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TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE

PAGE

  • 1.0 INTRODUCTION

1

  • 1.1 Project Definition and Problem Statement

1

  • 1.2 Potential Problems and Solutions

2

  • 1.3 Literature Review

3

  • 1.4 Design Concept

3

  • 1.5 Design Justification

5

  • 2.0 PROJECT PLANNING

6

  • 2.1 Task Listing Distribution

6

  • 2.2 Logic of Sequence of Task

7

  • 2.3 Feasibility of Plan

8

  • 3.0 METHODOLOGY

9

  • 3.1 Material and Description

9

  • 3.2 Suitable Tool and Software

9

  • 4.0 DATA GATHERING

10

  • 4.1 Fundamental Engineering Concepts and

10

Calculations

11

  • 4.2 Validity and Suitability of Data

  • 5.0 ECONOMICAL AND BUSINESS CONSIDERATION

11

  • 5.1 Capital Cost

11

  • 5.2 Operational Cost

12

  • 5.3 Business Consideration

12

  • 5.4 Alternative in Material

12

  • 6.0 CONCLUSION

12

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1.0

INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 Project Definition and Problem Statement

In 1879 Thomas Alva Edison developed a long-lasting practical incandescent light bulb, the only well-developed advancement in lighting technology is the compact fluorescent lamp. Although both of these artificial lightings have made major contributions in human civilization, they have a few setbacks which needs to be taken into account.

Compact fluorescent lamps are found to contain small amount of hazardous mercury which can cause toxicity, have more obvious flickering problems and sensitive in low temperature condition which impractical for outdoor lighting. Meanwhile, incandescent light bulbs produce large amount of heat as by-product which can cause burns, relatively short life span which may require frequent replacement and more prone to failure in high vibration environment.

But the major setback of both lamps is that they are ‘wasting’ large amount of electrical energy daily. According to the Reference case projection from the International Energy Outlook 2010 (IEO2010), released on 25 th May 2010 by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), world net electricity generation is projected to increase by 87%, from 18.8 trillion kWh in 2007 to 35.2 trillion kWh in 2035. This is mainly caused by the less energy-efficiency lightings, not considering people who actually wasting the energy by letting the lamps always switched on.

Most people nowadays used massive electrical energy to light up the whole house.Instead of increasing the electric usage and later will burden the consumers with high electric’s bill, why don’t we use the natural lighting, which is the sunlight? Our problems are how to channel the sunlight into a room of a building and enlighten the whole space.

Therefore, to solve this problem, we are eagerly searching a method to utilize the clean energy source to improve our quality of life. This is also one of the plans on how to support Malaysia as one of the best green countries, and what we can do towards it is minimizing the usage of this kind of energy when there is no sunlight such as at night or when it is raining. So, we come out with the solar fibre optic lighting system so that we can light up our house just using the heat from the blazing sun and of course with low cost of production. Then during night period we used light emitting diode (L.E.D) or bulb with the source from solar charging circuit which stores the energy from sunlight.

From researches, the advantages of fibre optic are:

Location: Most fibre optics are approved indoor and outdoor use. It is UV protected so it may be installed almost anywhere and has been tested at temperatures from -40 degrees Celsius to 200 degrees Celsius.

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Brightness: Fibre optic is 3.5 brighter than fluorescent lamps as its brightness perception is dependent upon several factors such as color, background, contrast ratio, viewing angle and ambient light conditions.

Strength: Fibre optic glows like neon along their length. The cable is virtually unbreakable and is extremely energy efficient unlike the neon or fluorescent lamps.

  • 1.2 Potential Problems and Solutions Some problems have been encountered due to the constraints in running this

project. There are the major of problems faced during this project carried out:

  • 1. Availability of components All the components have to be chosen carefully so that they can perform efficiently. Most of the components cannot be found in UTP. Hence, the components that we need, we went to the respective supply shops to search for it by ourselves.

  • 2. Restrain of budget The available fibre optic is quite expensive in market. To solve this matter, we save cost by borrowing things such as solar panel, electronics components and perspex.

