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A group of people that governs a community or unit. It sets and administers public policy and exercises executive, political and sovereign power through customs, institutions, and laws within a state
Kinds of Government

Dictatorial A country, government, or form of government in which absolute power is exercised by a dictator. Authority is carried out by one person or a small group of people. The acts of power are absolute, and typically cannot be countered without severe repercussion. It is overbearing supremacy that has little limitation in its extent of control. The first dictatorship started with the Roman empire. The dictator was an appointed temporary magistrate that was given extraordinary powers. The Senatenominated person was then affirmed by a consul, then ratified by the "Comitia Curiata" or popular assembly. The dictatorship was temporary and only was allowed during emergency situations. It was an extremely helpful addition to the beuracracy of early Italy. The dictators of the 20th and 21st centuries typically arise from the lower classes or the military and assume power outside of normal political processes. Sometimes the rule has been carried down from generation to generation. New dictators come into power when the established partiarch dies from natural causes, is overthrown, or is killed or murdered, leaving the progeny (usually the son) to rule.
Aristocracy form of government in which political power is exercised by a relatively small and especially qualified class. It is sometimescall government by the best, due to the fact that access to the ruling aristocraticclass is based not only on birth and wealth, but also upon physical, intellectual andmoral qualities. Strictly speaking, there were very few of such kind of government in history and practically none at present. Democracy

Democracy is an egalitarian form of government in which all the citizens of a nation together determine public policy, the laws and the actions of their state, requiring that all citizens have an equal opportunity to express their opinion, sharing all options.

Democracy is the antithesis of dictatorship. A dictatorship is typically ruled by only one person with little concern for the citizens' opinions. The principle of Democracy reflects all citizens to be equal before the law and to have equal accesses to the legislative process, which basically means that every vote has equal weight. The representative of a state ruled by democracy is chosen by the citizens who are expressing their free will. Every single vote or opinion is counted and respected. There are two basic types of democracy: a Direct Democracy and a Representative Democracy. Direct Democracy: The officials do not have to be elected, and the citizens directly make the decisions. Athens was the first democracy and they swore to be a Direct Democracy. Their councils were made up of 5,000-6,000 citizens (not government officials) to make decisions based on what they and the people wanted. Representative Democracy: Officials are elected by the people, who work for the people. Though the United States is not a democracy, it does utilize democratic principles. The US House of Representatives the US Senate, and the President represent what the people want. Representative Democracies are more common. For example most citizens do not want to deliberate and debate the upcoming issues and new laws for the country, they have work to do. So knowledgeable officials are put in place who have the time and the "know how" to run the country. State Four elements of the state 1. Population The State is a human institution. Hence population is its first and foremost element. No state can be imagined without the people, as there must be some to rule and others to be ruled. The people constitute its "personal basis". There is no such hard and first rule as to the number of people required to make a state. The population of a state must be large enough to preserve the political independence and to exploit its natural resources and small enough to be well governed. But it is the kind of people that matters more than their numbers. What kind of people comprises a particular state? Are they literate, well educated, culturally advanced? Aristotle rightly has said that a good citizen makes a good state. So what is important is the quality of people, their character, their culture and their sense of belonging to the state. 2. Territory People cannot constitute a state, unless they inhabit in a definite territory When they reside permanently in a fixed place, they develop a community of interests and a sense of unity. It becomes easy to organise them into a political unit and control them. So the state requires a fixed territory, with clearly demarcated boundaries over which it exercises undisputed authority. Territory is its "material basis".

The state has full rights of control and use over its territory. 3. Government Government is the important- indeed, indispensable machinery by mean of which the state maintains its existence, carries on its functions and realise its policies and objectives. A community of persons does not form a state unless it is organised by an established government. 4. Sovereignty It is that important element which distinguishes the state from all other associations. The word 'Sovereignty' denotes supreme and final legal authority and beyond which no further legal power exists. Sovereignty has two aspects- internal and external. Internal sovereignty is the supreme authority of the state over all individuals and associations within its geographical limits. By virtue of it, the state makes- and enforces laws on persons and associations. Any violation of these laws will lead to punishment. External sovereignty implies the freedom of the state from foreign control. No external authority can limit its power. India before 1947 was not a state because though it had the other three elements, i.e., population, territory and government, the fourth and the most important one i.e., independence was missing. Presidential and Parliamentary System of Government A Presidential system is a system of government where an executive branch is led by a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. In such a system, this branch exists separately from the legislature, to which it is not responsible and which it cannot, in normal circumstances, dismiss. A Parliamentary System is a system of government in which the ministers of the Executive Branch get their legitimacy from a Legislature and are accountable to that body, such that the Executive and Legislative branches are intertwined.
Differences in Parliamentary and Presidential Systems are the election of the chief executive and the debate styles. In parliament systems , the chief executive is not chosen by the people but by the legislature. Typically the majority party in the parliament chooses the chief executive, known as the Prime Minister. However, in some parliaments there are so many parties represented that none hold a majority. Parliament members must decide among themselves whom to elect as Prime Minister. The fusion of the legislative and executive branches in the parliamentary system tends to lead to more discipline among political party members. Party members in parliaments almost always vote strictly along party lines. Presidential systems

, on the contrary, are less disciplined and legislators are free to vote their conscious with fewer repercussions from their party. Debate styles also differ between the two systems. Presidential system legislators make use of a filibuster, or the right to prolong speeches to delay legislative action. Parliamentary systems will call for cloture or an end to debate so voting can begin. In both presidential and parliamentary systems, the chief executive can be removed from office by the legislature. Parliamentary systems use a vote of no confidence where a majority of parliament members vote to remove the Prime Minister from office. A new election is then called. In presidential systems , a similar process is used where legislators vote to impeach the President from office.

6. State and Nation Nation is a population having a common language and literature, a common tradition and history, common customs, and a common consciousness of rights and wrongs, inhabiting a territory of a geographic unity. A society of men is said to constitute a nation when they feel conscious of their common racial or cultural or sentimental solidarity among themselves. In sum, a nation exists where its component atoms believe it to be a nation. What are then the differences between nation and state? Nation is an ethnical concept while state is a political or legal concept. A state presupposes a government and a definite territory, while these are not necessary for a nation to exist. There can be a nation without there being a state, but where there is a state, there is at least one nation. A state may be made up of one or more nations, it is called a poly-national state. But where there is only one nation in one state, it is called a mono-national state. 7. Constitution The Laws in the land is governed by a constitution; it is a written instrument in which the fundamental powers of the government to govern are established, defined, as well as limited. It is also written in the constitution how the powers are being distributed among the several departments of the government. The constitution is a written charter that are enacted as well as adopted by the people in a particular state. The Laws on the land should be guided on what was being written in the constitution. The policies of the government should also be in accordance with the constitution so that any action will not be lead unto constitutional crisis.

The constitution is both important for the people and the state. For the people, the constitution provides their social protection wherein their right and privileges as citizens of a particular country is stated. For the state, the constitution serves as the backbone of the system of governance. Stated in the constitution is how the state should take action to govern and protect its citizens.