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Consider the transmitter block.

The source is typically rst passed through a source encoder which prepares the source messages. The encoder details depend on the source and may be further subdivided. For a voice or video source it would consist of, at minimum, an analog-to-digital converter, for a keyboard it could be an A C!! code mapper, etc. "ata encryption may be considered to be part of it. !deally what the source encoder should do is remove all redundancy from the source message, represent it by a symbol drawn from a nite alphabet, and transmit this symbol every Ts seconds. Typically the alphabet is binary and the source encoder output is a bit stream or se#uence. $emoval of the redundancy implies that the source rate %typically measured in bits&second' is reduced, which in turn as shall be seen, means that the re#uired fre#uency spectrum bandwidth is reduced. ()t kh*i ph+t. ,-u ti.n ngu/n 0i #ua m1t b1 m2 h3a ngu/n. C+c chi ti4t m2 h3a ph5 thu1c v6o ngu/n v6 c3 th7 089c chia nh: h;n n<a. ,*i v=i m1t ngu/n tho>i ho?c video s@ bao g/m, A mBc t*i thi7u, m1t chuy7n 0Ci t8;ng tD-kE thuFt s*, m1t b6n phGm n3 c3 th7 l6 m1t m2 A C!! mapper. m2 h3a d< liHu c3 th7 089c coi l6 m1t ph-n cIa n3. JK t8Ang nhLt ,c+c b1 m2 h3a ngu/n n.n l6m l6 lo>i b: tLt cM c+c d8 thNa tN ngu/n tin, 0>i diHn cho n3 bOng m1t bi7u t89ng rPt ra tN m1t bMng ch< c+i h<u h>n, v6 truyQn tMi bi7u t89ng n6y trong mRi chu kS. ,i7n hSnh bMng ch< c+i l6 nhT phUn v6 ngu/n 0-u ra b1 m2 h3a l6 m1t dVng bit hay d2y s*. Jo>i b: c+c d8 thNa c3 nghWa l6 t*c 01 %th8Xng 089c 0o bOng bit & giUy' 089c giMm, y.u c-u bYng thZng phC t-n s* giMm. [aving removed at least some of the redundancy by means of the source encoder, it may appear to be counterintuitive to have redundancy added back in by the channel encoder. This redundancy, however, is added back in a controlled fashion for error detection&correction purposes. The channel encoder therefore maps the input symbol se#uence into an output symbol se#uence. To transmit this symbol se#uence across a physical channel re#uires energy and this is the function of the modulator block. !t takes the symbol occurring in each Ts %symbol interval' and maps it onto a continuous-time waveform which is then sent across the channel. !t is important to emphasi\e that, over any nite time interval, the continuous-time waveform at the output of a digital communication system belongs to a nite set of possible waveforms. This is in sharp contrast to the analog communication system, in which the modulator directly maps the analog message to a continuous-time signal for transmission. ince analog messages are characteri\ed by data whose values vary over a continuous range, the output of an analog communication system can assume an innite number of possible waveforms. As shall be seen throughout the te]t, it is the nite property of the sets of the digital messages and modulated waveforms that makes the digital communication system more reliable than its counterpart by applying advanced signal processing algorithms at both the transmitter and the receiver.

