the shampoo depended
by the results. which found that an It onitoring status. This study and others
upon whether the appeal "matched" their se importance of knowing the needs
(DeBono, 1987; Prentice, 1987) demonstrate
fuffilled by a person's attitude.
Key points so far
Individuals hold attitudes for a variety of reasons.
Among the functions, the object-appraisal function is especially as it
suggests that attitudes serve as energy-saving devices that make JUdgments
easier and faster to perform.
Research on attitude functions requires further improvement in the methods used
to assess them.
There are inexorable links among our witches of attitude content, attitude structure, and
attilude function. For example, synergy among the CAB components should cause an
lnt1ividuat to ha11e a unldlmensionaJ rather than bidimensional attitude. If an individual
has PD&ilive cognilions, altective responses, and past experiences with an attitude
Glljocr, lhey should also have a unidimensional JlOSibve attitude about the object. In this
case, synergistic content influences the structure of the attitUde.
The "* ._, altitude content and altitude function is also important. Consider
"--Il a car lhat ""' based on a need to conse""' fuel. These altitudes should
....., .., ballets a.boclt lhe """'nt to Milch the car obtains llOOd fuel economy.
Si .... II -... lowatif a style of clolhtng fuHtU a P&Ychological need to enhance
- ......, IIJen lhese should be based on beliets about the extent to
......... --- VAJ IR.A\\1 & RAVItp
JIIIS tyle rs preferred among one's
. .. .............. .
"e s d'ff nel\ds In bo
iet1 u, ctions olte'\ I er In the COnte t . th cases
nt tun ) n Of the beliefs t'- es \hat seNe d
lflere I< 2004 SUpPort them & ddOC ' I' k
tiS . e are strong m s between the st .
tner ( M . ructure and I .
roiJl aiiY . olleagues e.g., alo et at. 2004 ,,_. unction Witches. For instance
,. . ' nd c t' , ' & Hadd""" .., ,

a attitude func IOns may operate at both th . . -""' c.004) have argued that
116 levels, but to varying degrees. For aM bidimensional
tf\Jctura served more strongly by unidimensi
ce,. the Object-apPraisal function
uld the bidimensional attitudes than by bidimensional
:ul"'d,' e thai social norms make n d"""on In .addillon,
iS such as when an issue is controversial. high ambl\lalence m
an awtu t may give the impression of being lair aM knoW\ people .a?Pear
inoffensive to others because they "agree" Withe gea: le. These lndl\llduals
alsO everyone to some extent
Doob (1947), learning can accountfor most o\ the attitudes we hold. The COrding th
I'< of attitude f ormalron " e study "' how people fonn evaluations ol
studY things. Theones of class1ca1 cond1tionmg, mstrumentat conditioning and soc1al
or re mainly responsible for formation of attitude. Unlil<.e personali\'j, attitudes are
learning da to change as a function of experience. \n addition, exposure to \he 'attitude'
,pecte ay have an effect on how a person fonns his or her attitude. This 00fl<:e1llwas
objects mh "Mere-Exposure Effect". Robert Zajonc showed that people were more likely
seen as
e silive attitude on 'attitude objeds when they were exposed f_..uly
to have a po e nc>t Mere repeated exposure ot the individual to a stunu\us IS a
than if they fo; the enhancement of his attitude toward il Tesser l1S93) has
sufficient con I d' tary variables may affect attitudes - but believes that they may do
d that here
t be consistent "
argue r example, consistency lheones, w1ncb inW that we ."'": . tar IJall
indirectly. Fo I s As with any type of heritability, to detllRillllt! ! a pallil:u ch
our beliels and ::r twin studies are used. The most lamous xar:::
has a basiS m . sociated with Leon Fesbnger,
s as . belief and behaviour) are at odds an
theory ' m onents ol an altitude lindudmg ' . . bellol \0 mtiltll a
that th_e IC? ,.(: p t one' to match the other {tor Hakier l1958),
individual may . balan theory. originaly ,......,..._
oth'er theories nany-by Daryl Bem.
and the self-perception theory, ongl
YAJIRAM & RAVI ----............
. an different ways. For indhtldu '
een conceptualized rn .m rrude, as well as hOW Important their
attltud9 has! certain they are of thelf & Schwarz, 1999;Wegener,

b9 asked ho nally (Haddock, Rothman. I ted but different (Visser, Sizer, & K lllf1g &t
to types of ratings are r;e:cri;tion of attitude co.ntent because ;;s,!CI<..
a/., 6) Th difference IS relevant to our tent supporting an altitude, While irnpo
200 d the amount of cognitive con tent supporting an attitude. Similarly rtallce
on the amount of emotional coo:e quickly than others; such easily retrie so'lle
ml d f m memory m 1995) Ae 11 h vable
attitudes can be retrieve ro . . hi accessible (FaziO, . . ca t e evide
attitudes are referred to as berng hlg y er utilitarian/object-appraisal function
. d serve a strong . I tt 't d
that accessible allttu es . . also reflect a unlpo ar a I u e struct .
. . h' h ccessib1hty may .
) Ute
2000). In add1t1on, tg a Chaiken & Tordes1llas, 1
(Melli3ma & Bassili, 1995; des a number of ways. Jon Krosnick an
Strong attitudes differ from weak a
u four key manifestations of strong aititud d
Richard Petty (1995) argue that a;eThat is they are more temporally stable

First, strong attitudes are more k
)' Second strong attitudes are rn er
the passage of time (Visser & Krosnlc ' . e. appeal s'rrong attitudes are less
h Wh n faced with a persuaslv e y
res1s/antto c ange. e & Smith. 1995). Third, strong attitud
to change than weak attitudes (Petty.' Haugtvedl: R arch has revealed that es
are more likely to influence information processmg. ese
h t levant to strong versus weak att1tud devote greater attention to mformatlon t a IS re . . . es
(Houston & Fazio, 1989). Finally, strong attitudes are more likely to behavtour. Put
simply, we are more likely to act upon strong versus weak attitudes (Holland,
Verplanken. & van Knippenberg, 2002).
Th1s discusston of attitude strength is relevant for understanding a debate that has
occurred among some attitude researchers. Through the years, a number of scholars
have deliberated about the degree to which attitudes are best considered as evaluative
representations of an attitude object that are stored in memory versus temporary
evaluations. In its strong form, the first position implies that attitudes are stable across
time and context - a popular analogy being that we have a file drawer of attitudes in our
brain (Eagly & Chaiken 2007; Fazio, 2007, Petty, Brifiol, & DeMarree, 2007). In contrast,
the strong form of the latter position implies that attitvdes are simply constructed on the
spot (Schwarz, 2007). Proponents of both perspectives can generate research
their position. Our own view on this debate is that the answer depends on
strength. Strong attitudes should be more stable and enduring, but weak
att1tudes should be more malleable and likely to be constructed on the spot.
Key points so far
Attitude content, attitude structure, and attitude function are i,exorably linked.
Alliludes vaty in the degree to which they are persistent over time resistant to
change, influential in guiding information processing, and influential 'in predicting
.......... ---- & n
........... .. 'fTITUDE, THOUGHT AND BEHAVto
NG .A . lJR
hologists are Interested in the st d
at psYc diet behaviour. Early Y ot attitudes because \h
granted that there are studied \hat
tool< tudes and behaviour. One might COnsistent though not ""rt at
19 ' n att
b . assume for . ""' ect re\at1ons
..Atfl!le his parents ear some relation to how one t Instance, that one's atlitude
v- rds owards \hem
w3 one commonsense assumption se
more. t' ems to be that
er r cause our ac 10ns. our attitudes in some wa't (u mine o
deter . assumption true? La Piere (
) .
eut iS thi.S d a Chinese couple as they traveled e'xt:n . Amencan SOcial psychologist,
re appeared to be widespread, though m through .us- At that time in
a ,
eton against Chinese and other Fa
erate\y negatwe attitude towards
Aw rna 1 r peopl 0
1 and deCI and restaurants they visited, they were denied n Y once,. out ol
51hotel . between attitudes and behav . service. To examme the
2 . nshiP . lour, SIX months later he mailed a
to p.ropnetors establishments asking it lhey would accept Chinese
quest Approximately 92 Vo md1cated that they would not accept them
I Yes
Depends \ No j
Behaviour (Did they serve?)
250 p
Attitude (Would they serve?)
\9 \ 118 \
969) reviewed all the evidence existing at that time on the link between attitude
WiCker (
. ur and concluded that they are at best only weaKly related; and otten there is
and behaVIO elation ship between them. Nevertheless, systematic research
virtually no r t 0 decades suggests that attitudes do predict behaviour; though th1s
during wf r more complex than commonsense would predict and many factors
lationshtp ts a . .
re . d moderate the relattonshtp.
modtfY an 1 b' c\ He
ned attitude as an implicit mediating response to a sttmu us o le .
Ooob (1947) deft must learn the mediating response lattitude) in the presence
holds that just as a person t I o learn to make a specific overt response \o \he
of the stimulus object, he mus a sl . between attitude towards an obiect and any
attitude. Thus, is no innate re A predisposition may be but
iven behaviour With respect to that . If ment that the behaviour recetves.
. d nds upon the rem orce
ultimately behavtour epe . h three dit1erent componen\S
) h ld that that attttudes ave . oontiC1
Rosenberg and Hovland (1 o Co nition and behaviour al are In
affect cognition and behavtour al.
nent is measuted by ditterent ---w-a
' . e each campo W1Ur w1 be""'...._.-
each; other parttcularly becaus ns\stent, attitudeS and baha
so tar as these three elements are co .....,. a\\ltUdl$ and ...,...
. . . de behaviour Ink ----"-ot
Earty studies investtgattng attttu i\Ud8 and a alngla QUallln .. _.,..
incorrectly. A single item measure of att
likely to be inadequate. 181
----- VAJIRAM & RAVI ---.............
, R soned Mods/
Rshbeln s
cal improvement occurred With
d methodO 09
h' b
A major conceptual an . ceptualizes the relat ons 'P etween attitud''Uf!ltr,
d Actlon Model which con es a .. _
behaviour. . . best predicted by our behaviour al int
The model proposes that behaVIour .'s probabilities of how you intend to
re subjectiVe
Behaviour al lntenllons a h ed by two factors:
Behavioural intentions In turn ares ap 'f'c behaviour
ards the specl I
The individual's attitudes tow
(b) Individual's subjective norms . .
b t behaviour. SubjeCtive norms are beliefs ab
Attitudes are evaluative respo.rses a ou nd our motivation to comply with sub,
h W'sh us to behave a active
how significant ot ers.
. resenting or inner sense of right or w
norms. Attitudes about "external" influences

good or bad. Subjective are eo le and groups in our li ves. Fishbein ur
behaviour that emanate from Important towards' behaviour rather than
Ajzen suggests that one should a for an electoral candidate. A should e
objects. E.g. An attitude towards voting. 's attitude for A might be . be
measured than attitude towards the cand1date. One . h. rnddly
negative, but your attitude towards voting for A is positive because IS opponent
be completely objectionable to you.
They also stressed that to increase predictability, attitudes and behaviour be
measure the same level of generality. In other words, we use general attitude to
general behaviour and specific attitudes to predict specific behav1ours.
Weighting of attitudes and subjective norms: In a study, Fishbein (1966) attempted to
predict whether or not college students intended to engage in premarital sex during a
particular semester. Using attitude and subjective norms he c9oufd predict behaviour al
intentions. They also found that for males, subjective norms were more important
whereas for females attitudes were more important in predicting behaviour al intentions.
Volition as variable: Theory of Reasoned Aetion holds tbat attitudes predict behaviour
primarily when behaviour is conscious and voluntary and thus "reasoned" eg. Voting.
Time IIIJ variable: The longer the time internal between measurement of attitude and
behaviour, greater the chance.that some event will intervene and change attitudes.
Thus, model suggests that behaviour is a result of interaction between strength. of the
person's attitudes and social pressure to act in a reticular way. When our attitudes are
COtpUent with social pressure, or attitude and behaviour are likely to be consistent
88hen atllludes and soclaJ pressure is not congruent, the relationship between two is
,_.., lo pt8djct
The model has one major limitation. It assumes that behaviour a/Intentions always lead
to b81JaMour. However, all of us can probably think of instances When we did not do what
.......... ----& VAJIJt.\1\1 J)_ n

ded to do. such as habits, a low _ .............. .
j,tefl derate the attitudes behaviour ,. t. sense ot iOenuty a
.,e '/ rflO m"' and low teer
sf!lc9c rneotY of Planned Behaviour ot sell
397) recommends adding a third v .abl
(1 k. . an e.PE!t.
Aite" The smo er s own attitude may be . I ceiVed behaviou \
r e9 f 'ly partne
'" avour 01 . r a control to
s friends. ami r a want to see him quit 91Vlng up. He may well know
tl'lat \11 . nes. TRA seem to have predicted th and he WOUld \i\(.e to COmply with
tl'leir w's y smokers still keep smoking months dat smo\(.er Would gi-ve up smol<.ing
aiJI man favourable the smoker's attitude and anb. later. IPB tna:t
" ver h su 1ectwe nor
we .f he believes t at he completely lack ms are towards stopping
srtloKin9: \ikely to continue smoking. s control over his smoking behaviour
rl he IS
Balance and consistency Theory
. (
, 58) also suggest thatindividua\ is motivated to attain . .
Helder attitudes and behaviour because these are \w and 11\alntall'\ balance
betwe.en tion who always strives for equilibrium The theoryo a sinqle
an1za o s '"at 11'\COnslstent
or9 deS generally do not pose a problem but ii attitudes and behaviour are inconsistent,
atutu hem has to change. -
cognitive theory by also suggests much the same
'ftte _ that we stnve for consonance and agamst dtssonance among various cognitive
idea ts Research linked with this theory clear\y demonstrates that we change
elemen to make them consonant, with our behaviour. In one classic expefimen\,
r and Carlsmith ( 1959) asked subjects to penorm very boring task tor two hours.
Fesunge ds the subjects were instructed to tell the subjects who replaced them
t had been fan and exciting. Some of them were paid one dol\ar tor \heir
nmen . \ed \ believe
ex . while other "liars" received twenty dollars. Then tie subjedS o
compltanc:x eriment was over the asked to fill an evaluation Among other
that t.he p re asked to indicate the degree to 't,Vhich ttley had enloyed the task and
questiOns, we itively than subjects who were paid twenty dollars. reason::
task lied tor a trivial sum found it necessary to talionWe tba d
those w o I d their dissonance by coming to believe ttlat they had \h subseqUent
hence reso ve the dissonance we experience, the greater e
task-Thus,. greater . . II discrepant attitude and behaviour.
consistency between an ongma Y . enged \hat a\tl\ude
B (1972) in his se\f perception theory has: our at\itUd8S t1om our blhMM.
is always stressful. He opiniOn. we -. aar .....
If our behaviour appears to contra '
without any significant amount of stress.
The Attitude Accessibility Model '"" ..-
1988) ho* lUI ..... - ..
The model proposed Fulo .!t...
_.- $ ......... .
behaviour link. Accessiblbty ught \n\0
recalled from memory and bro
VAJIRAM & RAVI ----... ........_
if'c attitude. The stronger the assoc .
ct' sting a spec I b b latlon
evaluation Is crucial m a IV ger its effect on su sequent ehavlou .
more readily attitude activated and stron activated in a seemingly automatic ,;a Recent
h t ny attitude are H h nne
evidence indicates t a (Bergh et al, 1992). owever, t e Intensity t by
the anitude objects to which they refer . tense the activation, it leads to a P

