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# Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Hunh Tn t

## Ch4: Knowledge Representation Issues

What is KR? Representation and mapping Approaches to KR Issues in KR The Frame problem

## Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering HCMUT

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What is KR?
R. Davis, H. Schrobe, P. Szolovits (1993): 1. A surrogate 2. A set of ontological commitments 3. A fragmentary theory of intelligent reasoning 4. A medium for efficient computation 5. A medium of human expressions

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## Representation and Mapping

In order to solve the complex problems encountered in AI, one needs Knowledge Mechanisms for manipulating that knowledge Kinds of entities Facts: things we want to represent (knowledge level) Representation mapping Representations of facts: things we can manipulate (symbol level)
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## Representation and Mapping

Facts Internal Representations English understanding Reasoning programs

English generation

English Representations

## Mappings between Facts and Representations

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## Representation and Mapping

Initial facts desired real reasoning Final facts

## backward representation mapping Internal representations of final facts

operation of program

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## Representation and Mapping

An example using mathematical logic as the representational formalism: Spot is a dog: Every dog has a tail: dog(Spot) x: dog(x) hastail(x)

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## Representation and Mapping

Fact-representation mapping is not one-to-one Every dog has a tail vs. All dogs have tails Good representation can make a reasoning program trivial The Mutilated Checkerboard Problem: Consider a normal checker board from which two squares, in opposite corners, have been removed. The task is to cover all the remaining squares exactly with dominoes, each of which covers two squares. No overlapping, either of dominoes on top of each other or of dominoes over the boundary of the mutilated board are allowed. Can this task be done?
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(a)

(b)

(c)

## Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering HCMUT

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Approaches to KR
Four properties of a good presentation of knowledge in a particular domain: Representational adequacy Inferential adequacy Inferential efficiency Acquisitional efficiency No single system that optimizes all of the capabilities for all kinds of knowledge. => Multiple techniques for KR exist.

## Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering HCMUT

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Approaches to KR
Simple relational knowledge Represent declarative facts as a set of relations used in database systems Provides very weak inferential capabilities May serve as the input to powerful inference engines

## Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering HCMUT

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Approaches to KR
Inheritable knowledge Objects are organized into classes and classes are organized in a generalization hierarchy Inheritance is a powerful form of inference, but not adequate Mammal
isa

Person Red
uniform color

has-part

Nose Liverpool
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instance

Owen

team

## Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering HCMUT

Approaches to KR
Inferential knowledge Facts represented in a logical form (e.g. First-Order Logic: FOL), which facilitates reasoning. An inference engine is required.

## Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering HCMUT

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Approaches to KR
Procedural knowledge Representation of how to make it rather than what it is Procedural knowledge can be represented in programs in many ways: Code in some programming language, such as Lisp May have inferential efficiency, no inferential adequacy (difficult to write a program that can reason about another programs behaviour), acquisitional efficiency (b/c of the process of updating and debugging large pieces of code)
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Approaches to KR
Procedural knowledge as production rules Distinction between declarative and procedural knowledge is difficult If: white pawn at square(file e, rank 2) AND square(file e, rank 3) is empty AND square(file e, rank 4) is empty Then: move pawn from square(file e, rank 2) to square(file e, rank 4).

## Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering HCMUT

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Issues in KR
Choosing the Granularity High-level facts may not be adequate for inference. Substantial work must be done to reduce the knowledge into primitive form. Low-level primitives may require a lot of storage.

## Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering HCMUT

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Homework
Reading R. Davis, H. Schrobe, P. Szolovits (1993): What is a knowledge representation?

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