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Copyright: Nopon Oy 1998. Printed in Finland. AER 04.

98 ENG 395042
NOPOL

AERATION MANUAL
1 Introduction and Table of Contents
2 Activated Sludge Process
3 Factors Affecting Dimensioning of Aeration Process
4 AOR and SOTR
5 Production of Air
6 Aeration Control
7 NOPOL

DDS Aeration System Design


8 NOPOL

O.K.I. Aeration System Design


9 Aeration in Pulp and Paper Industry
10 Glossary
NOPON OY Turvekuja 6 FIN-00700 Helsinki Finland Tel +358 9 351 730 Fax +358 9 351 5620
E-mail: hq@nopon.fi internet: http://www.nopon.fi/
We reserve the right to make technical changes.
Nopon Oy Aeration manual Document level 4 Date:03.07.1998
1 Introduction and Table of Contents Page: 1.1 (6)
Revision: 2 Written by: MR Inspected by: Accepted by:
1 INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this manual is to provide a useful reference of information
appertaining to NOPOL

aeration systems. The manual is divided into ten


chapters each of which has a different purpose and may be used separately.
Chapter 1 contains a detailed table of contents of this manual.
The beginning of chapter 2 focuses on the working principle of the activated
sludge process. It then proceeds to detail variations in the activated sludge
process. The most important dimensioning parameters and their typical
values are given as a guide.
Chapter 3 deals with factors to be noted when dimensioning the aeration unit
of the activated sludge process.
Chapter 4 explains the calculation of the Actual Oxygen Requirement AOR
and Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate SOTR values.
Chapter 5 contains information on air production. Different blowers and their
accessories are discussed together with the general design principles of
blower plants and pipework.
Chapter 6 is useful to understand the most important features of operational
control involved in the activated sludge process. Regulating and measuring
the oxygen content is examined, as is the selection of automation equipment.
The detailed design of an NOPOL

DDS aeration system is described in


chapter 7. At the beginning, the oxygen demand and calculations of oxygen
requirements are covered. The manual then goes on to discuss features
related to aeration system design where NOPOL

DDS aeration systems are


used. The chapter concludes by giving some dimensioning examples.
The detailed design of a NOPOL

O.K.I. aeration system is described in


chapter 8.
Chapter 9 contains two studies on aeration in pulp and paper industry.
Chapter 10 is a glossary chapter including symbols, a small dictionary of
words used in waste water treatment and a table for transferring SI units to
units used in the U.S.A.
Nopon Oy Aeration manual Document level 4 Date:03.07.1998
1 Introduction and Table of Contents Page: 1.2 (6)
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION 1.1
2 ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS 2.1
2.1 Working Principle 2.1
2.2 Process Parameters 2.3
2.2.1 Aeration Method 2.3
2.2.2 Oxygen Requirement 2.4
2.2.3 Type of Flow 2.6
2.2.4 Process Efficiency 2.6
2.2.5 Sludge Age 2.7
2.2.6 Mohlmann Index or Sludge Volume Index SVI 2.8
2.2.7 Volumetric Load 2.9
2.2.8 Sludge Load F/M 2.9
2.2.9 Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids MLSS 2.10
2.2.10 Hydraulic Retention Time 2.10
2.2.11 Sludge Return Ratio 2.11
2.3 Process Modifications 2.12
2.3.1 Conventional Activated Sludge Process 2.12
2.3.2 Tapered Aeration 2.13
2.3.3 Step Feed 2.14
2.3.4 Complete Mixing Process 2.15
2.3.5 Contact Stabilisation 2.16
2.3.6 Kraus and Hatfield Processes 2.17
2.3.7 High-Rate Process 2.18
2.3.8 Extended Aeration 2.19
2.3.9 Oxidation Ditch 2.20
2.3.10 Carrousel Process 2.21
2.3.11 Aerated Lagoons 2.22
2.3.12 Two Stage Activated Sludge Process 2.23
2.3.13 Aerobic Anoxic Process 2.24
2.3.14 Anoxic Aerobic Process 2.25
2.3.15 BardenPho Process 2.26
2.3.16 Aerobic Contact Zone 2.27
2.3.17 Sequencing Batch Reactors 2.28
2.4 Summary of Process Modifications 2.30
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3 FACTORS AFFECTING DIMENSIONING OF AERATION PROCESS
3.1
3.1 Sewage Quantity and Composition 3.1
3.1.1 Design Flow 3.1
3.1.2 Biological Oxygen Demand BOD 3.3
3.1.3 Nitrogen Content, Ntot and N 3.4
3.1.4 BOD Load 3.5
3.2 Waste Water Properties 3.6
3.2.1 Coefficient of Total Oxygen Transfer KLa 3.6
3.2.2 Temperature 3.7
3.2.3 The Coefficient 3.9
3.2.4 The Coefficient 3.11
3.3 Aeration System 3.13
3.4 Operation Parameters 3.14
3.4.1 Dissolved Oxygen Level 3.14
3.4.2 Sludge Concentration 3.15
3.5 Plant Location 3.16
3.5.1 Atmospheric Pressure 3.16
3.6 Summary of Dimensioning Factors 3.17
4 AOR AND SOTR 4.1
4.1 Introduction 4.1
4.2 Actual Oxygen Requirement AOR 4.2
4.2.1 Eckenfelder O'Connor 4.3
4.2.2 Stall & Sherrad 4.4
4.2.3 "Abwassertechnik" 4.5
4.2.4 Eckenfelder - Boon 4.6
4.3 Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate SOTR 4.7
4.4 Clean Water Tests 4.8
4.4.1 General 4.8
4.4.2 Summary of Method 4.8
4.4.3 Definitions and Nomenclature 4.9
4.4.4 Apparatus and Methods 4.9
4.4.5 Chemicals 4.10
4.4.6 Samples 4.10
4.4.7 Air Flow Measurement 4.10
4.4.8 Timing Criteria 4.11
4.4.9 Calculations 4.11
4.5 Selection of Aeration Equipment 4.11
5 PRODUCTION OF AIR 5.1
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5.1 Properties of Air 5.1
5.2 Calculation of Blower Air Flow 5.3
5.2.1 Cooling of Compressed Air in Pipework 5.3
5.2.1.1 Equation and Coefficients 5.4
5.2.1.2 Temperature Loss in a Pipe Surrounded by Air 5.7
5.2.1.3 Temperature Loss in a Pipe Surrounded by Earth 5.8
5.2.1.4 Temperature Losses in a Pipe Surrounded by Water 5.9
5.3 Air Intake 5.15
5.4 Silencers 5.17
5.5 Anti-vibration Control 5.17
5.6 Air Filtration 5.17
5.7 Different Types of Blowers 5.18
5.7.1 Positive Displacement Blowers 5.18
5.7.2 Dynamic Type Blowers 5.20
5.8 Delivery Control of Blowers 5.22
5.8.1 Rotary Blowers 5.22
5.8.2 Centrifugal Blowers 5.23
5.9 Blower Selection 5.23
5.9.1 Capacity Requirements 5.24
5.9.2 Delivery Control Requirements 5.24
5.10 Blower Plants 5.25
5.10.1 General Design Principles 5.25
5.10.2 Blower Accessories 5.26
5.11 Air Piping 5.27
5.11.1 Selection of Pipe Materials 5.27
5.11.2 Properties of Different Materials 5.27
5.11.3 Design Principles 5.28
5.12 Examples of Air Supply Systems 5.29
5.12.1 Waste Water Treatment Plant, P. E. 40,000 5.29
5.12.2 Waste Water Treatment Plant, P. E. 200,000 5.29
6 AERATION CONTROL 6.1
6.1 Benefits of Aeration Control 6.1
6.1.1 Process Benefits 6.1
6.1.2 Economic Benefits 6.2
6.2 Control System 6.2
6.2.1 Blower Air Delivery Control 6.2
6.2.2 Air Distribution Control 6.3
6.2.3 Example of Aeration Control System 6.5
6.3 Instrumentation 6.7
6.3.1 Dissolved Oxygen Probe 6.7
6.3.2 Air Flow Measurement 6.9
6.3.3 Pressure and Temperature 6.9
6.4 Mechanical Devices 6.9
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1 Introduction and Table of Contents Page: 1.5 (6)
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7 NOPOL

DDS AERATION SYSTEM DESIGN 7.1


7.1 Air Flow 7.1
7.2 Mixing 7.3
7.3 Number of Diffusers 7.4
7.4 Layout 7.5
7.4.1 Layout Planning 7.5
7.4.2 Basin Geometry 7.10
7.4.3 Submersion Depth 7.11
7.4.4 Diffuser Layouts in Various Basins 7.11
7.5 Tapering Diffusers and SOTR 7.17
7.6 Calculation of Corrected SOTE Values 7.18
7.6.1 Expressing the Effect in Offers 7.18
7.7 Air Production 7.19
7.7.1 Dimensioning of the Blower 7.19
7.7.2 Dimensioning of Air Piping for NOPOL

DDS 7.26
7.7.3 Air Filtering System for NOPOL

DDS 7.27
7.8 Calculation Examples 7.29
7.8.1 Example 1 7.29
7.8.2 Example 2 7.39
8 NOPOL

O.K.I. AERATION SYSTEM DESIGN 8.1


8.1 NOPOL

O.K.I. Aerator Mixer 8.1


8.1.1 Scope of Delivery 8.2
8.1.2 Type of Aerator 8.4
8.1.3 Standard Oxygen Transfer Efficiency of Aerators 8.5
8.1.4 Basin Shape 8.6
8.1.5 Submersion Depth 8.6
8.1.6 Air Flow 8.6
8.1.7 Mixing 8.7
8.2 Designing the Aeration System 8.8
8.2.1 Number of Aerators 8.8
8.2.2 Cable and Hose Length Determination 8.8
8.2.2.1 Process Air Hose Length 8.8
8.2.2.2 Electric Cable Length 8.9
8.2.2.3 Lifting Cable Length 8.9
8.2.2.4 Protection Air Hose Length 8.9
8.3 Upgrading of O.K.I. 1000 Series Aerators 8.9
8.3.1 Example 1 8.9
8.3.2 Example 2 8.10
8.4 Layout Design 8.10
8.4.1 Aerator Location 8.11
8.4.2 Lifting Cable 8.12
8.4.3 Electric Cables and Protection Air Hose Attachments 8.12
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8.4.4 Process Air Hose 8.12
8.4.5 Hose Flanges 8.15
8.4.6 Frequency Converter Control 8.15
8.4.7 Blower Air Delivery Control 8.16
8.4.8 Air Distribution Control 8.16
8.5 Electric System Design 8.17
8.5.1 Over Current Relay 8.17
8.5.2 Motor Protection 8.17
8.5.2.1 Thermistors 8.17
8.5.2.2 Thermal Units 8.18
8.5.3 Starting Current 8.18
8.5.4 Electro-magnetic Disturbances 8.18
8.6 Air Distribution Design 8.18
8.6.1 Process Air 8.18
8.6.1.1 Flow Rate 8.18
8.6.1.2 Valves 8.19
8.6.2 Hood Protection Air 8.20
8.6.2.1 Valves 8.20
8.6.2.2 Flow Rate and Flow Meters 8.20
8.7 Lifting System 8.21
8.8 Work Safety 8.22
8.9 Air Filtration 8.22
8.10 Water Separators 8.23
8.11 Installation, Operation and Maintenance 8.24
8.11.1 General 8.24
8.11.2 Manuals 8.24
8.11.3 Installation Supervision 8.24
8.12 Guarantees 8.25
9 AERATION IN PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY
Design of the Activated Sludge Plant for the Pulp and
Paper Industry
Waste Water Treatment in Pulp and Paper Industry
10 GLOSSARY 10.1
10.1 Symbols 10.1
10.2 Terms 10.4
10.3 Conversion Factors 10.18
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2 Activated sludge process
2.1 Working Principle ...............................................................................2.1
2.2 Process Parameters ...........................................................................2.3
2.2.1 Aeration Method..........................................................................2.3
2.2.2 Oxygen Requirement...................................................................2.4
2.2.3 Type of Flow................................................................................2.6
2.2.4 Process Efficiency.......................................................................2.6
2.2.5 Sludge Age..................................................................................2.7
2.2.6 Mohlmann Index or Sludge Volume Index SVI ............................2.8
2.2.7 Volumetric Load ..........................................................................2.9
2.2.8 Sludge Load F/M.........................................................................2.9
2.2.9 Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids MLSS.....................................2.10
2.2.10 Hydraulic Retention Time..........................................................2.10
2.2.11 Sludge Return Ratio..................................................................2.11
2.3 Process Modifications ......................................................................2.12
2.3.1 Conventional Activated Sludge Process ...................................2.12
2.3.2 Tapered Aeration ......................................................................2.13
2.3.3 Step Feed..................................................................................2.14
2.3.4 Complete Mixing Process..........................................................2.15
2.3.5 Contact Stabilisation .................................................................2.16
2.3.6 Kraus and Hatfield Processes...................................................2.17
2.3.7 High-Rate Process ....................................................................2.18
2.3.8 Extended Aeration.....................................................................2.19
2.3.9 Oxidation Ditch..........................................................................2.20
2.3.10 Carrousel Process.....................................................................2.21
2.3.11 Aerated Lagoons.......................................................................2.22
2.3.12 Two Stage Activated Sludge Process .......................................2.23
2.3.13 Aerobic Anoxic Process ............................................................2.24
2.3.14 Anoxic Aerobic Process ............................................................2.25
2.3.15 BardenPho Process ..................................................................2.26
2.3.16 Aerobic Contact Zone................................................................2.27
2.3.17 Sequencing Batch Reactors......................................................2.28
2.4 Summary of Process Modifications ..................................................2.30
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2 ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS
2.1 Working Principle
The activated sludge process is an aerobic biological process used for waste
water treatment. The process is based on the ability of micro-organisms to
produce and sustain biomass using the organic matter as carbon and nutrient
source.
The main parts of the aerobic waste water treatment are pretreatment,
aeration and sedimentation. In practice, the aeration basin forms the reactor
vessel for the activated sludge process, which comprises many simultaneous
reactions. Aeration is necessary for maintaining aerobic conditions in the
basin and for creating sufficient mixing to keep the micro-organisms in
suspension.
Following the aeration stage, the mixture of micro-organisms and water, so
called activated sludge, is conducted to a sedimentation basin where sludge
is separated from treated effluent. The bulk of the microbial sediment is
returned to the aeration basin to maintain the necessary concentration of
micro-organisms there. The surplus microbial mass is removed from the
process as excess sludge (see Figure 1).
AERATION BASIN
SEDIMENTATION BASIN
INFLUENT EFFLUENT
WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE RETURNED ACTIVATED SLUDGE
MIXED LIQUOR
Figure 1: Diagram of activated sludge process
The oxygen demand of the micro-organisms is satisfied by aeration. The
micro-organisms need oxygen for the oxidation, synthesis, endogenous
respiration and nitrification.
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Oxidation
During oxidation, organic material is biodegraded into carbon dioxide, water
and ammonia. Energy is released.
Equation 1
S O CO H O NH Energy
COHNS
bacteria enzyme
+ + + +
2 2 2 3
,
Synthesis
The production of new micro-organisms is possible when organic material
and nutrients are present.
Equation 2
S P NH B CO H O
COHNS
bacteria energy
C H NO
+ + + +
3 2 2
5 7 2
,
Endogenous respiration
Endogenous respiration means breaking down the biomass of dead micro-
organisms. Energy is released:
Equation 3
B O CO H O NH Energy
C H NO
bacteria enzyme
5 7 2
5 5 2
2 2 2 3
+ + + +
,
Nitrification
Organic material is not the sole substance which is biodegradable;
ammonium nitrogen can be as well. This oxidation reaction is called
nitrification:
Equation 4
NH O H H O NO
bacteria energy
4 2 2 3
2 2
+ +
+ + +
,
Denitrification
In the presence of organic material and in the absence of oxygen, a reduction
of nitrate may take place. Nitrogen will be released in gaseous form:
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Equation 5
2 2 2 3
2
1
2 CO O H N H C NO
bacteria
org
+ + + +
+
The quality of the effluent varies considerably depending on the above
reactions. That means that the purification result also varies. The results can
be determined for each particular case by using one or several of the
following processes:
carbonaceous oxygenation equations Equation 1 - Equation 3
nitrification equations Equation 1 - Equation 4
nitrogen removal equations Equation 1 - Equation 5
The oxygenation of carboneous substances alone constitutes the "simplest"
form of treatment. Complete nitrogen and phosphorus removal on the other
hand is the most complex and efficient one.
2.2 Process Parameters
The various process modifications discussed later on in Chapter 2.3 are each
defined by the following technical criteria: aeration method, oxygen
requirement, type of flow, process efficiency, sludge age, sludge load,
volumetric load, solids content, hydraulic retention time, and sludge return
ratio. The criteria are defined as follows.
2.2.1 Aeration Method
The aeration system is normally based on bottom-installed aeration
equipment. The air distribution profile may be either uniform, tapered or
zonal, according to the diffuser layout (Figure 2). In Figure 3 various layouts
for NOPOL

O.K.I. aerator mixers are shown.


Figure 2: Uniform, tapered and zonal diffuser arrangements
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TAPERED SYSTEM
UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION
SELECTOR IN THE MIDDLE,
AERATION BASIN AROUND IT
AERATORS DEVIDED TO
SEPARATE BASINS
Figure 3: Various layouts with NOPOL

O.K.I. aerator mixers


2.2.2 Oxygen Requirement
Oxygen requirements determine the quantity of oxygen needed in the process
modification in relation to BOD
5
or BOD
7
(kg O
2
/kg BOD). The oxygen
requirement mainly depends on the value of the sludge load (F/M) and
nitrification (see Figure 4).
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Figure 4: Oxygen requirement as a function of sludge loading rate
Oxygen requirement can be expressed as AOR or SOTR which are discussed
is Chapter 4.
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2.2.3 Type of Flow
The type of flow and the shape of the aeration basin determine the flow
conditions in the aeration basin, that is, whether there will be a so called plug
flow or complete mixing. In plug flow, aeration conditions in different parts of
the basin will vary. When the entire water volume is mixed, aeration
conditions will be uniform throughout the basin (see Figure 5).
Figure 5: Schematic representation of plug flow and complete mixing
2.2.4 Process Efficiency
Process efficiency is defined as the reduction in pollution load achieved by
treating waste water, i.e. the difference between influent and effluent loads,
often expressed as removal percentage or as residual concentration of
pollutants.
Equation 6
E
S S
S
i e
i