  • 3. Time constraint We only have 3 weeks to complete the project as we are going to have mid semesters holiday and this will hinder us to get together during the break. The team consists of six members which are from all fields of engineering courses; civil, mechanical, chemical, petroleum and electrical and electronics. Thus, it is difficult to gather all the members as we have different timetable. Furthermore, the busyness some of the team members, make the meeting time hard to be fixed. Fortunately, we still can find free time for all the team members to meet the supervisor. By this time, there will be a discussion regarding to our project with the supervisor. Therefore, every member should give their full effort and work efficiently in order to finish up the work perfectively.

  • 4. New exposure This project gives a new exposure to all team members. Thus, it will take some time for team members to adapt new things especially in handling all parts for the design of the prototype.

  • 5. Mechanical joints Positions of the mechanical joints are not very strong and stable as we used chloroform to combine the perspex. So, instead of using it, we try to use hot glue as it much stickier, stronger and make it more stable.

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1.3

Literature Review

The main component that we use is fibre optics and it will function as light distributor and collector. Fibre optisc is typically a circular cross-section dielectric waveguide consisting of a dielectric material surrounded by another dielectric material with a lower refractive index. They are most commonly made from silica glass, however other glass materials are used for certain applications and plastic fibre optic can be used for short-distance applications. We select this material lighting because it offers unique flexibility compared to conventional lighting as it can be installed in areas that not accessible to conventional lighting.

For the house prototype, perspex is used as the main building material. It is because perspex is cheaper and lighter. So, that the project we going to have will be easy to move. Besides, we use mirror and reflective material to come out with the improved version of heliostat in order to optimize sun light collection and channeling it more effectively towards the optic fiber. We experimented this material in different angles and choose the most suitable angle for best result. In addition to protect or cover the heliostat during raining we create a simple but flawless rain-control system using motor and rain sensor. Solar panel is used as a mean to charge the rechargeable batteries for the lighting system during night time by light emitting diode (L.E.D) or 9V bulb.

  • 1.4 Design Concept

The main concept of our home lighting system is to maximize the usage of sunlight during the day through 2 important aspects. The first one is to light up the home by collecting sunlight using heliostat which then directed toward the optic fibre. And the second one is by using sunlight to recharge the battery that will be used to light up the home during night. The whole power source is from solar energy thus it’s really fitted the concept of ‘green environment’. Suggested conceptual design

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3D FRAME VIEW FRONT VIEW 5

3D FRAME VIEW

3D FRAME VIEW FRONT VIEW 5

FRONT VIEW

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TOP VIEW The features of each part of our home lighting design are listed below: Features

TOP VIEW

The features of each part of our home lighting design are listed below:

Features

Description

Home

Made from Perspex that lighter than aluminum and easy to handle etc to make shape.

Heliostat

Fixed at the top of home. Collecting sunlight and directed it toward optic fibre.

Optic fibre

Fixed in the house. Act as a lighting medium to light up the house during the day and night

Solar panel

Fixed at the top of home. Use sunlight to recharge the battery.

LED/ bulb

To light up the house during night.

Rain sensor

Fixed at the top of home. To detect the rain drop and activate the motor.

Rain Control

Fixed at the top of home. Detect the rain drop and slider will cover

System

the heliostat.

Support Bar

Fixed at the top of home. To support the movement of the slider/roof

1.5 Design Justification

For our design, we decide to use a simple one that is a home like a box yet still can support the heliostat, solar panel and rain control system. All these part need to be fixed at the top of home as we want to fully maximize the usage of sunlight in our design.

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For the heliostat, the design should be in some manner from the aspect of side angle and position so that it can collect sunlight and directed it into the home using optic fibre. For the solar panel, it will be placed at top of home as we want to maximize sunlight collection. And for this part, we will either cover the solar panel using Perspex which visible to light or just placed it at home top without cover. The purpose is we want to avoid the solar panel from corrosion.

And for the rain control system, it also will be placed at top of home as we want to cover the heliostat. We make the cover as simple as possible by sliding it using motor when the rain drop detected.

Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages:

  • 1. We use the solar energy as our power source thus it’s really environmental friendly and can save a lot of money by minimizing the usage of electricity.

  • 2. We use the fibre optics to light up the home which clearly much brighter than the pendaflour light.

  • 3. When using sunlight to light up the home during the day, it also provide vitamin D to us without we realize it while compared to pendaflour light, it’s certainly with time will give harm to us.

Disadvantages:

  • 1. We use fibre optics as our lighting medium. Thus, it a little bit expensive compared to pendaflour light yet it still gives us a lot of benefit from its usage.

  • 2. The solar panel by time will corrode and we need to replace it, yet it still last longer more than 5years and it save a lots of money than using the electricity.

  • 2.0 PROJECT PLANNING

  • 2.1 Task Listing Distribution

Organization Chart

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Project Director Abdullah Sofiy Bin Mansor

Assistant Project Director Calvin Lowrans
Assistant Project
Director
Calvin Lowrans

Secretary & Electrical Department Anis Syafirin Binti Ezhar

Material Department Mohd Hafiz Azmi Bin Mohamad

Mechanical Department Abdul Halim Bin Abdul Hamid

Treasurer Amirah Raihana Binti Haris Fadzilah

Task Division

Position

Group Member

Task Description

Project Director

Abdullah Sofiy Bin Mansor

-Organising &Chairing meetings -Planning weekly agenda -Coordinating all departments -Heliostat Design Division

-Research & Development

Assistant Project Director

Calvin Lowrans

-Assist in Planning weekly agenda -Project Goals & Direction -Monitor Project progress -Task Distribution to team members

-Heliostat Design Analysis

Secretary &

Anis Syafirin Binti

-Keep records of all group activities

supply

Electrical

Ezhar

-Minutes of meetings

Department

-Arrange Appointments

-Lead the design and development of electrical &electronic components of project -L.E.D & Fibre Optics integrated lighting system. -Electronic Switch and solar power

Material Department

Mohd Hafiz Azmi Bin Mohamad

-Material Selection -Design the layout and process of prototype -Deal with composition of material used -Prototype Exterior

-Project Publication

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-Logistics Officer

Mechanical

 

-Design & Develop mechanical aspects

Department

Abdul Halim Bin Abdul Hamid

of project -Design the layout and process of prototype -Rain Control mechanism -3D Design & Analysis of prototype

Treasurer

Amirah Raihana Binti Haris Fadzilah

-Manage the project accounts -Estimate the project budgets -Research on the strength & suitability of material used -Assist in material selection

-Light Optimisation material design

2.2 Logic of Sequence of Task

Design and Fabrication

-Logistics Officer Mechanical -Design & Develop mechanical aspects Department Abdul Halim Bin Abdul Hamid of project

Presentation and Documentation

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2.3 Feasibility of Plan After completing the proposal, our next focus is to complete the prototype
  • 2.3 Feasibility of Plan

After completing the proposal, our next focus is to complete the prototype and ensure it is flawless. In these 3 weeks, each of the team members had done their work according to our plan from the proposal submitted to our supervisor, Mr Mubarak. In order to elaborate more into feasibility studies, we have to consider from four main aspects which are schedule, operational, technical and economic.

Overall, the schedule and economic part is under control. Sofiy and Calvin who are in charge for the heliostat manage to come up with the draft prototype of heliostat base made up of mirror and polystyrene just to ensure it is working to reflect the light toward the parabola. It is very important to ensure the angle is correct and enable the light to be reflected correctly. Next step, the polystyrene must be replaced with perspex to ensure it is durable enough to support the mirror weight. Raihana the treasurer manage to ensure our team spendings is based on our budget planning. She also came out with the reflective material for the parabola. The reflective material must be as good as a mirror but it must be flexible at the same time in order to follow the shape of the parabola.