au khi lo>i b: m1t s* d8 thNa bOng b1 m2 h3a ngu/n, n3 c3 th7 ]uLt hiHn 0i ng89c l>i c3 khM nYng dD phVng bC sung trA l>i trong c+c b1 m2 h3a k.nh. D d8 thNa n6y, tuy nhi.n, 089c bC sung trA l>i trong m1t c+ch c3 ki7m so+t 07 ph+t hiHn & hiHu ch^nh c+c m5c 0Gch lRi. "o 03, b1 m2 h3a k.nh bMn 0/ c+c chuRi kK hiHu 0-u v6o th6nh m1t chuRi bi7u t89ng 0-u ra. ,7 truyQn chuRi bi7u t89ng n6y tr.n m1t k.nh vFt lK 0Vi h:i nYng l89ng v6 0Uy l6 chBc nYng cIa kh*i 0iQu bi4n. _3 c3 bi7u t89ng ]My ra trong mRi Ts %khoMng thXi gian bi7u t89ng' v6 bMn 0/ n3 v6o m1t d>ng s3ng li.n t5c thXi gian m6 sau 03 089c g`i #ua k.nh. ,iQu #uan trang c-n nhLn m>nh rOng, trong bLt kb khoMng thXi gian h<u h>n, c+c d>ng s3ng thXi gian li.n t5c A 0-u ra cIa m1t hH th*ng truyQn thZng kE thuFt s* thu1c vQ m1t tFp h9p h<u h>n c+c th7 d>ng s3ng. ,iQu n6y tr+i ng89c hcn v=i c+c hH th*ng thZng tin li.n l>c t8;ng tD, trong 03 c+c b1 0iQu bi4n trDc ti4p c+c bMn 0/ c+c tin nhdn t8;ng tD t=i m1t tGn hiHu li.n t5c thXi gian 07 truyQn. e7 tN khi thZng 0iHp t8;ng tD 089c 0?c tr8ng bAi c+c d< liHu c3 gi+ trT kh+c nhau trong m1t ph>m vi li.n t5c, 0-u ra cIa m1t hH th*ng truyQn thZng t8;ng tD c3 th7 giM 0Tnh m1t s* l89ng vZ h>n c+c th7 d>ng s3ng. _h8 089c nhSn thLy trong c+c vYn bMn, n3 l6 t6i sMn h<u h>n cIa c+c b1 c+c thZng b+o kE thuFt s* v6 d>ng s3ng 0iQu ch4 m6 l6m cho c+c hH th*ng truyQn thZng kE thuFt s* 0+ng tin cFy h;n 0*i t+c cIa mSnh bOng c+ch +p d5ng c+c thuFt to+n ]` lK tGn hiHu ti.n ti4n A cM hai m+y ph+t v6 ng8Xi nhFn. f.g Te]t outline ,>i C8;ng ince digital communications, particularly at the physical layer and particularly the modem block, involves the transmission of continuous-time waveforms with their reception corrupted by continuous-time noise signals, the ne]t two chapters are concerned with continuous-time signals and systems. Chapter h deals with deterministic signals and different methods of characteri\ing and analy\ing them. The material covered is that found in a typical undergraduate signals&systems course. As such it is meant primarily for review purposes but since it is #uite self-contained it may be used by a reader with little or no background in the subiect. The reader is encouraged to read it and also to attempt the problems at the chapterjs end, or at least to read them. e7 tN khi thZng tin li.n l>c kE thuFt s*, 0?c biHt l6 A t-ng vFt lK v6 0?c biHt l6 kh*i 0iQu ch4&giMi 0iQu ch4, li.n #uan 04n viHc truyQn tMi li.n t5c theo thXi gian d>ng s3ng v=i ti4p nhFn cIa ha bT h:ng bAi nhiku tGn hiHu thXi gian li.n t5c, hai ch8;ng ti4p theo c3 li.n #uan v=i tGn hiHu v6 hH th*ng li.n t5c theo thXi gian. Ch8;ng h l6 c+c ph8;ng ph+p kh+c nhau phUn tGch tGn hiHu ]+c 0Tnh. C+c t6i liHu 089c bMo hi7m 089c tSm thLy trong m1t tGn hiHu 0>i hac 0i7n hSnh & hH th*ng nhi.n. _h8 vFy n3 c3 nghWa l6 chI y4u cho m5c 0Gch ]em ])t nh8ng vS n3 l6 kh+ kh)p kGn n3 c3 th7 089c s` d5ng bAi m1t ng8Xi 0ac c3 rLt Gt ho?c khZng c3 kinh nghiHm trong vLn 0Q n6y. _g8Xi 0ac n.n 0ac n3 v6 clng 07 c* gdng nh<ng vLn 0Q A cu*i cIa ch8;ng, ho?c Gt nhLt l6 07 0ac chPng