100%
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where
E Process efficiency, %
S
i
Influent substrate (BOD) concentration, kg/m
3
S
e
Effluent substrate (BOD) concentration, kg/m
3
This criterion is somewhat misleading as a measure of purification efficiency
since it does not say much about the final quality of the sewage after
purification. For instance, if the efficiency is 90 % and the incoming BOD is
300 mg/l, the resulting BOD will be 30 mg/l. If the incoming BOD is 100 mg/l,
the resulting BOD will accordingly be 10 mg/l.
2.2.5 Sludge Age
Sludge age is defined as the average time during which the micro-organisms
participate in the aerobic biological process. Sludge age
c
is evaluated as
the ratio of total sludge mass in the system to the mass of sludge removed
per day. The value of sludge age affects the final purification result and the
Mohlmann index (SVI) which reflects the sedimentation properties of the
sludge. Sludge age may vary widely - from three to forty days, depending on
what type of process configuration is used. In plants under normal load
levels, sludge age varies from 5 to 10 days. Within this range a good BOD
reduction is achieved and the sludge will have good sedimentation qualities,
as demonstrated in Figure 6. In nitrogen removal processes, the sludge age
varies from 20 to 30 days.
Equation 7

c
w w e e
XV
X Q X Q

+
where

c
Mean cell residence time (sludge age) d
X Concentration of suspended solids in the
aeration basin
kg/m
3
V Aeration volume m
3
X
w
Concentration of suspended solids in excess
sludge
kgMLSS/m
3
Q
w
Excess sludge flow m
3
/d
X
e
Concentration of suspended solids in the effluent kgSS/m
3
Q
e
Effluent flow rate m
3
/d
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Figure 6: BOD removal efficiency and sludge sedimentation quality versus
sludge age
2.2.6 Mohlmann Index or Sludge Volume Index SVI
The sludge volume index (SVI) is used to describe the settling properties of
sludge. It is determined by allowing a suspension of activated sludge to settle
for half an hour in a 1-litre graduated cylinder. SVI is defined as the ratio
between the volume of settled sludge (g/1000 ml). SVI is therefore expressed
as ml/g. SVI value in most cases varies between 50 and 200 ml/g. Values
over 150 ml/g indicate poor settleability of sludge is caused by filamentous
organisms. Poor settleability of sludge is normally related to:
low dissolved oxygen level in aeration
nutrient limitation
septic waste water
low F/M
Nutrient balance is rarely problem in municipal waste water treatment plants
but in industrial waste water treatment plants it is more common. Nutrient
deficiency, particularly for nitrogen or phosphorus, produces poor settling
bulking sludge. The BOD: N: P ratio in the influent to aeration tanks should
be checked and adjusted if needed. A ratio of 100:5:1 should be targeted.
However, deficiencies of other nutrients (such as iron) are also possible.
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Low F/M bulking is often related to complete mixed aeration systems were
sludge load F/M is relatively low. Especially difficult problems are arisen
when waste water contains lots of soluble easily degradable carbon like
waste water from food, pulp and paper industry. Low F/M bulking can be
avoided by using contact zones before main reactor.
2.2.7 Volumetric Load
The volumetric load (F/V) of the activated sludge process or basin is defined
as the ratio between the daily organic load (BOD) fed into the aeration stage
and the volume of the aeration basin.
The volumetric load is expressed as kg BOD/m
3
d and it is defined as follows:
Equation 8
F V
S Q
V
i i
/
where
S
i
BOD concentration in influent
Q
i
influent flow rate, m
3
/d
V volume of the aeration basin, m
3
2.2.8 Sludge Load F/M
Sludge load F/M is the loading ratio of food-to-biomass of the activated
sludge process. Its value is the ratio between the daily incoming organic load
(BOD) of the aeration stage and the suspended solids (MLSS) in the aeration
basin. It is expressed as kg BOD/kg MLSS d.
Equation 9
F M
S Q
XV
i i
/
where
X concentration of activated sludge (MLSS), kg/m
3
Sludge load is often calculated based on organic part of the activated sludge
(MLVSS).
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The various process modifications have optimum sludge load ranges which
give the best process efficiency. Figure 7 illustrates SVI versus sludge load in
a conventional process which only reduces the BOD.
Figure 7: SVI versus sludge load
2.2.9 Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids MLSS
Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) is the concentration of solids in the
activated sludge process. The sludge content (X = MLSS) in the aeration
basin is usually 2 to 6 kg/m
3
. A higher solids content is maintained in the
winter than in the summer to compensate for the lower biological activity due
to lower temperature.
Approximately 60 to 80 % of the total solids content (MLSS) in the aeration
basin is organic matter (Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids MLVSS).
The organic matter present is lower if primary sedimentation is not used or if
phosphorus is removed chemically. In the simultaneous precipitation process,
the proportion is decreased to 50 - 70 %.
2.2.10 Hydraulic Retention Time
Hydraulic retention time describes the time taken for the micro-organisms to
remove the oxygen-consuming soluble organic matter (BOD).
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Equation 10
i
h
Q
V

where

h
hydraulic retention time, h
Q
i
influent flow, m
3
/h
V aeration volume, m
3
Hydraulic retention time can vary from 2 to 24 hours depending on waste
water composition and process modification. Industrial sewage often requires
considerably longer retention times than municipal waste waters. If retention
time is below the specific value characteristic of the process modification
used, the sewage may be only partially purified.
2.2.11 Sludge Return Ratio
Sludge return ratio is the ratio between the volume of sludge returned to the
aeration basin and the volume of influent water. The sludge return ratio
normally varies from 30 to 100 % in large plants and from 50 to 150 % in
smaller plants, depending on the process modification used and on sludge
settling properties.
The ratio can be approximated by the following formula:
Equation 11
Q
Q
X
X X
r
i r

where
Q
i
influent flow, m
3
/h
Q
r
return sludge flow, m
3
/d
X
r
return sludge suspended solids, kg MLSS/m
3
X aeration basin sludge suspended solids, kg MLSS/m
3
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2.3 Process Modifications
2.3.1 Conventional Activated Sludge Process
In the conventional process, the sewage and return sludge are fed together to
the aeration basin inlet. Purification takes place progressively as the mixed
sludge liquor advances in plug flow across the uniformly aerated aeration
basin.
Table 1: Process characteristics and parameters
Aeration method bottom aeration, constant air feed
Oxygen requirement 1,2 - 1,4 kg O
2
/kg BOD
5
Type of flow plug flow
Purification efficiency 85 - 95 % BOD
5
Sludge age 5 - 10 d
Sludge load 0,2 - 0,4 kg BOD
5
/kg MLVSS d
Volumetric load 0,3 - 0,6 kg BOD
5
/m
3
d
Solids content 1,5 - 3,0 kg/m
3
Hydraulic retention time 4 - 8 h
Sludge return ratio 30 - 100 %
Special features of the process
permits a relatively low sludge load
requires a rather long retention time
oxygen demand is highest in the feeding zone of the aeration basin
sensitive to variation of hydraulic and organic load
a constant sludge content level is maintained
AERATION BASIN
SEDIMENTATION BASIN
INFLUENT EFFLUENT
WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE RETURNED ACTIVATED SLUDGE
MIXED LIQUOR
Figure 8: Diagram of conventional activated sludge process
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2.3.2 Tapered Aeration
In tapered aeration, process arrangements other than air feeding are exactly
the same as in the conventional process. The amount of air fed into the
process is reduced in proportion to the decrease in the oxygen demand along
the aeration basin.
Table 2: Process characteristics and parameters
Aeration method bottom aeration, progressively decreasing air feed
Oxygen requirement 1,0 - 1,2 kg O
2
/kg BOD
5
Type of flow plug flow
Purification efficiency 85 - 95 % BOD
5
Sludge age 5 - 10 d
Sludge load 0,2 - 0,4 kg BOD
5
/kg MLVSS d
Volumetric load 0,3 - 0,6 kg BOD
5
/m
3
d
Solids content 1,5 - 3,0 kg/m
3
Hydraulic retention time 4 - 8 h
Sludge return ratio 30 - 100 %
Special features of the process
amount of air fed into the process is proportioned in accordance with
oxygen demand
energy savings are achieved
over and under aeration is eliminated better
AERATION BASIN
SEDIMENTATION BASIN
INFLUENT
EFFLUENT
WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE RETURNED ACTIVATED SLUDGE
MIXED LIQUOR
DIMINISHING AERATION INTENSITY
Figure 9: Diagram of tapered aeration
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2.3.3 Step Feed
In step feed process, the incoming sewage is fed to different points along the
aeration basin. Return sludge is normally fed only to the aeration basin inlet.
By distributing the incoming sewage to various feeding points, the absorptive
capacity of aeration sludge can be maintained at such a high level that a
relatively short contact time is sufficient to ensure satisfactory purification.
Table 3: Process characteristics and parameters
Aeration method bottom aeration, constant air feed
Oxygen requirement 1,1 - 1,3 kg O
2
/kg BOD
5
Type of flow plug flow/complete mixing
Purification efficiency 80 - 90 % BOD
5
Sludge age 5 - 10 d
Sludge load 0,2 - 0,4 kg BOD
5
/kg MLVSS d
Volumetric load 0,6 - 1,0 kg BOD
5
/m
3
d
Solids content 2,0 - 3,5 kg/m
3
Hydraulic retention time 3 - 5 h
Sludge return ratio 30 - 100 %
Special features of the process
offers flexibility of application
permits higher sludge concentration levels
not sensitive to sudden peak loads
aeration basin dimensions are smaller than in other process modifications
longer sludge age with same basin volume
effluent quality not as good as in tapered aeration
AERATION BASIN
SEDIMENTATION BASIN
INFLUENT EFFLUENT
WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE RETURNED ACTIVATED SLUDGE
MIXED LIQUOR
AERATION
Figure 10: Step feed
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2.3.4 Complete Mixing Process
In the complete mixing process the mixture of incoming sewage and return
sludge is fed uniformly into the whole volume of the aeration basin. Oxygen
demand and sludge concentration are thus constant throughout the basin.
Table 4: Process characteristics and parameters
Aeration method bottom aeration, constant air feed
Oxygen requirement 1,0 - 1,4 kg O
2
/kg BOD
5
Type of flow complete mixing
Purification efficiency 80 - 90 % BOD
5
Sludge age 3 - 10 d
Sludge load 0,2 - 0,6 kg BOD
5
/kg MLVSS d
Volumetric load 0,8 - 2,0 kg BOD
5
/m
3
d
Solids content 3 - 6 kg/m
3
Hydraulic retention time 3 - 5 h
Sludge return ratio 30 - 100 %
Special features of the process
evens out incoming load peaks efficiently
constant conditions are maintained for micro-organism activity
sometimes problems with sludge settling properties
Figure 11: Complete mixing process
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2.3.5 Contact Stabilisation
In the contact stabilisation process, return sludge is fed to the aeration basin
inlet and aerated separately from the incoming sewage until the organic
matter contained in the sludge flocs has been stabilised, that is, used up for
energy release and the production of new micro-organisms. This stabilisation
stage is followed by a contact stage in which the sewage is mixed with the
aerated activated sludge.
Table 5: Process characteristics and parameters
Aeration method bottom aeration, constant air feed in contact and
stabilisation basins
Oxygen requirement 0,8 - 1,2 kg O
2
/kg BOD
5
contact 0,5 - 0,7 kg O
2
/kg BOD
5
stabilisation 0,3 - 0,5 kg O
2
/1 kg BOD
5
Type of flow plug flow
Purification efficiency 80 - 90 % BOD
5
Sludge age 5 - 10 d
Sludge load 0,2 - 0,6 kg BOD
5
/kg MLVSS d (contact stage)
Volumetric load 1,0 - 1,2 kg BOD
5
/m
3
d (contact stage)
Solids content 2,0 - 4,0 kg/m
3
(contact stage)
6,0 - 10,0 kg/m
3
(stabilisation stage)
Hydraulic retention time 1,0 - 3,0 h (contact) 3,0 - 6,0 h (stabilisation)
Sludge return ratio 30 - 100 %
Special features of the process
well suited to sewage containing organic matter in colloidal form (low BOD
of soluble matter)
aeration volume required can be as low as one half of that required by the
conventional process
owing to the sludge buffer effect in the stabilisation section, the process is
able to accommodate load peaks and toxic matter without difficulty
SLUDGE
REAERATION BASIN
CONTACT BASIN
INFLUENT
WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE
RETURNED ACTIVATED SLUDGE
SEDIMENTATION BASIN
EFFLUENT
SLUDGE
SEDIMENTATION BASIN
PRIMARY FINAL
Figure 12: Contact stabilisation
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2.3.6 Kraus and Hatfield Processes
In the Kraus process, some of the return sludge (10 -15 %) is fed into a
separate aeration basin into which sludge and supernatant from the digester
plant are also pumped. This mixture is aerated from 8 to 24 hours and
subsequently mixed with return sludge and fed to the aeration basin.
The Hatfield process differs from the Kraus process only in the fact that the
entire return sludge is treated as in the Kraus process.
Table 6: Process characteristics and parameters
Aeration method bottom aeration, constant or tapered air feed
Oxygen requirement 1,0 - 1,4 kg O
2
/kg BOD
5
Type of flow plug flow
Purification efficiency 85 - 95 % BOD
5
Sludge age 3 - 10 d
Sludge load 0,3 - 0,8 kg BOD
5
/kg MLVSS d
Volumetric load 0,6 - 1,6 kg BOD
5
/m
3
d
Solids content 2,0 - 3,0 kg/m
3
Hydraulic retention time 4,0 - 8,0 h
Sludge return ratio 50 - 100 %
Special features of the process
well suited to sewage with low nitrogen content (for example, industrial
waste water containing carbohydrates)
settling qualities of activated sludge are improved by admixture of aerated
sludge which is denser and has better sedimentation characteristics
processes have an improved ability to accommodate peaks in organic load
since the aerated sludge mixture contains nitrogen in the form of nitrate
compounds. This helps to maintain aerobic conditions in the process
REAERATION AERATION
WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE
RETURNED ACTIVATED SLUDGE
SEDIMENTATION BASIN
EFFLUENT
INFLUENT
DIGESTER SUPERNATANT
DIGESTED SLUDGE
Figure 13: Schematic representation of Kraus and Hatfield processes
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2.3.7 High-Rate Process
In the high-rate process the mixture of sewage and return sludge is
distributed uniformly over the whole volume of the aeration basin. The
aeration time is 0,5 - 2 h. Owing to the short aeration time the process is
sustained at the logarithmic growth phase in which micro-organisms
reproduce at a very high rate, using large amounts of nutrients and oxygen.
The sludge return ratio has to be maintained at a high level to ensure
sufficient feed of the activated sludge which makes flocculation more
effective.
The principle of the high-rate process is the same as that shown in the
diagram of the complete mixing process (
Figure 11).
Table 7: Process characteristics and parameters
Aeration method bottom aeration, constant air feed
Oxygen requirement 0,5 - 0,8 kg O
2
/kg BOD
5
Type of flow complete mixing
Purification efficiency 60 - 80 % BOD
5
Sludge age 1 - 3 d
Sludge load 0,4 - 1,5 kg BOD
5
/kg MLVSS d
Volumetric load 2,0 - 6,0 kg BOD
5
/m
3
d
Solids content 0,5 - 1,5 kg/m
3
Hydraulic retention time 0,5 - 2 h
Sludge return ratio 100 - 500 %
Special features of the process
best suited to applications where a high-grade purification is not required
suitable as pretreatment for other processes
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2.3.8 Extended Aeration
In the extended aeration process the mixture of sewage and return sludge is
distributed uniformly over the whole volume of the aeration basin, where it is
aerated for 18 - 36 hours. Owing to the extended aeration time the process is
maintained at the phase of endogenous growth in which there is a fierce
struggle for nutrition between micro-organisms. The insufficient availability of
nutrients leads to a situation where micro-organisms use each others cellular
material as a source of nutrition. The principle is the same as in
Figure 11.
Table 8: Process characteristics and parameters
Aeration method bottom aeration, constant air feed
Oxygen requirement 1,5 - 2,0 kg O
2
/kg BOD
5
Type of flow complete mixing
Purification efficiency 85 - 95 % BOD
5
Sludge age 15 - 30 d
Sludge load 0,05 - 0,15 kg BOD
5
/kg MLVSS d
Volumetric load 0,1 - 0,4 kg BOD
5
/m
3
d
Solids content 3,0 - 6,0 kg/m
3
Hydraulic retention time 18 - 36 h
Sludge return ratio 75 - 150 %
Special features of the process
best suited to sewage containing organic matter with slow decomposition
characteristics
evens out sudden load variations efficiently
produces less sludge
high oxygen requirement
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2.3.9 Oxidation Ditch
The purification process takes place in a closed annular channel or oxidation
ditch, into which the mixture of sewage and return sludge is fed. The
circulatory movement of waste water is maintained in the channel normally
with brush aerators, but also large-diameter, slowly rotating propellers can be
used to prevent settling of sludge. In the latter case aeration is achieved by
means of diffusers arranged in groups and laid out in different sections on the
bottom of the aeration ditch.
Table 9: Process characteristics and parameters
Aeration method bottom aeration with submersible mixers and air
feed by zones, surface aeration with brush aerators
Oxygen requirement 1,6 - 2,0 kg O
2
/kg BOD
5
Type of flow plug flow / complete mixing
Purification efficiency 90 - 95 % BOD
5
Sludge age 15 - 30 d
Sludge load 0,03 - 0,10 kg BOD
5
/kg MLVSS d
Volumetric load 0,1 - 0,3 kg BOD
5
/m
3
d
Solids content 3,0 - 5,0 kg/m
3
Hydraulic retention time 18 - 36 h
Sludge return ratio 50 - 150 %
Special features of the process
complete nitrification is achieved in this process
nitrogen is removed from the process through denitrification
mechanical submersible mixers are used to create a sufficient current
velocity in waste water in order to prevent sludge settling
Figure 14: Schematic representation of oxidation ditch
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2.3.10 Carrousel Process
In the carrousel process the incoming sewage and the return sludge are
mixed together in the first aeration zone. Activated sludge moves in the
endless channel through successive aeration zones. This process combines
the features of complete mixing and plug flow. The complete mixing feature
results from the fact that the total liquid volume included in the circulatory
process is about 30 to 50 times greater than the influent flow rate. Thus the
process can provide a marked buffer effect. The plug flow feature is due to
the great distance covered by one circuit. Improved denitrification results in a
reduced oxygen concentration in some parts of the aeration basin.
Table 10: Process characteristics and parameters
Aeration method bottom aeration with submersible mixers and
air feed by zones
Oxygen requirement 1,8 - 2,4 kg O
2
/kg BOD
5
Type of flow plug flow / complete mixing
Purification efficiency 95 - 98 % BOD
5
Sludge age 20 - 40 d
Sludge load 0,05 - 0,10 kg BOD
5
/kg MLVSS d
Volumetric load 0,2 - 0,4 kg BOD
5
/m
3
d
Solids content 4,0 - 7,0 kg/m
3
Hydraulic retention time 18 - 28 h
Sludge return ratio 50 - 150 %
Special features of the process
process can accommodate large variations in both quantity and quality of
incoming sewage
mechanical submersible mixers are used to create sufficient current
velocity in waste water in order to prevent the sludge settling
Figure 15: Principle of carrousel process
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2.3.11 Aerated Lagoons
In this process, sewage is treated either by aeration alone or together with
return sludge. In the latter case the process is equivalent to a normal
extended aeration process. The aerated lagoon method is based on an
aeration basin excavated in the ground and into which sewage and air are fed
in order to oxidate organic matter.
Table 11: Process characteristics and parameters
Aeration method bottom aeration, air feed by zones
Oxygen requirement 0,7 - 1,4 kg O
2
/kg BOD
5
Type of flow complete mixing
Purification efficiency 50 - 75 % BOD
5
Sludge age not applicable
Load 0,002 - 0,05 kg BOD
5
/kg MLVSS d
Solids content 0,3 kg/m
3
Hydraulic retention time 5 - 10 d
Sludge return ratio 50 - 200 % (if return sludge is used)
Special features of the process
low BOD reduction
low investment costs
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2.3.12 Two Stage Activated Sludge Process
This process consists of two activated sludge processes operated in series.
The first stage is operated under high load and the second one under normal
load. These two separate activated sludge systems make it possible to create
two separate biological sludge types which differ from each other as regards
their microbial populations. Hence in the first stage the activated sludge has a
normal microbial composition while in the second stage there is an
abundance of nitrifying bacteria.
Table 12: Process characteristics and parameters
Aeration method bottom aeration, constant air feed
Oxygen requirement 0,5 - 0,6 kg O
2
/BOD
5
(1st stage)
1,5 - 2,0 kg O
2
/BOD
5
(2nd stage)
Type of flow plug flow
Purification efficiency > 95 % BOD
5
Sludge age 1 - 3 d (1st stage) and 5 - 10 d (2nd stage)
Sludge load 0,6 - 2,0 kg BOD
5
/kg MLVSS d (I)
0,15 - 0,3 kg BOD
5
/kg MLVSS d (II)
Volumetric load 2,0 - 3,0 kg BOD
5
/m
3
d (I)
0,3 - 0,7 kg BOD
5
/m
3
d (II)
Solids content 2 - 3 kg/m
3
(I); 1 - 1,5 kg/m
3
(II)
Hydraulic retention time 0,5 - 0,8 h (I); 1,6 - 3,2 h (II)
Sludge return ratio 20 - 50 % (I); 25 - 50 % (II)
Special features of the process
efficient nitrification
high BOD reduction
suitable for concentrated sewage
AERATIONBASIN AERATIONBASIN
SEDIMENTATIONBASIN
INFLUENT
WASTEACTIVATEDSLUDGE
RETURNEDACTIVATEDSLUDGE
MIXEDLIQUOR
SEDIMENTATIONBASIN
EFFLUENT
WASTEACTIVATEDSLUDGE
RETURNEDACTIVATEDSLUDGE
MIXEDLIQUOR
Figure 16: Two stage activated sludge process in schematic form
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2.3.13 Aerobic Anoxic Process
The process has two stages. The first stage is aerobic and results in the
oxidation of organic carbon and ammonia. The second stage is anoxic and is
aimed at denitrification, after which the treated sludge first passes through a
secondary aeration stage before the sedimentation unit.
Table 13: Process characteristics and parameters
Aeration method bottom aeration, constant air feed
Oxygen requirement 3,0 - 3,5 kg O
2
/kg BOD
5
Type of flow plug flow
Purification efficiency 90 - 95 % BOD
5
, 60 - 90 % N
Sludge age 7 - 15 d
Sludge load 0,05 - 0,15 kg BOD
5
/kg MLVSS d
Volumetric load 0,2 - 0,4 kg BOD
5
/m
3
d
Solids content 3 - 5 kg/m
3
Hydraulic retention time 16 - 18 h (12 h, 4 h and 1 h)
Sludge return ratio 75 - 150 %
Special features of the process
sludge produced by the process has poor settling qualities
mixing in the anoxic section is carried out by a mechanical mixer
denitrification rate is low due to limited availability of degredable organic
material in denitrification zone
AERATION MIXING AERATION
INFLUENT EFFLUENT
WASTE SLUDGE
RETURN SLUDGE
SEDIMENTATION BASIN
Figure 17: Schematic representation of aerobic anoxic process
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2.3.14 Anoxic Aerobic Process
The process has two stages. In the first stage, the incoming sewage is mixed
with return sludge. Under anoxic conditions the mixture interreacts, resulting
in the reduction of nitrate, which is released as nitrogen gas. The denitrified
sludge mixture is then nitrified again during the second process stage, which
is aerobic. Following this, part of the sludge is recycled directly back to the
anoxic stage.
Table 14: Process characteristics and parameters
Aeration method bottom aeration, constant air feed
Oxygen requirement 2,0 - 2,5 kg O
2
/kg BOD
5
Type of flow plug flow
Purification efficiency 90 - 95 % BOD
5
, 60 - 90 % N
Sludge age 10 - 20 d
Sludge load 0,05 - 0,15 kg BOD
5
/kg MLVSS d
Solids content 3 - 5 kg/m
3
Hydraulic retention time 18 h (6 h and 12 h)
Sludge return ratio 100 - 150 % and 100 - 300 % for denitrification
recycle
Special features of the process
sludge produced has good settling qualities
process can be implemented by means of small modifications from the
nitrifying plug flow process
reduces the build-up of slime on diffusers
MIXING AERATION
INFLUENT
SEDIMENTATION BASIN
EFFLUENT
WASTE SLUDGE
RETURN SLUDGE
Figure 18: Principle of the anoxic aerobic process
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2.3.15 BardenPho Process
The BardenPho process consists of five separate stages. The first stage is
based on an anaerobic reactor into which the incoming sewage is fed
together with return sludge. Owing to the anaerobic conditions, phosphorus
bound up in the return sludge is released. The second stage, which operates
under anoxic conditions, is fed with a nitrate-rich sludge admixture from the
third stage. The nitrates are reduced and nitrogen gas is released. The third
stage permits nitrification and the rebinding of phosphorus. The fourth stage
consists of another anoxic reactor where denitrification takes place again.
The fifth and last stage comprises an aeration unit where the free phosphorus
is bound to the sludge. This phosphorus-bearing sludge is then settled and
subsequently recycled back to the initial stage of the process.
Table 15: Process characteristics and parameters
Aeration method bottom aeration, constant air feed
Oxygen requirement 1,3 - 0,5 kg O
2
/kg BOD
5
(III)
0,3 - 0,5 kg O
2
/kg BOD
5
(V)
Type of flow complete mixing / plug flow
Purification efficiency 90 % BOD
5
; 80 - 90 % P; 90 % N
Sludge age 14 - 20 d
Sludge load 0,05 - 0,075 kg BOD
5
/kg MLVSS d
Solids content 3 - 5 kg/m
3
Hydraulic retention time 1 h (I); 2 - 3 h (II); 4 - 5 h (III);
2 - 3 h (IV); 1 h (V)
Sludge return ratio 100 % and 400 % (III II)
Special features of the process
provides biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus
process produces sludge which is biologically stable and easy to treat in
further conditioning
total nitrogen content (nitrates, ammonia, organic nitrogen) of the effluent
leaving the process is very low (2 - 5 mg/l)
ANAEROBIC ANOXIC AEROBIC ANOXIC AEROBIC
INFLUENT EFFLUENT
WASTESLUDGE
RETURNSLUDGE
RECYCLE
SEDIMENTATIONBASIN
Figure 19: Principle of the BardenPho process
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2.3.16 Aerobic Contact Zone
Poor sludge quality is a common problem in an activated sludge plant,
especially in waste water treatment plants treating industrial, easily
degradable, waste water from food, pulp and paper industry.
Sludge settling properties can be improved with a selector basin. In the
selector process the waste water and the return sludge are mixed in a small
basin before it is introduced to the main aeration tank. In the selector-aeration
system the well settling floc-forming bacteria have better conditions to grow.
Therefore, these bacteria are selected into process after microbial
competition. The selector establishes a substrate gradient that allows floc
forming, which posses rapid uptake and storage capabilities, to compete the
filamentous bulking organisms.
The selector basin is dimensioned so that the soluble biologically degradable
organic compounds are either degraded or stored by bacteria in the selector.
Contact times of 10 - 20 min have been used in a selector basin. BOD load in
a selector is usually 3 - 6 kg BOD/ m
3
d. Selector design is strongly
depending on the composition of the waste water.
Oxygen uptake rate in the selector basin is very high. It is affected by process
configuration and type of the waste water. Actual Oxygen Demand can be
estimated on the basis of soluble organic removal in the selector. The oxygen
demand of the selector can be up to 50 % of the total oxygen demand of the
process.
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2.3.17 Sequencing Batch Reactors
Sequencing Batch Reactor SBR technology is a method of waste water
treatment in which all phases (aeration, clarification) of the treatment cycle
occur sequentially in one reactor basin. This basic cycle may be modified by
the designer to achieve the conditions necessary for carbonaceous oxidation,
nitrification, denitrification and biological phosphorus removal.
The various phases in a typical cycle usually comprise the following:
Fill waste water enters the reactor basin and mixes with activated
sludge mixed liquor held in the tank.
React aeration of the tank contents. Biological reactions occur until the
desired degree of treatment has been achieved.
Settle aeration is stopped and the activated sludge suspended solids
settle to form a blanket on the bottom of the reactor vessel.
Decant clarified effluent is removed from the reactor without disturbing
the sludge blanket.
Idle unexpired time between cycles. Surplus sludge wasting may
occur.
Completion of these five phases constitutes a cycle of typically six hours
duration which is then repeated. Influent fill operation is usually interrupted
during decanting to prevent effluent deterioration by short circuiting.
Typical SBR's may use the following modified 6 hour cycle sequence for
nutrient removal:
Time (h) 0 - 1.5 1.5 - 2.0 2.0 - 4.0 4.0 - 5.0 5.0 - 6.0
Fill Fill - Aerate Aerate Settle Decant
For a single basin operating as above, influent flow balancing would be
required to store the waste water during the non-filling aerate, settle and
decant phases.
SBR technology has the advantage of being much more flexible than
conventional activated sludge processes in terms of matching reaction times
to the concentration and degree of treatment required for a particular waste
water.
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The volume between design bottom water level and top water level
represents the volume treated per batch or cycle fill volume. Cycle fill
volumes are typically up to thirty percent of the designated top water level
volume and the overall basin depth is generally sized around 5 to 6 m.

