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EE8407

Power Converter Systems


Graduate Course EE8407

Topic 2

Bin Wu PhD, PEng Professor


ELCE Department Ryerson University

Contact Info
Office: ENG328 Tel: (416) 979-5000 ext: 6484 Email: bwu@ee.ryerson.ca http://www.ee.ryerson.ca/~bwu/

Ryerson Campus
Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

EE8407

Topic 2 High-Power Semiconductor Devices

Topic 2

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

EE8407

High-Power Semiconductor Devices

Topic 2

Lecture Topics
Power Diode SCR Thyristor Gate Turn-Off Thyristor (GTO) Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristor (GCT) Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Switch Series Operation

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

EE8407

High-Power Semiconductor Devices

Topic 2

Device Rating
V (V) 12000

SCR

12000V/1500A (M itsubishi)

10000 6500V/600A (Eupec)


7500V/1650A (Eupec) 6000V/3000A (ABB)

27M VA SCR: GTO/GCT: 36M VA 6M VA IGBT:

8000

6500V/4200A (ABB)

6000V/6000A (M itsubishi)

6000
6500V/1500A (Mitsubishi)

GTO/GCT

4000
4500V/900A (Mitsubishi)

3300V/1200A (Eupec) 2500V/1800A (Fuji)

4800V 5000A (Westcode)

2000

1700V/3600A (Eupec)

IGBT
0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 I (A)

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

EE8407

Power Diode

Topic 2

4500V/800A press pack and 1700V/1200A module diodes

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

EE8407

Power Diode

Topic 2

Heatsink Assembly
P P Heatsink P

A B C N N (a) Diode Rectifier (b) Press pack N (c) M odule Vd A A

Press pack device: Double sided cooling Low assembly cost and high power density Preferred choice for high voltage high power applications
Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

EE8407

SCR Thyristor

Topic 2

4500V/800A and 4500V/1500A SCRs

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

EE8407

SCR Thyristor
iG 0 .1I GM iT I GM

Topic 2

Switching Characteristics

iT
0 .9 I D 0 .1I D ID I rr VD

t rr
0 .1I rr Q rr

iG

vT
t

vT
V on

0 .1V D

t don t r t on

t off
Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

EE8407

SCR Thyristor

Topic 2

Main Specifications
12000V/1500A SCR Thyristor
Maximum Rating Switching Characteristics
V DRM V RRM I TAVM I TRMS

Q rr
7000 C

12000V Turn-on Time

t on = 14 s

12000V Turn-off Time t off = 1200 s

1500A
diT /dt
100 A / s

2360A
dv T /dt
2000V / s

V DRM Repetitive peak off-state voltage I TAVM Maximum average on-state current

V RRM Repetitive peak reverse voltage I RRMS Maximum rms on-state current

t I Qrr = rr rr Reverse recovery Charge 2

Part number FT1500AU-240 (Mitsubishi)

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

EE8407

Gate Turn-Off (GTO) Thyristor

Topic 2

4500V/800A and 4500V/1500A GTOs

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

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EE8407

Gate Turn-Off (GTO) Thyristor

Topic 2

Symmetrical versus Asymmetrical GTOs


Blocking Voltage
V RRM << V DRM

Type

Example
(6000V GTOs)

Applications For use in voltage source inverters with anti-parallel diodes. For use in current source inverters.

Asymmetrical GTO

V DRM = 6000V VRRM = 22V V DRM = 6000V VRRM = 6500V

Symmetrical GTO

V RRM V DRM

V DRM - Maximum repetitive peak (forward) off-state voltage V RRM - Maximum repetitive peak reverse voltage

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

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EE8407

Gate Turn-Off (GTO) Thyristor


vT , iT vT 0 .9V D iT

Topic 2

Switching Characteristics

0 .9 I D ID 0 .1 I D

VD
0

0 .1V D

t t don t r

t doff
tf

t tail iT iG vT t
IG 2M

iG

diG 1 / dt
I G 1M

0 . 1I G 1 M

0 .1 I G 2 M

diG 2 / dt

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

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EE8407

Gate Turn-Off (GTO) Thyristor

Topic 2

Main Specifications
4500V/4000A Asymmetrical GTO Thyristor
Maximum Rating
V DRM V RRM

I TGQM

I TAVM

I TRMS

di G2 /dt

Switching Characteristics

4500V Turn-on Switching

t don = 2.5 s t r = 5.0 s

17V Turn-off Switching t doff = 25.0 s

4000A
di T /dt

1000A
dv T /dt

1570A
di G1 /dt

t f = 3.0 s

500 A / s

1000V / s

40 A / s

40 A / s

On-state Voltage

VT ( on state ) = 4.4V at I T = 4000 A


V RRM - Repetitive peak reverse voltage I TAVM - Maximum average on-state current

V DRM - Repetitive peak off-state voltage

I TGQM - Repetitive controllable on-state current


I RRMS - Maximum rms on-state current

Part number - 5SGA 40L4501 (ABB)

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

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EE8407

Topic 2

Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristor (GCT)

6500V/1500A Symmetrical GCT


GCT = Improved GTO + Integrated Gate + Anti-parallel Diode (optional)

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

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EE8407

Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristor

Topic 2

GCT Classifications

Type

Anti-parallel Diode Excluded

Blocking Voltage
VRRM << VDRM VRRM 0 VRRM VDRM

Example
(6000V GCT)

Applications
For use in voltage source inverters with anti-parallel diodes. For use in voltage source inverters. For use in current source Inverters.