. tty The more m I I articul
actiVation grea . t have been found to be c ose y related to beh
behaviour. The k1nds of attitudes the most accessible strong. Specific,
are the ones that would probably . del ties together diverse factors and fi
relevant (Krsonick, 1989). Thus, thiS mo 0d1ngs
regarding the attitude behaviour link.
t des and behaviour occurs because b th
Perhaps the lack of consistency among a
u . . o are
complex variables. They can both be broken dow.n Which
themselves may not be consistent. As the evidence revlewe a s ows the link
between attitude and behaviour is strengthened by any factor Which the
integrator of personality; otherwise specific behaviours do follow from spec1f1c attitude.
Factors affecting Attitudes-Behaviour fink
1. Amtude specificity: Ajzen and Fishbein suggested that attitudes and behaviour
should be measured at the same level of generality. General attitudes
should be measured to predict general behaviour and specific attitude or
specific behaviour. They noted that the emphasis on general global attitudes
may have been responsible in part for relatively weak fink between attitude
and behaviour as noted by Wicker (1969). for example, a woman holds
liberal social views: she favour government programs to help people who
are disadvantaged', is against harsh punishment for criminals, and approved
of additional aid to education. She is then asked to vote on a broad based
increase in taxes. If the measure passes, the amount she pays in income
sales property tax will increase sharply. Like many others she might
negative attitude towards the increase in taxes. Thus, her specific attitudes
are more strongly linked to behaviour than her general attitude. Newcomb
Rabow and_ Hemandz (1992) asked students in US, Britain, and Sweden
express general attitude towards was as well as specific attitudes about
nuclear weapons, nuclear was, and power plants, etc. Participants also
reported the. extent to which are engaged in activist behaviour relating
to ssues. As predicted, specific attitudes were much better
Pl'ed!ctors of activist s than more general attitudes and this was
true IS all three countnes.
2. CDmponents: The various components Of attitudes may not always be
'9 Y consstent. For example, the affective compo t ..
one has doubts about future of relationship When s may be positive
COIJ8istent one of th b ese components are
iha, the 0:,'; reJ.ated to specific forms of
'J reactions to pu I h.
,_, were more closely related to consum zz es on w. ICh
they did to enjoyment) than to . mators behav1our
mstrumental behaviour (it has
.....,....,--- VAJlRAM J)_ n
'X 1'\.AVlmr
specific external purpose) . .. ............ ..
subjective cognitive lhese a
nstrumental behaviour than tho Were !_Jll.les, in contrast "'
I h . elr C() oovre clOse\ , e
suggests t at different com nsumrnator ben . Y related to their
different of behaviour (Miller are liMing
. esser. 1989). ective '" prediction
(tude strength. Strong attitude
:J. p.t t attitudes formed through directs,!redict behaviour better t"'
. d . I b ,..,.rsonal ex "a" Weal<. Th
acQUire paSSive Y Y observar Penence are str . e
t al 1982). IOn. Mthus, the attitud onger \han ones
e ., es ol latter type lFazio
1/ sted interests: It implies the eventsli .
4. e person's life. vested inteiSSUes .In question have a stronn eect.
. . rests mcreas th "' m
behaviour hnk. S1vacek and Crano t
) e e strength ol attitude
to solicit help in campaigning against contacted students and predicted
drinking age from 18 to 20 years- law raised the legal
were against the law, but only those students Irrespective ol age
the law, probably because they had
agreed to campaign against
d 2 In erest, the older ones who had
already crosse 0, lacked a vested interest and thus th . . .
did not' lea? to actual behaviour . e'r negatiVe att1tude
self sell-awareness increases the degree
consistency between. attitude and behaviour teg. Pryor et a\, 1977). There
are two reasons for 1t a) sell awareness increases our access to our ovm
attitudes; we can report then more accurately when we are seH aware. Thus,
it enables them to subsequent behaviour, so \hat It is conscious\y
deliberately consonant with existing attitudes, b) in situation in which overt
behaviour s are required sell-awareness can bring specilic attitudes more
sharply into focus, enabling them to guide the actions that \ol\ow.
Self-monitoring: Research suggests that some than
others to behave in a manner that is _the1r
Snyder's who say they act in accordance With their mner tee\lngs {score:.
ale) sometimes seem to show greater correspondence between ew
and behaviour than who score high on.the scale. .
I infllence attitudes be\'uMout \ink.
7. Personality: whUe introverts do no\, some very
Example, if extroverts a . diced oomments slmply basan
prejudiced introverts may not make preJU
they are too reserved to talk much. .
.d t newly f.e.g. ge aion _..
Further, opportunity to consoh a e hav\nQ agteallr btNN1N
enter a new view into your memory al ct
attitude object (Rajecki, 1990) can so
POLITICAL ATTTTUDE . eo le to the areas of life covered by ..
. . I tftudes are the attitudes. of P nationalism, political conservatisl'll
Pollt1ca a
ample vrews Poliu.._:
I 50 tor ex -"ijj
psycho ogy rsm etc
liberalism, political radlca I .
Political Ideologies . . ron and program on an ideology_ In
th r poht1cal ac r
Many political parties base . er rtain ethical set of ideals, pnnc1p es, doctrines, Ill
studies a Political Ideology IS a ce . .t t'on class or large group that explains hYfhs
' . ent mst1 u 1 ' . ow
or symbols of a soc1al movem ' rrcal and cultural bluepnnt for a certain so
society should work, and offers some po
'tself with how to allocate power and to
order. A political ideology largely conc,erllns 'a certain ideology very closely, While Oth
d S Parties o ow . . ers
ends 1t should be use ome of related ideologres Without specificau
may take broad inspiration from a group Y
embracing any one ot them.
Political Ideologies have two dimensions:
Goals: How society should work (or be arranged).
Methods: The most appropriate ways to achieve the ideal arrangement.
An ideology is a collection of ideas. Typically, each ideology contains certain ideas on
what it considers to be the best form of government (e.g. democracy, etc),
and the best economic system (e.g. capitalism, socialism, etc). Sometimes the same
word is used to identify both an ideology and one :ot its main ideas. For instance,
soeial1sm" may refer to an economic system, or it may refer to an ideology which
supports that economic system. .
Ideologies also identify themselves by their position on the political spectrum( such as
the left, the center or the right), though this is very often controversial. Finally, ide.ologies
can be distinguished from political strategies (e.g. populism) and from single issues that
a party may be built around (e.g. opposition to European integration or the legalization of
marijuana). Philosopher Michael Oakeshott provides a good definition of ideology as "the
formalized abridgment of the supposed sub-stratum of the rational truth contained in the
Studies of the concept of ideology itself (rather than specific ideologies) have been
carried out under the name of systematic ideology.
PolilicaJ ideologies are concerned with many different aspects of a society, some of
llfliciJ 8111: lhe economy, education, heallh care, labor law, criminal law, the justice
.,.....,, the provision of social security and social welfare trade,
minors, immigration, race, use of the mililaly, patriotism and
Mlblilhed religion.
............ -- . VAJIRAM&RAvt.,
vides people Wl\h \he OpPo .. u . .. ............ _
yPro .
..,oC(Bc wever' \he promise ot Participatio aC\ive
HOt evaluate a large number ot P<llitt With a than Passive
rflLIS ) and then aggregate these ObJects tsucn as ber ot Challenges.
ttorfTlS a simple vote decision. So hoences in a way Parties,
onto have ott en emphasized the, rot w these chanen ws them to be
"left" and "right" {Jost 200eS)ofTideologyin \he
. r1 be . 11 . ' he sucee "' e bipolar
r- nc!IO at contmuum a ows IndiVIduals to ad . sstu\ learning ana.
Ol'llldeoto91Cent political objects and it contributeOps t Ideologically consistent ot
Ill's differ . . I b' Za to the c . I IOns
l'f8rd ;cular poht1ca o 1ects { 1992). ldeolpgy is th rvstal\rzation ot opiniOns
to lJI part large of potential evaluative criteria t ought to do these things by
a . ht dimens1on. Once an individual Underst the rubnc ot a
left-ngherself somewhere on it, the logic ot this dimension 51
d bjects encountered in the political world ana tas\1. ot evaluating the

political choices is eased {Sniderman &

the resulting attitudes
f1l rnple . .

. se benefits, research suggests that most individuals
. the . . . are not able to use
pesplte when forming and orgamzmg .their opinions. This raises the question o1 what
need in order to make use of Information in \he form ot
dtitens pertise, or factual pohtlcal knowledge, 1s the answer most trequen\ly given
tC. al ex Th' t
pa/lt converse, IS gests that expertise .will not be associated
(e.9 e of 1deology un ess m 1v1 ua: s also possess a h\gh level of evaluative
wittl the us. e the desire to form clear opinions about attitude obiects.
(IIOii'lation -
Thinking in Mass Publics-and the Role ot Expertise
otogtca ..
Ide ost significant and controversial conclusions ot modem
one of t:l a large portion of the public does not anchor its attitudes toward vanous
research IS. . terms of abstract ideological concepts. Converse (1964) tamousty
. . 1 objects tn . which aboo\
pohtica 01 a central ideological reference po1nt - to . J""'d de
argued that use all tied - would itself primarily as OOilSIStelley.,-: _:
specHic objects the same point in time, i.e., constraint Seconda .'

positions the :t::;; = 19118).
any one raging attitude crystalhzatton a sted that neftl\8f at'-
system, thus encou , i hi -influential analyseS sugge cibenS "-
However, Converse s own . h y were highly evident in of ..._ .....
hallmarks of ideological thtnktng .... tllis area baS alsO tumcl te\a
f h subsequent f9SUGI"'" do aot ......--
mass public. Much o t . he broad maiOrilY ot .-Cit .._
with most research indicating t . that 816 ideQlOgiN'Iy .._
. nd candidateS ........,
opinions about ts sues a
, Jos\ Fldilt* ._........,.,
{Campbell et al., 1960; Converse, '
JIRAM & RAVI ----............
-------VA ltii:all I
. . at elites conduct business largely .
nee po 1t1c k . 1n
are troubling, st . ens who cannot ma e use ot ldeolo e
These This implies groups that are already relatiVely
language orttonately concentrated m in comprehending those In Priess
are . & Keeter f 996)-will be at a I I that there are not only differences . ower
(Delli lad'? "'them to So, It eatr d" tools like ideology, the
and ho mg . . . "soph1SI1ca e ars
0 degree to which lndlvtduals use. ed with these differences.
meaningful consequences assoclat . . d. iduals to "use" ideology in order to f
ke r easler for In IV d " . orll'l
In that case what factors ma I archers have zeroe In on po,,!Jcat expertis
and opinions? In this regard, rese on of greater amounts of factual Politic e,
which Is generally defined as the

bstantlal body of research indicates th ar
knowledge (Delli Carpini & Keeter
> edsuattitude constraint and to a lesser
I elated with lncreas 992) W k
expertise Is rellab Y asso .
& Napier, 2009; Zaller, 1 . or 1n this area
stability (Converse, 2000; Josl, 'to display constrained attitudes they
suggests that experts are more

schemas or organized clusters of Information

possess more well-developed polltrca
beliefs and Issue stances associated With
about politics In general and the _va u;s, Fiske, 'Lau, & Smith, 1990). In turn, this
a given on th_e ting an informed ideological orientation
knowledge prov1des cltrzens a basiS if different ideological positions (e.g.
based on a real comprehension of the conten o sed to make evaluar '
Sttmson, 2004). The resulting orientation can then be u 1ve
judgments about a broader set of political objects.
Motivational Influences on the Use of Ideology: Evaluation as a Goal
Given the wide range of evidence for the role of expertise, to depict
the successful use of ideology as an infonnationalproblem: md1v1duals Will develop a
substantively meaningful ideolog1cal orientation and ideologically organize their attitudes
toward specific political objects if they have acquired enough information about the
conceptual content of the left-right continuum. What it does not explicitly attend to is the
role of motivational factors, i.e., the needs or goals that determine how individuals
actually use expertise-based ideological reference points when making judgments.
But what is the actual "motivational factor" behind the use' of ideology? The critical
process relates to the need to use expertise for evaluative purposes. In this vein, the use
of ideology actually consists of two different processes: a first process in which expertise
provides individuals an understanding of the left-right continuum, enabling them to
meaningfully identify themselves with an ideological position (Cognitive); and a second
process in which the resulting ideological predispositions are used tor a specifically
eVc1luafill8 purpose, i.e., to judge various political objects as "good" or "bad" (Attitude)
(e.g .. Jams & Petty, 1996).
In Olhet MJRfs, lhe aciUal application of ideology may depend not just on expertise but
a11o on clfizens being motivated to evaluate political objects as gooct Qr bad. This
.,..,. flat it may be-Gore appropriate to model the use of ideology as resulting from
............ --. VAJIRAI\1. & n .,
" . , between experttse and the . ..._:---.........
16rsc\1 , evaluative fashion. The n motiVation to li<>A
ill in a Th . ecessary "" . .
...ise r of sources. ese tnclude
;.. ")J\.)St\1ons
...a' rflbe t . eneral ind . e IT\or rOQ\ed in
iY' 8 nLJ the exten to Whtch an ind .d 1\JtduaJ drtt rna
:...t11 i e . d tv, ua1 is erence \ Y COrne
If"' lt.lgte. . of .eas, and social obe motivatea \o s 1\e lhe to
gtions as well as lndtvtdual difference . I cts as either I
); which the political domain is s 'n motivation or "'oaa
etl'l t to B t & seen as im tc to Poll "'
P l{rosnick. eren , Fabrigar,
. L Portant and rei 1ICS, suCh as
tfl8 t19er. , IJSI<in, 199() 1h evant to \he sell
1995). , ornsen, Sorgida &
f its source, evaluative motivar '
attitude responses occur should have critical elf
bY t th t h we have se ects on the
cess reference a . elps individuals reach ideology Provides
about a wtde vanety of political objects a set ol evaluar a
rfi map their preferences onto po\iticai tl the
cltrz. Sniderman & Bullock, 2004). This sug o ces offered by elites (e.g.
9ndidates. afforded by expertise may have that the ideological
es among those high and low in evaluat evels ot utility and
. tve motivation a
canseQ with a strong eva uattve motive should approach th . . n one
ndividuals to form attitudes toward various objects Since 'de pol httcal wot\d 11th an 1
ation f th t
eo offers a hand"
illclltl 1 framework or e sys emattc evaluation of multipl . .. '
Ptua . d' . . e 1ssues, the ability to
cance d the \eft-nght ISttnctton and place oneself on it in an informed sh
rstan . d' .d
Th ould be
onde useful to these tn lVI ua s.. us, .expert.s high in evaluative motivation be
more 1 inclined to use the tdeologtcal onentation afforded by their eY""'rtise \
ular Y
. h . . . """' o
the process of eva ot er pohttcal thus increasing the extent to
dividuals display and other ot ideological judgment On
hand, experts wtthout a strong evaluative motive should have little need to
lhB other e the ideological orientation afforded by their expertise. Instead of relying on
actuallY us h se experts may episodically construct evaluations ol specific objects when
deologyd \:do so (e.g., Wilson & Hodges, 1992). As such, their attitude responses
prompte . fl need less by a common ideological reference point than by 'Wtlatevef
1 .. , ld be tn ue t 'deolo
sliVu b alien\ leading to less evidence ot the use o 1 gy.
happens to e s ' '

------ VAJJ 1it:aa

ed fashion among those With a hi
. s In an attectively opPO:ords, experts were more "cons/ Qh need
candidates, and 2004, 2007): .'n othe;ors-tor example, evaluating llber::ent 1"
to evaluate f opposed political ac atives and Republicans artd
their evaluatiOns o aluated conserv , If they
Democrats positiVely if they evaluate
were also high In the need to ev : eel to variables less directly relat
It ms With resp 2000 ANES r 1 ed to
In other studies, similar pa e I sing data from the . , I s found th
Ideological consistency. For extreme ideological self-placement-i.e., onat
expertise Is more strongly assocrat .
either the right or left-among tho e
eutral centns th r set or a 1 se
that deviates more from a n .
0 2004
). Similarly. rn ano e . na Yses us;,
with a high need to evaluate (Fedenc re more likely to descnbe the differenc 9
the 2000 ANES, It is found that experts arres in ideological or near-ideological
between the Democratic and Republican fa/ (Federico & Schneider, 2007). s
when they are also high In the need to eva ua e . .
. . . rces of evaluative motivation-such a.s personal
As noted earlier, domain-specifiC