FILL
Mixed liquor
Inflow
Air on or off
(2 hours)
REACT
Mixed liquor
Inflow optional
Air on
(2 hours)
SETTLE
Sludge blanket
Air off
(1 hour)
DECANT
Sludge blanket
Air off
(1 hour)
Decant
IDLE
Sludge blanket
Air off or on
(Remainder of
cycle)
Waste sludge
Figure 20: Sequencing Batch Reactor
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2.4 Summary of Process Modifications
A summary of the above mentioned process modifications is given in Table
16. Purification efficiency, sludge age and volumetric load are given on the
basis of the process parameters.
Table 16: Summary of the process modifications
Modification Purification efficiency % Sludge age Volumetric load
BOD NH
4
/N / N-tot d kg BOD
7
/m
3
d
Conventional 85 - 95 - 5 - 10 0,3 - 0,6
Tapered aeration 85 - 95 - 5 - 10 0,3 - 0,6
Step feed 80 - 90 - 5 - 10 0,6 - 1,0
Complete mixing 80 - 90 - 3 - 10 0,8 - 2,0
Contact
stabilisation
80 - 90 - 5 - 10 1,0 - 1,2
Kraus & Hatfield 85 - 95 - 3 - 10 0,6 - 1,6
High-rate 60 - 80 - 1 - 3 2,0 - 6,0
Extended aeration 85 - 95 > 90 / - 15 - 30 0,1 - 0,4
Oxidation ditch 90 - 95 > 90 / 50 15 - 30 0,1 - 0,4
Carrousel 95 - 98 > 90 / 50 15 - 30 0,1 - 0,4
Aerated lagoon 50 - 75 - - 0,05 - 0,2
Two stage > 95 > 90 / - 1-3 / 5-10 2,0-3,0 / 0,3-0,7
Aerobic anoxic 90 - 95 > 90 / 50 7 - 20 0,2 - 0,4
Anoxic aerobic 90 - 95 > 90 / 50 - 80 7 - 20 0,2 - 0,4
BardenPho 90 - 95 > 90 / 60 - 90 14 - 20 0,1 - 03
P 80 - 90
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3 Factors Affecting Dimensioning of Aeration Process
3.1 Sewage Quantity and Composition ....................................................3.1
3.1.1 Design Flow.................................................................................3.1
3.1.2 Biological Oxygen Demand BOD ................................................3.3
3.1.3 Nitrogen Content, N
tot
and N........................................................3.4
3.1.4 BOD Load....................................................................................3.5
3.2 Waste Water Properties.....................................................................3.6
3.2.1 Coefficient of Total Oxygen Transfer K
L
a....................................3.6
3.2.2 Temperature................................................................................3.7
3.2.3 The Coefficient .........................................................................3.9
3.2.4 The Coefficient .......................................................................3.11
3.3 Aeration System...............................................................................3.13
3.4 Operation Parameters ......................................................................3.14
3.4.1 Dissolved Oxygen Level............................................................3.14
3.4.2 Sludge Concentration................................................................3.15
3.5 Plant Location...................................................................................3.16
3.5.1 Atmospheric Pressure...............................................................3.16
3.6 Summary of Dimensioning Factors...................................................3.17
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3 FACTORS AFFECTING DIMENSIONING OF AERATION
PROCESS
3.1 Sewage Quantity and Composition
3.1.1 Design Flow
Waste water flows may vary markedly hourly, daily and seasonally, and the
variations are typical for each treatment plant.
For the dimensioning of either the whole treatment plant or the aeration
system alone, the following parameters are needed:
hourly design flow, q
dim
(m
3
/h)
daily design flow, Q
dim
(m
3
/d)
maximum daily flow, Q
max
(m
3
/d)
As a general rule it can be said that the smaller the sewage network, the
greater the hourly variations. The daily variations depend on the weekday,
season, weather conditions, etc. The daily variations of the influents
(max/min) may vary in small plants from 5 to 10:1, whereas in large plants
they are much less. A typical curve showing the variation of influents over
one year is presented in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Typical daily variation of the influent.
The daily variations of the influents during the past year or over a longer
period can be depicted as a duration curve (Figure 2). For dimensioning
purposes a certain projected value (m
3
/d) depending on the forecast of the
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sewerage area (10 - 30 years forward) should be added to the duration curve
values.
Figure 2: The variations of the influent presented (as AOR), duration curve.
The daily design flow (m
3
/d) and the maximum daily flow can be derived from
the duration curve values. Normally the design flow can be chosen from the
duration curve as the mean value, but where forecasts are not included in this
curve, the design flow can be greater. The maximum daily flow (m
3
/d) can be
determined by the permissible length of the period during which overflows are
allowed.
To determine the hourly design flow (m
3
/h) the hourly variations should be
taken into account. In Table 1 the hourly variation factor k
dim
is given as a
function of the relation between the maximum daily and average daily flows.
Table 1: k
dim
as a function of Q
max
/ Q
average
Q
max
/ Q
average
k
dim
1...2 1,0...1,2
2...4 1,2...1,4
4...8 1,4...1,6
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If no existing data is available on daily variations, the hourly design flow rate
can be determined using Equation 1, in which factors from Table 1 can be
used.
Equation 1
q k
Q
t
Q
t
Q
d
d
i
i
L
dim dim
+ +

_
,

24
where
q
dim
hourly design flow m
3
/h
k
dim
hourly variation factor
Q
d
domestic sewage flow m
3
/d
t
d
hours of domestic sewage flows per day h
Q
i
industrial sewage flow m
3
/d
t
i
hours of industrial sewage flows per day h
Q
L
leakages m
3
/d
For estimating domestic sewage flow the specific water consumption (l/P.E.
d) can be used. Normally the specific water consumption varies from 150 to
300 l/P.E. d.
Treatment capacity has to be designed to suit each individual case.
3.1.2 Biological Oxygen Demand BOD
The organic load expressed as biological oxygen demand (BOD) indicates
the amount of oxygen required by micro-organisms for the biochemical
oxidation of organic matter. This amount is normally determined as the
oxygen consumption occurring in a period of 5 or 7 days at a temperature of
20 C. In the analytical method nitrification is usually eliminated by the
addition of allyltiourea (ATU). The following equation permits a conversion to
be made from BOD
5
to BOD
u
:
Equation 2
( )
BOD
BOD
e
u
kt


5
1
k 0,20 - 0,25
t time, d
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Figures for BOD
5
can be converted to BOD
7
by means of the following
equation:
Equation 3
BOD BOD
7 5
115 ,
If enough existing data is available on the influent BOD concentrations,
duration curves can be used to determine the design BOD (S
o
) concentration.
Normally these values vary from 200 to 300 mg/l, but in the case of industrial
waste waters the fluctuations may be greater.
If there is no data available other than the population size, the population
equivalent value can be used. Values of 70 to 90 g BOD
7
/d P.E. are
normally used.
The BOD concentration after the treatment process can be evaluated either
by the process efficiency (%) or by the purification requirements (mg/l). In this
case the process modification must be taken account. For normal domestic
sewage the required level can be 10 - 20 mg/l, but for concentrated sewage
(S
o
> 1 000 mg/l) the level is usually 30 - 50 mg/l.
Organic load is expressed as kg BOD/d. The oxygen demand in the aeration
stage is determined by the BOD value of the influent. Chemical and or
mechanical treatment may significantly influence the capacity needed at this
stage.
Organic load can also be expressed as Chemical Oxygen Demand COD.
COD indicates the total amount of organic material which can be oxidised
chemically in high temperature. COD includes both biologically degradable
and undegradable organic compounds. For influent, the COD/BOD
5
ratio
varies normally between 1,7 and 3,0 depending on the composition of waste
water.
3.1.3 Nitrogen Content, N
tot
and N
The total nitrogen content of the influent (N
tot
) is determined by the total
amount of nitrogen compounds (organic nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, etc.).
Normally it varies from 30 to 50 mg/l in municipal waste water. Sometimes the
nitrogen content is expressed as Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen, which reflects only
the total amount of organic and ammonium nitrogen. During the biological
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treatment process, the organic compounds are transformed to ammonia
(NH
4
+
).
If there is no nitrification (oxygenation of ammonium ions) in the treatment
process, almost all the nitrogen (N) passes through the process as ammonia
(NH
4
+
). Only a certain percentage, normally 20 - 30 %, will be bound in the
sludge and removed with it.
Nitrogen content of the excess sludge depends on the sludge age and sludge
production. Nitrogen content of biological sludge is normally 5 - 10 %.
Where there is nitrification, ammonium is oxidised to nitrate (NO
3
-
) in a
biochemical reaction. Since ammonium is a soluble effluent, the ammonium
concentration may be less than 1 mg/l after efficient nitrification.
Equation 4
NH O H H O NO
bacteria energy
4 2 2 3
2 2
+ +
+ + +
,
Denitrification converts nitrate nitrogen to molecular nitrogen (N
2
), which
being a gas, escapes into the atmosphere.
Equation 5
2 2 2 3
2
1
2 CO O H N H C NO
bacteria
org
+ + + +
+
If denitrification phase is before the nitrification phase in the process, part of
the organic load (BOD) is oxygenated in denitrification. This reduces the
need of oxygen in aeration phase and is expressed as a negative term in the
calculation of actual oxygen demand.
3.1.4 BOD Load
The BOD load is expressed as kg BOD/d. In determining the oxygen demand
of aeration the influent BOD values of the aeration unit are used. Where extra
treatment units exist before the aeration stage the reduced values can be
used. The efficiency (%) of different kinds of pre-treatment units and methods
are quoted in Table 2.
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Table 2: BOD reduction in different pre-treatment methods
Pre-treatment method Efficiency %
Primary sedimentation 25 - 50
Preprecipitation 50 - 70
Biofilter 60 - 80
Nitrogen concentration is reduced in all cases by only 0 - 20 %.
Organic load can be expressed also as a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD).
COD indicates the total amount of the organic material, which can be oxidised
chemically in high temperature. COD-value includes both biologically
degradable and undegradable organic compounds. For influent waste water,
the COD/BOD
5
-ratio varies normally between 1,7 - 3,0 depending the
composition of the waste water.
3.2 Waste Water Properties
3.2.1 Coefficient of Total Oxygen Transfer K
L
a
The oxygen transfer rate into water (dm/dt) is expressed by the following
equation:
Equation 6
( )
dm
dt
D A
C C
L
K A C C
L
L
L L


*
*
where
D
L
molecular diffusion of oxygen through
boundary fluid film
m/s
A area of air / water boundary surface m
2
C*

saturation concentration of dissolved oxygen


in water at process temperature
g O
2
/m
3
C
L
existing oxygen concentration in water at
process temperature
g O
2
/m
3
L imaginary thickness of boundary fluid film m
K
L
mass transfer coefficient of boundary fluid film g/m
2
For evaluations using volumetric units the above equation may be expressed
as follows:
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Equation 7
( ) ( )
dm
dt V
K
A
V
C C K a C C
L L L L



* *
where
K
L
a apparent volumetric mass transfer coefficient in clean
water at temperature T
A/V total mass transfer area per volumetric unit, m
2
/m
3
The coefficient K
L
a is specifically characteristic to the whole aeration system.
Among many factors affecting the value of this coefficient the following may
be mentioned:
Temperature
Soluble organic and inorganic material
Aeration method
Renovation rate of the boundary surface (gas/fluid)
Depth and shape of the aeration basin
3.2.2 Temperature
Both the coefficient K
L
a and the saturation concentration of oxygen in water
C
s
are dependent on the water temperature. The value of the oxygen transfer
coefficient K
L
a grows with an increase of water temperature. The temperature
effect is generally expressed by means of the following equation:
Equation 8
( ) ( )
K a T K a C
L L
o T


