Anda di halaman 1dari 7

Chapter 7 - Personality

Chapter 7 Personality
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, students should be able to: Describe the characteristics of personality Discuss the different approaches to personality theory and their relevance to consumer behaviour Outline self-concept and its influence on consumer behaviour Describe the concept of brand personality and its importance in marketing.

CHAPTER TOPICS
1. 2. 3. What is personality? Personality influences consumer behaviour Personality theories Case in point 7.1Personality as revealed by your car Psychoanalytic personality theory Case in point 7.2Nestls Wicked is naughty but nice The Neo-Freudians Social/environment theories of personality Jungian personality types Other contributors to personality theory Erik Erikson Alfred Adler Karen Horneys basic anxiety theory Trait theories of personality Self-concept Case in point 7.3What makes the wealth seekers tick? Self-image and fashion Case in point 7.4Australian women let their hair do the talking Case in point 7.5The common touch not whats needed Brand personality A brand is a friend Marketing application of personality theories Case in point 7.6Harley hits the road with first outdoor ads

4. 5.

1. What is personality?
Personality is the characteristics patterns of behaviour and thought that are a reflection of a consumers psycho -physical systems (text, p. 190). The focus of this definition is on the psycho -physical or inner characteristicswhich reflect those attributes, traits and particular gestures that distinguish one person from everyone else. An individuals personality is linked to their image of themselves and their role in society. Theory on personality is diverse and varies widely across disciplines. The textbook examine theories behind a few of the researchers, and emphasises how this research may impact on consumer behaviour.

Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb

Page 1

Chapter 7 - Personality

Marketers often use personality traits to segment markets. Sometimes marketers give their brand a personality to appeal to a certain type of person. For example, how would you describe Coca-Colas personality? Who are the marketers of Coca-Cola appealing to? Refer to the interactive exercise for ideas to get the discussion started.

2.

Personality influences consumer behaviour

Although there is no clear link proving personality influences buying behaviour, it is clear that we are attracted to certain types of brands because it helps us define who we are, or who we want to be. Have you ever watched an advertisement and thought it was hilarious only to have someone else not be amused at all? The chance of you remembering that ad, and hence liking the brand, is heightened because the ad reflected traits of your personality. Some other important characteristics to highlight include: Personality reflects individual differences and no two people are exactly the same. Parents will often exclaim how different their children are, even though they come from the same parents. Personality is consistent and enduring, although our behaviour as consumers may sometimes change as a result of circumstances, mood, or other environmental factors. Our personality does change over time as we are affected by events in our lives and in society as a whole. In 1 addition, the ageing process affects our perspective on many issues.

Case in point 7.1Personality as revealed by your car Research has been conducted on who buys what type of car. Personality traits are reflected in car buyers. (After all, what do they say about Volvo drivers?) The research also covers different personality traits across genders. Men are more impulsive than women. One recent ad that reflects this finding is a Holden ad, where the woman says I saved hundreds as she guiltily looks at all her new shoes. Her husband waves his keys and states that he saved thousands! Humorous, but also based on personality research! Ask students what type of car they own and whether they actually bought it themselves. If a parent owns the car or bought it for them, the car may not necessarily reflect their personality.

3.

Personality theories

There are a range of theories on personality. This text addresses a few distinct theories that are particularly relevant to consumers and quite distinct from each other. Psychoanalytic personality theory Sigmund Freud was the first significant contributor on the debate over the nature of personality. His theory is referred to as psychoanalytic theory, and is based on the idea that adult behaviour is a reflection of childhood experiences (text, p. 192). Freuds work opposed the traditional thinking of the time and focused on the role of the unconscious on the development of personality. He believed that the unconscious controls the conscious mind and plays a significant role in the development of personality. He also stated that our true motivations for behaviour are based on hidden feelings that are not necessarily seen as a visible part of our persona similar to that an iceberg. Freud emphasised the importance of infancy and early childhood in determining an individuals personality and believed that as humans develop, we experience tension and frustration associated with the challenges of these growth stages. His theory stresses that biological and sexual drives are at the heart of our motivation and personality.