the relationship between expertrse and the
involvement in politics-should also mo 't is found that expertise is more strong!
'd 1 c tent with this predrc IOn,
use of 1 eo ogy. onsrs . asures of ideological consistency and
. d 'th hi h cores on compoSite me
assoc1ate w1 9 er s . d' 'duals who are high in a key indicat
I 'd 1 1 elf placement among 1n lVI or
extrem ty m 1 eo og1ca s . - . . . . . olitics. Similarly, our analyses als
of personal involvement m poht1cs, 1.e., mterest m P . . . o
indicated that a second indicator of personal involvement . In politiCS-strength of
part1sansh1p-had a s1milar moderating effect, such m.?re strongly
related to consistency and extremity among those who Identified as strong Democrats
or Republicans (as opposed to weak partisans or independents).
Across a range of relevant dependent measures-including measures of constraint and
other forms of ideological consistency and measures of ideological extremity-higher
levels of political expertise are more strongly associated with greater evidence of an
"ideological" approach to politics among those high in evaluative motivation. This pattern
holds for both global sources of evaluative motivation (e.g., the need to evaluate) and
sources of evaluative motivation specific to the political domain (i.e., interest in politics).
All in all, the data thus point to the value of understanding the use of ideology not merely
as an informational process rooted in expertise, but as an interactive process involving
both expertise and the motivation to use it in an evaluative fashion.
Political attitude is guided by political ideology which is In turn guided by motivation,
knowledge, expertise and many other factors together or Independently.
models ol morality have suggested the importance of affect-based automatic
mtlfll....., in moral reasoning. However, previous investigations of moral reasoning
.....,.,...,.-- VAJlRAM & 'RAVlt ..
etied upon explicit measures that ar a
r rticipant's automatic moral atn de SUSCeptible to volunhn.
1e pa
u es we u ..... , control
' sti9a I (IAT). PartiCtpan s rated the legality ol sed a morality Implicit
.r fi
ol'l 'feS
different tnlenstly levels \e g h ._ ual\y dePicted le<Jal and i\\cn I
., ..o9'' I tW I d I' . . ' tg,. ntensity II .
#':.oUrs o ntensi\Y .. van a ISm) both wtlen \he tar ' e<;lal .. tnterpersonal
,i"''r; toW
IIY paired wtth an assoctated attribute (e.g. concept (eJJ., illegal)
d attribute (e.g., good; incongruent COndl d, congruent I:Xll\dilion) or
'Aspe 55ociale . RTs were faster in the congruent rathe' . . Behaviourally, an '"i
v v08 nown. I . . r nan Incongruent I:Xlnd'\i
(' "'ass vel. implicit mora attttude, as tndexed by incfeasea B ' ons.
lrf) fleural le ulus intensity' was assocta\ed with increased response as a
1 sttrn d'
.b. actwa\ton m \he rign\
f1 o d the ventrome ta or tlofrontal cortex In additto ..
.r.110 an . . . n, penormance on
;JI'igdala t trials relattve to congruent tnals was assoctated with increased ac\ivil't in \he
aJ11 ,gn.Jef'l teral prefrontal cortex (BA 47), lett subgenual cingu\ate
tfP veotrola tor cortex (BA 6) and the left caudate.
li9nt rerno
p the Latin moralitas "manner, character, proper behaviour") has three.
. (trorn
rn ptive usage, morality means a code of conduct which is held to be
r descn . . t
. matters of right and wrong. Morals are created by\me soctey,
lfl thoritatlve
n. . or individual conscience. An example o\ the descnpuve usage could
.1050phY' rehgton' f ons of morality have changed signi1icant\y over time."
pll' on concep I
tJe cornrn tve and universal sense, morality refers to an idea\ code o\ conduct,
d norma I . b all ational people under
as secon poused in preference to altemattves Y r
10" . ould be es . al'ty ""posed to the above
.foP whiCh w . . In this "prescriptiVe sense of mor ' as "" . . a\" are 111
"' d cond1t1ons. . d ts such as murder 1s 1mmor
" criptive" sense, moral value !U ral sl<.epticism. in which
described des orality' in this sense is a positiOn known as mo
de To deny m . 1 "truths" is reiected.
e;istence of obiectlve mora 'th ethics the systematic philosophical studY
morality' is synonymous WI ,
. third usage,
In tiS main. can be achieved in a
ol the moral do estions such as how a moral outcomedetennined tnonnative
Ethics seeks to add qu thics) how moral what \he rundamenta\
specific situation (apphed 1: abide by ldescnp\lv e\h justification tmeta-\
ethics), what morals . including whether it has any ond what its nature is
h. s or morahty IS, cy develops a . numan \i\e IS
nature of et tc I capacity or moral agen hibition against ta\4-ing. . s\on. \n.
ethics). and how ethics tor example, the abOrtien and wars of
psychology). In te ect capital punishmen , a Ue t<*l tor oot \he tent\&
controversial With al question might be wheu:y \sS\18 \s the'
normative ethics, a. typt: titied \n meta-eth\cS, : tnere are ttue \ha\ rnoral\v \s
someone from harm i s }US wou\d ho\d tha a\iSI1l would . \he ot
"right" or "wrong". Moral whereas moral lC)l\\UI8\ ........
report obiective moral t ln ol \bfa
derived 1rom any one
d theory); \8
a god (divine comman
VAJIRAM & RAVI ----.... -.
. scriplive); falsely presupposes that th
(emolivlsm}; an Implied imperatwe thinkers hold that there is no correct d ere
objective tscts (error theory). be judged with to Sit
of right behaviour. that moralitY can
systems and soCIO-hlstoncal cont uat1olls
W<lhon tho standou!s of :;, cotes empirical evidence from anthr:" 1),,;
posuton. known as moral relatiVISm. re view that there are universal et Pology
r -ams Tile opPOSI ernal ...,
ev ence to suppo 1 s "' I . M
absolutists might concede th t ll'lor&J
truths Is known as moral absolutism. ora I decisions but da forces ot
social conformity significantly shape mora h . ' eny tha
cultural norms and customs define morally right be avlour. I
Philosophical Perspectives
Clarifying the Usage of the Term "Morality"
The tact that there are at least three different o.f term ."morality" (see above
has led to much confusion when that word 1S used 1n diSCUSSIOns. Because of )
confusion, many thinkers are forced to spend a certain amount of time dealing with that
contuston before they even begin to use the term morality'.' in their discussions. that
One example ot that helpful clarification process is found in Walter Terence Sta ,
book, The Concept of Morals, in which he clarifies his own usage of the terms "eth:e s
and "morality," and their differences. lcs
Moral realism or moral objectivism holds that moral codes exist outside of human .
; that. certain things are right or wrong regardless of human opinion on
. b!ectrve moralrty may be seen as stemming from the inherent nature of hum
rvme command, or both. aMy,
Moral subjectivism holds that m I d
relativism holds that m ora co depend on human opinion. Moral
relativism and mor:, compromises between
umversal core of morality. Moral n'hT . there rs, or should be, a common
the view that the concepts of the vrew that no morality exists. Amoralism is
many other examples. g and wrong do not have meaning. There are
Anthropological Perspectives
Trfbaf and territorial moraJitJes
Ceia Green has made a d' .
c:haract tstinction between t 'b I
erlzes the latter as predominantly . rr a and territorial morality.
incfud' hi negattve and pros . .
---T lfiQ s or her property and d cnptrve: rt defines a
:ed wllh. from these which is not to be damaged Q(
whalever behaviour does not is permissive, allowilla
ere wtth the territory of another. B9
........,.,.,--- VAJIRAM & RA: .
. . NI ........... .
,.... tn'bal rnora lty IS prescriptive . .
st .
1mpoS1ng th
rhese norms w1 I be arbitral'i a norms of
morality aims at rules which dependent \he <:ol\eC\ive on \he
,ertitonacal Imperative'. Green relates the dre uniVersal and abanld '1\axb\e'. whereas
on . evelopm so ute such

ept ol pnvate property, and the asc en\ ol terntorial . as Kant's

cof'\C endancy ol morality to \he ri
''' tngroUP and out-group contract.,., status. se ol
bservers hold that individuals have d' .
solf1e not groups ol people. ihere is the sets o1 mora\ rules that \h
dttere t b f 1:1roup which . ey apply \o
' se theY believe o . e o the same culture or the individual and
1110 t>ers are not entitled \o be treated acco d' and there IS \he "ou\nroup. h
fl1elf1 d I . r mg \o the s "' w ose
nropologists an evo ut1onary psychologists bel' . rules. Some biologists
evolutionary mechanism, one which evolved
deve this mgroup/outgroup
iS an d v s F ue to its enha ed .
ft. Johnson an . . alger have argued that n . , nc survwa\ aspects.
;ngroup/outgroup boundary. abonai>Sm and patliotism are torms
Further: Altruism
me evolutionary biologists, particu\ar\y socio-biologists b 1. .
f . e 1eve tha\ mora\1\y IS a
product of evo utiOnar:t orces acting at an individual \eve\ and also at the group level
rough group selectiOn (though whether "group selection actual\
y occurs IS a
controversial top1c 1n evo u\lonary theory). Some socio-biologists cootend \hat the set ot
behaviours that constitute morality evolved \arge\y because they prov\ded poss\b\e
survival and/or reproductive benefits (i.e. increased evolutionary success). Humans
consequently evolved "pro-social" emotions, such as leelings ol or guilt. in
response to these moral behaviours.
In thiS respect, morality Is not absolute, but relative and constitutes any set ot behav'loutS
that encourage human cooperation based on their ideology. Bio\og$\S contend \hat a\\
social animals, tram ants to elephants, have modified the\r behaviours. by restraining
sellishness in order to make grouP living worthwhile. Human morality t\\flUilh
sophisticated and complex relative to otllet animals. is ....,miaiiY a r\alUral p11enomonort
that evolved to restrict excessive individualism and taster human eooperat10n.
A' ' fnt\S end \n\u\t\0(\S
On this view moral codes are ultimately 1ounded on ms
od ,.,;.lA
' they alded S\,lN\va\ and repr !JCt'Qn ,._...<)', ..
that were selected for In the past beC&use It\ \hef \s \he Wes\ef'"\atCK
fitness}. The strength of the maternal bond.\s detfeases \he lle\\Mad
ellect. seen as underpinning tabOOS agatnst ''"'von'
ol in?reeding depression. . . ana-
The phenomenon of 'reclprociiY'In nalllll iS .......... _.
to begin to understand bdtl_... too4
of essential resources, especlal\Y -.w.-Nab' tot.__.-.-
quality fluctuates unpredlctBIIIY..::. # ..... a...,. II lllDO'L ._
individuals tall to teed on prey pill. ciW iMII' tllllll Ia..,. a ....... :::
successfully ted then regut;ltate - ..... .,. ......, ,...._
starvation. Since these anlmalllNIIa
llllillililllll escrlptive); falsely that there
red imperative (pr . kers hold that there 1s no correct d .
ants';: ;error theory). some thl:dged with respect to particular
ObJeCtive th I morality can only be J I ms and soclo-historical context ations
of right behavtour,
belief sys e .
within the standards of partiCU ar tten cites empincal evidence _rom anthroPolog IS
. known as moral relatiVISm,
ew that there are un1versa1, eternaJ Y <Is
pos1t1on, The opposite Ill . ht d
evidence to support its claims. . M ral absolutists mig conce e that foree
truths is known as moral absolutism. o moral decisions, but deny s Of
social confonnity significantly . right behaviour. that
cultural norms and customs defme
Philosophical Perspectives
Clarifying the Usage of the Term "Morality"
d"ff nt usages of the term "morality" (see abo
The fact that there are at least three I ere . sed in discussions. Because Ve)
has led to much contusion when that word IS u f . . Of that
d a certain amount o time dealing with th confusion many thinkers are forced to spen . . . . . at
confus1on before they even begin to use the term morallt( 10 thetr discussions.
One example of that helpful clarification process is found in Walter Terence Stace's
book, The Concept of Morals, in which he clarifies his own usage of the terms "ethics
and and their differences.
Moral realism or moral objectivism holds that moral codes exist outside of human op1nion
- that certain things are right or wrong regardless of human opinion on the topic.
Objective morality may be seen as stemming from the inherent nature of humanity,
divine command, or both.
Mora/ subjectivism holds that moral codes depend on human opinion. Moral
relativism holds that moral codes are a function of human values and social structures
and hold no meanmg outside social convention. Moral absolutism is the view that
acts are right or wrong regardless of context. Moral universalism compromises between
moral relativism and moral absolutism and holds that there is or should be a common
core of morality. Moral nihilism is the view that no exists. Amoralism is
the vew that the concepts ot moral right and wrong do not have meaning. There are
many other examples.
Anthropological Perspectives
Tribal and territorial moralities
Ceia Green has mad d" r
ch . e a IS lnction between tribal and territorial morality. She
aractenzes the latter as predominantly r .
lerrit nc1 . . nega IVe and proscnptive: it defines a person's
vm':'': hs, or her property and dependents, which is not to be damaged or
,..,_ , .... :..fA..- .whapart rom proscriptions, territorial morality is permissive allowing
uJCJ "'""' fever behavtour does not t rt '
'" e ere With the territory of another. By
............ -- VAJIRAM.&RAVI:
morality is prescriptive, imposing th ........... .
,.... tnba n b e norm
tf!lst. These norms WI e arbitrary, culturally d s of the COllective on the
rfll. dual. ralii Y aims at rules which are unive e,pefldent and Whereas
. ' G I rsaandab
tona. I imperative . reen re ates the development ol . SOlute, such as Kant's

of private property, and the ascendancy

terntonal morality to the rise ol
() , ncept CQntcact over status

oUP and out-group
ervers hold that individuals have distinct sets of mo
cnrtle obS oups of people. There is the "ingroup Whi h . rail rules that they apply to
nt gr
h c Incudes the individual and
ddwe believe to be o t e same culture or race and the . th
theY re IS e outgcoup whose
se are not enti tled to be treated according to the same r
So b.
. h . . u es. me 10iog1sts,
and evo psyc . ologlsts beheve this ingroup/outgroup dif1erence
evolutionary mechamsm, one wh1ch evolved due its. enhanced suNival aspects.
1S an Johnson and V .S. Falger have argued thal nationalism and patriotism are torms
oup/outgroup boundary.
of til iS lngr .
Further : Altru1sm
olutionary biologists, particularly socio-biologists, believe that morality 1s a
some evolutionary forces acting at an individual level and also at the group
product p selection (though whether selection actually occurs 1s a
through topic in evolutionary theory). Some socio-biologists contend that the set o1
that constitute morality evolved largely because they provlded possible
/or reproductive benefits (i.e. increased evolutionary success). Humans
survival and I ed "pro-social" emotions, such as feelings of efll)a\hy or QUilt. In
consequently evo v .
to these moral behaviours. .
response . d stitutes any set ot behaVIOurs
In this respect, morality is not but Biologists contend _aU
that encourage human cooperatiOn based o modified their behaviours. by restramang
. I animals from ants to elephants, rthwhile Human morality \bough
SOCia t make group hvang WO . al nhonomenOO
selfishness in order o "mals is essentially a natur .,.......
1 x relative to other am ation
sophisticated and comp e . . vidualism and foster human cooper . .
that evolved to restrict excessive IOdl otiOnal instincts and
re ultimately founded on em QduetiOn {incluSIVe
On this view moral codes a t because they aided survival and :s the Westermarck
that were selected for in the pas
bond ts one example: Ano r
the like\lhood
The strength of against incest, which decreases
effect seen as . ..,."
' . . biol09sts as one """V
of inbreed1ng depression. . saeJtby evotutiOf\BIY reliable S&JAllY
. ocity' in nature IS ..
The phenomenon of 'recpr morallty. lt$ where toad ex
to begin to understand human ally for antmals ln a night batS.=
of essential resources, especl For on tP1 gNen p. of btDOCL Ba&& that
quality fluctuates QttleiS 'W:. to save a
individuals fail to feed on part of 1h8lr blOOd ovariMI'Y ,..,.. an
successfully fed then regu!.ts ave til ....
starvation. Since these ani 1

YAJlRAM & RAVI .......
the favour on nights when it Qoes h
mbers to return ung'Y can count on other group me
(Wilkinson, 1984) h
chimpanzees show empathy for each Oth
. d monstrated t a . d . er
It has been convtncmgly e also possess the abthly to engage m eceptton, ana a
in a wide vanety ol contexts. They' /atypical o/ our own tendencie
level of social 'politics pro s
d tation management.
for gossip an repu . d that the incremental development ot lllo
Christopher Boehm (1982) has hypothestz:as due to the increasing need to av;ad
h t hominid evolut1on '
complexity throug ou . vanna and developing stone weapons. Olhe
disputes and Injuries in movmg to sa
,mply a correlate of increasing group s
., r
sing complex1ty was .. e
theones are that mcrea
ment of theory of mind abilities Richa d
d b d n particular the deve op r
an . Size, and o' I . suggested that our morality is a result of our biological
Dawkms m The Go e uston h I'
. h' d that the Moral Zeitgeist helps descnbe ow mora 1ty evolves
evolutionary 1story an . h 'thin a culture
from biological and cultural origins and evolves Wit time WI
Neuro-sclentific and psychiatric perspectives
Research on mirror neurons, since their discovery in 1996, suggests that they may have
a strong role to play in empathy. Social neuro-scientist Jean Decety thinks that the ability
to recognize and vicariously experience what another creature is undergoing was a key
step forward in the evolution of social behaviour, and ultimately, morality. The inability to
feel empathy is one of the defining characteristic of psychopathy, and this would appear
to lend support to Decety's view.
Psychological perspectives
In modem psychology, morality is considered to change through personal development.
A number of psychologists have produced theories. on the development of morals,
usuaUy going through stages of . different morals. lawrence Kohlberg, Jean Piaget,
and Elliot Turiel have cognitivedevelopmental approaches to moral development; to
these theorists morality fonns in a series of constructive stages or domains. Social
psychologists SUCh as Martin Hottmanolnd Jonathan Haidt emphasize social and
emolional development based on biology, such as empathy. Moral identity theorists,
SUCh as William Damon and Mordechai Nisan, see moral commitment as arising from
.lhe development of a self-identity that is defined by moral purposes: this moral seff
idenlily leads 1o a sense ot responsibility to pursue such purposes. Of historical interesl
ill P8JIChology are lhe theories of ps}'ChoanatYsts such as Sigmund Freud, who believe
.., IIICJIIIf Is the PfOduct of 8Spects of ihe super-ego as guilt-shame
VAJ1RAM & RAVI _____ _
fA ora
. is the answer to the .question 'how ought we . ,
rTlorahlY be seen as addressmg the same que t' to ltve at the individual level
can . h s ton at the soc II . ,
..aliticS .. 9 that evdence as been found of a relati h' Ia evel. It ts therefore

s Jonathan Haidt and Jesse 'P between attitudes in morality

tJ politiC . ave studied the dtff
and liberals and conservatives, in this regard. Accordin to .
tween make their moral choices . . g thetr model, poltttcal .
"" ervatives . . . u&ng liVe variables (hallll/care,
"'"s sstreciproc
ty, mgroup loyalty, authonty/respect, punty/sanctity), whereas libetais
tairne 1 two (harm/care and Haidt also hYP<>fhesizes that the oligm
us on y d'vision in the Untied States can be to seohistoncal lactots, with
of thtS 1'.
m strongest in closely knit, ethnically homogenous communlttes, in contrast
serva' I I ..
con tes where the cu tura mtx tS greater, thus requiring more liberalism. ortC' t
top ality develops from shared concepts and beliefs and is often to
Group mar haviour within a culture or community. Various defined actions come to be
regulate be 1 r immoral. Individuals who choose moral action are popularly held to
called 1 iber'', whereas those who indulge in immoral behaviour may be labeled
possess mo ate The continued existence of a group may depend on wtdespread
as socially degener , orality an inability to adjust moral codes in response to new

to codes o m ty (a positive example
conformt y . credited with the demise of a commum . v ... .....w.
es is somettmes . . . sticism a negatwe eACU'"""
the function of Cistercian reform tn rev;;g.::alion China to European
be the role has been some
interests). Wlthtn natton or rosper without acknowlerlglllg one nt to the behaViOur
nation will not P_sts Political Morality is also releva ve from their host
f . what It COOSI pport they recel .
regardless o In . ovemments, and to the su "nciple of universality : it an
internationally of national g ates that ... if we adopt the pn Those who do not rise to
population. No am it is right (or wrong) tl1ey afliiiY to otherS ;
action is right (or wrong) o I ng to themselves the s ousty when they speak
the minimal moral I cannot be ::evil. .
more stringent ones, m . t right and wrong. 9
pn"nciples is that ot
t sponse, or
teru of mora \t's
appropriateness o re most, etemen ....
. it it's wrong for you,
h maybe the 's right tor you. re sornetaow
"In fact one oft e, . ' 'ght tor me. it . thasthatati\SCO
' . If somethmg s n rth loOkiflQ a. want to run
universality, that IS, d that is even wo
the tifn8. lf _ hiPI*" to be
Any moral co e dsregarded a BuSh. sinC8 nv ....
wrong for me. . helmingly
GeOI98 w. atn{lllsllll-
But that principle IS do it. Take. say. applied to NaZi ..... ...,....
examples we can eas Y tandardS tllBI rs not-:,... ll IJilef.llill ";!
president. If you apply the :n conceivabla lf1(J'I ttflllll t _. II
he'd be hanged. Is it an ev
we ()fr 111111' --.......