20
20

A temperature of either 10 C or 20 C can be used as the standard


temperature for the application of this formula. The value used for the
correction coefficient is usually 1,024. In related literature the values given
vary from 1,01 to 1,03.
The saturation concentration of oxygen decreases as the temperature of the
water increases. Table 3 shows the saturation concentration of oxygen (mg/l)
in water as a function of temperature (atmospheric pressure).
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Table 3: Saturation concentration of oxygen as a function of temperature
(atmospheric pressure)
T (C) C
s
(mg/l) T (C) C
s
(mg/l) T (C) C
s
(mg/l)
0 14,60 17 9,65 34 7,05
1 14,19 18 9,45 35 6,93
2 13,81 19 9,26 36 6,82
3 13,44 20 9,07 37 6,71
4 13,09 21 8,90 38 6,61
5 12,75 22 8,72 39 6,51
6 12,43 23 8,56 40 6,41
7 12,12 24 8,40 41 6,31
8 11,83 25 8,24 42 6,22
9 11,55 26 8,09 43 6,13
10 11,27 27 7,95 44 6,04
11 11,01 28 7,81 45 5,95
12 10,76 29 7,67 46 5,86
13 10,52 30 7,54 47 5,78
14 10,29 31 7,41 48 5,70
15 10,07 32 7,28 49 5,62
16 9,85 33 7,16 50 5,54
The value of C*

at different pressures can be calculated by means of the


following equation:
Equation 9
C H X p
h
O
+

_
,

*

2
where
H Henrys constant (mg/l) / (kN/m
2
)
X
o
Molal fraction of oxygen in aeration air 0,209
p Atmospheric pressure 101,325 kN/m
2
Specific weight of water kg/dm
3
h Submersion depth of diffusers m
The values of H and can be calculated from the following table:
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Table 4: Temperature dependence of values H and
Temperature H
0 0,697 9,805
5 0,607 9,807
10 0,540 9,804
15 0,484 9,798
20 0,438 9,789
25 0,393 9,777
30 0,365 9,764
In the aeration process, the temperature of the water affects the oxygenation
capacity of aeration equipment in an analogous way. Thus a water
temperature increase from 10 C to 20 C increases the coefficient K
L
a by 25
%, while the saturation concentration of oxygen simultaneously decreases by
20 %. As a result, the above mentioned change in temperature decreases the
oxygenation capacity of aeration equipment by 3 %, in case the oxygen
concentration maintained in the aeration basin is 2 mg/l. Under the same
conditions, the temperature change from 5 C to 25 C will decrease the
oxygenation capacity by approximately 7 %.
For the calculation of the oxygen requirement the most important temperature
is the highest temperature existing during aeration. It is particularly important
to take this into account in a hot climate and when warm waste water from
industry is being treated.
Waste water temperature in municipal plants is usually between 5 to 25 C. In
industrial plants the waste water temperature can be considerably higher, up
to 40 C.
3.2.3 The Coefficient
The coefficient is defined as the ratio of the mass transfer coefficients
measured in sewage and in clean water:
Equation 10

K a sewage
K a cleanwater
L
L
( )
( )
The value of the coefficient depends on
concentration of surface active agents MBA
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intensity of mixing
geometry of the aeration basin
aeration method
process configuration
process parameters, sludge age
For fine bubble aeration systems it has been suggested that the value of
grows from about 0,4 in the initial section to about 0,9 in the end section of
the plug flow processes. In the high rate processes a figure of 0,5 and in the
low rate complete mixing processes a value of 0,8 can be used.
With submersible mechanical aerators, such as NOPOL

O.K.I. aerator
mixer, the value of varies from 0,70 to 0,95. Value of for O.K.I. aerator is
higher compared to diffusers due to higher turbulence and different shape of
the bubbles.
The high return sludge ratio and the high internal circulation in the
denitrification and phosphorous removal processes dilute the influent and
thus increase the value. In the following tables there are guidelines for in
the most common processes.
Table 5: values for diffusers in complete mix aeration processes
Conventional
non nitrifying
Nitrifying Extended
aeration
SBR
denitrification
High rate 0,50 - - -
Medium rate 0,60 0,75 - 0,75
Low rate 0,75 0,80 0,85 0,80
Table 6: values for diffusers in plug flow aeration reactors
Section Step feed Conventional Extended D/N
Nitrifying Aeration processes
1 0,50 0,40 0,60 0,65
2 0,60 0,50 0,65 0,70
3 0,70 0,60 0,70 0,75
4 0,75 0,70 0,75 0,80
5 0.80 0,80 0,80 0,85
6 0,90 0,90 0,85 0,90
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3.2.4 The Coefficient
The coefficient is defined as the ratio of the saturation concentrations of
oxygen measured in sewage and in clean water:
Equation 11
( )
( )

C sewage
C cleanwater
*
*
The value of depends on the amounts of suspended matter, soluble organic
compounds and dissolved mineral salts. A value of 0,98 is normally used for
municipal waste water. However, the influent waste water may in many cases
contain large quantities of dissolved matter and this considerably decreases
the saturation concentration. For industrial waste waters may be smaller
than 0,95.
The coefficient can be determined by measurements of oxygen saturation
concentration or by evaluation of the amount of the total dissolved solids
(TDS) in the sewage. In the latter case the can be calculated as a ratio:
(dissolved oxygen in salty water)/(dissolved oxygen in clean water). Values
for dissolved oxygen in clean water and in sewage at various TDS
concentrations are given in the following table.
Since a low value generates a higher oxygen requirement, a correct
estimate of the value is important.
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Table 7: Dissolved oxygen concentration in water as a function of
temperature and salinity, barometric pressure 101,3 kPa
Dissolved oxygen concentration, mg/l
Temp Salinity, parts per thousand
C 0 10 20 30 40
1 14,20 13,27 12,40 11,58 10,83
2 13,81 12,91 12,07 11,29 10,55
3 13,45 12,58 11,76 11,00 10,29
4 13,09 12,25 11,47 10,73 10,04
5 12,76 11,94 11,18 10,47 9,80
6 12,44 11,65 10,91 10,22 9,57
7 12,13 11,37 10,65 9,98 9,35
8 11,83 11,09 10,40 9,75 9,14
9 11,55 10,83 10,16 9,53 8,94
10 11,28 10,58 9,93 9,32 8,75
11 11,02 10,34 9,71 9,12 8,56
12 10,77 10,11 9,50 8,92 8,38
13 10,53 9,89 9,30 8,74 8,21
14 10,29 9,68 9,10 8,55 8,04
15 10,07 9,47 8,91 8,38 7,88
16 9,86 9,28 8,73 8,21 7,73
17 9,65 9,09 8,55 8,05 7,58
18 9,45 8,90 8,39 7,90 7,44
19 9,26 8,73 8,22 7,75 7,30
20 9,08 8,56 8,07 7,60 7,17
21 8,90 8,39 7,91 7,46 7,04
22 8,73 8,23 7,77 7,33 6,91
23 8,56 8,08 7,63 7,20 6,79
24 8,40 7,93 7,49 7,07 6,68
25 8,24 7,79 7,36 6,95 6,56
26 8,09 7,65 7,23 6,83 6,46
27 7,95 7,51 7,10 6,72 6,35
28 7,81 7,38 6,98 6,61 6,25
29 7,65 7,26 6,87 6,50 6,15
30 7,54 7,14 6,75 6,39 6,05
31 7,41 7,02 6,65 6,29 5,96
32 7,29 6,90 6,54 6,19 5,87
33 7,17 6,79 6,44 6,10 5,78
34 7,05 6,68 6,33 6,01 5,69
35 6,93 6,58 6,24 5,92 5,61
36 6,82 6,47 6,14 5,83 5,53
37 6,72 6,37 6,05 5,74 5,45
38 6,61 6,28 5,95 5,66 5,37
39 6,51 6,18 5,87 5,58 5,30
40 6,41 6,09 5,79 5,50 5,22
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3.3 Aeration System
Aeration equipment are divided into three classes according to the size of the
air bubbles:
fine bubble aeration equipment (bubbles 1 - 3 mm)
medium bubble aeration equipment (bubbles 3 - 10 mm)
coarse bubble aeration equipment (bubbles > 10 mm)
The coefficient of total oxygen transfer K
L
a increases as the size of the
bubbles decreases. Scientific research shows that this coefficient attains its
maximum value when the diameter of the bubbles is between 1,0 and 2,5 mm.
The increase in the value of K
L
a is due to the increased total mass transfer
surface obtained through the smaller bubble diameter. If the air feed is kept at
a constant level, the decrease of the bubble size from 5 mm to 2 mm will
result in an approximately 6 times larger air-to-water transfer surface area.
Aeration efficiency does not increase in direct proportion to bubble size. As a
general guidance, efficiencies are in relation to each other as follows:
fine bubble 1
medium bubble 0,7
coarse bubble 0,4 - 0,5
The bubble size increases in proportion to an increase in the air flow through
one diffuser.
The decrease in bubble size is caused to a considerable degree by the
surface-active substances contained in the sewage. The increase of the mass
transfer area caused by the decrease in bubble size partially counteracts the
decreased rate of oxygen transfer due to the surface-active substances.
The spherical area of the bubble, which in theory should increase by 5 % for
each metre the bubble ascends, decreases by about 10 % for each metre of
upward movement. The natural reason for this phenomenon is to be found in
the decrease of the partial pressure of oxygen in the bubble owing to gas
transfer from air to water.
The ascent velocity of the bubbles produced by fine bubble diffusers is 25 to
30 cm/s.
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3.4 Operation Parameters
3.4.1 Dissolved Oxygen Level
The dissolved oxygen level in the aeration basin should normally be between
1 - 2 mg/l. If the concentration falls below 1 mg/l, it may limit the growth of
aerobic micro-organisms. Oxygen concentrations exceeding 2 mg/l mean
unnecessary expenditure of energy, as the cellular synthesis of micro-
organisms does not require higher concentrations.
For nitrifying process, the oxygen concentration is usually kept around 2 mg/l.
Concentrations under 2 mg/l limit the growth of nitrifying bacteria. Increasing
of the oxygen concentration from the level necessary for the bacteria is waste
of energy. Aeration efficiency decreases linearly when the oxygen
concentration increases.
The higher the maintained oxygen concentration the smaller the efficiency of
the aeration system. At an oxygen concentration of 1 mg/l the aeration
process operates at 90 % of its maximum performance. At an oxygen
concentration of 2 mg/l the efficiency reaches only 78 % of the maximum
possible (see Figure 3).
The distribution of dissolved oxygen along the length of the basin can be
depicted graphically by an oxygen concentration profile.
Figure 3: Relationship between oxygen concentration and efficiency of the
aeration system
The oxygen profile of the aeration basin should typically be near to the form
of curve B (Figure 4) to achieve considerable savings in aeration energy.
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Figure 4: Two oxygen profiles, A and B, in the aeration basin
The oxygen profile can be adjusted by the proper distribution of aeration
equipment along the length of the basin. The following distribution values for
SOTR (or for number of diffusers) can be used as a guideline. Values for
each zone are percentage (%) of total SOTR (No. of diffusers).
stepped
sewage 34 % 26 % 22 % 18 %
feed
0.25 0.5 0.75 1
Basin length
plug
flow 14 % 28.5% 27 % 17.5% 13 %
0.07 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
basin length
3.4.2 Sludge Concentration
The amount of oxygen required for endogenous respiration depends on the
activated sludge concentration (kg MLSS/m
3
). The higher the concentration,
the higher the oxygen demand due to higher amount of breathing micro-
organisms. Normally the values range from 2 to 6 kg MLSS/m
3
, but in some
applications values up to 10 kg/m
3
are used.
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More precisely, the oxygen demand depends on the organic matter present in
the activated sludge (kg MLVSS/m
3
). In a biological treatment plant this
amounts to 60 - 80 % of the MLSS, and it decreases if primary sedimentation
is not used or phosphorous is reduced chemically. In the simultaneous
precipitation process the proportion is 50 - 60 %.
The concentration of sludge in the aeration basin affects also the oxygen
transfer rate. The higher the sludge concentration, the lower the resulting
oxygen transfer coefficient (K
L
a). An increase in sludge concentration results
in increased viscosity and a reduced oxygen transfer rate from the gaseous to
the fluid state (dissolution of oxygen into water). Since the area of the mass
transfer rate is reduced by the increase in viscosity, the total oxygen transfer
rate is decreased.
3.5 Plant Location
3.5.1 Atmospheric Pressure
The elevation of the treatment plant with respect to sea level is an important
aspect of the design of the aeration system. This is due to the fact that at
higher elevations the ambient atmospheric pressure and the oxygen content
of the air are lower.
The oxygen content of the air can be calculated from the equation:
Equation 12
X
P
T
O
2
80 0 ,
where
X
O2
oxygen content of air kg O
2
/m
3
p atmospheric pressure bar
T air temperature K
The effect of plant elevation on atmospheric pressure is shown in Table 8.
A low atmospheric pressure must be taken into account in the dimensioning
of both the blower units and the oxygenation capacity of the diffuser system.
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Table 8: Atmospheric pressure at different elevations
Elevation from sea level Pressure
m bar
0 1,013
100 1,001
200 0,989
400 0,966
600 0,943
800 0,921
1000 0,899
3.6 Summary of Dimensioning Factors
All the factors mentioned in this chapter affecting dimensioning of the
aeration process are summarised in Table 9.
Table 9: Summary of dimensioning factors for aeration process
Factor Normal value
Q
dim
-
q
dim
-
S
o
200 - 300 mg BOD/l
70 - 90 g BOD/dP.E.
S 10 - 20 mg BOD/l
N
o
30 - 50 mg N/l
12 - 15 g N/dP.E.
BOD load efficiency of pre-treatment must be taken account, kg BOD/d
N load efficiency of pre-treatment must be taken account, kg N/d
Temperature T
max
in aeration basin
1,024
varies 0,4 - 0,9
0,98
C*

depends on T
max
and submersion depth
MLSS 2 - 5 kg MLSS/m
3
e
2
depends on the type of diffuser chosen
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4 AOR and SOTR
4.1 Introduction.........................................................................................4.1
4.2 Actual Oxygen Requirement AOR......................................................4.2
4.2.1 Eckenfelder O'Connor .................................................................4.3
4.2.2 Stall & Sherrad............................................................................4.4
4.2.3 "Abwassertechnik".......................................................................4.5
4.2.4 Eckenfelder - Boon......................................................................4.6
4.3 Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate SOTR..............................................4.7
4.4 Clean Water Tests .............................................................................4.8
4.4.1 General .......................................................................................4.8
4.4.2 Summary of Method ....................................................................4.8
4.4.3 Definitions and Nomenclature.....................................................4.9
4.4.4 Apparatus and Methods ..............................................................4.9
4.4.5 Chemicals..................................................................................4.10
4.4.6 Samples ....................................................................................4.10
4.4.7 Air Flow Measurement...............................................................4.10
4.4.8 Timing Criteria...........................................................................4.11
4.4.9 Calculations...............................................................................4.11
4.5 Selection of Aeration Equipment ......................................................4.11
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4 AOR AND SOTR
4.1 Introduction
In Chapter 2 the principles of estimating the process parameters and in
Chapter 3 the dimensioning values were introduced. In this chapter the
calculations will be continued from AOR to SOTR. The air flow needed,
number of aerators / diffusers and the layout depend on the aeration
equipment selected. There are separate chapters for designing an aeration
system using either NOPOL

DDS diffusers or NOPOL

O.K.I. aerator mixers.


A summary of the set of calculations is given in Figure 1.
LAYOUT PLANNING
NUMBER OF
DIFFUSERS OR AERATORS
CALCULATION
OF AIR FLOW
SOTR
CALCULATION
AOR
CALCULATION
PROCESS
PARAMETERS
DESIGN
FACTORS
SEE CHAPTER 3
SEE CHAPTER 2
NO
YES
NO
YES
Figure 1: Design of an aeration system
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4.2 Actual Oxygen Requirement AOR
Several methods are available for evaluating the Actual Oxygen Requirement
(AOR). For rough estimates, the oxygen demand of organic matter (BOD) can
be considered to be 0.7 x BOD in high-load plants, 1.0 x BOD in normally
loaded plants, and 1.5 x BOD in low-load plants. However such estimates are
becoming more and more obsolete as increasing demands are placed on the
treatment process.
The actual oxygen requirement can be calculated from the following equation:
Equation 1
AOR COR EOR NOR DOR + +
where
AOR actual oxygen requirement kg O
2
/d
COR oxygen requirement of organic compounds kg O
2
/d
EOR oxygen required for endogenous respiration
of activated sludge
kg O
2
/d
NOR oxygen required for nitrification kg O
2
/d
DOR oxygen released in denitrification kg O
2
/d
Actual oxygen demand can be calculated also based on COD balance of the
biological part:
AOR = COD
in
- COD
eff
- COD
s
The surplus sludge production is depending on type of the waste water and
the operating parameters of the process. The surplus sludge production is
usually between 0,3 - 0,6 kg COD
S
/ COD
in
.
The methods used vary from one country to another. In the United States,
Germany and the United Kingdom there are specific equations for
determining oxygen demand in aeration.
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4.2.1 Eckenfelder O'Connor
In the United States, the Eckenfelder O'Connor empirical equation has been
used:
Equation 2
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
AOR a S S Q b X V k NH NH Q NH N
AOR a S Q b X V k NH Q NH N
o O O D
O D
+ +
+ +
*
, ,
*
,
' ,
' ,
4 4 4
4 4
2 8
2 8
where
a* substrate respiration rate; 0,5 (0,4 - 0,63)
S
O
BOD
5
of influent (before aeration) kg/m
3
S BOD
5
of effluent (after aeration) kg/m
3
S substrate reduction kg BOD
5
/m
3
b endogenous respiration rate
0,1 (0,10 - 0,15) biological treatment
0,066 biological - chemical treatment
N
D
total nitrogen in effluent kg/m
3
X sludge concentration kg MLVSS/m
3
Q influent flow m
3
/d
V aeration basin volume m
3
k' ammonium oxygenation coefficient; 4,6
NH
4,O
ammonia nitrogen (NH
4
-N) concentration of influent kg/m
3
NH
4
ammonia nitrogen (NH
4
-N) concentration of effluent kg/m
3
NH
4
(NH
4
-N) reduction kg/m
3
Varying values have been measured for the coefficients a and b. Coefficient a
is usually 0,5 and b 0,1. However, a value of 0.066 is also used for b in
Sweden.
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4.2.2 Stall & Sherrad
Modern dimensioning practices in particular in the United States are based
on the following equation:
Equation 3
( )
( )
AOR
Q S S
f
P NH NH Q N
AOR
Q S
f
P NH Q N
O e
X O R
X R


+
1 42 4 57 1 7
1 42 4 57 1 7
4 4
4
, , ,
, , ,
,

where
Q water flow m
3
/d
S
O
BOD
5
of influent kg/m
3
S
e
BOD
5
of effluent kg/m
3
NH
4,O
ammonia nitrogen concentration in influent kg/m
3
NH
4
ammonia nitrogen concentration in effluent kg/m
3
NH
4
ammonia nitrogen reduction kg/d
f coefficient of the conversion BOD
5
(0,86)
P
X
net production of biomass kg MLSS/d
N
R
total nitrogen reduction kg N/d
S BOD
5
reduction kg/m
3
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4.2.3 "Abwassertechnik"
In Germany, current dimensioning practice is generally based on the method
presented in the Lehr - und Handbuch der Abwassertechnik manual:
Equation 4
( )
[ ]
OV a B b x TS f q N NO N
R R R r R
A
D
+ + +
*
, , 4 6 1 7
3
where
OV
R
actual oxygen requirement
AOR V 1/24 kg O
2
/m
3
h
a* substrate respiration rate (0,4 - 0,65)
B
R
volumetric load kg BOD / m
3
d
purification efficiency (0,7 - 1,0)
b endogenous respiration rate, 0,24 kg O
2
/kg TS
R
d
x proportion of active biomass (organic
matter)
TS
R
concentration of suspended solids in
the aeration basin
kg/m
3
f
r
temperature correction coefficient,
1,072
T-15
q
R
hydraulic load m
3
of sewage /m
3
of basin d
N(NO
3
)
A
nitrate concentration of effluent kg/m
3
N
D
total nitrogen concentration of effluent kg/m
3
Equation 5
N N N N N N
D ges Z NH A org A us NO A

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4 3
where
N
(ges)Z
total nitrogen of influent (0,040) kg/m
3
N
(NH4)A
ammonium nitrogen of effluent (0,028 - 0,0) kg/m
3
N
(org)A
organic nitrogen of effluent (0,002) kg/m
3
N
s
nitrogen bound to excess sludge (0,010) kg/m
3
N
(NO3)A
nitrate concentration of effluent (0 - 0,027 - 0,017) kg/m
3
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4.2.4 Eckenfelder - Boon
In the United Kingdom the following equation is generally used:
Equation 6
R a B N N b X V
H T
+ +
*
, , 4 34 2 85
where
R actual oxygen requirement kg O
2
/d
a* substrate respiration (0,75 - 1,0)
B amount of BOD removed kg/d
N
H
amount of ammonium nitrogen removed kg N/d
N
T
total amount of nitrogen removed kg N/d
b endogenous respiration (0,048) kg O
2
/kg MLSS d
q temperature coefficient (1,024)
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4.3 Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate SOTR
The next step is to convert the actual oxygen requirement (AOR, kg O
2
/d) to
the Standard oxygen transfer rate (SOTR, kg O
2
/h) which is the clean water
requirement in specified standard conditions. The following equation is
normally used:
Equation 7
SOTR
C
C C
AOR k
L
T