Asymmetrical GCT Reverse Conducting GCT Symmetrical GCT (Reverse Blocking)

VDRM = 6000V VRRM = 22V VDRM = 6000V VDRM = 6000V VRRM = 6500V

Included Not required

VDRM - Maximum repetitive peak forward off-state voltage VRRM - Maximum repetitive peak reverse voltage

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

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EE8407

Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristor

Topic 2

Switching Characteristics
vT , iT

vT
0 .9V D VD
0

iT
0 .9 I D ID 0 .4 I D

0 . 1V D

t t doff tf iG
iT vT

t don iG
0

tr iG

diG 1 / dt

t vG
diG 2 / dt vG

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

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EE8407

Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristor

Topic 2

Main Specifications
6000V/6000A Asymmetrical GCT
Maximum Rating
V DRM V RRM

I TQRM

I TAVM

I TRMS

di G2 /dt

Switching Characteristics

6000V Turn-on Switching


t don < 1.0 s

22V Turn-off Switching t doff < 3.0 s

6000A
diT /dt

2000A
dv T /dt

3100A
di G1 /dt

t r < 2.0 s

t f - N/A

1000 A / s

3000V / s

200 A / s

10,000 A/ s

On-state VT ( on state ) < 4V at I T = 6000 A Voltage V DRM - Repetitive peak off-state voltage V RRM - Repetitive peak reverse voltage
I TGRM - Repetitive controllable on-state current I TAVM - Maximum average on-state current I RRMS - Maximum rms on-state current

Part number FGC6000AX120DS (Mitsubishi)

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

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EE8407

Insulated Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)

Topic 2

1700V/1200A and 3300V/1200A IGBT modules

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

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EE8407

Insulated Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)

Topic 2

IGBT Characteristics
iC
G E IC VGE 5 VGE 4 VGE 3 VGE 2 VGE1
0

vG

vCE

+15V 0

v GE
0

90% +15V

iC
90%

10%

2V

VCE
tdon tr tdoff tf

Static V-I Characteristics

Switching characteristics
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Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

EE8407

Insulated Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)

Topic 2

Main Specifications
3300V/1200A IGBT
Maximum Rating Switching Characteristics
VCE IC I CM

3300V

1200A

2400A

t don
0.35 s

tr
0.27 s

t doff
1.7 s

tf
0.2 s

Saturation I CE sat = 4.3V at I C = 1200 A Voltage VCE - Rated collector-emitter voltage


I C - Rated dc collector current I CM - Maximum repetitive peak collector current

Part number FZ1200 R33 KF2 (Eupec)

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

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EE8407

Device Series Operation

Topic 2

Cause of Voltage Imbalance


Type Static Voltage Sharing Causes of Voltage Imbalance
I lk Device off-state leakage current
T j Junction temperature

v1

S1

t don Turn-on delay time


t doff Turn-off delay time
Device

Qrr Reverse recovery charge of


T j
anti-parallel diode Junction temperature

v2

S2
Dynamic Voltage Sharing

v3

S3

Gate Driver

t GDon Gate driver turn-on delay time t GDoff Gate driver turn-off delay time Lwire Wiring inductance between the
the gate driver and the device gate

Differences between series connected devices.

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

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EE8407

Device Series Operation

Topic 2

Equal Voltage Sharing


S1, S2, S3:

v1

S1

Rs Cs

GTO, GCT or IGBT


Rv

Voltage Sharing:

v2

S2

Rs Cs

Rv

v1 = v2 = v3 in steady state and transients


Static Voltage Sharing:

v3

S3

Rs Cs

Rv

Rv
Dynamic Voltage Sharing: Rs and Cs

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

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EE8407

Device Series Operation


Active Overvoltage Clamping
Vm

Topic 2

Active Overvoltage Clamping (AOC)


- Suitable for series IGBTs - Not applicable to GCTs
vin

Gate Signal Conditioning

S1 Amp Rg AOC
Vm

vCE 1

S2 Rg

Vm iC

vCE 1 vCE 2

Gate Signal Conditioning

Amp

vCE 2

Assumption: S1 is turned off earlier than S2


0

td

VCE1 is clamed to Vm due to active clamping.


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Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

EE8407

Summary
Item
Maximum switch power (Device V I ) Active di/dt and dv/dt control Active short circuit protection Turn-off (dv/dt) snubber Turn-on (di/dt) snubber Parallel connection Switching speed Behavior after destruction On-state losses Switching losses Gate Driver Gate Driver Power Consumption

Topic 2

GTO
36MVA No No Required Required No Slow Shorted Low High Complex, separate High

IGCT
36MVA No No Not required Required No Moderate Shorted Low Low Complex, integrated High

IGBT
6MVA Yes Yes No required No required Yes Fast Open in most cases High Low Simple, compact Low

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

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EE8407

Topic 2

Textbook: Bin Wu, High-Power Converters and AC Drives, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006, ISBN: 0-471-73171-4

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