we don't apply to '1.'! tD., ..... J ..
'terror' and how awfu"ble? No, it'S co---.;...... .,..... .. ......,
considered st us, thal'S ,.,.. _.,.
Now, their terror agatn
agent. and )Ill
becoming a minimal mora
----- VAJJRAM & RAVI - --... .....=
epfing the principle of universality
very difficult. Because that means that's accepted, either in And
experiment tor yourself and see hoW
nar or
life. Very rarely."
Moral codes are often complex definitions of and that are based lJ
defined value systems. Although some people mtght thtnk that a moral cod .Pon Weu
' I eth' S t e IS q.
rarely Is there anything simple about ones. va tc e c. or, for that rn
judgment of those of others. The difficulty hes tn the fact that morals are f atter, lh
. . It d S . o ten e
a re 1g1on and more often than not about cu ure co es. omettmes, mor
way to legal codes, which couple penalties or corrective actions with codes 9ive
Note that while many legal codes are merely built on a foundation of reli Practices.
cultural moral codes, ofttimes (frequently, repeatedly) they are one and the
ous and or
Social Influence
;ocial influence occurs when an individual's thoughts or actions are aft
'wo by other people and groups. Social influence t k ected consciously
u rnclude: a es many forms iUkl
Ethnic values
Interpersonal influences
Mass media
Social approval
Social desirability
Social norms
Social values
.......-- 2 VAJlRAM&
effects of these social inUuen RAVI
'fllEl . f . ces can be
sycholoQY '"con. ormlty,socialization seen in anum
and marketong, social change ' peerpressure, obed' ber Of areas studied In sod
. SOCial control lence, leadershi . a
darvard psychologist, Herbert Kel . and SOCial facilitat P. persuas1on,
" . man ldentnied thr IOn.
compliance 1s when people appe ee broad varieties of . .
dissenting opinions private. ar to agree Wilh others SOCoalonlluence.
. . , but actually keep their
IdentificatiOn 1S when people are . fl
m uenced b
such as a amous celebrity or a favour't Y someone Who is l'k d
. . . I e uncle.
e and respected,
/ntemaiJzatiOn IS when people acce t .
P a behef or beh .
private Y avlour and agree both bl' 1 pu 1cy and
Morton Deutsch and Harold Gerard d .
escnbed two
to conform to the expectations of oth . psychological needs that lead hum
. I . I ers These . cl d ans
(informa 1ona soc1a influence), and In u e our need to be riQht
) I f t' our need to b l'k
mfluence . n orma 1onal mfluence is an . fl e 1 ed (normative social
'd b . '" uence to accept . nf .
ev1 ence a out reahty. Informational . fl .
ormat1on from another as
uncertain, either because stimuli are Into play when people are
disagreement. Normative influence is .Yf:;'blguous or because there is social
expectations of others. In terms of Kelm:'s
ence to to the positive
public compliance, whereas informational influe typollogdy, mfluence leads to
nee ea s to pnvate acceptance.
Factors affecti ng Social influences
Chari sma
Social influence can also be described as power - the ability to influence a person/group
of people to one's own will. UsuaUy people who possess beauty, significant sums
of money. good jClt>s and so on will possess social influence on other, ordinary. people.
So even if the person doesn't possess any rear or political power but possesses the
things listed above (good looks, money, etc.), he could persuade other people Into doing
something. However, good looks are not solely why attractive peopte are ab1e to exert
more influence than average looking people. e.g. is the by-prodUC\ of good
looks. Therefore, the individual's set-esteernandperoeiV&d Persona Is the critk:al taetor
in determining the amount of inttuence one &X8flS.
Those perceived as exparla llllliY -'liQIIIIIIolill- as a _.. !II "'* ........
expert' Th' otvact _--J.hlliht ........ tiJ.-..- ..,._ .. .__.
ISS. IS inV (Qra_.flll ... l3 ..
the notion of trust. people pllltlllt
such as perceived ... -
one's reputation anct ..
the group, known .. a
Peer Pressure is convinced to do (such a .
ssure, 8 person hich theY perce1ve as necessa s 'lleQqJ
In the case of peer not want to do, bUt :as the friends. ry to keep
drugs) which they . other people, sue
a positive relationshiP With
Emotions . ases the chance of agreeing with th
ear mere . e gr
I d
concluded that of going agamst the group. OtJp
In 2009, a s u Y . es the chance
while romance or lust mcreas .
Social trends
Gladwell discusses the way new id
. . p nt Malco m . . eas a
In his book, The Trppmg
oducts or fash1ons are Introduced by irma re
transmitted by social influence. New pforrming Then early adopters join in
nd noncon ' ed h..
who tend to be a. e a substantial number of people are using the
the early majorily. By this f' atlonal influence encourages others to canto or
r e and m orm rm as
product. and w_ s followed by a second group that Gladwell calls the
well. The early 'b the laggards who tend to be highly conventional ate
majority, ano then fmally y ' ai'KI
res1stant to change.
Persuasion is underneath the umbrella term of Influence. In other words,
influence but it requires communication, whereas influence doesn't necessanly.
can attempt to influence the beliefs, attitudes, intentions, motivations.
or behaviours. Persuasion is a process aimed at changing a person's (or a group's)
attitude or behaviour toward some event, idea, object, or other person(s), by usU1g
written or spoken words to convey information, feelings, or reasoning, or a combination
thereof. Persuasion is also an often used tool in the pursuit of personal gain, such as
election campaigning, giving a sales.pitch, or in Trial Advocacy. Persuasion can also be
interpreted as using one's personal or positional resources to change people's
behaviours or attitudes. Systematic persuasion is the process through which attitudes or
belefs are changed by appeals to logic and reason. Heuristic persuasion on the other
hand IS the process through which attitudes or beliefs are changed because of awea'S
to habit or emotion.
1'IJeonH of Persuas;on
....,., theories
-.. . - .. .,.,. to the divergent attitudes
..,.,..r:-- o.bjec:g or issues m different situations.W There are four
.... fill'---- VAJIRAM_ &.RAVI 7
Adjustment function: A main motivar
d . . IOn or Individual . .
external rewar s and mmlmize the co t . s IS to Increase positive
directed towards the rewards and away fs s. serve to direct behaviour
. rom pun,stiment.
Ego Oefenstve function: The process by which . . .
from being threatened by their own negar . an IndiVIdual protects their ego
. we Impulses or threatening thoughts.
Vafue-expresstve: When an individual derives pleasure fr . .
of themselves which is in line with their seH-c t om presentmg an Image
want to be associated with. oncep and the beliefs that they
. n7ed to attain a sense of understanding and control
over s hfe. An s attitudes therefore serve to help set standards and
rules wh1ch govern thetr sense of being.
When communication is targeted at an underlying function its degree of persuasiveness
will influence whether the individual will change their attitude, after determining that
another attitude will be more effective in fuHilling that function.
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of
------ VAJIRAM & RAVI ------
. certain products. knowing that most
The thought is that It will affect how like you sometimes recall a memory
purchases are made on the basis of some is solely to bring back certain
from a certain smell or sound, the obJectrve of The hope is that by repeating the
. .
. our local store.
emotrons when you see therr ogo rn Y
be more likely to purchase the
message several limes it will cause the a good emotion and a positive
product because he/she already connects
k did a comprehensive study on
experience. Stefano DellaVIgna and Gentzd ow ered that persuasion has little
the effects of in different domarns. They effect of persuasion on
or no effect on advertrsement; however, there was a s
voting if there was face-to-face contact.
Inoculation Theory
A vaccine introduces a weak form of a virus that can easily be to prepare the
f rm of the same vrrus. In much the
1mmune system should It need to f1ght off a stronger o .
same way, the Theory of Inoculation suggests a certain party can a form
of an argument that can easily be thwarted in order to prepare the audience to disregard
a stronger, full-fledged form of the argument from an opposing party.
This is often practiced in negative advertisements and comparative advertisements, both
for products and political causes. An example would be a manufacturer of a product
displaying an ad that refutes one particular claim made about a rival's product, so that
when the audience sees an ad for said rival product, they will refute all the claims of the
product without a second thought.
Attribution Theory
Humans attempt to explain the actions of others through either
Dispositional Attribution or Situational Attribution. Dispositional Attribution, also referred
to as Internal Attribution, attempts to point to a person's traits, abilities, motives, or
dispositions as a cause or explanation for their actions. A criticizing a president by
saying the nation is lacking economic progress and health because the president is
either lazy or lacking in economic intuition is utilizing a dispositional attribution.
Situational Attribution, also referred to as External Attribution, attempts to point to the
context around the person and factors of his surroundings, parti cularly things that are
cotJ:)1etely out of rus control. A citizen claiming that a lack of progress is not a
fault of the president but rather the tact that he inherited a poor economy from the
previous president is situational attribution.
Fundamsntal Altrbltion Error occurs when people wrongly attribute either a shortcoming
Of to internal or external factors, when in fact the inverse is true. In
general, people fend to make dispositional attributions more often than si tuati onal
..,..,.,. .nen flying to explain or understand a person's behaviour. This happens
..., antiJJUdt mote focused on rhe individual because we do not know much about
or conten When flying to persuade others to like us or another person,
tend to fJxplajn positive behaviours and accomplishments with dispositional
lllf'IIUIIWI, and negative behaviours and shortcomings with. situational attributions.
social Judgment Theory
social Judgment Theory suggests th
at When peopl
Kind of persuasive proposal, their natural . e are presented with an idea or any
ation subc reaction is to
the 1nform onsc1ously and rea t . Immediately seek a way to sort
ttt d c to lt. We evaJ t h .
it with the a I u e we already have h' ua e t e mformation and compare
. ' W ICh fs called th . . . I
When attempt1ng to sort the incoming . . e 1M1a attitude or anchor point.
whether it lands in their latitude Information, an audience will evaluate
ndifference, or the latitude of rejecr o
latitude of non-commitment or
pic. Our "ego-involvement" ge

e SIZe of these latitudes will vary from topic to

e of these latitudes. When Y plays one of the largest roles in determining the
SIZ . a tOpic IS closely connected to how we define and perceive
ourselves, or deals With we care passionately about, our latitudes of
acceptance and non-commitment are likely to be much smaller and our attitude of
rejection much larger. A person's anchor point is considered to be the center of his
latitude of acceptance, the position that is most acceptable to him. An audience is likely
to distort incoming information to fit into their unique latitudes. If something falls within
the latitude of acceptance, the subject tends to assimilate the information and consider it
closer to his anchor point than it really is. Inversely, it something falls within the latitude
of rejection, the subject tends to contrast the information and convince himself the
information is farther away from is anchor point than it really is. When trying to persuade
an individual target or an entire audience, it is vital to first learn the average latitudes of
acceptance, . non-commitment, and rejection of your audience. It is ideal to. use
persuasive information that lands near the boundary of the of. acceptance '' . th:
goal is to change the audience's anchor point. Repeatedly suggesting 1deas on .the
of the acceptance latitude will cause people to gradually adjust anchor .points,
suggesting ideas in the rejection latitude or the non-commitment latitude WI
result in any change to the audience's anchor pomt.
Methods of Persuasion . . sian
. f ed t as persuaSion tactiCS or persua
Persuasion methods are al so sometimes re err o
strategies. . defined six "influence cues or
h' book on persuaston,
Robert Cialdini, in Influence, IS. the process of changing.
weapons of influence": Influence IS
Reciprocity vides us with something, we.
. i t tes that when a person pro atton whld\
The principle of rectproc ty a I d Reciprocation produces a sense of obl\g ' -
him or her 10 k n eft......:.- b8CaUS8 it c:an .,.
attempt to repay . asion The reciprocity ru\e IS Clalb lor
can be a a o1 obt\gation. GeneraRy. a N
overpowering an Ins I I 1avour or provide payment dlilll
individuals who neglect to a. . widely held pMdple. 1tts ..,, .,
service or gift. As a result, reciprocatiOn tectmkpa. as I Cllll\ "**
makes reciprocity extremely powerful penln .-..a first tawur.
ly to an u
exchanges and can even 203
------VAJJRAM &
Commitment and Consistency
f ersuasion because it 1 )Is highly valued by
Consistency is an

daily life, and 3)provides a valuable shortcut
society, 2)results in a benefiCial app dem existence. consistency allows us to more
through the complicated nature of mo information. The concept of commitment states
effectively make decisions and process . rng he or she Is more likely to honor that
that ff a person commits, 'written commitments, as they appear
particular commitment. ThiS IS espec Y d u wilh hard proof. Once a person
psychologically more concrete and C:n according to that commitment.
commits to a stance, he or she has a en e . e ou et someone
Commitment is an effective persuasive _technique
make a commitment they are more likely to engage . . g
' .,. r to support h1s or her commitment themselves and others with reasons and JUStl 1ca 1ons
in order to avoid dissonance.
Social Proof
We are influenced by others around us; we want to be doing what everyone is
doing. People often base their actions and beliefs on what them_ are do1ng,
how others act or what others believe. "The power of the crowd JS very effecttve. We all
want to know what others are doing around us. We are so obsessed with what others do
and how others act that we then try to be just like other people. Cialdini gives an
example that is this: in a phone-a-thon, the host will say something along
the line of, "Operators are waiting, please call now." The only context that you have from
that statement is that the operators are waiting and they are not busy. Rather the host
may say: "If operators are busy, please call again." This is proving the technique of
social proof. Just by changing three words, it sounds like the lines are busy and other
people are calling; so it must be a good, legitimate organization.
Social proof is most effective when people are uncertain or when there are similarities in
a situation. In uncertain or ambiguous situations, when there are multiple possibilities or
choices that need to be made, people are likely to conform to what others do/are doing.
We become more influenced by the people around us, in situations that cause us to
make a decision. The other effective situation for social proofing is when there are
similarities. We are more prone to change/conform around people who are similar to us.
If someone who is similar to you is being controlling and a leader, you are more likely to
listen and follow what it is they are saying.
This prirJcple is simple and concise. People say "yes" to people that they like. Two major
1actots conflblte to overall liking. The first is physical attractiveness. People who are
more p/Jysicaly attlactive seem to be more persuasive; they get what they want and they
can easiy chatJge others' attitudes. This attractiveness is proven to send favourable
,...,...,-mpessions of other traits that a person may have, such as talent, kindness,
The second is simiJatity. This is the simpler aspect of "liking." The
of similarity states if people like yo th
idea d h' u, ey are more l'k 1
sk them. When we o t ts, we usually don't think . Y to say "'yes to what you
a h ' ty about It, It lUSt comes naturally Aut on
e have the tendency to believe that if an ex
W le like to listen to those who are kn pert says something, then it must be true.
peoP wo things then ou are owledgeable and trustworthy, so if you can be
those t ' Y already on your way to getting people to believe and
listen to you.
The Milgram study, done in 1974, consisted of a teacher and a learner who are both in
different rooms. The teacher was told to ask questions to the learner and if the learner
got it wrong, the teacher was to give him an electric shock. catch to this experiment
is that the teacher does not know is that the Ieamer does not actually get a shock; the
experiment was being done to see "When it is their job, how much suffering will
people be willing inflict on an entirely innocent other personn (Cialdini 1 ?6). In th1s
study the results show that most teachers were willing to give as much pa1n _that was
available to them. People are willing to bring pain upon others when they are d1rected to
do so by some other authority figure.
Scarc-1ty is a principle that people underestimate. When something has limitedot
. c ld' people want more
availability, people assign it more value. Accordmg to ta '"' . Th's means that
.. t s an issue the context matters. ' I
what they cannot have. scarct et eo le to believe that something is
within certain contexts, scarcity "works better. P d P t u give them what no other
scarcer, you to explain what that ?ertham Something else that you
h t ork the audtence tn t e corr " 1 se
product will. You ave o w . to tell them what they WI o
can do to get people believe ts ;5" rather than saying "you could
not what they will gain. Saying thmgs hke you wt '
. ething sound scarcer.
$5" You are maktng som ditticu\t
save . . . . le keeps
) when thtngs are
There are two major reasons why the scarcity make it better cue tor the
to get, they are usually more lose the chances to acqu_ire
and 2) when things become_less item or service more value Simply
When this happens, we asstgn the
is harder to acquire. th' s that are out of our reach. H we see
h t we all want mg ry rare
The whole of this principle IS t a not want it as much as something that ts ve .
something that is popular we do
List of methods
By appeal to reason:


Logical argument
------ VAJIRAM & RAVJ ------.....
Scientific evidence (proof)
Scientific method
By appeal to emotion:
Presentation and Imagination
Aids to persuasion:
Body language
Communication skill or Rhetoric
tests and conflict tyl . . .
rndrvidual's preferred styl t . s e help devrse strategy based on
e o mteractron an
Sales techniques
Other techniques:
Power (sociology)
Subliminal advertising
Coercive techn
IQUes, some of which are h. !
PfOW!n to be effective: rghly controversial and/or . . .
not screntrfrcally
.. ......,of,..,..,..,.
..... and PfH'SUuion
rr'c ;. when-= the central issues of social beh I
are a predictor of behav, av our. One of the
our Pre
208 . VIOUS research
suggested that selective act . & RAVI
. d vatton of I
that an atlltu e would predict ett prefront
thiS was supported. a relevant behavio al might increas th . .
ur. Usmgtat e e hkehhood
An earlier article showed th eral attention manipulation
a predictor of persuasion aRt EEG measures of . '
d d
. esearch antenor pref
favoure an arguments th t Participants rontal asymmetry might be
. a opposed h were present d .
bratn was more active in left t e attitudes \h e wtth arguments that
statements with which the prefrontal areas said \h ey already held. ihose whose
said that they paid atte while those with :
they paid the most attention to
defensive repression th n ton
statements that d" more active right prefrontal area
e avoidan tsagreed ihis
has shown that the trait ce or forgetting of un le . ts an example of
activation. In additi of defensive repression is r asant tnfor':"ation. Research
. on, when pleasant or e ated to relatwe lett prefrontal
agreement or dtsagreement unpleasant words probabl 1
preferential left prefrontal seen incidental to the main an MYRiana ogohus tod
tva ton to the pleasant words. scan s owe
One way therefore to increase .
ht f persuaston would s
ng pre rontal cortex ihis is ea .
d eem to be to selectively activate the
st y one by mo 1
ear. :he effect apparently depends on . sttmula\lon to the contra\ateral
of sttmulation. This manipulation h dselecllve attentton rather than merely the source
messages coming from the left. a the expected outcome: more persuasion tor
Att_i tudes can be changed through persuasion and an important domain at research on
attttude change focuses on responses to communication. Experimental researches into
the factors that can affect the persuasiveness ot a message indude:
1. Target Characteristics: These are characteristics that refer to the person who
receives and processes a message. One such trait is intelligence - it seems that
more intelligent people are less easily persuaded by one-sided messages.
Another variable that has been studied in this category is se\t-esteem. Although it
is sometimes thought that those higher in self-esteem are less easily persuaded.
there is some evidence that the relationship between se\t-esteem and
persuasibility is actually curvilinear, with people at moderate self-esteem belnQ
more easily persuaded than both thOse of high and low self-esteem .-
(Rhodes & Woods, 1992). The mind frame and mood of the target aaao plaJia
role in this process.
2. Source Characteristics: The ma}or source characteristiCS .,. ..,.1111.
trustworthiness and interpersonal attraction or atuac\ivenea&. The Gl a
perceived message has been tound to be a key_ variable I ana .... a
report about hea\th and beUeves it came trom ,....
may be more easily persuaded than H one be..,.. k il '-
newspaper. Some psychologists have daba*l whet* til -
effect and Hovland and WeisS (1951) tound 1\e tiiCi Gl .... -
------- \ ', \ JIRAM Rt\\ '1 -------
cwdlt'l nllor sovor I wo ks (tho so-
otrtX't). Wh tht r th "' 1S sl po1 oil ct Is controvorsrol.
"V i \\ . :f\'\m ttMt it pk h) "''o"m)(i ol thO sou reo of n m ssaoo
, tht' It'S$ h t hh >d of "t por ott ct thnn II thoy oro told 0
tl tld ItS
........ 1 h IMilll\' th l{)O ploys rolo 111 porsu ston.
$ ,: :- wth ot st ' is ust.: ful to h lp ch mgo ntt itudos.
(' n t

to pro $S tho m ssugo. s1mply tho numbor ol

rgunwnrs p. seotoo lfl pt'rsU st\ m will inlluonco nllttudo chnnge,
such that g ttPf nun rot argwoonts will produco grt}{ltor nttltudo chong e.
4 ntr A ul\l.S; A c.m nppo \I to on indivldunl's cognitivo ovnluotion
to Change M ,,ftitWc. . tn th to porsuosion tho individual is
,: setlfed th too Md matt\, lod to eVillunto tho dotn ond orfivo at nn
ttltude In th /)OffJhDml rout to ottltudo chong&, the
encouraged to not 1oo1<. t th content but nt the source. This is
commonl)t seen k1 modon1 advertisemonts thnt fonturo colobrities. In some
ph n. doctOtS or re usod. In other casos film stars are usod
lor ltMw
"'/our tntott oct may bo confused b '
ut Your emotl .
Rogor Ebort ons Will never lie to you" .
WhOil psycholog1sts began rosea h .
h n th. k' rc on mtelhgen h
spocts sue s
" tng, cognition, intellect me ce.
ey focused on nonemo\ional
auouent). Howovor. there were resea h mory and problem solving {Intelligence
h f II rc ers who reco . eel
spocts sue ns. eo ngs, moods, and non-co . . gn
z early on that, emotional
ouot1ont). Ernot1ona1 Intelligence st d' h QMion were equally important tEmo\lonat
lousiness. c1vic administration and ed u ave been conducted in the arenas of
indisponsnblo force. uca on, where it has been widely accepted as an
Tho Intelligence of Emotions
ACcording to Douglas. (1980). Pulitzer-prize wimp author ot ,ne brilliant boo\<.
Godaf. Eschar. Bach. Intelligence can be defined in terms ot the followmg eight abihties:
( 1) To respond to s1tuat1ons very flexibly
(2) To take advantage of the right time and right place.
(3) To make sense of ambiguous or contradictory message.
(4) To recognize the importance of different elements of a situation.
(5} To find similarities between situations despite differences that may separate
(6) To draw distinctions between situations despite Similarities that may hr.k
(7) To synthesize new concepts by taking old concepts and co con'bning them
in new ways.
(8) To develop ideas that are novel.
Are Emotions "Intelligent"?
. . rwt'\elming \ha\ &nW)tiOnS
Evidence from evolutionary biology and lS ove . .
are. in fact. highly intelligent. and that theY have pnmacy over lO 1or QIO'.C)
intelligence and social capital:
people come rogeth8r
In meetiiVJS ai'Kl other fltOUP se I and sds inN fOOift.
a sltOtiQ sense of group 10. the rota . t in is nol
However it rums out that the A pif*'*"...., e
the average. or hjghest. 10. emotional QIOUP. a.ns .,..
emotional inteU,gence can lower the coi8CtiW
------ VAJIRAM & RAVI ------..
h everyone has an individual 10 of 130 togethe
Harvard, asks. How can a group w ere. rand Sow of 1997). .. '
and collectively end up with an 10 of 60? (Coope .
. IQ has no heartbeat. Emotional lntelllgenc
IQ alone cannot build group intelligence. hat Is (mnortant to us. Wi thou e,
on the other hand focuses /Ike a laser beam w ,., t the
signals communicated by emotions, life would be drab, col orless and
Without the intelligent guidance of emotions, beings cannot respond to
very flexibly, take advantage of the right time and nght make sense of am?1guous
or contradictory messages, recognize the importance of different elements of a Situation,
find similarities between situations despite differences that may separate them, draw
distinctions between situations despite similarities that may link them, synthesize new
concepts by taking old concepts and combining in new ways, or develop ideas that are
novel. Without the guidance of emotions we cannot be intelligent- Without the guidance
of emotions we cannot be rational.
According to foll owing figure, Emotional Intelligence is closely related to two other
scientific concepts; intelligence and emotion. Intelligence and emotion have consensual
meanings for most psychologists. For example, intelligence involves the ability to
understand information, whereas emotion is a coordinated response to the environment.
El is the ability to reason about emotions, as well as the capacity to use feelings,
emotions and emotional information to-assist reasoning.
are coordinated
to changes in the
that involve.
lnteJJigence (EI)
Emotional intelligence
is an ability to
understand and to
problem-solve that
Managing emotional
emotions and
emotional meanings
Using emotion for
Intelligences are abilities
to understand and
problem-solve about
information that involve.
Reasoning about abstract
relationships (fluid
Storing material in an
organized fashion in
memory (crystallized
Inputting material through
.......- a VAJIRAM & RAVT
S to prepare for certain
so a reasoning
tions (e.g. fight or flight)
,Appraising the ongoing
situation for changes
ldentnying emotions .
faces v
ce postures
and other content
source: Mayer, Roberts, and Barsade (
Definiti ons of El
sensory and perceptual
Processing information
- The study of emotional intelligence evolved from wo ks b .
S3) and Williams and Ste b r Y such theonsts as Gardner
(1 . . . rn erg (1988), who proposed broader approaches to
Satovey and Mayer (1990) coined the term
intelligence and mcluded Gardner's intrapersonal and components in the
construct. Goleman (1998) popularized emotional intelligence in the business realm by
describing its importance as an ingredient for successful business careers and as a
crucial component for effective group performance. These theorists and many others
defined and explained the concept of emotional intelligence. Emotionally intelligent
people are aware of their emotions and the emotions of others. They use that
information to guide their thinking and actions.
At the most general level, emotional intelligence (E.I.) refers to the ability to recognize
and regulate emotions in ourselves and o1hers (Goleman, 2001 ). Peter Salovey and
John Mayer, initially defined emotional intelligence as:
A form of intelligence that involves the ability to monitor others.1eei=
and emotions, to discriminate among them and' to use thts mformat10n to guide
thinking and actions (Sa/ovey & Uayer, 1990).
Later, these authors thei r
characteri zation now bemg the most W1 Y
defined as: ---""'nd
. t motion to facilitate thought, u.-.-....
The ability to perceive emotton: mtegra e e te rsonal growth (Mayor & Salovey,
emotions, and to regulate emottons to promo pe
1997). motional intelligence constNCt is Reuven Bar.Qft.
Another prominent researcher o! the e . t Possessing a clttelent cMaaok M
the originator of the term emotion . cemed with II ..a
defines emotional intelligenetl as bemg the ...,_.. -
others. relst/ng to demQndS (Sir-0\ tell).
to be mors successful tn . *"' \0 ._ c.,l.._
(1998) "emotional \nteU1gente
According to Goleman of others, tor moiVIIIr'8 OU?tl
recognizing our own tee\ings in our relat\On8NPL
managing emot\ons. well \n ourse
------ VAJJRAM & RAVI ------..
"Tho ability to recognize and respond, to the and of others, as
well as the skill to help others manage their emotiOns (Schmidt,
,. The intelligent use of you; intentionally make Work for
you by using them to help guide your behavior and thinking In ways that
enhance your resulls" (Weisinger, 1998).
,. "The ability to use our awareness and sensitiv_ity to the feelings
underlying interpersonal communication, and to res1st the to respond
impulsively and thoughtlessly, but instead to act lrom receptiVIty, authenticity
and can dour." (Wolmarans, 2001)
.)... " ... the ability to monitor one's own and others" emotions, to discriminate among
them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking" (Latif, 2006).
.)... "The ability to reason about emotion. It can be equated with a list of traits such as
achievement motivation, flexibility, happiness, and self-regard." (Mayer,
Roberts, and Barsade, 2008).
, a group of many factors of one's social and "cognitive aspects and the linkage
within the explanation of emotion (Hassan et al., 2009).
.)... "The cooperative relationship between emotion and intelligence, it could be
viewed as an ability that enhances the relationship between emotion and
cognition", (Hurley et al., 201 0)
Emotional intelligence concerns the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about
emotions and the ability to use feelings, emotions, and emotional knowledge to enhance
thought. El represents abilities that combine intellectual intelligence and emotion to
enhance thought. It encompasses specific skills, such as tne ability to accurately identify
one's feelings and emotions, and indicates that these individual skills may also be
v1ewed as forming an integrated, global El
Intelligence quotients (1.0/s) were developed and used during-the initial part of the 20
08l1luly as measures of intelligence. French psychologist Alfred Binet pioneered the
lfiOdem intelligence testing movement in developing a measure of mental age in
a chronological age that typically corresponds to a given level of performance
1998). More modern studies linked a person's 1.0. with their potential for
in general presenter, 1958) as well as with elements such as leadership
(Lord. DeVader, & Alliger, 1986). However, the validity of the general academic
01 I.Q. was soon challenged on the grounds that it did not consider situational
as environment or cultural setting when predicting achievement (Riggio,
PirOZZOio, 2002). Theorists began to hypothesize that perhaps cognitive
measured by 1.0. tests did not encompass intelligence in its entirety, but
... awes of intelligences could coincide within one person.
. 4 YAJJt>.
N1 influential psychologist . V\M & Jt.\Vt
1110rndike proposed that hu
the areas of le .
called_ social intelligence, or :ns sev:::tg, education, and intelligence, E.L.
and grrl s. and to act wisely . ab1hty to und \ypes of intelligence f .
1n hullla erstand and one orm berng
tne ongmator o the n relations (Th . manage men and women boys
. "YUit 1 . ornd1ki
to both non-mtellectlve and . ntelhgenee Sea e, 1920). Even David Wechsler
elements, which included element le intelligence tests referred
1 ect1ve s of rntelrg
were essentla for predicting P9rsonal and
ence. The non-intellective
H One's abirt ' SOcial factor h
1 century. oward Gardner again r .
Y to suceeed in lite s, e ater
educated developmental Ps c

the notion of 1940). Later m the

intelligences which dictated thY Gardner ro pie Intelligences. A Harvard -
bal . mathematical . at IndiVIduals POsses P . a theory of multiple
ver . . musical, spatial mov s aptitudes rn several areas including
(the exammatlon kn?wledge of
.riented, int;apersonal
read the moods, mtent1ons, and des feehngs) anct interpersonal (the ability to
intelligences were thought by spheres (Myers, 1998). These
typically measured by 1.0. tests (Ga d as Important as the type of intelligence
r ner, 1983).
Emot1onal Intelligence IS registered through dee list . . .
listening to others (Kramer 19
). P enrng- bstemng to oneself and
: who are high in emotional intelligence know how to listen to their
emot1ons and regulate their intensity so they are not hijacked by them.
: Emotional intelligent people know how to keep disruptive emotions in check.
: Emotional intelligent people sense the effect their emotions have on others.
! Emotional intelligent people can laugh at themselves.
: Emotional intelligent people know how to deploy their strengths and compensate
for their weaknesses.
! Emotional intelligent people listen to other peOple's emotiOns and can empathize
with them.
! Emotional intelligent people act ethically and build trust through integrity and
: Emotional intelligent people admit their own mls\akes and team from them.
mfortable with new Ideas and new lnlonnatiClft.
: Emotional intelligent people are co aMOtiDnll eunents
: Emotional intelligent people at isteR(IIg to