1 1
24
20 20
1


,
*
*
where
AOR actual oxygen requirement kg O
2
/h
SOTR standard oxygen transfer rate (101.3 kPa, 20 C) kg O
2
/h
alpha coefficient, generally 0,4 - 0,9
beta coefficient, generally 0,9 - 1,0
temperature correction coefficient, 1,024
k
1
flow rate correction coefficient
C*

steady state dissolved oxygen (DO) saturation


concentration attained at infinite time at water
temperature T and field atmospheric pressure. The
value can be estimated as follows:
C*

= C
ST
(1 + 0,035 (h - 0,25))
mg O
2
/l
C
ST
table value for dissolved oxygen (DO) at temperature T
at surface level
mg O
2
/l
C*
, 20
steady state dissolved oxygen (DO) saturation
concentration attained at infinite time at water
temperature 20 C and standard atmospheric pressure
(101.3 kPa). The value can be estimated as follows:
C*
, 20
= C
ST20
(1 + 0,035h)
mg O
2
/l
C
ST20
table value for dissolved oxygen (DO) at temperature 20
C at surface level, 9,07
mg O
2
/l
C
L
actual oxygen concentration in aeration basin mg O
2
/l
The value of the flow rate correction factor k
1
depends on the retention time
of waste water in aeration basin. The shorter the retention time, the bigger is
the value k
1
.
The retention time t is calculated as follows:
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Equation 8
t
V
q

dim
where
V aeration basin volume m
3
q
dim
dimensioning water flow m
3
/h
Guideline values for k
1
are shown in Table 1. Note that these values are for
smaller waste water treatment plants. Larger plants have smaller variations
and normally value for k
1
is known in the design stage.
Table 1: Flow rate correction factor
t 24 12 8 4 2
k
1
1.10 1.25 1.35 1.40 1.50
4.4 Clean Water Tests
4.4.1 General
The SOTR guarantee tests for NOPOL

aeration systems should be carried


out according to Measurement of Oxygen Transfer in Clean Water, ASCE
(American Society of Civil Engineers, 1984). Other test methods like NORM
M5888 are not accepted unless all technical details are agreed before the
test.
The ASCE test method is applied in the General Guarantee Terms for
NOPOL

Aeration Systems.
In the following text some of the important factors are collected from ASCE-
standard. Following text do not include all the necessary information that is
needed for a correct SOTR test. Therefore ASCE standard shall be studied
carefully before testing the aeration equipment.
4.4.2 Summary of Method
The test method is based upon removal of dissolved oxygen (DO) from the
water volume by sodium sulfite followed by reoxygenation to near saturation
level. The DO inventory of the water volume is monitored during the
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reaeration period by measuring DO concentrations at several determination
points selected to best represent tank contents. These DO concentrations
may be either sensed in situ using membrane probes or measured by the
Winkler or probe method applied to pumped samples.
The data obtained at each determination point are then analysed by a
simplified mass transfer model to estimate the apparent volumetric mass
transfer coefficient, K
l
a, and the equilibrium concentration, C*. The basic
model is the following:
Equation 9
C = C

* - (C

*-C
0
) exp (-K
L
a * t)
Non-linear regression is employed to fit equation to DO-profile measured at
each determination point during reoxygenation. In this way, estimates of K
L
a
and C

*are obtained in each determination point. These estimates are


adjusted to standard conditions and standard oxygen transfer rate is obtained
as the average of the products of the adjusted point K
L
a values, the
corresponding adjusted point C

* values and the tank volume.


4.4.3 Definitions and Nomenclature
Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate (SOTR) is mass of oxygen per unit time
dissolved in a volume of water by an oxygen transfer system operating under
given standard conditions when the DO concentration is zero.
Standard Oxygen Transfer Efficiency (SOTE) is the fraction of oxygen in an
injected gas stream dissolved under given conditions of temperature,
barometric pressure, gas rate and zero DO concentration.
4.4.4 Apparatus and Methods
For determination of a Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate, the water to which
oxygen is transferred should be equivalent in quality to public water supply.
Repetitive testing may be conducted in the same water provided that TDS
does not exceed 1 500 mg/l.
Membrane Electrode Measurement of DO either on pumped samples or in
situ shall be in accordance with section 421F of Standard Methods (1).
Minimum four determination points shall be used. One should be in shallow
depth, one should be at deep location and one should be at mid depth. The
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points should be at leas 0,6 meter from walls, floor and surface and no closer
to the surface than 10 percent of the minimum tank dimension.
Water temperature measurement shall be in accordance with section 212 of
Standard Methods (1).
4.4.5 Chemicals
Either reagent or technical grade sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) shall be used for
deoxygenation. Sodium sulfite shall be added in solution. This may be
accomplished by dissolving the sulfite in a separate mixing tank prior to its
addition to the test tank.
The theoretical sodium sulfite requirement for deoxygenation is 7,88 mg/l per
1 mg/l DO concentration. Sulfite additions are made in excess of
stochiometric amounts. The amount of excess varies from 20 to 250 %.
Sufficient sulfite solution shall be added to depress the DO level below 0,5
mg/l at all points in the test water. Dissolved sulfite shall be distributed rapidly
into test tank. Extreme care should be exercised to assure adequate
dispersion in the test tank. Final mixing prior to test can be achieve by
starting the aeration for very short period 5 10 seconds. Air bubbles are
mixing the chemical effectively. Oxygen level in the tank should remain zero
due to excess dose of the sodiumsulfite.
The cobalt catalyst should normally be added once for each test. A solution of
cobalt salt shall be added to test to achieve a soluble cobalt concentration
between 0,10 mg/l and 0,5 mg/l in the test water. The solution shall be added
prior to beginning of oxygen transfer testing with the aeration system
operating 30 minutes after addition.
4.4.6 Samples
Water samples according to ASCE standard shall be taken and analysed.
Analyses include determination of Total Dissolved Solids and Soluble Cobalt
in the beginning and the end of every test. Also temperature of test water is
determined in beginning and end of every test.
4.4.7 Air Flow Measurement
Gas flow apparatus shall be capable of measuring the gas flow with an
accuracy of 5 %. Full-scale plant gas flows should be used with caution since
the precision and accuracy of the measurement device may not be adequate
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for test flow rates. It is desirable to provide a back-up or supplemental as a
check. The instataneous gas flow rate should not vary by more than 5 %
during the test.
4.4.8 Timing Criteria
The purpose of the criteria is to ensure that the data points are representative
of the reaeration curve and that adequate number of points are obtained in
sensitive regions of the curve. The lowest DO value shall be not greater 20 %
of C

*. The highest DO value shall be not less than 98 % of C

*.
4.4.9 Calculations
Non-linear method for calculation the result shall be used. This method is
based on non-linear regression of the model (Equation 9) through the DO
versus time. The best estimates for parameters are selected as values which
drive the model equation through the DO concernation versus time data
points with a minimum residual sum of squares.
Best fit log deficit method is acceptable to evalute the SOTR result. The cief
advantage of the method is that in can be applied with relatively simple
calculation procedure with normal spredsheet program. The method is based
on linear regression of the logaritmic form of the model equation using
logaritmic function of DO data. The logaritmic equation shall be fit to the DO
data for each determination point by performing a linear regression of
ln(C

* - C) versus time.
Other calculation methods are not acceptable for evaluating result according
ASCE standard.
4.5 Selection of Aeration Equipment
In normal waste water applications both disc diffusers and O.K.I. aerators are
often alternatives. O.K.I. aerator is more adequate to heavy industrial
applications were a disc diffuser system cannot grant reliable operation.
Examples on applications especially suitable for O.K.I. aerators are the
following:
- mixing without air is needed (two speed motors, AM-models)
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- liftable system is needed (plants having only one aeration line)
- water contains compounds which can clog the disc diffusers
- water contains compounds, such as oil, that can damage the EPDM
membrane
- installation in waterfilled basin is required
- deep basin (from 8 meters)
- sludge handling solutions
Applications especially suitable for DDS disc diffuser systems:
- standard aeration solutions
- very high efficiency is needed
- lower investment cost is demanded
- normal municipal waste water
- maintenance of aeration equipment by emptying the basin is possible
Guidelines given above are not strict. For instance liftable systems can be
made mounting disc diffusers on stainless steel grids. Chemical resistance of
the diffuser is characteristic that varies from one diffuser type to another.
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5 Production of Air
5.1 Properties of Air..................................................................................5.1
5.2 Calculation of Blower Air Flow............................................................5.3
5.2.1 Cooling of Compressed Air in Pipework......................................5.3
5.2.1.1 Equation and Coefficients....................................................5.4
5.2.1.2 Temperature Loss in a Pipe Surrounded by Air...................5.7
5.2.1.3 Temperature Loss in a Pipe Surrounded by Earth...............5.8
5.2.1.4 Temperature Losses in a Pipe Surrounded by Water..........5.9
5.3 Air Intake ..........................................................................................5.15
5.4 Silencers...........................................................................................5.17
5.5 Anti-vibration Control........................................................................5.17
5.6 Air Filtration......................................................................................5.18
5.7 Different Types of Blowers ...............................................................5.18
5.7.1 Positive Displacement Blowers .................................................5.18
5.7.2 Dynamic Type Blowers..............................................................5.21
5.8 Delivery Control of Blowers..............................................................5.23
5.8.1 Rotary Blowers..........................................................................5.23
5.8.2 Centrifugal Blowers ...................................................................5.24
5.9 Blower Selection...............................................................................5.24
5.9.1 Capacity Requirements.............................................................5.25
5.9.2 Delivery Control Requirements .................................................5.25
5.10 Blower Plants................................................................................5.26
5.10.1 General Design Principles.........................................................5.26
5.10.2 Blower Accessories...................................................................5.27
5.11 Air Piping ......................................................................................5.28
5.11.1 Selection of Pipe Materials........................................................5.28
5.11.2 Properties of Different Materials................................................5.28
5.11.3 Design Principles ......................................................................5.29
5.12 Examples of Air Supply Systems ..................................................5.30
5.12.1 Waste Water Treatment Plant, Population Equivalent 40,000..5.30
5.12.2 Waste Water Treatment Plant, Population Equivalent 200,0005.30
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5 PRODUCTION OF AIR
5.1 Properties of Air
Air is a mixture of several permanent gases, in which nitrogen, oxygen, argon
and carbon dioxide predominate. Together they account for about 99,9 % by
weight of the air.
The composition of the atmosphere is fairly constant throughout the world,
but changes markedly with altitude. At higher altitudes, the concentration of
the heavier gases, notably oxygen, decreases.
Table 1: Composition of air, main components
Gas Symbol Content % by weight Content % by volume
Nitrogen N
2
75,51 78,08
Oxygen O
2
23,15 20,95
Argon Ar 1,28 0,95
Carbon dioxide CO
2
0,046 0,03
Air normally also contains varying amounts of water vapour and solids. At low
temperatures the water vapour content of the air ranges from a minimum of
nearly 0 % to maximum of about 3 % by weight or about 4 % by volume. In
larger cities the solids content of air may be up to 500 000 particles per m
3
.
Air possesses some physical constants:
molecular weight 28,96 kg/mol
density (+ 20 C, 100 kPa) 1,188 kg/m
3
gas constant 287,1 J/K kg
The density of air is dependent on its temperature. The following values apply
to dry air at a pressure of 101,3 kPa.
temperature, C density, kg/m
3
-50 1,534
-30 1,453
0 1,293
20 1,2045
40 1,1267
60 1,0595
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The standard atmosphere (U.S., 1962) is based on a constant reference
distribution of atmospheric pressure in normal conditions and at different
altitudes, as follows (dry air).
Table 2: Altitude dependence of atmospheric pressure, temperature and
density of air
altitude, m pressure, bar temperature, C Density, kg/m
3
0 1,013 15,00 1,225
100 1,001 14,95 1,213
200 0,989 13,70 1,202
400 0,966 12,40 1,179
600 0,943 11,10 1,156
800 0,921 9,80 1,134
1000 0,899 8,50 1,112
2000 0,795 2,00 1,007
3000 0,701 -4,50 0,909
4000 0,616 -11,00 0,819
Compression affects air temperature. A rapid compression of air with a
mechanical blower causes a significant temperature rise of the air. The rise is
about 10 C per each 10 kPa (0.1 bar or approximately 1 m water depth)
pressure increase: For instance, if the air temperature at the intake is 15 C
and the pressure on the delivery side of the compressor is 55 kPa (quite
normal for an aeration basin of about 4 m depth) the temperature of the air
will be approximately 70 C.
The relationship of the different units used in regard to air pressure is
presented in Table 3.
Table 3: Air pressure units
mmHg bar mbar N/m
2
kp/cm
2
kPa
760 1,0132 1013,2 101325 1,033 101,325
750,1 1 1000 100000 1,020 100,000
735,6 0,9807 980,7 98070 1 98,070
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5.2 Calculation of Blower Air Flow
The actual air flow required from the blower is calculated as follows:
Equation 1
q q
p
p
T
T
a a
s
i
i
s
,

where
q
a
Blower air flow in real conditions at maximum
summertime temperature at the altitude of the
treatment plant
m
3
/h
q
a
Air flow calculated under standard conditions m
3
/h
p
i
Atmospheric pressure at the plant altitude kPa
p
s
Standard atmospheric pressure, 1.013 kPa
T
i
Maximum intake air temperature during summer,
expressed as absolute temperature
K (= t
i
C + 273)
T
s
Air temperature under standard conditions K (20 C = 293 K)
5.2.1 Cooling of Compressed Air in Pipework
When compressing air adiabatically in the blowers, temperature increases by
about 10 C per each 10 kPa ( equivalent to 1 m of water column ). E.g. in a
10 m deep basin, when ambient air is 30 C, the temperature of the air
leaving the blower is about 130 C.
High temperature may be harmful for the materials of the systems having
polymer components.
Air is cooled down in a different way for each stage of the pipework: blower
room, main header and distribution header in open air (in sunshine and in
rain) and especially in the dropleg pipes. Sometimes the pipes are buried in
the ground, sometimes isolated in order to reduce noise. Heat transfer differs
considerably according to circumstances and it has to be calculated
separately for each section of pipe, when accuracy is required.
In the following pages there are the basic equations for calculating cooling in
various conditions. Values for the essential parameters are given and
examples of calculations in selected common applications are calculated.
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5.2.1.1 Equation and Coefficients
5.2.1.1.1 Main Equation
T
0
= Temperature of surrounding medium ( C
o
) (air, earth, water)
T
1
= Temperature of air after compressor ( C
o
)
T
2
= Lower air temperature ( C
o
)
L = length of pipe (m)
m = Air flow, mass (kg / h)
c = Specific heat of air = 0.25 kcal / kg C
o
k = Heat flow rate through a pipe wall per one meter of pipe
length
(kcal / m . h . C
o
)
d
i
= Inside diameter of pipe (m)
d
o
= Outside diameter of pipe (m)
= Heat transfer coefficient between air and inside surface of
pipe (kcal / m
2
. h . C
o
)

= Heat transfer coefficient between outside surface of


pipe and surrounding medium (kcal / m
2
. h . C
o
)
= Thermal conductivity of pipe material (kcal / m

. h . C
o
)
Carbon steel = 45 kcal / m

. h . C
o
Stainless steel = 22 kcal / m

. h . C
o
PVC = 0.14 kcal / m

. h . C
o
Air flow, mass

V
A W
= m
w = Velocity of air (m/s)
A = Area of pipe cross section (m
2
)
V = Specific volume of air (m
3
/kg)
c m
k L
-
0 1
0 2
e =
T - T
T - T
i
0
s 0 a i
d
d
ln
2
1
+
d
1
+
d
1
1
= k

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Temperature + 80 C
o
V = 0.760 m
3
/ kg
Temperature + 130 C
o
V = 0.580 m
3
/ kg
5.2.1.1.2 Equation of Heat Transfer Coefficients
5.2.1.1.2.1 Between Air and Inside Surface of Pipe
25 . 0
75 . 0
8 . 3
i
d
w

(kcal / m
2
. h . C
o
)
w = Velocity of air in normal conditions (m/s)
d
I
= Inside diameter of pipe (m)
5.2.1.1.2.2 Between Outside Surface of Pipe and Air (Horizontal Pipe, Immobile
Air)
1 s
= t
0.233
/ d
o
0.3
(kcal / m
2
. h . C
o
)
t = Tempreture difference T
1
T
0
d
0
= Outside diameter of pipe (m)
5.2.1.1.2.3 Between Outside Surface of Pipe and Water

s1
= 2900 . w
1
0.85
( 1+ 0.14 t
m
) (kcal / m
2
. h . C
o
)
w
1
= Velocity of water ( m / s ) = 0.3 m/s
t
m
= Average temperature of water ( C
o
) = 20 C
o

s2
= 2900 . 0.3
0.85
( 1+ 0.14 . 20 ) = 1336 kcal / m
2
. h. C
o
to be chosen 1100 kcal / m
2
. h . C
o
(mixture of air and water)
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5.2.1.1.3 Cooling Off of Air, Pipe Surrounded by Earth
Earth calculated as insulation :

e
= 2 kcal / m . h . C
o
b = 2 m
Heat loss :

0 0
0
0 1
1
ln 2
1
) (
D d
D
T T
Q
e

T
1
= Temperature of air ( C
o
)
T
0
= Temperature of earth ( C
o
)
d
0
= Outside diameter of pipe (m)
D
o
= Outside diameter of insulation = d
0
+ 4 (m)

e
= Thermal conductivity of earth = 2 (kcal / m . h. C
o
)
= 1.6 . ( T
1
T
0
)
0.24
( kcal / m . h . C
o
)
Temperature loss
c m
L Q
t


t = T
1
T
2
Q = Heat loss (kcal / m . h)
L = Length of pipe (m)
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m = Air flow, mass (kg/h)
c = Specific heat of air = 0.25 (kcal/kg C
o
)
5.2.1.2 Temperature Loss in a Pipe Surrounded by Air
Example
Pipe d
0
= 406.4 mm, d
i
= 400.4 mm
Pipe material : stainless steel, = 22 (kcal / m . h . C
o
)
T
0
= + 30 C
o
T
1
= + 80 C
o
L = 100 m
m = 9920 kg/h
w = 15 m/s
w
n
= 16.6 m/s (in normal conditions)
c = 0.25 kcal / kg C
o
35
400 . 0
15
8 . 3
25 . 0
75 . 0

a
kcal / m
2
. h . C
o
3 . 3
400 . 0
) 30 80 (
3 . 0
233 . 0
1

s
kcal / m
2
. h . C
o
(immobile air)
8 . 3
ln
1
400 . 0
406 . 0
22 2
1
3 . 3 4 . 0
1
35 4 . 0
1

+ +


k
m C e
T
100 / 1 . 7
30 80
30
25 . 0 9920
8 . 3 100
2 o

Temperature loss = 0.07 C


o
/ m of pipe length
Normally temperature losses are 0.15 0.05 C
o
/m.
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5.2.1.3 Temperature Loss in a Pipe Surrounded by Earth
Example
Pipe d
0
= 406.4 mm, d
i
= 400.4 mm
Pipe material : stainless steel, = 22 ( kcal / m . h . C
o
)
T
0
= + 5 C
o
T
1
= + 80 C
o
L = 100 m
m = 9920 kg/h
c = 0.25 kcal / kg C
o
D
0
= 4.4 m
=1.6 ( T
1
T
0
)
0.24
= 1.6 ( 80 5 )
0.24
= 4.5
m C t
h m kcal Q
100 / 6 . 14
25 . 0 9920
100 363
/ 363
ln
) 5 80 (
4 . 4 5 . 4
1
4 . 0
4 . 4
2 2
1
o

Temperature loss = 0.15 C


o
/ m of pipe length.
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5.2.1.4 Temperature Losses in a Pipe Surrounded by Water
5.2.1.4.1 Pipe Material : Carbon Steel
Length L = 5 m T
1
= 30 + 50 = + 80 C
o
(air)
pressure = 1.5 bar abs. T
0
= + 20 C
o
(water)
T
2
= lower air temperature C
o
Pipe diameters ( mm )
42,4 60,3 88,9 114,3
38,4 55,7 83,1 107,9
A 0,116 0,244 0,542 0,914
5 m / s m kg / h 28 58 128 216
10 55 116 256 433
15 83 174 384 650
20 110 232 512 866
25 138 290 640 1082
5,54 m / s 31 28 26 24
11,08 52 47 43 40
16,62 71 64 58 55
22,16 88 80 72 68
27,7 104 94 86 80
free air
5 m / s k 3.64 4,78 6,53 7,96
10 6,00 7,97 10,80 13,08
15 8,02 10,60 14,38 17,75
20 9,81 13,06 17,64 21,70
25 11,51 15,17 20,82 25,27
5 m / s 25 32 42 49
10 27 35 46 53
15 29 38 48 55
20 30 40 50 56
25 31 41 51 58
0
d
i
d
2
dm
a