Halim came out with the 3D design of our prototype and manage to clarify the true location of prototype elements and its dimension. He also managed to incorporate the rain sensor mechanism to the heliostat and using gear and motor as the basic elements. Hafiz on the other hand managed to decide the suitable material for the prototype and he choose perspex as the main composition of the prototype. He also cut the perspex according to the correct dimension and binds them using chloroform. Anis has done a great work with the circuit by integrating the solar panel, the batteries, lighting sources and the rain control mechanism from Halim’s part. Overall, we only need to integrate all of this part into one.

The next focus of feasibility is for operational and technical part. We must complete the prototype as soon as possible and ensure it is working efficiently. For the operational feasibility, we must ensure the light can be reflected into the optic fibre and it is at its maximum amount. This is to make sure the lighting system is as efficient as the current one. On technical part, the rain control mechanism must be able to work consistently and the solar panel must be able to charge the batteries and light up the LED. In this coming 2 weeks, we expect a complete flawless prototype.

  • 3.0 METHODOLOGY

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3.1

Material and Description

The main materials that will be used to build our 21 st Century Lighting System are as follow:

NO

MATERIAL

DESCRIPTION

  • 1 Optical fiber

Main part of our model, as a guide for the collected light

from the heliostat to travel into the house model

  • 2 Mirror

Used as the base of our heliostat which reflect light to the

parabolic surface

  • 3 Aluminized-plastic film

To wrap the parabolic surface, shaped by the

 

wrapper

porcelain/clay and a small saucer

  • 4 Perspex

To build the house model

  • 3.2 Suitable Tool and Software

Tools and software are used for designing and documentation of the project. Up until this point our group has been using few tools and software to complete this project which is:

NO

TOOLS

DESCRIPTION

1

Drawing Tools : Pencil,

These tools are used for sketching the early design

Paper, Eraser, Ruler

and the development of the design.

2

Perspex Cutter

Used to cut the perspex into the planned design

3

Welding Equipment

Used to attach the electrical component in the circuit

 

NO

SOFTWARE

DESCRIPTION

1

Microsoft Word

The software is used to record all data regarding the project as

 

well as the documentations.

2

AutoCAD

CAD will assist in technical drawing of a model for a more detailed design. Unlike using drawing pencil, CAD will give a more accuracy to the dimensions.

 

It also assists in stimulating the real model look like.

3

Parabolic

To determine the diameter of the parabolic needed to be shaped

Diameter

to reflect the light into the optical fiber, with accurate

Calculator

calculation.

 

As the project progressed and developed, more tools and software are to be used to complete the project. In continuation from before, the tools and software that we plan to use are:

NO

TOOLS

 

DESCRIPTION

1

Electric Driller

Used for drilling holes at the perspex.

2

Joining Equipment : Fasteners, Hot

Will be used in the process to attach

glue gun, Tapes

components and parts

3

Paint brush / Spray paint

 

To decorate the house model

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NO

SOFTWARE

DESCRIPTION

  • 1 Microsoft Power

The software is used to prepare for the presentation at the end

 

Point

of the project.

  • 2 The continuation of technical drawing from before.

AutoCAD

  • 3 This software will assist in calculation.

Microsoft Excel

  • 4.0 DATA GATHERING

  • 4.1 Fundamental Engineering Concepts and Calculations

This Fibre optics lighting system which integrates the concept application of a heliostat and fibre optics(sidelight and extension endglow), is designed by using basic science and engineering concept of light reflection. Both the heliostat and fibre optics uses light reflection in its operating concepts. By understanding this concept we manage to design a heliostat that channels light to a parabola which in turns converges light to a desired focal point. Wherelse, the fibre optics which is well known for its 100% internal reflection and transmission is used and also viable to be the next substitute for the fluorescent lamp.