Schiffman, L., Bednall, D.;Watson, J. & Kanuk, L. (1997), Consumer Behaviour, Prentice Hall: Sydney, p. 118.

Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb

Page 2

Chapter 7 - Personality

Freud emphasised that an individuals personality is formed as we pass through five key stages of childhood development: Oral stageThe infant first experiences social contact with the world through their mouth. Anal stageDuring this stage, the childs primary source of pleasure is elimination, as the child becomes more independent and aware of their own body. Phallic stageThe child gains awareness of their own sexual organs. Latent stageThe child lies dormant from about five until the beginning of adolescence, with no significant changes occurring during this time. Genital stageThe individual develops a sexual interest at the age of puberty.

Freud believes an adults personality is determined by how well they deal with changes that are experienced in each of these stages. Freud further proposed that human personality consists of three parts: The id is based on the idea that individuals are motivated to act in a way that results in instant gratification and satisfaction of physiological needs like the need for sex, food, hunger and shelter. The superego reflects our sense of doing what is right, based on our interpretatio n of social and moral codes. It also relates to being in control and striving for perfection. The superego acts to restrain the impulsive forces of the id. The ego is the balance between the id and the superego. It attempts to satisfy the desires of the id, while being constrained by the controls of the superego. It represents the reality aspect of our personality.

Students will need examples to understand the differences between the three factors, and how marketers can use this knowledge to appeal to their target audience. Consider an advertisement for low-fat treats that are supposedly good for us, but are really aiming to satisfy the demands of our hungry id in a naughty way! Similarly, many people lose weight not only to be healthy, but also to look good for others. The interactive exercises below will help reinforce this concept. Case in point 7.2Nestls Wicked is naughty but nice To differentiate its brand in the superior ice-cream category, Nestl appealed to the hidden id motives behi nd indulgence. Most ice-cream manufacturers highlighted the benefits of their particular brand, but Nestl created Wicked to appeal to the reasons behind eating good ice-cream, rather just everyday ice-cream. The Neo-Freudians Several of Freuds colleagues disagreed with his claims that personality is primarily based on instincts and sexual drives. Many present the view that the unconscious is an important driver in human feelings, beliefs and behaviours, but that social relationships are fundamental to the development of personality. Social/environment theories of personality One of the best known Neo-Freudians was Carl Jung. Jungian personality types Carl Jungs approach differed to Freuds in that he claimed that individuals engage in cons tant adaptation and creative development, based on the environment. Jung suggested there are three parts of the personality: The egoour current conscious thoughts

Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb

Page 3

Chapter 7 - Personality

Personal unconsciouswhere information is buried in our long-term memory (see Chapter 6) but can be retrieved when triggered Collective unconsciousmemory traces of an individuals ancestral past.

Jung developed pairs of psychological dimensions to identify personality types, illustrated in Figure 7.1 (text p. 199): Sensing/intuition Thinking/feeling Intuition/thinking Intuition/feeling. Jungs personality types have been used for the development of personality tests/inventories like the MyersBrigg type indicator test. These tests can be useful for marketers trying to identify the personality characteristics of consumers. Encourage students to take the online test outlined in question 2 of the Discussion Exercises below. Other contributors to personality theory Erik Erikson Erikson put forward a new concept of the ego and presented an extension of the existing approach to Freuds developmental stages. He believed that Freuds ego concept went beyond what Freud had suggested; that ego was a major motivating force in human development and personality, as we strive for a sense of identity in our environment. These findings suggest that nurture is therefore more influential than nature. He also believed that individuals are motivated to achieve a positive sense of self-identity, and that our behaviour and personality reflect this. The idea of self-concept will be addressed in more detail later in the chapter. Alfred Adler Adler proposed that overcoming feelings of inferiority is the major factor in human motivation. He was the first personality theorist to regard humans as social by nature. He developed a theory that focused on how individuals change their behaviour based on their particular social situation. Parents often claim that their child behaves differently for other people than they do at home! Adler viewed conflict as the reason for these differing behavioural styles, as we strive for superiority (strive for something better an ideal). Adler believed that both nature and nurture, and intrinsic characteris tics, combine to form a persons personality. He stressed that a persons perception of their role in society is important. From a marketers perspective, we strive to meet societys demands. Karen Horneys basic anxiety theory Karen Horney disagreed with Freud about men and women being born with inherent personality characteristics. Horney believed that sociocultural factors could explain personality differences. By this we mean that personality should be viewed as a set of interrelated factors. These include the environment, experience, culture and cognitive processes. Another component of Horneys theory was that individuals have an ideal self -image due to the fear of feeling inferior. The actual self is the part that needs to be helped by marketers. Consider LOreals theme because Im worth it. Trait theories of personality A trait is a personality characteristic, such as being outgoing or being shy. Trait theories differ from other theories in that they attempt to identify and categorise personality characteristics, but they do not explain how personality develops. Trait theory can be applied to marketing by using the identified characteristics of a certain group as the basis for segmentation. For example, research could be used to determine how likely a person may be to buy a particular type of product. For example, a safety-conscious person may prefer a Volvo over another brand of car.

Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb

Page 4

Chapter 7 - Personality

Marketers have labels for groups as they adopt a new innovation. These groups are innovators, early majority, late majority, and laggards. Each of these groups can be described beyond demographic characteristics like age, to the type of person they are (or the traits they have). For example laggards tend to be risk-averse and less adventurous. There are many different approaches to trait theory, but five key personality traits are apparent across all theories. These traits fall along a continuum and in current studies on traits are known as the big five. They are as follows: Openness to experiencemeasure of an individuals interest in new things. Dimensions include outgoing, liberal and imaginative to reserved, conservative, traditional and conforming. Conscientiousnessdimensions range from organised, careful and determined to careless and weak. Extroversion/introversionextroversion refers to how sociable someone is. An extroverted person may be described as someone who enjoys social and sporting activities, whereas an introverted person may be described as shy and prefer quieter activities. Agreeablerepresents the extent of an individuals social likeability. Dimensions range from easygoing, compassionate and understanding to unhelpful, rude and hard to deal with. Neuroticismrefers to the perceived emotional stability of an individual. At one end of the scale, a person may display wide mood swings, while at the other end an individual may appear quiet and calm or even uncaring. Self-concept Self-concept is based on the perception we have of ourselves. It is made up of self-images and the evaluation of those images (self-esteem). Self-image is reflected in an individuals behaviour and the feedback received from others. As a result of this feedback, an individual develops their self-esteem and either builds on their self-image or seeks to change it. Individuals also act like the person they see themselves to be. We are therefore influenced by marketing messages that promise to either change or reinforce our self-image. Our self-concept can also change across situations. Think of how you act when with your partner, your parents, work colleagues and college peers. There are four different aspects of self-image that influence buying behaviour: 1. Actual selfhow consumers see themselves 2. Ideal selfhow consumers would like to see themselves 3. Social selfhow consumers think others see them 4. Ideal social selfhow consumers would like others to see them. Products and brands have a particular value for individuals, who assess them based on their consistency with their selfconcept. For certain product categories, products seem to match one or more of an individuals images, whereas other products seem unfamiliar. This is particularly true for alcoholic beverages, fragrances and clothing. Marketers can also segment their markets on the basis of consumer self-images. Case in point 7.3What makes the wealth seekers tick? Character traits for self-made millionaires are similar. These entrepreneurial traits include winning at all costs, taking risks and picking the right opportunities. These happy and rich people also want resul ts now, not in 20 years time. This doesnt mean they are afraid of hard work, just that they have a drive to go hard, and go now. Being rich can also make you happy, because you are working towards your goals and living in a sort of bubble. Ignoring some of the things in this world can tend to make you less depressed and protect your homeostatic device from outside influences. The seven key traits of wealth creators include: Vision An active mind Competence and confidence Drive Egoistic passion Love of ability in others

Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb

Page 5

Chapter 7 - Personality

Virtuerational, integrity, independence, productivity and treating others fairly.