2
T
2
/ m kcal
2
/ m kcal
c
o
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5.2.1.4.2 Pipe Material: Carbon Steel
Length L = 10 m T
1
= 30 + 100 = + 130 C
o
( air )
pressure = 2.0 bar abs. T
0
= + 20 C
o
( water )
T
2
= lower air temperature C
o
Pipe diameters ( mm )
42,4 60,3 88,9 114,3
38,4 55,7 83,1 107,9
A 0,116 0,244 0,542 0,914
5 m / s m kg / h 36 75 168 284
10 72 150 336 568
15 108 225 504 852
20 144 300 672 1134
25 180 375 840 1420
7,25 m / s 38 35 31 29
14,5 64 58 52 49
21,75 86 79 71 67
29,00 107 98 88 83
36,25 126 115 104 126
free air
5 m / s k 4,44 5,94 7,87 9,58
10 7,31 9,64 12,96 15,90
15 9,65 12,81 17,41 21,40
20 11,81 15,76 21,27 26,15
25 13,69 18,24 24,80 30,49
5 m / s 21 25 37 49
10 22 28 44 56
15 23 31 48 60
20 24 33 51 66
25 25 36 54 67
0
d
i
d
2
dm
a

2
T
2
/ m kcal
2
/ m kcal
o
C
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5.2.1.4.3 Pipe Material: Stainless Steel
Length L = 5 m T
1
= 30 + 50 = + 80 C
o
(air)
pressure = 1,5 bar abs. T
0
= + 20 C
o
(water)
T
2
= lower air temperature C
o
Pipe diameters ( mm )
42,4 88,9 114,3 168,3 219,1 273
38,4 84,9 110,3 164,3 215,1 268
A 0,116 0,566 0,955 2,12 3,63 5,64
5 m / s m kg / h 28 134 226 502 860 1336
10 55 402 452 1004 1720 2672
15 83 536 678 1506 2580 4008
20 110 670 904 2008 3440 5344
25 138 375 1130 2510 4300 6680
5,54 m / s 31 26 24 22 20 19
11,08 52 44 40 36 34 32
16,62 71 59 55 49 46 43
22,16 88 73 68 61 57 54
27,7 104 87 80 72 67 64
free air
5 m / s k 3,64 6,76 8,16 11,10 13,25 15,66
10 5,99 11,25 13,32 17,92 22,21 26,10
15 8,00 14,89 18,07 24,10 29,70 34,63
20 9,80 18,19 22,08 29,67 36,41 43,04
25 11,47 21,41 25,69 34,50 42,39 50,52
5 m / s 25 42 49,53 59 64 67
10 27 46 55 62 66 69
15 29 49 57 64 68 70
20 30 50 58 65 69 71
25 31 52 54 66 69 72
a

2
T
C m kcal
o 2
/
o
C
C m kcal
o 2
/
do
di
dm
2
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5.2.1.4.4 Pipe Material: Stainless Steel
Length L = 10 m T
1
= 30 + 100 = + 130 C
o
(air)
pressure = 2.0 bar abs. T
0
= + 20 C
o
(water)
T
2
= lower air temperature C
o
Pipe diameters ( mm )
42,4 88,9 114,3 168,3 219,1 273
38,4 84,9 110,3 164,3 215,1 268
A 0,116 0,566 0,955 2,12 3,63 5,64
5 m / s m kg / h 36 176 296 658 1127 1750
10 72 351 592 1316 2253 3500
15 108 527 888 1974 3380 52500
20 144 702 1184 2632 4506 7000
25 180 878 1480 3290 5632 8750
7,25 m / s 38 31 29 26 25 23
14,5 64 52 49 44 41 39
21,75 86 71 67 60 56 53
29,00 107 88 83 75 70 66
36,25 126 104 98 88 82 78
free air
5 m / s k 4,43 8,03 9,76 13,06 16,47 18,89
10 7,30 13,21 16,19 21,74 26,60 31,53
15 9,63 17,78 21,77 29,21 35,81 42,28
20 11,79 21,64 26,58 36,01 44,16 52,00
25 13,65 25,22 30,97 41,76 51,15 60,77
5 m / s 21 37 94 70 81 92
10 22 44 57 77 89 97
15 23 49 61 81 92 100
20 24 52 65 84 94 102
25 25 55 68 86 97 103
a

2
T
C m kcal
o 2
/
o
C
C m kcal
o 2
/
do
di
dm
2
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5.2.1.4.5 Pipe Material : PVC PN 10
Length L = 5 m T
1
= 30 + 50 = + 80 C
o
(air)
pressure = 1.5 bar abs. T
0
= + 20 C
o
(water)
T
2
= lower air temperature C
o
Pipe diameters ( mm )
63 90 110 140 160 225
57 81,4 99,6 126,6 144,6 203,4
A 0,255 0,52 0,779 1,26 1,64 3,25
5 m / s m kg / h 60 123 185 299 3,89 770
10 120 246 369 597 777 1540
15 180 369 554 896 1166 2310
20 240 492 738 1194 1554 3080
25 300 615 923 1493 1943 3850
5,54 m / s 28 26 24 23 22 20
11,08 48 43 41 39 37 35
16,62 64 58 56 52 50 47
22,16 80 72 69 65 63 58
27,7 94 86 82 77 74 68
free air
5 m / s k 3,15 3,73 4,02 4,43 4,61 5,15
10 4,16 4,80 5,17 5,53 5,67 6,23
15 4,86 5,41 5,79 6,07 6,22 6,70
20 5,31 5,82 6,18 6,45 6,59 7,00
25 5,63 6,14 6,47 6,71 6,82 7,20
5 m / s 41 53 59 65 67 73
10 47 61 65 70 72 75
15 55 65 69 72 74 77
20 59 67 71 74 75 77
25 61 69 72 75 76 78
a

2
T
C m kcal
o 2
/
o
C
C m kcal
o 2
/
do
di
dm
2
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5.2.1.4.6 Pipe Material : PVC PN 10
Length L = 10 m T
1
= 30 + 100 = + 130 C
o
(air)
pressure = 2.0 bar abs. T
0
= + 20 C
o
(water)
T
2
= lower air temperature C
o
Pipe diameters ( mm )
63 90 110 140 160 225
57 81,4 99,6 126,6 144,6 203,4
A 0,255 0,52 0,779 1,26 1,64 3,25
5 m / s m kg / h 79 161 242 391 509 1009
10 158 322 484 782 1018 2018
15 237 483 726 1173 1527 3027
20 316 644 968 1564 2036 4036
25 395 805 1210 1955 2545 5045
7,25 m / s 35 31 30 28 27 25
14,5 58 52 50 47 46 42
21,75 79 71 68 64 62 57
29,00 98 88 85 80 77 71
36,25 115 104 100 94 91 83
free air
5 m / s k 3,60 4,11 4,50 4,85 5,04 5,61
10 4,66 5,19 5,57 5,89 5,07 6,53
15 5,29 5,80 6,15 6,42 6,68 6,98
20 5,70 6,18 6,53 6,76 6,88 7,25
25 5,99 6,45 6,78 6,98 7,09 7,42
5 m / s 38 60 72 87 94 108
10 54 78 90 102 107 117
15 65 88 98 108 112 120
20 73 95 104 113 116 122
25 80 100 108 115 118 124
a

2
T
C m kcal
o 2
/
o
C
C m kcal
o 2
/
do
di
dm
2
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5.3 Air Intake
The following recommendations are given for air intake location:
air intake distance from the ground should be at least 2.5 m
intake air flow velocity in icy conditions must not exceed 2 m/s
intake should be located leeward of the prevailing wind direction
intake should be oriented in the direction where air impurities, humidity and
also direct solar radiation are the smallest.
The following factors should be taken into account in the design of the air
intake:
the air intake should be located so that air enters it at right angles and
without turbulence
the air intake should be equipped with a screen against leaves and similar
matter
a properly located shield helps to avoid the effects of snow and rain (see
Figure 1)
in summertime, intake air may be conducted through cool structures or
spaces in order to lessen the risk of overheating the blowers
in wintertime, intake air may be conducted through heated premises
in case where a sudden clogging by ice (or other agent) is possible, the air
intake should be equipped with a bypass gate which opens automatically if
the pressure drops too low
steel and lightweight alloys are the most suitable materials for the air
intake
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Figure 1: Air intake, schematic representation
Figure 2: Air intake opening can be widened without increasing the duct size
Typical location errors for the air intake include
air intake located too near the ground
air intake located in a gravel- or dirt-covered area with traffic dust (causes
wear to pipework)
air intake exposed to corrosive chemical vapours
air flow velocity too high
large water areas located near the intake (humidity)
intake located near a wall exposed to sunshine
intake exposed to flue gases
intake exposed to airborne pollen and seeds causing obstruction of filters
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Figure 3: Two examples of air intake locations
5.4 Silencers
The inlet and discharge noise of the blowers has to be silenced for
environment and work safety reasons. The inlet and discharge silencers have
to be selected according to the silencing needs and requirements and blower
type. Usually the package type blowers are equipped with silencers as a
standard.
Rotary piston blowers are recommended to be equipped with pulsation
dampers to reduce the noise of the downstream piping. Centrifugal and turbo
blowers do not need pulsation dampening.
Many blower manufacturers are providing the blowers with acoustic hoods to
reduce the noise radiation from the machine casing. Noise radiation can be
reduced also by noise insulation of the blower room.
5.5 Anti-vibration Control
The blowers are normally installed on flexible machine mountings. This is
done in order to reduce the solid borne noise and vibrations. The dampening
of the solid borne noise and vibration is especially important when using
rotary piston blowers.
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If the blower is installed on flexible machine mountings the connection to the
plant piping has to be flexible as well. The connection can be a rubber sleeve
coupling in normal air temperatures. In higher temperatures a stainless steel
bellow type joint is used.
5.6 Air Filtration
The purpose of air filtration is to avoid internal clogging of aeration equipment
and excessive wear to both blowers and piping.
A waste water treatment plant must be operated continuously 24 hours a day.
Hence filtration should preferably consist of several units so that any one of
them may be shut off for maintenance while the others are working. Another
important point is for the unit under maintenance to be isolated from the
others so that there is no risk of short circuit air flows.
Large plants are normally equipped with a combined system, where the air
intake and filters are connected to blowers by piping. In this kind of a system
there is enough spacing for maintenance work. The pressure difference
between different rooms must be taken into account when designing their
doors and sealing. All surfaces must be made of dust free materials.
All air filters must be equipped with control accessories to avoid overloading
of the filters and possible damage to the installation. In large plants, the
pressure difference of the various filters and their alarms are usually
indicated in the control system of the plant.
Detailed information on air filtration requirements of NOPOL

DDS AND
NOPOL

O.K.I. aeration equipment are given in chapters 7 and 8.


5.7 Different Types of Blowers
The following two types of blowers are the most widely used in waste water
applications:
positive displacement blowers
dynamic type blowers
5.7.1 Positive Displacement Blowers
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In positive displacement blowers suction air enters a compression chamber
where its volume is reduced until the pressure has reached a certain pre-set
value. Air is conducted by forced flow.
There are different types of positive displacement blowers:
piston blowers
lamellar blowers
screw blowers
rotary blowers
Rotary blowers have so far been the most commonly used positive
displacement blowers for waste water aeration purposes. However, there is
no technical impediment to the use of screw blowers. The working principle of
these two blower types is shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5.
Figure 4: Working principle of a rotary blower
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Figure 5: Working principle of a screw blower
When using rotary blowers the air flow is continuous but pulses rather
strongly, a fact that must be taken into account, for instance, as a possible
cause of vibrations in pipework.
Typical with rotary blowers is that the air flow is virtually independent of the
magnitude of counterpressure at low pressure ratios. When counterpressure
increases, the back flow of air through clearances into the suction side also
increases. The power requirement grows linearly with the increasing
counterpressure (see Figure 6), but it does not grow with decreasing suction
air temperature. The maximum delivery pressure reached by this type of
blower is 60 - 100 kPa (0,6 - 1,0 bar), depending on the size and construction
of the machine. The capacities of up to 85.000 m
3
can be attained. The
delivery air of rotary blowers is oil free because the compression chamber
has no lubrication.
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Figure 6: Specific curves for rotary blowers
Silencers are usually needed on both sides of the blower. In some cases a
special silencing device must be installed in the delivery side. The blowers
must always be located such that no water can enter them.
5.7.2 Dynamic Type Blowers
Dynamic type blowers are usually classified into two main groups:
radial (centrifugal) flow blowers, which may have one or several impellers
and where air flows radially (Figure 7)
axial flow blowers having a multistage series of impellers including an axial
air flow (Figure 8)
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Figure 7: A single-impeller centrifugal blower
Figure 8: Axial flow blower
The performance curves of centrifugal blowers are often labile at lower
stages, e.g. there are two different delivery values for a given value of
pressure. Operation of the blower must be designed so that it will not be
running within this labile region. Except for momentary starting runs,
centrifugal blowers must not run at delivery rates smaller than the pumping
limit as this may cause breakdown of the blower (see Figure 9). The flatness
of the characteristic curves requires the suitability of simultaneous running of
several blowers.
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Figure 9: Typical characteristic curves of centrifugal blowers
The delivery rates of centrifugal blowers are dependent on the inlet air
temperature, owing to which it is always necessary to check that
the drive motor power is sufficient at the lowest inlet air temperature and at
the highest inlet air temperature
the delivery rate is sufficient at the highest inlet air temperature
The maximum attainable delivery pressure of dynamic type blowers is 1.000
(3.000) kPa with centrifugal blowers and 600 kPa with axial blowers. The
characteristic performance ranges are correspondingly 2.000 - 35.000 m
3
/h
and 35.000 - 100.000 m
3
/h. Rotation ranges from 5.000 to 15.000 rpm and
the circumferential velocity of the impeller ranges from 150 to 300 m/s. The
transmission oil requires a cooling system complying with the specifications
given by the manufacturer of the blower.
5.8 Delivery Control of Blowers
5.8.1 Rotary Blowers
The most common delivery control methods for rotary blowers are the
following:
simultaneous use of various blowers
variable speed control
By the simultaneous use of various blowers step by step delivery control can
be attained. When using this method energy is lost, since there is no delivery
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control between different start-ups. The best result in delivery control is
obtained by the variable speed method which can be executed either by
frequency converters in the case of AC drives or by DC drives. When using
frequency converters, up to 10 % of the energy is lost as heat and this should
be taken into account in economic calculations.
5.8.2 Centrifugal Blowers
The most common delivery control methods for centrifugal blowers are the
following:
inlet valve throttling
outlet valve throttling or variable diffusor control at delivery side
Inlet valve throttling is often used for the delivery control of centrifugal
blowers. The valves used for this purpose are usually operated either
manually or by a motorised device. Surge limits for turbo blowers can be
lowered by up to 45 % of the rated capacity when using a throttling valve.
Where inlet vanes are employed surge limits can be lowered by up to 30 % of
the rated capacity.
Outlet valve throttling can also be resorted to for delivery control, but this
method uses more energy compared with inlet valve throttling. Some
centrifugal blowers are equipped with variable diffusors at the delivery side
through which a delivery control range of 45 - 100 % of the rated capacity can
be achieved. In such blowers the change of inlet air temperature and
pressure can be eliminated by automatic inlet vane control.
5.9 Blower Selection
The blower selection must be based on the requirements set by good control
of the whole aeration process. Furthermore, the technical characteristics of
the blowers must be sufficiently known to make proper comparisons between
different alternatives.
The main technical requirements that should be taken into account in a
comparison of different blowers are normally the capacity and the delivery
control range. The noise and maintenance aspects should be studied as well.
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5.9.1 Capacity Requirements
Fluctuations in the air demand under varying load conditions must be known.
The consideration of design conditions alone is generally not sufficient. The
optimum oxygen profiles of the aeration basins under varying load conditions
should also be known. The necessary delivery control range, as well as the
requirements for the control system, are established by means of the oxygen
profile and the fluctuations in the air demand.
The air delivery rate of each blower should be given as a commensurate
value so that the free air flow rate is expressed in terms of volume reduced
according to both the pressure and the temperature of the intake air. This
comparative index value is called the actual air delivery rate. When
comparing blowers, all the performance values which may be given on
different bases must always be reduced to the same intake air pressure and
temperature conditions.
As far as ambient conditions are concerned, the maximum and minimum
temperatures of the intake air are the most important factors that should be
considered when selecting and dimensioning blowers as well as operational
equipment. When using turbo blowers it is necessary to make sure that these
are able to deliver a sufficiently high pressure even at maximum intake air
temperature.
5.9.2 Delivery Control Requirements
The delivery control range of the blowers should coincide with the respective
aeration equipments value (1:5) in order to take full advantage of the
properties of aeration equipment. If the air flow rate adjustment is not
stepless, the blowers should be selected which permit delivery control in
steps of 20 to 25 %.
In a nitrifying plant the oxygen demand of the aeration process is at least at
times markedly smaller than the air demand necessary to ensure sufficient
mixing in the aeration basin. If diffusers are used as aeration equipment, it
may be convenient to equip the basin with an additional mechanical mixing
device to complete the mixing requirement of the activated sludge process.
In a nitrifying plant aeration is closed off periodically. In such cases it is
convenient to equip the plant with NOPOL