During designing the heliostat we used several methods for determining and calculating the angle of reflection. One of the methods was trial and error whereby we position the mirror(main component of the heliostat) at several approximated angles, a beam of light was directed vertically towards the mirror(which is placed at the approximated angle) depicting the light rays from the sun, the result or the position of the reflected ray is observed. At the end we picked an angle which reflects light into the parabola radius which is 5cm from a center point of the parabola. This experiment was done by keeping constant the height of the parabola and direction of the directed beam of light. After obtaining the result were as below:

Heliostat Upper Portion 9 84 1 cm 6 25
Heliostat Upper Portion
9 84
1 cm
6 25

Calculated parabola dimension

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Whereby: Formula Used:
Whereby:
Formula Used:

D= depth of the parabola

d=diameter of the parabola f= focal length

Heliostat Lower Portion

Heliostat Lower Portion 11 0 ᶿ = 36 ͦͦᵒ 4.6 cm 14 5 Other than that,
11 0
11 0
ᶿ = 36 ͦͦᵒ 4.6 cm 14 5
ᶿ = 36 ͦͦᵒ
4.6 cm
14 5

Other than that, engineering application is used in constructing the Rain-Control mechanism, whereby an auto detecting and operating roof is constructed to protect the heliostat from rain. This mechanism inculcates the electrical and mechanical engineering element into our project. A moist sensor is used to detect water/rain droplets which the closes the circuits and allows the motor to rotate the roof in, here the roof is a square perspex with mounted sides is fixed to a gear and mounted to the rotating motor gear

  • 4.2 Validity and Suitability of Data

Problems identified in this project include:

Absence of sunlight during the nighttime.

Fabrication of the designed parabola

Mechanical and civil engineering knowledge regarding construction, design and fabrication will applied in constructing the house model. The initial stage detailed improvements, concept, and calculation up to this date is explained as above and future improvements will be completed during the final stage in the final report

  • 5.0 ECONOMICAL AND BUSINESS CONSIDERATION

  • 5.1 Capital Cost

The cost of a unit of our Optical Fibre lighting system prototype is approximately RM 200.00. Below is the cost breakdown for this prototype:

ITEMS

DIMENSION

COST

Optical fibre

0.5m

RM 50.00

Rain sensor kits

-

RM 10.00

Reflective materials

(0.6m x 0.4m) x 2

RM

3.00

Mirrors

0.3m x 0.3m

RM 20.00

Heliostat bowl

0.1m (diameter)

RM

3.00

Solar panel

0.20m x 0.15m

RM 40.00

Electronic items

-

RM

7.00

Mechanical items (e.g motor)

-

RM

7.00

Adhesive materials

-

RM

5.00

Perspex

0.65m x 0.45m

RM 45.00

Decoration materials

-

RM 10.00

TOTAL

RM200.00

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5.2

Operational Cost

Our product operates basically without electricity. Thus there are no operational cost except for maintenance and extra power supplies which only cause slight increase for the capital cost.

  • 5.3 Business Consideration

In consideration of business, as our product is a scaled-down prototype, thus the cost for each original size unit will be much higher than the capital cost. For market purposes, our product will requires high cost in term of setting up and materials, however, for a long term period, this product can be considered cost friendly as it requires no electricity supply except for night time, so users will not have to pay for the electricity.

In fact, in order to suit this product to the current and future technology, it is created and designed as an environmental friendly product, thus we believe that the demand for this product will be high.

  • 5.4 Alternative in Material

As can be seen from the capital cost consideration, the cost for the solar panel and Perspex are quite high, thus as an alternatives, we had request the items from the laboratory which really helps us in reducing the cost. For market purpose, the Perspex will not be considered in the cost as it is only used as a material for prototype house.

For market purposes, the heliostat bowl and reflective materials will be replaced by forged metal which will result in better focus of light. As we are currently, still in the phase of building of prototype, as a contingency plan, we will replace the heliostat with a lens if in case the heliostat is not functioning properly.

  • 6.0 CONCLUSION

For the conclusion, we believe we already complete 60 percent of the project. The only thing that we need to focus is producing a flawless prototype. We have to make sure the prototype is neat and durable at the same time consistently working. Some of the vital aspects of this project are the correct choice of side emitting optic fiber, the efficiency of the heliostat to focus the light, the consistency of rain control mechanism and the compatibility between solar panel, batteries, LED and motor to make sure the whole system can work perfectly.

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