What traits do your students have? Self-image and fashion Materialism is based on the idea that a persons possessions symbolise their identity. The social motive of approval was found to be the strongest driver of involvement in purchasing decisions made by groups identified as materialistic. A consumers choice of fashion communicates their personality. But its important to recognise that our fashion sense may be different, depending on whom we are with and the situation we find ourselves in. Case in point 7.4Australian women let their hair do the talking More women dread a bad hair day more than any other fashion statement. I guess it contributes to our social self how others see us. After all, we cant see what we look like, unless we stand in front of a mirror all day. Marketers of hair care have addressed nearly every corner of the market, which is resulting in a significant number of happy customers. Interestingly, the hair market is doing a complete 180-degree turn, with a growing trend of natural grey hair clearly a result of wanting to be our actual self when we get older! Cosmetic surgeons would probably disagree. Do students agree with the statement if your hair looks great, you feel great? Case in point 7.5The common touch not whats needed Elite brands are beginning to go online, even though their appeal is really linked to exclusivity. The whole shopping experience from the retail outlet, the service, and the feeling a shopper has from entering that world, goes beyond the actual product. The potential success of these high-class brands is being questioned by those who see cyberspace as a convenient, quick shopping process available to everyone who has online access. What are the students opinions on the use of the Internet for these exclusive brands?

4.

Brand personality

The concept of personality can be extended to brands. Brands are often perceived as having a specific personality. Marketers attempt to position a brand in a way that makes them unique. People assign personalities to brands based on several factors, including characteristics of the product category, the brands features, packaging, pricing, position in the market, celebrities used in advertising and the overall marketing communications. Examples should be used for different product categories. Cars are a good starting point. Consider the Interactive and Discussion Exercises below. A brand is a friend It is important for marketers to develop a relationship with their consumers, to encourage brand loyalty and insulate themselves from competitor activity. Case in p oint 7.6 highlights the value accrued from a brand becoming a friend.

5.

Marketing application of personality theories

The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was developed by Henry Murray to determine a persons underlying personality characteristics. This test also considers underlying motivations. The TAT has significant marketing implications, as consumers portray their own personalities by reflecting on what others might be thinking. This allows marketers to better understand target markets, and the type of appeals likely to be most successful. Case in point 7.6Harley hits the road with first outdoor ads

Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb

Page 6

Chapter 7 - Personality

Harley-Davidson has a clear brand personality, reflected in all their advertising. Freedom and escapism are common themes, even for this 100-year-old brand. New media types are now being used to communicate this more widely to the masses. What do students think of when they hear the name Harley-Davidson?

DISCUSSION EXERCISES
1. 2. Select three advertisements that marketers could have based on Freuds psychoanalytic theory. Consider all three parts of the personality: the id, superego and ego. Visit the website www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/Jtypes2.asp. Do the online test based on the JungMyersBriggs typology. What are your results? As you carried out the test, were there any product categories that stood out that would probably attract you? For example tour groups, software purchases, nightly entertainment, etc. Select five people and describe them in terms of suburb of residence, age, life-cycle stage, gender and occupation. Now ask them to discuss their consumption behaviour in the following categories: a) Fresh juice (in fridge at supermarkets) versus juice with preservatives b) Extent of canned vegetables used over fresh vegetables c) Type and amount of exercise each week d) Cooking from scratch compared to using prepared additives or meals e) Type of cleaning products used. Now describe each person in terms of their personality traits

3.

Read Case in point 7.3 on the personality traits of wealth seekers. Based on these traits, what particular products or services would you market to this elite group? What particular messages would you use in your marketing communications to reach this group? 5. You are the product manager for Blackmores Vitamins, and you are currently introducing a new protein supplement range aimed at anyone wanting to lose weight in a healthy, balanced fashion. The kind of message you want to give out is the importance of exercise and movement, along with a balanced diet of increased protein and reduced carbohydrates. A colleague has suggested you segment the market based on the consumers self-image. Describe the types of consumer self-image and discuss which one(s) would be most effective for your particular product. 6. Ask five people to describe the personality of the following products and services. How similar are their descriptions? What differences exist? Why would there be differences? a) Toyota Landcruiser b) David Jones c) Hewlett Packard laptops d) Crown lager beer

4.

Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb

Page 7