O.K.I. aerator mixers to


guarantee sufficient mixing of the activated sludge process.
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5.10 Blower Plants
5.10.1 General Design Principles
In connection with large treatment plants it is often most convenient to
construct a separate blower station. One of the advantages of this is the
isolation of noise and vibration effects from laboratory and control premises.
The blower station should be located so that the distances to the aeration
basins are the shortest possible and lowest possible noise level in the
immediate environment is achieved.
At large treatment plants the blowers are usually located inside special
premises equipped with good soundproofing. At smaller plants it is often more
convenient to install each blower separately within a soundproofed casing.
The blower room must be properly ventilated using a sufficient amount of air
in order to keep the maximum temperature rise at level of 10 - 15 C. As a
basis for the evaluation of ventilation air demand it may be assumed that with
rotary blowers the quantity of heat generated is about 10 % of the energy fed
to the blower drive shaft. This percentage includes both the blower and the
electric motor. In addition, all hot pipework surfaces (60 - 80 C) with the
blower station naturally must be taken into account when assessing the
ventilation need.
Blowers should be located above the water surface level of the aeration
basins. If this is not possible, then the pipework must be designed so that no
water can enter the blowers through the pipework.
Within capacities of up to about 10.000 m
3
/h, it is often appropriate to provide
each blower with a separate filter-equipped air intake directly from the outside
air. At larger plants a special air intake room should be constructed and
equipped with soundproofing.
No additional air consuming equipment (for example airlift pumps for return
sludge) should be connected to the aeration system as this might cause
harmful fluctuations in the air feed serving the aeration process.
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5.10.2 Blower Accessories
Blowers should normally be equipped with accessories (see Figure 10) such
as:
1. air filter (blower air intake filter)
2. suction noise muffler
3. pressure noise muffler. The working principle of this depends essentially
on the blower system. Adsorption muffler is best suited for use with single
blowers working continuously at a constant running speed. If the system
includes several blowers in parallel, or if the blower running speed is
regulated, special mufflers, for example resonance or combined absorption
/ resonance mufflers, may be necessary.
4. Flexible coupling of the pressure pipe. This is essential when the blower is
mounted on a vibration-absorbing base (direct mounting on a vibration
absorber is not suitable for blowers with controlled running speed).
5. Safety valve. Compulsory for all forced-drive blowers.
6. Non-return valve. Indispensable in any system incorporating several
blowers. Its use is also advisable in a single-blower system as it prevents
reverse running of the blower when stopping against a full working load.
The construction of the non-return valve must be suitable for compressed
air.
7. Shut-off valve. This must not have any structural parts exposed to
vibrations.
Figure 10: Rotary blower equipment
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There are also other accessories which can be used in conjunction with
blowers, including:
a manometer, at least one on the delivery side
a thermometer for blower temperature control
an ammeter for the control of blower running conditions
a kWh meter for aeration energy measurement
5.11 Air Piping
5.11.1 Selection of Pipe Materials
The following factors should be taken into account when selecting the pipe
materials.
the requirements imposed by aeration equipment (for example, internal
corrosion of pipes must not cause clogging of diffusers)
pipework must stand up to the external effects of weather and waste water
pipework located in free air must be capable of withstanding temperatures
of 80 - 120 C
joining methods, the need for T-junctions, and the degree of precision
required in the installation work
transportation, stockpiling at site, various cost factors
Pipework may be the main source of noise at a waste water treatment plant.
From this point of view lightweight piping materials may cause more problems
than heavier materials. Noise can be efficiently reduced by dividing the
pipework into convenient sections installing flexible joints and by mounting it
on supports at appropriate intervals. All these factors should be considered
when comparing the total costs of different pipe materials.
5.11.2 Properties of Different Materials
Steel pipes must be surface treated both internally and externally. This
material is best suited to the main headers. Stainless steel and acid-resistant
stainless steel can be used without surface treatment and are the most
common piping material in waste water treatment plants in the Nordic
countries. Owing to the small wall thickness, special attention must be paid to
reducing pipework noise and avoiding pipework vibrations. Excessive
vibrations may result in breakage in stainless steel and acid-resistant
stainless steel pipes.
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Reinforced plastic pipes are used to some extent. Special attention should be
given to reducing pipework noise, i.e. by means of specially designed
resonance absorbers. Thermal elongation must be taken into account when
planning the location of junctions, branches, and pipe supports. Cast iron
pipes must have internal coating of epoxy-based or similar material. On the
external surface a coat of paint is usually sufficient.
When using thin-walled pipes (stainless steel) or lightweight pipe materials
(reinforced plastic) the wall thickness cannot be selected on the basis of
maximum working pressure alone (usually this does not exceed 1,0 bar).
Other factors that must be given equal attention to are the reduction of
pipework noise, suppression of pipe vibrations, and supporting of the
pipework. Wall thicknesses chosen according to pressure classes PN4 -
PN10 have proved to be appropriate for matching the combined requirements
imposed by these factors.
5.11.3 Design Principles
The main header and the distribution headers should be located above the
water surface and outside the basin walls to avoid harmful effects from
backlash or freezing of the waste water. The main header must have an
inclination of 1:200 to 1:100 and the shallowest point should be equipped with
a drainage valve.
The slanted junctions between the blower delivery side and the main header
are necessary if the blower running speed is regulated, and advisable if
several simultaneously running blowers are connected to the main header. If
the blowers have a common suction main, all the branches should likewise be
joined at a slant to it, as illustrated in Figure 11.
Figure 11: Connection of blower pressure side to the suction main
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No section of the pipework may be located inside or under adjacent
structures. All junctions and accessories must be easily accessible for
maintenance purposes.
5.12 Examples of Air Supply Systems
5.12.1 Waste Water Treatment Plant, Population Equivalent 40,000
At the blower station, air filter units are mounted on a wall and connected to
the common intake main of the blowers. A noise-reducing casing has been
installed on the air intake grille to eliminate ambient noise effects in the
nearby housing areas. The floor channel for the main header is wide enough
to permit good accessibility for maintenance.
Figure 12: Example of a blower station at a smaller treatment plant
5.12.2 Waste Water Treatment Plant, Population Equivalent 200,000
A separate air intake structure is located on the roof of the blower station.
The building has been provided with heavy concrete walls. Additionally, each
blower has an individual noise reduction casing. The main header has been
provided with a flexible pipe joint outside the building for the isolation of
pipework-born noise and to accommodate thermal expansion. Stainless steel
is used as a pipe material and the shut-off is provided with non-return valves.
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Access to the air filter is via stairs outside the building, and the blower station
is equipped with a bridge crane.
Figure 13: Example of a blower station at a larger treatment plant
In the air piping stainless steel (nonsubmerged sections) and acid resistant
steel (submerged sections) are used as pipe materials. Appropriately spaced
cut-off junctions (at every 10 - 15 m) along the pipelines are an efficient way
of eliminating noise travel in the pipework. The flexible junctions have flanges
to provide the pipes with more rigidity and to reduce their vibrations.
Figure 14: Example of aeration pipework
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6 Aeration Control
6.1 Benefits of Aeration Control ............................................................... 6.1
6.1.1 Process Benefits .........................................................................6.1
6.1.2 Economic Benefits.......................................................................6.2
6.2 Control System...................................................................................6.2
6.2.1 Blower Air Delivery Control .........................................................6.2
6.2.2 Air Distribution Control ................................................................6.3
6.2.3 Example of Aeration Control System...........................................6.5
6.3 Instrumentation...................................................................................6.7
6.3.1 Dissolved Oxygen Probe.............................................................6.7
6.3.2 Air Flow Measurement.................................................................6.9
6.3.3 Pressure and Temperature .........................................................6.9
6.4 Mechanical Devices ...........................................................................6.9
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6 AERATION CONTROL
6.1 Benefits of Aeration Control
In this chapter the different controlling alternatives are outlined. The design of
a control system and its necessity have to be taken into account already in
very early stage. By doing this it is the best way to get the appropriate and
economical control system for the end user. The consideration of control
system in the very beginning of the design process may affect the selection of
aeration equipment and furthermore enables the flexibility in operation of the
system later on.
The benefits achieved by aeration control are summarised as follows
process benefits
economic benefits
6.1.1 Process Benefits
Marked fluctuation in the influent load is a characteristic of waste water
treatment plants. How strongly these fluctuations affect the aeration system
depends on the type of treatment process. In a normally loaded activated
sludge plant, fluctuations in influent load very rapidly affect the oxygen
content in aeration, while in extended aeration plants the effect of load
fluctuation is slower and smaller. The more rapidly the effects show up in the
aeration process, the more advisable it is to use automatic aeration control.
Process benefits are achieved by maintaining a constant mixed liquor
dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and an appropriate oxygen profile in
aeration. Using automated DO control the following process benefits are
achieved:
improved process reliability
better sludge settleability
better nitrogen removal efficiency
better effluent quality
Where aeration control is not automated and there is an inadequate DO
concentration in aeration, the following problems will appear:
sludge bulking in secondary sedimentation
inhibition of biological activity
filamentous bacterial growth
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On the other hand, excessive aeration may result in settleability problems by
shearing activated sludge flocs.
6.1.2 Economic Benefits
The energy consumption of aeration normally accounts for 50 - 60 % of the
total energy demand and up to 30 % of the operating costs in activated
sludge plants. Due to these high figures great savings can be achieved by
small improvements in the control system. In general, by automating the DO
control cuts of 25 to 40 % in energy costs can be made, but figures as high as
50 % are possible.
The best economic benefits are reached by stepless control of the blowers
and electrical motors, by frequency control and by automated DO control
achieved through adjustable valves according to on-line DO measurement.
6.2 Control System
The degree of aeration control to be implemented can vary from manual
manipulation based on manual measurements to a comprehensive fully
automated control system based on on-line measurements and an intelligent
automation system to control electric motors, blower air delivery and air
distribution hardware.
In a new treatment plant the value of a sophisticated control system should
be quite clear. The savings achieved by the control system compared to the
capital investment costs are so large that it is obvious that the plant should be
provided with a DO control system.
The aeration control system is usually divided as follows:
blower air delivery control
air distribution control
6.2.1 Blower Air Delivery Control
Blower air delivery control is discussed earlier in Chapter 5. Stepless control
of the blowers should be the target, but step by step control is also
appropriate.
Air delivery control can be arranged in various ways as follows
DO measurement control
main header pressure control
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DO measurement control is employed where there is a separate blower
system or no control valves are used. A separate blower system means that
every process line has its own blower, the delivery of which is controlled
directly through the DO measurement on the line. By this, aeration control is
usually successful as no control valves are needed. This solution is
expensive and it is used in cases where only a few process lines exist.
A common blower station and one main header for the whole treatment plant
is the most common solution to the aeration system. As well in this case, the
blowers can be controlled directly by DO measurement. In this set-up, for
example the lowest DO measurement value always controls the blowers.
However, excessive aeration inevitably takes place in some basins, and the
result achieved is not the best.
The most common means of blower control is based on the main header
pressure. The pressure is usually kept constant so that the air flow is
increased when the pressure is decreasing and decreased when the pressure
is increasing.
When the use of positive displacement blowers and stepless control is the
intention, at least two blowers should be equipped with frequency converters,
or there should be two blower types with different delivery values. In this
case, the blower with the greater delivery is controlled by the frequency
converter and the blower with the smaller delivery starts up when the first one
has reached its maximum delivery. When using frequency converters it must
be remembered that these consume up to 10 % of the energy applied as
heat.
With centrifugal blowers, control is achieved by inlet valve control or by outlet
diffusers. If inlet valve control is used, the system must be equipped with
surge protection, because the blower cannot develop enough pressure to
overcome the downstream process pressure. Most blower manufacturers
offer an independent surge protection system but the automation system
should also be provided control algorithms. Where guide vanes are used to
control blower output, the motor amperage draw corresponding to the surge
point is also reduced. Thus, care must be taken to set the point of minimum
amperage so that this is not too high.
6.2.2 Air Distribution Control
At treatment plants with various process lines the general design guideline is
for each line to be measured and controlled separately. In order to achieve
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faultless air distribution to different process lines it is most important for the
pipe diameters to have been selected and graded correctly.
Every process line should be fed by at least one individual distribution
header, but several distribution headers can also be used. Distribution
headers are equipped with air flow meters and pressure gauges. Control
valves should be installed in droplegs or distribution headers. Droplegs
should also be equipped with pressure gauges to control pressure loss of the
diffusers.
In order to achieve successful air distribution, the general behaviour of the
process must be sufficiently well known, that is the optimum oxygen profiles
of the aeration basins and their variations should be known for varying load
conditions (see Figure 1). On the basis of these factors it is possible to
decide how many DO measuring points are needed and how they should be
located. In addition, the effects of various process parameters should be
known, including sludge age and the amounts of return and excess sludge.
Figure 1: Typical oxygen profile variation range at optimum aeration level
(normally loaded activated sludge plant)
Air distribution is usually controlled by control valves according to the DO
measurement. Usually there are several aeration zones in one aeration
basin. In the optimum situation there are the same number of DO probes as
zones, so that every zone can be controlled to keep the oxygen profile as
desired. Figure 2 shows an example in which the aeration basin is divided
into four aeration zones, each with their own distribution header. Each header
is equipped with an air flow meter, pressure gauge, and control valve. In
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addition, each zone has a DO probe so that DO measurement directly
controls the control valves according to the desired DO setting point.
Figure 2: Aeration equipment is divided according to load conditions. The air
feed control design is aimed to maintain a suitable oxygen profile
continuously.
Although the control algorithms should be designed so that the control valves
will be kept as open as possible in order to minimise overall system pressure
and aeration energy expenditure, it is also necessary to sacrifice some head
loss in order to maintain control.
6.2.3 Example of Aeration Control System
Figure 3 shows the aeration system of a waste water treatment plant. In this
case the aeration system consists of a common blower station with two
centrifugal blowers and two aeration basins, each with its own distribution
header and control valves. The control system is manipulated by a digital
process automation system.
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Figure 3: Flow chart of an automatic control of an aeration line
QT oxygen measurement transmitter
QC oxygen concentration control
ZT valve position transmitter
ZI valve position indicator
HS valve position control switch
QM generation of corrective action upon faulty condition of basin II
ZM generation of valve position adjustment sum
ZC control of delivery adjustment
ZI valve position indicator
QRI indication and plotting of oxygen measurement data
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The blower air delivery is controlled by regulating the inlet valves according
to the pressure of the main header. Additionally, the positions of the control
valves play a part in air delivery control. One control valve is always as open
as possible.
The aeration basins are of the plug flow type and each of them is provided
with two DO probes. The probes are located so that one lies in the first half,
and the other in the second half of the basin. The mean value of these
measurements is used for valve control. Although the air flow of each
distribution header is measured, such measurement does not play a part in
the control of the system. The figure shows only one basin.
6.3 Instrumentation
6.3.1 Dissolved Oxygen Probe
Dissolved oxygen (DO) monitoring equipment is the most important of all the
on-line instruments used in aeration control. It is also most often the main
reason for control system failure. System failure may be traceable in some
cases to faulty equipment, but it is at least as likely to be due to improper
application, poor installation, lack of attention and maintenance by plant
personnel or a combination of thereof.
All the DO probes available today are electrochemical cells in contact with
the fluid through an oxygen-permeable membrane. The cells are equipped
with electrodes in which chemical reactions induce changes in voltage across
them. The subsequent current flow across the electrodes produces an
electrical signal in proportion to the oxygen content of the fluid.
In instrument selection environmental conditions, operating ranges, and
design requirements should be identified. Existing comparative instrument
test data and the experience of other users under both bench and field
conditions should be taken into account.
Each manufacturer has its own recommended calibration procedures. In
general, these are simple one or two point calibrations. The field verification
procedure for the installed instruments should include accurate output
measurements over the entire expected operating range. Other performance
checks, such as response time, hysteresis, and repeatability should also be
made.
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The main reasons for errors in measurements are the following
build-up of slimy biofilm on the probes
non-desired reactions taking place on the probes resulting in chemical
precipitates or extraneous currents affecting instrument readings
location of probes at a point where circulation is insufficient
adherence of small air bubbles to the probes
The slimy biofilm can usually be effectively removed from the membrane
surface by carefully wiping with a wet tissue soaked in a 10 % HCI solution.
Probe cleaning frequency depends on the process loading characteristics
and operating configuration. To minimise maintenance requirements, it is
important to clean the probes only when necessary.
The measuring devices should be mounted so that the probes can easily be
removed and their location can be altered when necessary in order to locate
the most appropriate measuring point for control purposes. An example of an
installation method is shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4: Floating oxygen measuring probe attached to a lever rod
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6.3.2 Air Flow Measurement
Air flow measurement equipment is an important component of aeration
control systems. An even air distribution to different parts of the aeration
system requires accurate air flow measurement to ensure that the correct
quantity of oxygen is being delivered.
The different air flow metering systems used today are based either on
differential pressure across a control element or mass flow. The differential
flow meters use plate orifices, Pitot or Venturi tubes to produce a measurable
differential head or pressure. This pressure differential is then converted to
velocity and mass flow for which temperature and pressure corrections have
to be made.
Mass flow meters generally operate on the principle of a hot wire
anemometer. A wire is placed in the flow stream with an electric current
applied to maintain the wire at a pre-set temperature. The rate of cooling the
wire, based on the current required to maintain it at the pre-set temperature,
is proportional to the mass flow rate of air.
Care must be taken when selecting air flow meters to ensure the correct
dimensioning of a meter, the size of which should accommodate only the
immediate future expected ranges in air flows.
Because the probes are not in contact with waste water, much less
maintenance is required compared to DO probes. Periodic conformance
checks are, however, recommended.
6.3.3 Pressure and Temperature
Pressure and temperature measurements are used in the aeration control
system to monitor blower suction and discharge conditions. Pressure gauges
are also used to control the pressure loss of diffusers.
Pressure and temperature measurements are also used to provide on-line
information for converting volumetric field flow rates to standard flow rates.
6.4 Mechanical Devices
Mechanical devices necessary for the aeration systems are the blowers and
the control valves. Blowers have already been discussed in Chapter 5 and
will not therefore be dealt with here.
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The most commonly used control valves for air distribution control purposes
are butterfly valves. Ball valves may also be used, but their higher price
generally makes them uneconomical in this context.
When selecting and dimensioning the control valves the following
requirements should be met
the air flow rate achieved by throttling the control should be as linear as
possible to the travel of the valve
the right dimensioning of the valve is important; it does not need to satisfy
requirements far into the future
The automation hardware used for the aeration control system is usually only
a part of the automation hardware of the whole plant. The hardware used for
this purpose is either digital processing units or programmable logic
controllers. The main requirement for these is for them to be freely
programmable.
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7 NOPOL DDS Aeration System Design
7.1 Air Flow ..............................................................................................7.1
7.2 Mixing.................................................................................................7.3
7.3 Number of Diffusers............................................................................7.4
7.4 Layout.................................................................................................7.5
7.4.1 Layout Planning ..........................................................................7.5
7.4.2 Basin Geometry.........................................................................7.10
7.4.3 Submersion Depth.....................................................................7.11
7.4.4 Diffuser Layouts in Various Basins ...........................................7.11
7.5 Tapering Diffusers and SOTR..........................................................7.17
7.6 Calculation of Corrected SOTE Values............................................7.18
7.6.1 Expressing the Effect in Offers..................................................7.18
7.7 Air Production...................................................................................7.19
7.7.1 Dimensioning of the Blower.......................................................7.19
7.7.2 Dimensioning of Air Piping for NOPOL

DDS...........................7.26
7.7.3 Air Filtering System for NOPOL

DDS......................................7.27
7.8 Calculation Examples.......................................................................7.29
7.8.1 Example 1..................................................................................7.29
7.8.2 Example 2..................................................................................7.39
We reserve the right to make technical changes.
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7 NOPOL

DDS AERATION SYSTEM DESIGN


To design a disc diffuser aeration system, it is necessary to know the Actual
Oxygen Requirement AOR and Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate SOTR of the
process. The calculation of these values is explained in Chapter 4.
7.1 Air Flow
Once the Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate has been determined, the air flow
required can be calculated from Equation 1:
Equation 1
q
SOTR
C e
a
i

where
q
a air flow in NTP (+20 C, 101,3 kPa) m
3
/h
C
i oxygen content of the air (+20 C, 101,3 kPa)
0,280 kg O
2
/m
3
e standard oxygen transfer efficiency, SOTE %
The value of e depends on the choice of diffuser type, aeration depth, air flow
rate and diffuser spacing. Efficiency curves of NOPOL

disc diffusers are in


the NOPOL

DDS product manual.


The greater the submersion depth of the diffusers, the greater the mass of
oxygen transferred. The higher oxygen transfer efficiency is due to the longer
contact time between waste water and air bubbles, and to the higher oxygen
saturation concentration at higher pressure. Oxygen absorption at different
depths can be estimated by means of the following equation:
Equation 2
e
h
h
e
n

_
,


2
2
100
where
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e oxygen adsorption at the chosen aeration depth %
h aeration depth m
h
2
depth of the oxygen absorption curves measured m
e
2
degree of oxygen absorption given by the curves %
n exponent
1,0 for aeration depths 2 - 5 m
0,8 for aeration depths 5 - 8 m
The minimum air flow to meet the oxygen requirement and the respective
minimum air flow per diffuser needed for mixing should be calculated to avoid
unacceptably low air flow values. Adequate sludge circulation in the aeration
basin may determine the minimum air flow necessary for the process, and its
value may well be higher than that required by the minimum oxygen demand.
Calculation of the air flow required is usually an iterative process because
certain variables must initially be based on assumptions which can only be
checked after all the calculations have been carried out. Therefore Nopon Oy
has created a simple computer program package for the calculation of
NOPOL

Disc Diffuser Systems.