and discerning the
: Emotional people_. nego.tiallt
------ VAJIRAM & RAVI -----.........
: Emotional intelligent people listen to other people and know how to communicate
- Goleman 1997
Early theorists such as Thorndike and Gardner paved the way for the current experts .
. t r In
the field of emotional intelligence. Each theoretical 1gm 1zes emotional
intelligence from one of two perspectives: ability or m1xed model. Ab1hty models regard
emotional intelligence as a pure form of mental ability and thus as a pure intelligence. In
contrast, mixed models of emotional intelligence combine mental abihty with personality
characteristics such as optimism and well-being (Mayer, 1999). Currently, the only ability
model of emotional intelligence is that proposed by John Mayer and Peter Salovey. Two
mixed models of emotional intelligence have been proposed, each within a somewhat
different conception. Revenue Bar-On has put forth a model based within the context of
personality theory, emphasizing the co-dependence of the ability aspects of emotional
intelligence with personality traits and their applicatioo to personal well-being. In
contrast, Daniel Goleman proposed a mixed model in terms of performance, integrating
an individual's abilities and personality and applying their corresponding effects on
performance in the workplace (Goleman, 2001 ).
Salovey and Mayer: An Ability Model of Emotional Intelligence
Peter Salovey and John Mayer first coined the term "emotional intelligence" in 1990
(Salovey & Mayer, 1990) and have since continued to conduct research on the
significance of the construct. Their pure theory of emotional intelligence integrates key
ideas from the fields of intelligence and emotion. From intelligence theory .comes the
idea that intelligence involves the capacity to carry out abstract reasoning. From emotion
research comes the notion that emotions are signals that convey regular and discernible
meanings about relationships and that at a number of basic emotions are universal
(Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). They propose that individuals vary in their ability to
process Information of an emotional nature and in their ability to relate emotional
processing to a wider cognition. They then posit that this ability is seen to manifest itself
in certain adaptive behaviors (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000).
Mayer and Salovey's conception of emotional intelligence is based within a model of
inteligence, that is, it strives to define emotional intelligence within the confines of the
.standaR:f criteria tor a new intelligence (Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, & Sitarenios, 200) It
U1af emotional intelligence Is comprised of two areas: experiential (ability to
,.-ceive. respond, and manipulate emotional information without necessarily
it) and strategic (ability to understand and manage emotions without
perceiving feeling wen or fully experiencing them). Each area is further
lllwfded Mlo two branChes that range from basic psychological processes to more
4 VAJ\Dh.
complex integrati & RAVI
perception, 1s the ability t OQ 9tllotion
emotional needs accurate!
be COgnition. The firs
distinguiSh between
Others. emotions and to
. and dish l<lflat percepr ,.,ress emottons and
emot ona mllation, is the bt . onest express IOn also Includes the ability to
feeling and to Identity those thata hty to ot emotion. The second branCh
lhe third branch, emott are influencing dit1erent emotions
onal unde '"l:l t processes
emotions (such as feeling two e . 'standing,
s the .
from one to the other. Lastly lh lllOtions at once) and th to understand complex
onnect or disconnect from ' e fOllrth branch emofl e ability to recognize transitions
an emouo d ' on manageme t th abl
Mayer & Salovey. 1997) Ad . . n 6pending o 4t n ' IS e I it'/ to
. . ep1cbon of lh n s .usefulness in a given situation
belOW, the four .four-branch mOdel is illustrated in the tigure
processing associated with each branch. and the corresponding stage in emotion
satovey wd Mayer's Four-Branch Abllitu Mod
el of Emot\onal Intelligence
Branch 1 : Perceving Emotions
Ability to identify emotion in a person's physical and psychological states
Ability to identify emotions in other people
Ability to express emotions accurately and to express needs related to them
Ability to discriminate between authentic and inauthentic emotions.
Branch.2: Using Emotions to Facilitate Thought
Ability to redirect and prioritize thinking on the basis ot associated feelings
Ability to generate emotions to tacititate judgment and memory
Ability to capitalize on mood changes to appreciate multiPle points ot view
Ability to use emotional states to problem soMn9 and creatiVity
Branch 3 : Understanding EmotionS
Ability to understand amonQ vadouS emottons.
Branch 4 : Managing EmotionS
Ability to be open to feetings. bQthpla-10ClUf41llt_.
Ability to monitor and refleti
Ability to engage, prolong, or .
Ability to manage IJIM
-------VAJIRAM & RAVI ------..
Mayer and Salovey's (1997) Four-Branch Model of Emotional Intelligence
The of
emotion. rtom
fmine to their

and personal growth
4. Emotional Management

arc understood.
lone with rhdt

3. Emotional EMOTIONAL

Understanding INTELLIGENCE
2. Emotional Integration
EmOtionS e111er lbe
S)'11cm as
noticed slpals and as
mtluenccs on cognition
Bar-On: A Mixed Model of Emotional Intelligence

openness co
Emotions lite
and begin

The director of the Institute of Applied Intelligences in Denmark and consultant for a
variety of institutions and organizations in Israel, Revenge Bar-On developed one of the
first measures of emotional intelligence that used the term "Emotion Quotient". Bar-On's
model of emotional intelligence relates to the potential tor performance and success,
rather than performance or success itself, and is considered process-oriented rather
,_, outcome-Ofiented (Bar-On, 2002). It focuses on an array of emotional and social
..,._, ;ncbiing the ability to be aware of, understand, and express oneself, the ability
ao be ..are of, understand, and relate to others, the ability to deal with strong emotions,
d the alblily to adapt to change and solve problems of a social or personal nature
,..,.on. UJ87). In his model. Bar-On outlines 5 components of emotional intelligence:
**II_. adaptability, stress management, and general mood. Within
... _..,.,..,. .,. all of which are putlined in the Table below .
. :IMl .. pM'I emodOfl8l Jnteligef108 develops, over time and that It can be improved
ptC981MinG and therapy (Bar-On, 2002).
aar-On's Mode\ ot Em V\M & RAVII
Ot\ona\ lnte\11
I I-- s
Se" Regard
IOnal Sell-Awareness
Social Responsibility
Interpersonal Relationship
Adapatability Reality Testing
Problem Solving
Stress Management
Stress I ole ranee
Impulse Control
Mood Optimism
Components Happiness
. . . I 'th mgher than average E.O.'s are in
Bar-On, hypothesizes those O:ntal demands and pressures. He a\so
eneral more successful m mee\109 mean a lack ot success and \he
. . or onal intelligence can . . .,.t.t
notes that a deflc1ency m em
. . g .. one's environment IS thouv-"
. bl s Problems '" copm wn . . ... _ ..... Cl ot
existence of emot1onal pro em those individuals lacking 'n the
by Bar-On to be especially common among ce and : .... conuol. ln gen&C'Il. aar.on
stress toleran "'""" te equallY to a
reality testing, problen:' so d cognitiVe mte\l\Q8f\C8 '? Wtu-u , \0
considers emotional :ch thef\ otters an \n(iieatton ot ones pa
person's general intelligence.
succeed in life (Bar-On, 200
the area and eventually wrote

the Which
. . . bl' d pr
vate sectors w1th the 1dea of emot1onal Intelligence
tam1/1anzed both the pu 1C an . . Th
. d
tl 'nes tour main emotional mtelhgence constructs. e self
o eman s mo e ou 1 . . . -
awareness. is the ability to read one's emotions and recognize their Impact Whl.le using
gut feelings to guide decision. Self-management, the seco.nd Involves
controlling one's emotion and impulses and to changing Circumstances. The
third construct. social awareness, includes the ab1hty to sense, and react to
other's emotions while comprehending social networks. Finally, relationship
management, the fourth construct, entails the ability to inspire, influence, and develop
others while managing conflict (Goleman, 1998).
(2001) Emotional Intelligence Competencies
Personal Competence Social Competence
RECOGNITION Self-Awareness Social Awareness
Emotional Self-Awareness Empathy
Accurate Self-Assessment Service Orientation
Self -Confidence Organization Awareness
REGUlATION Self-Management Relationshie. Management
Self-Control Developing Others
Trustworthiness Influence
Conscientiousness Communication
Adaptability Conflict Management
Achievement drive Leadership
Initiative CJ:lange Catalyst
Building Bonds
Teamwork and Collaboration
Gol8nlan fndudes a set of emotional competencies within each construct of emotional
fi'llslgence. Emotional competencies are not innate talents, but rather learned
lhal must be worked on and developed to achieve outstanding performance.
pollf8 lhat individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that
dr ll8ir pol8ntial for learning emotional competencies. The organization of the
CIUIJIIJ wr under N varfous constructs is not random; they appear In synergistic
all and facilitate each other (Boyatzls, Goleman, & Rhee,
1999), Table 2 illustrates G & RAVIIIil
d' . olernan
correspon mg com .s conceptual
of tour categones: the recog The COnS\ model of emotional intelligence and
emotion in oneself or others nttton of emotions in ructs and competencies fall under one
oneseH or others and the regulation of
ihe science, art, and profess DMINISTRATION
. t' IOn Of PUblic ad
system a IC ra 10nal thinking Such th mtntstration (Lynn
1 998
) are based on
data, and proven pathways. for imp tnking draws substance from solid facts reliable
and as the art of running modem rtovements. For public administration as a' science:
. s ates and go
that strong og1c, a h1gh degree of rati . we would hope and expect
decisions. Whereas some may r onahty, bnght minds would guide policies and
decisions are far from being basS: gue
practice, many public administration
thorough review of-the origi and Zaimanovitch 2000), a
rganizational studies has nsl public. admtntstration and its relationship with
o recent Y, emphastzed the stro t' 1 b f f' ld d
. solid roots in sce tif h' . ng ra tona asts o our te an
1ts . .
n IC t lnktng (Kelmait 2007). In Line with this assessment,
emotions, feelings, and the impact of the heart are expected to remain in the
background. is also all about Impersonality, formality, clear-cut borders of
legitimacy, systematiC order, rational thinking, and the rule of law.
It is suggested that emotions in management and the management of emotions play a
significant role in the outcomes of public administration personnel. Its strong
bureaucratic nature has prevented public administration from being clear about itS
position toward emotions and feelings. Feelings and emotions are a useful
tool and a key concept in building vigorous relationships with citizens, social groups,
public officials, and other stakeholders in the public sphere.
In spite of extensive calls for rational thinking in.publ'lc adminis::=:=
is strongly affected by the feelings and emotions of pubUc .-: ........... and
. d f H even when these latter assets are av--
rather than by reliable data an a"'s, . nal. emotiOnal tactor$ me highly
accessible (Berman and West 2008). Thus .nonficttO.
influential in the process of public activity and
------VAJIRAM& RAVI------..
d the old and conservative reliance on the m
feelings, emotions, affections), of the heart has the advantage of bring lrld
(e.g .. logic, rationality, facts). The w
as we suggested earlier, has a
t of knowledge and ta en . . een
new ype. . writin
about management as emotronal mtelligence
conceptualized rn recent g d W
1 2
oo8) its entire meaning for and
However with one exception (Berman an es . . . rmpact
on public' administration, public policy, public sec.tor. and
has been largely neglected by research. This ts n Vtew of
NPM ideas that strongly affect the current discourse tn .pubhc According
to NPM-rooted managerialism, public organizations are tncreaslngly to "soften"
the traditional bureaucratic approach to citizens and to be more to the feelings
of the general public and of many other stakeholders at the local, regional, and national
levels (Hood 1991: Lynn 1998; Pollitt 1988). Responsiveness to citizens as clients, an
iconic terminology of NPM advocates, must carry with it sensi tivity and sympathy to
public needs and demands. In many ways, for public agencies and public servants to
soften their approach implies being highly aware of feelings and emotions in the
environment. This notion is important whether perceived from the vantage point of the
public officer or from that of citizens as customers or clients. Dealing wi th public sector
organizations, public personnel, public personnel, public officials, citizens (as
customers/clients, partners, or voters; see Vigoda 2002), and even with politicians
involves a complex set of feelings, emotions. Intelligence, and other abilities that
challenge the conservative "rational-type" mechanisms of governance.
Adopting the idea and model of El, as proposed by Mayer, Roberts, and Barsade (2008),
and improving it to meet the needs of the specific domain of modern public
administration can foster a more constructive discussion about the" role of feelings and
emotions in the daily actions of serving people through a variety of government
agencies. Thus, based on the original model of Mayer, Roberts, and Barsade (2008), a
revised version of El that is more applicable in this sector is suggested. This model is
presented in figure 3. According to figure 3, El in public administration reli es on a
understanding of emotions and feelings, on one and rational
tntelltgence or reasoning, on the other. It consists of the specific abilities of various
stakeholders to understand feelings and emotions in their immediate work environment,
but also integrates other abilities that can produce individuals with stronger emotional
intelligence. When these individuals become active in the process of producing or
consuming public goods, their emotional skills and resources become very valuable and
influential and may affect the outcomes of public organizations.
EmoticwJ ol Makeholders in
,.aae ...,atiOn hi!
,... II to
Feelings and El In Public
Emotional lnteHigence in
public administration is an
ability to understand and to
Intelligent Public
Ability to understand and
solve problems in public
administration based on
'Cfi3nges in \he'-:---_ -& RAVI
environment, cognitions i
t k ' '" rnvolves .
bOdilY s a es, ana M . reasomng about abstract. \
appraisals of the ongoing emotional relationships (politics) logic
srtua.tion lor changes. staPonses ot and organized actions
keholders in the- (bureaucratic order and
Pubhc Sphere managerial knowledge)
Understandi systematically learning
emotions ng targeted materials (policy
and making) d
emotional me . an
of others responsiveness to
clients (citrzens, stakeholders needs.
Appraising emotions
arising from
Using emotion tor
decisions and policy
Identifying emotions
in faces. voices,
postures, and other
content during
public management
concept ual Framework for Emotional Intelligence in Publlc Admini stration
Similarly emotional public administration consists ot the emotions of ..
' ch s
the environment an
public administration that to 7e o1 the ongoing sttuat\On.
specific experiences, cogmttons, bodtly the ab\li\y to understand and
Intelligent public administration. on the other h ' re .... hin.e. of power and int\JenCe
ng abOut abstf8Cl retaUUIIOI .,.-
solve problems based on . d actiOnS (bUreaucrallc Older and
in organizations (politics), logtcal OfQ::. laJg8ted mat&Mts (polcY
managerial knowl edge), the (RoUtke 1992).
and responsiveness to stakehOklel$ tlaa tl1e fliiJit'l \0 _.
Therefore, emotionally intelligent:* nraarinQU at._':
to problem-solve situatiOnS that er ot = Ill el
policy i ssues under the auah i8 (t) .-JIIII et _:F_. ._ .......
abilities involve several (2J Will$l'fll6 .. _.
stakeholders in the publtC sphl*
------VAJIRAM & RAVI .
. . . ployees, etc.); (3) appraising emotions in vano
meanings of others (crtrzens, based decisions and policy making, and
situations;'; rn r::o p-ostures and other human forms of
identifying emotrons rn faces, vor ' n
during public management activities.
Mode of Emotional Intelligence, Politics, and Outcomes, in Publi c Administration
El is a central topic that can be extremely useful for ,'hose to promote
knowledge about public organizational process and pohcy formatron rn government
agencies worldwide.
With the emergence of the NPM doctrine, citizens became a third player in the market-
governance interplay, a player with growing importance and weight. With customers'
constantly Increasing demands tor better services and the new standards they set for
accountability and transparency in public actions, the conflict between politics and
administration in public organizations has intensified. It therefore comes as no surprise
that this conflict has elicited strong emotions and a wide variety of feelings that a public
officer must deal with. In our modern states and communities, the public sector
environment becomes a place where the feelings and emotions of the various
stakeholders play a major role in decision making, in policy formation and
implementation, and in the daily life of public servants. Putting it another way, another
piece of the puzzle of governance and public management (Van Ryzin, 2007) is that of
emotions and feelings. The public sector sphere becomes a place that must learn the art
of managing emotions because of the intensification of the clash between politics and
administration. One way to study the management of emotions in public domains is
presented below. In general, this model is aimed at the micro level of public
organizations, relating public sector personnel's abilities to manage feelings and
emotions effectively (i.e .. El) and using them constructively in serving the citizens. The
specific model constructs a relationship among El, OP. and work outcomes/ performance
orientations of public personnel. At the heart of the model lies the assumption that the El
of public personnel has an immediate effect on attitudes, behavior intentions, and actual
beh.aviors that reflect the outcomes and performance of public officers. However, these
feelings and emotional skills/intelligence must be stuc;fied in direct relation to the
environment (OP), which represents a somewhat opposite aspect of the
emotional atmosphere- one with a greater emphasis on rational influence tactics a
sense of power, and the implementation of various political strategies. '
The. model suggests that the political skills (Ferris, Treadway, Kolodinsky et al. 2005;
Fems, Treadway, Perrewe et aJ, 2007) and perceptions of OP by individuals (i.e.,
ICaclltar Mel. Carlson 1997; Kacmar and Fen-is 1991) play an important role in any
(Untzberg 1983), and even more so in public organizations (VIgoda-Gadot
-,..., 2D05J.
tpatures of Mod!f.
& RAVl _____ _
: El in public adm .
lnlstration .
and JOb sahslactJ IS poSitively elat
negligent and negatively COmmitment to public service
. 0 t.lmout, . .
: Percept -- eXISt mten\lons. and
IOns Of OrQanQ.atj
related to burnout . P<li\Jcs in bfl .
related to commt ' eXIst tntentions, and pu .IC are positively
ment to PIJblic service and negatively
: Political sk1lls in PIJbl . . and job satisfaction.
intentions a d . IC admm1stration are .
. . n neghgent intentio negatively related to burnout exist
pubhc service and job satistacr ns, and positively related to to
Enpirical Evidence
A recent study by Berman and We t
theoretical models in public ad .. s {. 08) demonstrates the usefulness of El for
m1mstration and tf tical . .
managers in U.S. cities. The stud .
ers prac strategtes lor publtc
Y hiQhrtghted the effects of various human resource
management tools, such as training selectio .
. . n, promotion, feedback, and mentoring, on
pubhc El. provides explanation lor employees' attitudes, beha\riors, and
performance 1n pubhc sector organizations and within the political environment.
Public administrators are much
t not governance. oro
disconnected from peop e,
us publiC administrators are people, too
simply human than othetwise. Like the rest
ks of Governance
Relationships are the building oc . . .
. ot overnance, a questiOn anses m schools of
If relationships bulldmg blocks woufd be the value tor governance ot PUblic
public adm1nlstrat1on. what,
understanding and trust with:
administrators who can bwld relationships of mutua
.,., people who are peers In their own ministries?
..... people who are peers in other ministries?
!- people who are political superiors?
: people who are lower-level servants?
. t ?
-: people who are heads of parliamentary comm1t ees .
=-people in business firms?
., .. people in special interest groups?
: peoplo in med1a?
<people who are academicians?
:-people who are NATO and European Union officials?
< people in the civic sector, non-profits and NGOs?
.;. people who are ordinary citizens?
Trust is a precious commodity. It is virtually impossible for any human being to build
trusting relationships with so many people at once. So, let's pose a more modest
question: What would be the value of public administrators who can build relationships of
mutual understanding and trust merely with people who are peers in their own
Even in the same ministry, even in the same department of the same ministry, even on
the same floor of the same department of the same ministry -- public administrators do
not see a need to build relationships with each other. If they do not see a need to
cooperate with people other in the same ministry, if they do not see a need to build
relationships of trust with the people they work with on a daily basis, why on earth would
theY see any need to cooperative with people in other ministries? Or with political
tqJeriofs? Or wHh media? Or with anyone?
What would be fhe value for governance of public administrators who see the need for
of social capital in administrative space?
* i8 a prerequisite for building understand and trust In the space between
,..,.. In ffJe public sphere. administrative space is merely the name that political
give .to RAVI
be filled wth social capital een P9ople _ the ,,,.,
..,.. . ....-9e that economists have sl'\own

auilding socal capital may be e
. I d h ven more valuabl
an uman . capital. Physical C i e investing merely in pl'\ysical,
echnology of production. Financial c . ap tal COmposes tl'\e maChinery tools and
ap1tal rete t '
goods an are human capital . rs o. money. The people wl'\o produce
respect and care among members of cap1tal refers to the bonds of mutual
transaction costs of economic exchanga Social capital allows lor reducing the
. . .
, .. ,ege\, 1997).
Human cap1tai1S mvested in peo 1e So . . .
le When public adminlstratp . clal captal IS mvested in relationships among
pe ors mvest in soc 1
t rn on investment-Public adm' . t Ia capital, government earns a
re u .
s rators earns currency in the form ot increased trust
in governance.
"We can of social .capital as money in the "relationship bank." As we wor\( with
people over time, .deposits are made. We leam when someone gives us their word that
we can count on It or that when they make commitment these commitments are kept.
we learn through wording with them that we can count on them tor straight talk and
reliable action. When we have worked with someone overtime and they have built up a
trust account with us, if they are suddenly less than candid or they do not meet a
commitment, we are likely to give them the benefit ot the doubt However, there is a
point at which the balance in the relationship bank becomes depleted and trust
to mistrust. That is the point at which people begin to d'tSengage trom the re\at1onsh1p
(Axelrod, 2000).
When public. administrators tail to invest in they legitimacy, add tor
cynicism, and reduce the willingness of citizens, busmesses and Interest groups to bea
the costs of painful reforms.
96 F ku ama. 1995) The "cash value
The currency of social capital IS trust (Rose, 19 . ' u Y t multivariate statistical
of this currency is real. lift trust in governance
analysis to demonstrate that eammgs !rom 'led 30 "ears ot mu\\\Variate
I, ' psychOlogistS nave COfliP' I ,
(Putnam, 1999}. U"ewtse, level of social capital In any human system IS
statistical analysis to inteligeACI 1997). The hlQher
dependent on its collective level of "1he higMY \be""' et soda\ capllal. Thlfeten,
the level of group emotional abSli9Cl nama M lt\e d\sdplne af econc:wNcs
"social capital" is nothing
gives to what neuroscientists cal - Int. brifJgla Ql
hav\Or la a ..- )@.$WLIM 'to
. Emotionally intelligent ._. bilMIIIA" \n
lltJ.,.. .,.,.,
understanding and \Nsl il\ Ult 411
promote effective and , ...
------VAJIRAM & RAVI -----... -
very department, In every office and in

fill the gaps of mistrust In
nook and cranny In administrative space.
. man energies. Leaders lead by tapp1ng the1r emotion
Leadership Is abOut
. ence of others (Goleman, Boyatzis, and McK al
intelligence and the mte

takeholders in society to work togethe ee,

2002). Leadership is abOut mfluencmg
. r to
achieve higher, more ethical goals.
Accord in the Pulitzer-prize winning political scientist James Mc?regor ...Who
founded field of leadership studies, the leader's fundamental act IS to lead people to
b I Of What they
feel to be their true needs so strongly, to define their
e aware or consc ous . ..
that they can move to purposeful act1on (1978). In other words
va ues so meanmg u y, . . ,
leaders listen so deeply to the emotional messages of the1r const1_tuents tnat,
sometimes, they have the capacity to register needs not .even consc1ous. to their
constituents. Leadership rs the major contributor to soc1al cap1tal. Leadership, says
Bums, "raises the level of human conduct and ethical aspiration of both leader and fed,
and thus has a transforming effect on both". Building social capital therefore, depends on
The characteristics of leaders possessing a high level of emotional intelligence are as
follows (Saavedra, 2000):
: They set goals that are clear and mutually agreed upon.
-! They prefer praise as a tool for training and inspiring employees.
-: They rely on decentralization for achieving their goals.
:- They focus on employees and their feelings.
They are role models.
These leaders exhibit a high degree of self-actualization, self-regard, and a strong sense
of self- awareness. They admit their mistakes and seek to Jearn from them.
l.eaclng by Ustenlng
To buid stocks ol social capital. one of the most important skills a public administrator
needs is Che ability to listen - to self and others. The Chinese characters that make up
the W.O 1o tel us something significant about this skill. Chinese characters are
riNI/Jy pic:turegtams. 'When in stillness," reads this picturegram, "a king listens with the
IIMrt The ear is worth ten eyes. In order to be a good king, one must listen with ears,
.,. Md heatt. gMng amc:ivided attention to the people. In the philosophy of Taoism, a
ldng ,.,_ a trerWant leader who is a mindful Hstener. In a sense, the Chinese
...,.an a1dent wisdom: '1eadershJp Is a metaphor for being integrated,
and cenfM:ed, a metaphor or emotional and inteUeaual balance in all aspects of
life. Leadership is connecting ml "RAVl
akes one come alive _ and ndful\y and feelingly to wha . ,
come alive. Public service lead to moves in the so It moves m ones soul- and
. ershtp 1s u s ot others and makes them
public servtce leaders know th
th'c understa d' e,r deepest co
n mg and positive nVlction are true to them and act with
that everyone feel , think or act for others' d1f1erences, demanding
service leaders listen deeply as a me way that they do lKramer R95) Pub\ic
public service leaders hold their nr:aydto find common ground tor and. results.
P bl
. " un and stay c
ethical. u 1c leaders who h onnected. Pub\ic service \eaders are
others know five things. They: ave the capacity to listen deeply to themselves and
: Know, deep down, What their v
a ues are and What other peoples' values are;
: Know how to communicate wh t th . .
peers, political superiors and oth:rs; ey need m order to get coopera\1on from
: Know how to build coalitions t
and others;
support the needs o1 peers, political superiors
: Know how to say no-to illegal or unethical acts o1 government;
: Know how to build social capital.
one of the most applied constructs Which emotional intelligence has been associated
with is that of leadership. The leadership literature has produced countless theories
outlining which characteristics compose the most eHective leader, however, current
academic research in the area describes two distinct types ot leaders: transtormational
and transactional (Mandell & Pherwani, 2003). The transformational leader stimulates
interest among colleagues, inspires a ditferent outlook, on the work,
awareness of the goals of the organization, develops others to higher levels ot ab1\1\y,
and motivates others to consider the interests ot the group over. their own
Along these lines, transformational leadership is said to be composed ot. the
four dimensions: idealized Influence, inspirational rootivation, intellectual
individual consideration (Bass & Avolio, 1994). the IS
one whom rewards (or disciplines) staff. on the baSIS ot
emphasize work standards, task and pettonnance
heavily on organizational rewards punishments to In ence
(Bass & Avolio, 1994). . --A....tiftna\ \eadefShip
. . effectS of transformatiOnal and T Ral
Researchers investigating the rship premct higher ratings at eftedNen8SS and
have found that transformational pectonnance Q<eler. 1995} .S ""'*
satisfaction (Hater & Bass. 1988), h\QhtC::': tst'* & Sass. 1990) compiled
amount of effort on the part ot S\.tl01n ..... -' c1 .._ ..._ papolld
rshl UN ---sal alld \11;\ll.,a.
transactional lea e P teadeiS RIJSl posaast buM ...
that effective transformational CllliCII \0 _. ....... tnd :.U..a
These elements are
.-.a _ _.,,., -'
relationships. Research rll
------VAJIRAM & RAVI _____ ....._
ositive correlations. between the two constructs
readershf> has consistently tourn: ,P adership and emotional intelligence In 32 In a
study exammlng

and Pherwanl (2003) found that level of emor UaJs

In mana,gemenr posltlo:. Bar-On Emotion Quotient Inventory) was slgnifi:naJ
mtelllgence (as measur Y . SO) ntty
relatod to transformational leadershP style (r
The foremost contributor to the area of emotional intelligence is Daniel
Goleman, who has written several books on emotional Intelligence in an
organization, Including Working with Ernotionattn.retflgence ,(
998) an_d Emotionally
Intelligence Workplace (2001 ). Goleman pos1ts that leaders h1gh '". emotional
intelligence /s key to organizational success; leaders .must have the capacity to sense
employees feelings about their work environments, to mtervene when problems arise, to
manage their own emotions in order to gain the trust of the employees, and to
understand the political and social conventions within an organization (Goleman, 2oo1 ).
In addition, a leader has the capacity to impact organizational performance by setting the
climate work particular work climate. Goleman outlines six distinct leadership styles and
how they affect the climate of the organization. Each style is characterized by a number
ot the emotional, intelligence competencies outlined in Goleman's model, and each may
be effect1ve in an organizational setting, depending on the situation at hand.
Research has found that the most effective leaders integrate four or more of the six
styles regularly, substituting one tor another more appropriate style depending on the
leadership situation. This has been found to be the case in studies of insurance
companies, where leaders were adept at all four of the positive styles of leadership, and
at schools, where heads of schools who used four or more of the leadership styles
experienced superior performance among students compared comparison schools.
Performance was poorest in those schools were only one or two styles of leadership
were used (Hay/McBer, 2000).
Leadership Style and Impact on Organizational Climate (Goleman, 2001)
Coerclv Authorila Affirmatlv Democratic Pacesettln Coach
e tJve e g
When In a When To heal To build To get To help
crisis, to change rifts in a consensus quick an
e lUck
- requires a team or to or to get results employe
saatt. new motivate valuable from, a e
IUmaroU vision, during input from highly improve
nd, Of
when stressful employees motivated performa
wlh clear times and nee or
direction competent develop
J fllfJIIo)te
needed team long-
.-- es M&RAVI-
.-- .
ObjectiVe lmmedla
\team \

Others to
lollow a
Pertorm Build
tasks to a strengths
vision through
for the\
Impact on Strongly
standard future
Climate negative
negative positive
Drive to
- Empathy;
competen achieve;
Collaboratio Conscientio \ Developi \
team usness; ng
leadership; drive to others;
communicat achieve; empathy;\
al self catalyst
manage me
initiative self -
leaders are and often act as change agents.
Afftntttve leaders, too, are empathtc, Wlth strengths building relationships and managing
conflict. The democratic leader encourages collaboration and and
communicates effectively - particularly as an excellent listener. The coaching leader is
emotionally self-aware, empathic, and sKiUed at identnying and building on the potential
of others (Goleman, 2001 ). The coercive leader relies on the power of his-.position and
orders people to execute his wishes. This type leader. is typically handicapped by \ack of
empathy. The pacesetting leader sets high standards and exempliiies them. He or she
exhibits initiative and a very high drive to achieve, but is often micromanaging criticizing
those who fail to meet his or her own high standards. rather than helping them \0
. . . sudY ImplieS hierarchica\ buteaucalc
Accountability in pubhc adm1n1Smu
u ....... _.--.. o1
control tiOID top to """'am. .............
accountability and applies. strong ancl \n doing ao.
accountability expands to mclude ls MD
Bovens (201 0} defines Accoun\dlY ot h COlt.,...."
as a quality In or, ""'
good governance (Emdadul H1A 29 Q}
VAJIRAM & RAVI ----... ......._
untabillly is "' ... a relationship Which. %
Afifuddin & 5111-Nablha (2010) state that afccor conduct. .. " and this relationship clnvolves
of reasons o . d'
d' ould .,_
the giving and deman ng I organizations, In !feet or n lrect ways VI!
between Individuals, groups, govemmen ' .
Emotional Intelligence & Self accountability:
. . . . ered as a distinguishable type of accountability a .
Self accountability m1ght be emerging from strong motives and characterize l'ld It
could be defined as self- f any mistake whether small or big. In addit'd as
frequent self- blaming and evaluating or . nee and emotional motives. These rn

requires strong conscientiousne.s.s, on an empirical study, Passyn &
could be religious ethical or splfltual, pen g SuJan
' .
d to facilitative effects that enhance self- accountab'll't
(2006) report that emot1ons ea h th . I y
dimensions, such as guilt and regret. They add. that even e of Self-
accountability motives intentions, the drive for or requires
the additionally, impetus, of an emotional expenence. An emotion a
of appraisal; "They a/so examine the role of high emotions in
enhancing compliance with fear appeals. They find that relative to. appeals
or adding hope, which ascribes low accountability to the self, act1on-fac1htat1ve coping,
intentions, and behaviors are enhanced by adding guilt and regret, all of which induce
feelings of high self-accountability. Consequently, depending on previous results, it has
to be noticed that self-accountability is a mixture of fear, hope, guilt, regret and frequent
sell evaluation.
From a psychological perspective; Coelho (201 0) states that confession and repentance
are important to enhance self - accountability and also significant to rehabbing
behaviors, and they require different step. He emphasizes the recognit ion that one has
done wrong or not according to their deepest values is the first step to enhance self-
accountability- The next step is deciding to change to obtain self-satisfaction as a
response to the expression or confession of the painful truths about the self. " ... vital to
this confession is some expression of regret or remorse for what one has done or
As it is stated before, self accountability is an internal feeling that enables individuals to
judge their selves according to the level of consciousness, awareness of their selves and
the strength of the motives to adjust their actions. Based on Goleman's definitions, it is
apparent that emotional intelligence could have a role in shaping self accountability.
Explicitly, self awareness could be defined as knowing one's internal states and self-
consciousness as awareness of inner thoughts (Cole & Rozell, 2011 ). Moreover, self-
regulation which includes self-monitoring refers to an internal abiiity to adjust the
behavior to external and situational factors (Cole &Rozell,2011) and to decrease
negative affect intensity (Velasco et al., 2006), and self motivation which indicates the
ot motives to encourages individuals. Notably, there are many factors that
seem fo be shared between self accountability and emotional intelligence such as: self
monitOtfng-infemal leeling, consciousness, motives and awareness. Therefore, self
aooountablify seems to be correlated with emotional intelligence and this correlation has
10,. Pf'DWWJ
--:--:::-:-:-----VAJ1RAM & RAVl .!!JJ?irlcsl Evidence
Adeoye & Torubelli (201
) se
hurnan relationship mana ek. to explain the effe . .
ants. A qualitative Qement on the organ . cts of mtelligence and
. . approach was . comm1tment ot Nigerian c\v\1
Mlnlstnes of Educatton Local n applied Wl\h Simple ot 300 ..
G If' ' "'overnment aff . . . part1c1pants trom
and overnors o tee of Bayelsa and 0 o airs, Clvtl service commission. Agriculture
study, three scales are used Emor Y. States. To accomplish the purpose ot the
management scale (HAMS)
mtelligence scales (EIS) Human relationship
used to collect data from the commitment questionnaire (OCQ) were
. d . tpants. The result . d'
both mdepen ent vanables were effective i . . s m tcate that when taken together,

predtctmg organizational commitment.
The researcher thinks previous result . . . '
re relationships between emotio
.s pr?vtde mdtcators to support the Idea that there
a relationship between em t' na. and self accountability. One ot them Is
the . .
tonal mtelhgence and commitment which has been proven
that it could be a good mdtcator to . . .
. . suggest relattonshtp between emotional intelligence
and since commitment refers to" ... an employee's feeling
of With the organization" (Adeoye & Torubelli, 2011) and se\1
accountabthty ts an tnner feeling of obligation that motivate the employee to do his duties
effectively. Emotional intelligence could be a predictor ol sell accountability too.
currently, the vast majority of public administrators lack the understanding and
behavioral skills necessary to build social capital. Even those public v.:no
are excellent administrators of laws and regulations lack the leadership to bnng
their citizens into a more .mutually beneficial partnership with government o"tc1als.
).- It is so hard for public administrators to know when to administer and when to
lead. It is so hard for public administrators to know - in the dally
of working with their political superiors, staff, peers, mterest M::ders and
NGOs, or ordinary citizens -it Is necessary for them to be ave as
when to behave as administrators.
. . to see that to administer \aws and
}1> lt is so hard for high-level build trust governance, they must
regulations, to implement pubbc po cy, . ... .. law based knOw\edQe ot an
bl d on a day-to-day basiS, ""
learn how to en \\ \tal Ustening.skiUs of a Jeader.
administrator with the equa Y v ... musl in tacl
. R servams to see that
}1> It is so hard for high-lave av
both. and the skill$ of a taaU&f In one 8lld .,._.
). The skills of an administrator
f------VAJJRAM & RAVI ----............
. stration nor those of leadership can be fgnor %
Neither the responsibilities of admtm wl only on their administrative roles. 6d, Yet
most public administrators focus narro y .
Emotional Intelligence & Weber's Bureaucracy: . .
Y compares with other organrzatrons exacu
According to Weber (1 922), the bureaucracy is dehumanized, the y as
does a machine: "The. more .pe. official business love, hatred, and u lllore
completely it succeeds '" ellmmatmg t which escape calculation". Weber's :Odrefy.,
t' 1 nd emotional elemen s er ot
persona , 1rra 10na a . d ffectiveness are harmed if human e .
human nature assumes that efficrency an e . . lllotrons
influence the rational actions of public are not intelligent.
t:: d t ason Emotions are rrrattonal. Emottons are unproductiv {;;motions are oppose o re . d . . . . e.
t:: t' b' t' Emotr'ons should never gwde a mtnrstratrve acttons The (;;mo rons are su rve. . . .
f b tl h'erarcht'es division of labor, classlftcatton of positrons, standard purpose o ureaucra c 1 ' ,
operating procedures and pay grades is to leglsla!e and lfration
emotions. To end nepotism, prevent capricious or subJeCtive admtntstratron, and promote
equal justice under taw emotions must, be eradicated.
In the classic formulation of Max Weber (1922), public administrators must be without
affection or enthusiasm - ohne Zora and Eingenommenheit:-
.. Bureaucrstlc administration means fundamentally the exercise of control on the
bssls of knowledge. This Is the feature of it which makes it specifically rational ...
The dominance of a spirit of formalistic impersonality, "Sine ira et studio, " without
hatred or passion, and hence without affectiofpor enthusiasm. This is the spirit In
Which an oHiclal conducts his oHice.... Otherwise the door would be open to
Weber's lffelong project was to conquer the world of administration for rationality
(Diggins/996). Excellent Administration is "control on the basis of knowledge.
Administration, therefore is about control Excellent administration is about limiting
discretion. Excellent administration is about preventing arbitrariness and tyranny. For this
reason, public officials do not establish relationships to persons. Governance is
impersonaJ_ Relationships are positively harmful for excellent administration. Once the
boxes on the organizational chart are drawn, once the responsibilities of positions are
delineated, once the irrationality of human emotion is eliminated, the organization will be
a smootlr nmning, lean and efficient machine, easily able to follow orders and implement
/UJiic policy. Public organizations must be cool arenas for dispassionate reason,
,cfe:llfaeaded analysis. Administration without people is the most efficient and effective
Administtation without people, by definition, is excellent administration.
'**-PI.Mc administrators eradicate emotions that lnterlere with decision-making:
1. "'-1 CMrJot l'88pOnd to situations very flexibly.
2. lbeycaMOt..,. advantage of the right time and right place.
3. They cannot make sense of .
artlbrguous or eontr d'
4. They cannot recognile th
a ICtory messages.
e mportance of diffe
5. They cannot find slmilan. be rent elements of a situation.
t th ... res tween situ
separa e em. atrons despite differences that may
6. They cannot draw distinct!
them. ons between situations despite similarities that may link
7. They cannot synthesize new co . .
in new ways. ncepts taking old concepts and combining them
8. They C(lnnot develop ideas that are novel.
Un.der the of emotions public administrators cannot be intelligent. Under the
gurdance of emotions public administrators cannot be rational.
This is a of course, for transforming people In machines. But machines
cannot build the trusting relationships needed to govem. Only people can govem. yet, for
those immersed in the culture of bureaucracy, the prescription against re\ationship
virtually mandates that the daily actions of public administrators- namely, encounters
with political superiors, staff, peers, interest group, media, members of partiaments,
NGOs, or ordinary citizens - all relationships with all stakeholders be conducted Without
.sympathy or Enthusiasm.
An assumption of as machine" Is not compatible with late century
in evolutionary biology and neuroscience. The classical bureaucratic assumptiOn of man
as a machine" is, on the contrary, perhaps the biggest con=-or
"occupational psychosis," (John Dewey), "profesSIOnal

Veblen) and "bureaupathology" (Robert Merton) often observed 1n the
level civil servants, all over the world.
. .. . duced pubUc administrators a state of
The assumption of "man as machine has m . m ie dershlp aceofdtng to the
unconscious incompetence and trained incapacity for a
sociologist Phillip Selznick (1976).
. . n the last deCade show that . _...,._,
Neuroscientific SCientific dlscovenes ' . the Rather they are
rate compartments tn audl Nlllll
emotions are not sepa . ychology by sctdars
woven into all cognition. wor\<. and Kallh ()dey, 1111 I unln; :
Seligman, Richard Lazarus, An
neuroscience by Joseph Ledoux an
are a form of Intelligent awareness. emotiDnl tllua 1lllll ta
E t\ons are what male us *' Gl.._ 'IIAIQ
Emotions are intelligent. mo othef8. TheY slgnlll\8 --,--
1 able and important to us and to rcepltOnS. They serve 18 ani dill
as cognitive" as olhar pe *
. 'I VA . k'
as well as a form of feeling. All
1... of thin rn ld f
. . E fons are a form . W'thout the gu ance o emotions
to make rat1onal cho1ces.
. nee of emot1ons.

thinking Is infused with the rntelhge ar
d from re , .
one becomes irrational, detache decision-makmg ts neuro,ogtca/fy
. e biological evidence that C ntrary to the classical model
we now have cone us1v motions o . f
impossible without being informed_ e t infused with the intelligence
decision-making is arbitrary when It
s no three continents shows that emot1ona1
Empirical research by organizational hon routine management from outstanding
intelligence" is the very marker that dead organ!zations from living
leadership and the marker that drstlnQ O) NeurosCientific research shows some
organizations (Ashkanansy, Hartel, Zerbe,
cratic assessment of emotions and
classical bureau
stunning differences between e f 1997);
current scientific understanding (Cooper and Sawa ' .
Bureaucracy on emotions
Make us inefficient
Sign of
Interfere with good judgement
Distract us
Obstruct, or slow down, reasoning
Arbitrary and tyrannical
Weaken neutrality
Inhibit the flow of objective data
Complicate planning
Undennine management
Modern neuroscience on emotions
Make us effective" Sign of strength "
Essential to good judgement
Motivate is
Enhance, or speed up, reasoning
Build trust and connection
Activate ethical values
Provide . vital information and feedback
Spark creativity and innovat ion
Enhance leadership
CivH servants at times administer laws, at times manage budgets, and at other times
lead people and change. Civil servants are not j ust administrators and they are not just
managers. They are also leaders who have a responsibility to share democratic values,
represem a broad range of social groups, and view themselves accountable to much
btoader constituencies than before.
'We #teed a government'", writes Peter Drucker, the father of modem management,
'Which Mows flow lo govern and does so. Not a government which 'admini sters', but a
to- ....., fiUty governs (cited in Potucek, 1999, p. 28). All governance Is
service is people service. It's all people.
.......- a VAJIRMt & RAVI _____ _
der to increase the level of employe ,
11"1 or nizations today want to promote es mora1e, and enthusiasm, man-y
orga rganizations must foster the
1 11
intelligent culture. 1o succeed in
. .
owmg attnbutes tBook, 2000);
r The "promotes a culture in which openness and transparency are
the norm .
..,_ Respectlul assertiveness must exist in the organi1.ation.
..,_ The organization encourages diversity.
,. The organization tolerates constructive disagreement.
).- The organization values flexibility and communication among its various
having these attributes, an emotionally intelligent organi1.ation can plan
. yadvance and its employees can work with.each other more ei1ectively. In
1n . . . \' hould un ers,

ng these characteristics, an emottona\\y tntelhgent orgam1.a ton s . -'"ofCe
av . 't tan and rouse t\s WOlN
ossess the "3 R's". That is, the "capac1ty to recrut re
an p . . rKt e is an advantage to an organ
(Books, 2000). Being able to retam ItS ore \ addition, high turnover
because of the expense of hiring and tratnmg has an
n result in low employee morale. Thereiore, It ts bes. \so an important attnbu\e o\
c kf Ro sing its worKforce IS a t \he
to retain its current wor . u vated employees wi\\ wor\C. harder . or .
emotionally intelligent orgamsatlans::> To rouse their employees.
company and will likely be ' and their contributions lBook, .
should include them in the declston making i t r an emotiona\\y
h rganization's abtlity to os e . c\ d "\he organaauuucu
The factor that affects t e o 2000). This structure tn u e \ cnanr*s ot
is organizational structure. (Bookt accountabi\ity and Aihhonty' and wlG\ \tiS
- chart, role organizationa\ chart" a\\ow tor
communication up an o. , . lace are increasingly next
organizational structure In p
decision making. A enue 1or Traln\ng
tugence: ,...v ' QCQlr
Teach\ng emot\onat tnte . . g emotional inte\ligence .-.-
. . ro rams aimed at within . .....- II'!
Tramlng P g of training and . and tralf\\f\9, iM ,..,..
different areas . ng communic&.U?" ..... H rna'"'eftAf'Oen\ \"'nlnQ and ...
ement tratOI we\\ as :119''. ,___...
mana nt training, as ftAM) However. \\ \S '*'
stress managem:orkers (Chemiss. . are not .-:: I
to rncutum and del\Vert Ql(ll'llti
traditional training cu mpetenctes. Tradit\on . . w8la .. t"'
emotional Intelligence ! ores individua\ coff'Plext\\88
.. annroaoh tha\ 'V'.
fitl. ......,..
(Dearbom. 2002).
VAJIRAM & RAVl ------ ...
l\l'lrams whloh utilize a cognitive lear.,
1 n (1998), P'" f rks ng
According to Chemlss and Go ems , lready existing ramewo and way
process Involve placing new Information Into a andlng the neural circuitry of the brai
understanding consequently

trying to teach emotional

This type of leammg Is the neural circuitry of the brain While re.
competencies as thoso skills mvolve Thus, emolional rather than cognitive
training the brain centres contra ch emotional intelligence. This less traditional
Ieamlng techniques must be utrllzed to and more individualized learning
training approach, based on
com onents:
engagements, encompasses the followmg P
VIsioning around reaching one's ideal self.
If are
ness of current strengths and weaknesses.
!- Self-assessment and se -aw
h d li
mitations Improve so that they do not detract from
: Ensuring that strengt s an
the achievement of goals.
..... Creating and committing to a learning agenda that builds on strengths and
reduces weaknesses.
.;. Active and frequent experimentation with new behaviours that support and
develop emotional intelligence competencies.
t! Reliance on a coach to regulate progress (Goleman, 1998}.
:0 Developing Emotional Intelligence in Organisations: The
Goleman has also established an optimal process for developing emotional intelligence
in organizations. This process consists of four phases: preparation for change, training,
transfer and maintenance skills, and evaluation. Each phase has corresponding
guidelines for achieving success. Preparation for change involves assessing the
competencies which are most critical for organizational anq individual effectiveness while
convincing the workforce that improving their emotional competencies will lead to
desirable outcomes. Goleman points out that motivational factor might be a particular
issue In this step, as emotional learning and emotional intelligence are areas which are
central to a person's identity, and thus many may be resistant to being told they must
change themselves as people. The training phase focuses on experiential learning with
repeated practice, modeling, and corrective feedback. Maintenance of skills is done
through social support and a supportive work environment along with policies and
Procedures whldl support the development of emotional intelligence. Finally, evaluation
is COnducted to determine Individual satisfaction with the training as well as to establish if
the training has produced meaningful changes in on-the-job behavour (Chemiss &
Goleman, 1998).
&mollonal Intelligence and The Correctional Service of Canada
The Correctional Service of Canada possesses unlimited opportunities in which to
irttsgrate an understanding of intelligence among its leaders. This section
provides an overview of how emotional intelligence corresponds to current leadership
------VAJlRAM & RAVI - ....... __
competencies endorsed by the Public Se . .
as well as how the literature on the tlce, how It relates ef1ective prison leadership,
etlect emotional Intelligence of a successful correctional service wo!Mr
r . .. ,....tenCJes. lastly possible f
ntelhgence trammg for correctional
avenues or emotional
1 serv ce workers are dtscussed.
Leadership and the Correctional Services of Canada
As a national organization the Co"ectl 1 s
. , " ona ervice of Canada encompasses leaders at
a of different levels of operation, from senior management level leaders working
at Nat1onal Headquarters to leaders at individual institutions. The qualities that make
each of these leaders; successful are unique to their specific level of operation, and thus
will be examined separately.
Leadership Among Senior Management
In an effort to establish guidelines and standards tor effective leadership, the Public
Service Commission of Canada has specified fourteen leadership competencies for
Assistant Deputy Ministers (ADMs) and Senior Executives. lhese competencies, which
are grouped under the categories of intellectual, future building,
relationship, and personal competencies, have likewise been adapted by the National
Managers' Community Council for use with middle managers.
Leadership Competencies for ADMs and Senior Executives
Category Leadership
Intellectual Cognitive
Future Visioning
Management Action
........ tot
lhe ability to understaryd and respond strateg ....... J
complexities of the pubHc service. lhe abiUty to respond
in Innovative, unconventional ways.
Relationship Interpersonal
to interact effectively with a--'diverse
The a Y . Qrou
Individuals in order to achieve management obJectives. P
'llty to speak in a compelling, articulate mann
The 1 er and
listen effectively for underlyrng messages and nuanees in
input of others.
.. ,.,..The ability to sustain high energy levels and resist stress
the face of difficult demands.
Flexibility Self
The ability to conduct themselves in a manner Which
the personal, social and ethical norms of the Public Service.
The ability to set goals and maintain stability, control,
and composure in challenging situations. .
The ability to adjust behaviour to adapt to d
situations, people, and groups while new and
effective behaviours.
The ability to be secure and confidence in one's ........,,..,.., ..
make independent decisions, and handle
Taken from the Public Service Commission (2003)
Governments should establish training programs which aim at the development of
emotional intelligence learning Thus El has important implications for enhancing the well
being of individuals organizations, society as a whole. Given its numerous diverse
personal, social and profession advantages, effects and benefits emotional intelligence"'="'
turns out to be a worth developing skill that needs to be even deeply explored and
further thoroughly promoted.
We can gain a better understanding of public administration and dynamics by
COfJ)aling our discipline to a human body, in which the mind and heart are not
separated. Nonetheless and quite surprisingly, current writings place a great deal of
value on the wisdom ot the mind as representative of rational thinking and systematic
Older in public administration. It is the mind that seems to be the ultimate ruler in our
disciplne. In essence, almost no attention is devoted to the role of the heart. It
;. file '-t lhat goes beyond rationality, representing the feelings and emotions that play
111111111 patt in administrative reality.
'1'1 ,.. may...,. that dealing with feelings and emotions in bureaucracies might
Ill,... .,.., oonlnldicting some basic assumptions about the scientific nature of our
...._ C. mrsn emotions and feelings, and in what way Is such a measurement,
I I&MIIIJ tot our proleaton? Further, if this process is measurable, what can be said
about the impact of the heart (f .
rationality, and performance)? eehngs and emotions) on the mind

.. ,
. ,uureaucracy,
It is suggested that in the search f . .
public organizations, we tend to n rationality effective bureaucracy for modem
simple indication of such negligeeg the emotional base of administrative activities. A
. . h nee IS the absence of a . .
admin1strat1on t eory and writing about f r . senous discourse in public
. ee lngs, emotions, and emotional intelligence.
Theoretically, El demonstrates a go d dd'
types of performance in public se to a .
on to existing knowledge about the various
. . . c or enwonments. Healthy emotional constructs and
the emot1onal mtelhgence of public employees add t b t' f
s o JO sa IS act1on and thus may be
used as a performance indicator for the quality of public services.
There are clearer borders between rationai thinking and the understanding of emotions
in public organizations. We distinguish between emotional and irrational thinking arming
that many of the managerial considerations in public administration are both rational and
emotional. However, the literature may diverge over this argument, putting rationality and
irrationality/emotions at two separate ends of a continuum. The origins of decisions and
actions of public officers and high-ranking officials in the bureaucratic hierarchy are
expected to be rational, but at the same time sensitive and emotionally responsive to
people's needs and demands (Rourke 1992). For this to there is need to
promote understanding of El in public domains, beyond what 1s m the for-
profit sector, and to select, recruit, and train a public sector cadre while bemg aware ot
the value of El-
lt can be concluded that dealing with the wisdom of the heart
by no means counterproductive to rationality or '"rto=:and
r s provide another tool for 1mprovmg pe
agencies. On the contrary' emo ton I . th search for better public services. Our
mplementary arsena tn e "".w d mains
may serve as a co r understanding of emotion in ti""'IC o
discipline can greatly from a for renewal ot the field NPM, reinventing
and from integratmg tts added value WI ' f ms etc). Rationality is not necessarily
. nee measurement re or . . rtormance at
government, pe orma . . . and that El can help in advancing pe
opposed to emotional dectston makmg I I and the organizational level. lt has been
the employee level, the practically, how feelings and El have a map
demonstrated theoretically'
effect on the work outcomes o P