For disc diffusers, the air flow is expressed in cubic metres per diffuser disc
area (m
3
/hm
2
). The shape and material of the aeration element of the diffuser
and the pressure loss caused by the diffuser orifice element determine the
appropriate range of air flow into the diffuser.
The minimum air flow is determined by the clogging tendency of the diffuser,
while the maximum air flow is determined by the amount of pressure loss
occurring in the diffuser.
The diffusers oxygenation efficiency (kg O
2
/kWh) decreases as the air flow
per diffuser increases. This is due to the following reasons:
water circulation in the aeration basin is improved
the retention time of the bubbles is shorter
the bubbles produced by a diffuser are larger in diameter
the counteracting pressure caused by the porous material of the diffuser
increases.
The oxygenation efficiency of fine bubble diffusers is about 20 to 30 % lower
where the maximum air flow is used than it is when the minimum air flow is
used.
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7.2 Mixing
Sufficient mixing energy must be generated by the aeration equipment in all
conditions to keep the activated sludge in suspension and prevent it from
settling.
The minimum air flow required for this mixing effect can be estimated on the
basis of the fact that activated sludge remains in suspension with G values of
20 to 75 1/s (G = root mean square velocity gradient).
In normal aeration processes the G values range from 90 to 220 1/s. In the
complete mixing process the G values are higher than in the plug flow
process. The greater the sludge concentration the higher the G values
required, because a greater amount of aeration capacity is used per unit
volume. The smallest G values are achieved with fine bubble diffuser layouts
covering the whole bottom of the aeration basin.
Under these conditions the sludge flocs show the least tendency to
disintegrate and thus a sludge with good settling qualities is obtained for
sedimentation. By entering the chosen G value into the equation:
Equation 3
G V
2
where
P required power kW
dynamic viscosity Ns/m
2
G velocity gradient 1/s
The required power per unit volume P/V (kW/m
3
) can be calculated when the
dynamic viscosity of the sludge suspension is known.
Equation 4 can also be used to calculate the required amount of isothermally
expanding air needed to meet the power requirement.
Equation 4
( ) P q h
a
+ 0 0281 1 0 097 , ln ,
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where
q
a
air flow m
3
/h
h submersion depth m
The above two formulas make it possible to evaluate the required minimum
air feed rate for an aeration arrangement covering the entire bottom as a
function of the submersion depth of the diffusers.
The critical air flow rate for keeping the sludge in suspension can vary from
1,2 to 3,0 m
3
/h m
2
. The minimum air flow rate depends on the settling
characteristics of the sludge and on the installation density of the diffusers.
The width of the basin can be discounted when determining the required
minimum air feed rates with diffusers covering the entire bottom.
When one-sided or two-sided lateral installations are being used, the
required minimum air feed rate can be from 0,6 to 1,2 m
3
/h m
3
of the basin
volume.
In some cases mixing can be achieved with mechanical mixers (propellers).
Especially in the DN-process the denitrification stage should be provided only
with propellers. Propellers can also be used when the minimum air flow is
unable to keep the activated sludge in suspension.
7.3 Number of Diffusers
The number of diffusers is calculated from Equation 5:
Equation 5
N
q
q
a
a d
'
,

where
N' number of diffusers
q
a
total air flow m
3
/h
q
a,d
air flow / diffuser m
3
/h
The maximum and minimum air flow per diffuser must be checked from the
technical data given for the particular diffuser type (dimensioning value).
Technical data for the diffusers is in the NOPOL

DDS product manual.


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The area density of diffusers (diffuser spacing) is determined from Equation
6:
Equation 6
DD
N
l w

'
where
DD area density of diffusers 1/m
2
l length of aeration basin m
w width of aeration basin m
Diffuser density can also be calculated as a percentage:
Equation 7
DD
N d
l w
a


'
100
where the value for d
a
is 0.025 m
2
for the NOPOL

KKI 215, HKL 215, and


MKL 215 disc diffusers, and 0.060 m
2
for the PRK 300 and PIK 300 diffusers.
When calculating diffuser density, use the bottom area where diffusers are to
be installed to and ignore the effect of slopes to the basin dimensions. Slopes
affect the SOTE value and there is a separate instruction on how to
determine this effect.
7.4 Layout
7.4.1 Layout Planning
Dividing the total number of diffusers required by the number of aeration
basins yields the number of diffusers per basin.
In small aeration basins, a single group of diffusers is used with one dropleg
installed vertically, one zone header installed horizontally on the basin
bottom, and the necessary number of diffuser elements branching out at right
angles from the zone header. In addition, there is the necessary number of
water collection pipes. In small diffuser groups the zone header is normally
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located at either one end or one side of the basin, while in bigger groups it is
usually installed in the middle of the basin.
Figure 1: Diffuser layout, zone header in the middle
Figure 2: Diffuser layout, zone header on one side
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For general purposes, the following limit values can be used for each diffuser
group:
PIK 300 PRK 300 KKI 215
HKL 215
MKL 215
maximum total air flow Qmax 3 m
3
/s 3 m
3
/s 3 m
3
/s
maximum air velocity in pipes vmax 18 - 25 m/s 18 - 25 m/s 18 25 m/s
maximum length of one row of
diffusers
Lmax 40 m 40 m 40 m
maximum spacing of diffusers on the
branches
Emax 1250 mm 1250 mm 1000 mm
minimum spacing of diffusers on the
branches
Emin 450 mm 450 mm 350 mm
maximum width of the diffuser group Bmax 12 m 12 m 12 m
maximum distance between branches Dmax 1250 mm 1250 mm 1000 mm
minimum distance between branches Dmin 500 mm 500 mm 350 mm
number of diffusers per branch NLmax 30 30 50
Zone Header diameter (size of
connector flange)
F DN80 - DN350 DN80 - DN350 DN80 - DN350
Values deviating from those given above should not be used without
consulting with Nopon Oy.
If the limit values cannot be fulfilled, it is necessary to install two or more
diffuser groups in the basin. When determining the size of the diffuser group,
all inclined surfaces possibly contained in the basin must also be taken into
account, as the group installation normally covers only the horizontal part of
the basin bottom.
The final dimensioning of the group is carried out according to the following
principles. Initially, the necessary number of diffusers in the group and the
basin bottom surface area available for the installation must be known. The
number of diffuser rows is obtained by dividing the width (A) of the basin
bottom by the distance between successive diffuser rows (D). The result is
rounded down to the nearest integer = C. The integer gives the number of
diffuser rows necessary.
One should check that the outer rows are not too near the basin walls or the
edges of inclined sections (see Figure 3 and Figure 4).
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Figure 3: Diffuser layout in a basin with straight edges
Figure 4: Diffuser layout in a basin with slants
The number of diffusers per row (2 x L in Figure 1 and L in Figure 2) is
obtained by dividing the total number of diffusers by the number of rows. If
the group is arranged as in Figure 1, and an even distribution of diffusers is
desired, the number of diffusers obtained should be rounded to the nearest
even number.
Finally, the distance between successive diffusers along the rows is obtained
simply by dividing the available basin bottom length by the number of
diffusers to be mounted in each row.
Before carrying out the calculations, the space needed for the zone header,
the water collection pipes and the junction must be subtracted from the total
basin bottom length. This subtractive space is about 1,2 m (Figure 1) or about
0,85 m (Figure 2).
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If the distance between successive diffusers (E) obtained by calculation is
greater than or equal to E
min
, the plan can be accepted and developed
further.
If E is too small, the above calculations must be repeated, changing the initial
data so that the distance between the diffuser rows is smaller, and hence the
number of diffuser rows is greater.
If E is too long, the calculations should be repeated for a greater distance
between the diffuser rows.
To determine the final distance between diffusers (diffuser spacing) along the
element, the value obtained by calculation is rounded to the nearest multiple
of five (mm).
As is obvious from the above, the calculations are iterative and may thus
need to be repeated several times before a final suitable diffuser and element
spacing is obtained.
To permit subsequent extension of the aeration system or changing the basin
oxygen profile, the advisable diffuser spacing is longer than E
min
, which
permits the mounting of new diffusers between the original ones.
When determining the final equipment parameters of the aeration system, the
diffuser rows are selected so that the total length of one continuous row of
diffusers is not greater than 5000 mm (Figure 5). Once all the equipment
parameters have been established (including the zone header, diffuser
element, junctions and water collection pipes), the dimension of the group
system and its suitability to the available basin space should be verified.
Figure 5: Diffusers installed on an element
The distance from the diffuser element to the centre of the nearest diffuser is
normally one half of the distance between the diffusers (E/2).
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7.4.2 Basin Geometry
The geometry of the aeration basin affects the oxygenation efficiency and the
mixing characteristics achieved in the basin. An appropriate aeration basin
shape may help to improve the oxygenation efficiency by as much as one
half.
Aeration basins in which diffusers are to be installed should be about 3 to 6 m
in depth to ensure efficient performance of the diffusers. In the plug flow
process, the ratio between basin width and depth should be approximately
1,0 to 2,0, which in practice means basin widths of from 3 to 12 m. For
reasons of process technology the ratio between basin length and width
should not exceed 15:1. A typical rectangular basin will thus be 4 m in depth,
6 m in width and 90 m in length, resulting in a volume of 2160 m
3
.
As the depth to width ratio increases, the contact time of air bubbles in the
water also increases, improving the oxygen transfer efficiency figures. If the
diffuser layout covers the entire bottom of the basin, this ratio is of no
importance. In the latter case chambered bottom edges are also
unnecessary.
To facilitate maintenance operations it is advisable to build an inclined bottom
and provide it with facilities for discharging by means of either gravity or
pumping.
The layout of diffusers in the aeration basin affects the absorption rate and
oxygenation efficiency in a fundamental way.
If the diffusers uniformly cover the entire bottom of the basin, spiral flows are
eliminated and the bubbles rise in the water at their specific speed of ascent
with respect to stagnant water. With this installation arrangement an oxygen
utilisation degree of 20 to 25 % and an oxygenation efficiency of 3,2 to 4,1 kg
O
2
/kWh can be attained with clean water in a 4 m deep basin.
In diffuser layouts covering the entire bottom of the basin, the diffuser
density, that is, the number of diffusers per unit area (m
2
) of the bottom, has a
significant effect on the oxygen utilisation degree and oxygenation efficiency
obtainable in the basin. The greater the diffuser density the greater the
performance values.
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7.4.3 Submersion Depth
The oxygenation rate can be raised by increasing the submersion depth of
the aeration equipment. The improved efficiency of oxygen transfer thus
obtained is mainly due to the longer contact time between sewage and
bubbles and to the higher oxygen saturation concentration achieved. Oxygen
absorption at different depths can be estimated by means of Equation 8:
Equation 8
e
h
h
e
n

_
,


2
2
100
where
e oxygen adsorption at the chosen aeration depth %
h aeration depth m
h
2
depth of the oxygen absorption curves measured m
e
2
degree of oxygen absorption given by the curves %
n exponent
1,0 for aeration depths 2 - 5 m
0,8 for aeration depths 5 - 8 m
Oxygenation efficiency (kg O
2
/kWh) remains constant within the normal
submersion depths (3 to 8 m). Even though the oxygen transfer rate is higher
at greater submersion depths, the effect of improved absorption is
counteracted in terms of economy. This is caused by the increased energy
consumption of blowers owing to increased hydrostatic pressure.
The normal submersion depth of diffusers ranges from 3 to 6 m. If very limited
ground space for the aeration plant is available, submersion depths of up to
12 m can be used. Submersion depths of less than 3 m are not advisable
owing to the process technology.
The attachment distance from the basin bottom is from 0,2 to 0,35 m with disc
diffusers.
7.4.4 Diffuser Layouts in Various Basins
Bottom diffusers can be installed in various types of aeration basins. A
rectangular form is the most common, round and other types of aeration
basins are also available.
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Figure 6, Figure 7 and Figure 8 show different placing examples of diffusers
in round and ring basins. Figure 9 shows a placing example in an oxidation
ditch equipped with a flow generator.
Figure 6: Placing of diffusers in a round basin
Figure 7: Placing of diffusers in a ring basin
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Figure 8: Placing of diffusers in a round basin equipped with flow generator
min 1.5-2 m = water depth appr 2-3 m min 1.5 m
Aeration
group
Aeration
group
Aeration
group
Aeration
group
Influent
Figure 9: Placing of diffusers in an oxidation ditch (race track) equipped with
flow generators
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There are various non standard installations, that is all shapes of aeration
basins where diffusers partially cover the basin bottom and all shapes of
basins equipped with flow generators or with mixers. In these cases the
water speed differs from the standard case where the whole bottom is
covered and thus affects the SOTE value. Corrections must be made
according to following instructions.
The present Quotation Manager (QM) design programs take into
account the effect of flow generators and slopes in the basin as explained in
these instructions. The purpose of this is to understand the magnitude of
these effects on cases where the system has been designed using "standard"
SOTE curves for complete bottom coverage.
7.4.4.1 Partial Coverage, No Flow Generators
Basin bottom areas not covered by diffusers exist in following cases:
basin has slopes at the sides, typically from 0,5 m to several meters
basin bottom is not level
basin has been designed for spiral flow (old tube diffuser
installations)
basin is foreseen with various constructions (old surface aerators,
concrete supports, pockets or channels to empty the basin, etc.)
anaerobic zones in the basins.
The uncovered area always creates a spiral flow in the basin decreasing the
detention time of the bubbles in the basin and thus reducing SOTE values.
The influence of the spiral flows on the system efficiency must be corrected
by multiplying the air flows calculated for standard installation by the
coefficient f
1
, shown in Table 1.
Recalculate the system considering that the maximum air flow per diffuser is
not exceeded. Note also the necessary correction on the SOTE value when
expressed in offers.
Table 1: Correction coefficients for spiral flows
Width of the uncovered area, m
(distance of diffusers from the wall)
multiply the air flow by
f
1
1 1,10
2 1,25
3 1,30
4 1,35
>5 1,35
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These values are approximate figures for total aeration basin width from 5 to
8 meters when slope is on one side of basin or for basins of total width of 10
to 16 m when slopes are on both sides. For more accurate figures and for
wider basins, see Table 2.
Table 2: Air flow correction coefficients for non standard installations, diffusers
cover part of the basin bottom - no flow generators
Width of
the not
covered
bottom
area
Correction coefficient f
1
(m) width of the aeration basin, m
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 >20
1 1,18 1,12 1,09 1,07 1,06 1,05 1,04 1,04 1,03 1,03 1,02 1,02 1,02 1,02
2 1,35 1,35 1,23 1,18 1,14 1,12 1,10 1,09 1,07 1,06 1,05 1,04 1,04 1,04
3 1,35 1,35 1,35 1,26 1,21 1,18 1,15 1,12 1,10 1,08 1,07 1,06 1,06
4 1,35 1,35 1,35 1,35 1,28 1,23 1,18 1,14 1,12 1,10 1,09 1,09
5 1,35 1,35 1,35 1,35 1,35 1,25 1,19 1,16 1,13 1,12 1,12
>5 to be defined case by case
Multiply the air flow calculated for the whole bottom coverage by coefficient f
1
.
Use total basin width when slope is on one side only. When slopes are on
both sides use the half width of the basin: from centre line to the wall.
7.4.4.2 Carrousel and Ring Basins, Flow Generators
Carrousel type nitrogen removal processes typically have aerated zones in
the straight part of the basin. Flow generators are normally installed in the
beginning of the straight part having free space before and after the diffusers
to protect the bearings and the operation of the flow generators. Flow
generators create a horizontal steady speed of over 0,3 m/s. Aerated zones
are located in this straight area and the curved ends of the basins are
typically anoxic.
Sometimes ring shape aeration basins are also equipped with flow generators
in order to create a horizontal flow. In practice the actual flow pattern is to
some extent vertical but also has spiral flow components.
According to the experiences of Nopon Oy and to published data the
horizontal water velocity effects on the SOTE value by -30 ... +30 % depending
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on the diffuser density.
Ask more detailled design rules from Nopon Oy.
The above mentioned flow generator correction can be used only if the
horizontal flow is min. 0,30 m/s, not for horizontal flow caused by sewage and
sludge volumetric flows (water speed is much lower). The water velocity has
to be achieved when aeration is in use.
Aeration air is affecting the water flow pattern especially when air is
introduced at high volumes per basin area. These unpredictable changes in
flow pattern might affect significantly on the oxygen transfer efficiency of the
aeration system. Consult Nopon Oy before using disc densities over 10 % in
flow generator basins.
In the rounded ends of the basins a combination of horizontal, vertical and
spiral flows appear. Avoid placing diffusers in that area.
7.4.4.3 Mixers and Aeration
Mixers for mixing only, not creating a horizontal flow, cause strong vertical
flows and turbulence in the basin. This type mixer typically has a smaller
propeller and a higher speed than flow generators. The vertical up and down
flows compensate the influence of each other. Turbulence causes the
coalescence of bubbles and improves the SOTE value as well as increases
the alpha value. The overall effect can be regarded as negligible and
therefore does not have to be taken into consideration.
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7.5 Tapering Diffusers and SOTR
In some activated sludge processes the spacing of the diffusers is tapered
across the length of the aeration basin so that diffuser density is highest on
the entrance side and decreases towards the outlet, for instance in four steps
equal in length to one quarter of the system length. When necessary,
tapering should be taken into account while designing the diffuser group
installation.
Table 3: Tapering of diffusers, municipal waste water
Basin
length
Cumulative number of diffusers from the basin beginning
%
% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 1,8 3,6 5,3 7,2 9,0 10,8 12,6 14,4 16,2
10 18 19,8 21,6 23,4 25,2 27,0 28,8 30,6 32,4 34,2
20 36 37,2 38,4 39,6 40,8 42,0 43,2 44,4 45,6 46,8
30 48 49,2 50,4 51,6 52,8 54,0 55,2 56,4 57,6 58,2
40 60 61,0 62,0 63,0 64,0 65,0 66,0 67,0 68,0 69,0
50 70 70,7 71,4 72,1 72,8 73,2 74,2 74,9 75,6 76,3
60 77 77,6 78,2 78,8 79,4 80,0 80,6 81,2 81,8 82,4
70 83 83,7 84,4 85,1 85,8 86,5 87,2 87,9 88,6 89,3
80 90 90,5 91,0 91,5 92,0 92,5 93,0 93,5 94,0 94,5
90 95 95,5 96,0 96,5 97,0 97,5 98,0 98,5 99,0 99,5
100
The cumulative number of diffusers expresses the proportion of diffusers in
the end of each zone.
How to use Table 3:
1. Calculate the total number of diffusers for the aeration basin
2. Calculate the percentage length or surface area for each aerated zone
3. Read the proportional number of diffusers from the table for the first zone
4. Read the proportional number of diffusers from the table for the end of the
second zone
5. Deduct the proportion of the first zone
6. Repeat the calculation for the rest of the zones
7. Calculate the actual number of diffusers for each zone
Note: The values of this table can also be applied in proportioning the SOTR
for aerated zones.
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7.6 Calculation of Corrected SOTE Values
Corrected SOTE values are calculated as follows:
Equation 9
SOTE
SOTR
Q c
i

where: Q is the corrected air flow


c
i
is oxygen content of air (0,280 kg/m
3
at 20 C, 101,3 kPa)
7.6.1 Expressing the Effect in Offers
The corrections made have to be expressed in all offers as follows:
A) Partial coverage
The normal dimensioning of the NOPOL

DDS systems gives the SOTR


.....kg O
2
/h at the air flow ......m
3
/h (T = 20C; p = 101,3 kPa). According to our
experiences the partial coverage of basin bottom decreases the SOTE value
of the system and the SOTR ... kg O
2
/h is achieved by the air flow..... m
3
/h (T
= 20C; p = 101,3 kPa).
B) Flow generators
The normal dimensioning of the NOPOL

DDS systems gives the SOTR ......


kg O
2
/h at the air flow ........ m
3
/h (T = 20C; p = 101,3 kPa). According to our
experiences the flow generators increase the SOTE value of the system and
the SOTR ..... kg O
2
/h is achieved by the air flow........ m
3
/h (T = 20C; p =
101,3 kPa).
The offers are subject to normal guarantees (Nopon Oy guarantees the given
SOTR at the expressed air flow) for the corrected values. However, in case of
large projects, Nopon Oy must be consulted.
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7.7 Air Production
7.7.1 Dimensioning of the Blower
Blower discharge pressure for a NOPOL

DDS system can be calculated


using Equation 10:
Equation 10
p p p p p p
i h p a b 2
+ + + +
where
p
2
required blower discharge pressure kPa
p
i
atmospheric pressure at the plant altitude kPa
p
h
hydraulic pressure (10 kPa / 1m) kPa
p
p
head loss in pipework including control valves, flow
meters and non return valves
kPa
p
a
head loss in the diffuser kPa
p
b
head loss in inlet valves and air filters kPa
The head losses of piping have to be calculated in the normal way using
relevant tables, nomograms or formulae. A general figure for the average
plant is a pressure loss in the pipework of 6 kPa (4 - 10 kPa), or 0.06 bar.
Head losses for diffusers are shown in the graphs, see the NOPOL

DDS
product manual. For example, a typical value is 5 kPa for a KKI 215 diffuser
at 3 m
3
/h air flow. The head losses for inlet filters and valves are usually
about 2 kPa.
Thus, the total pressure for the blower design in a typical 4 m deep basin
would be the water pressure, plus the above, or about 6 + 5 + 2 + 40 = 53
kPa (0.53 bar).
Having defined and calculated the above, the power requirement of the
blowers can also be calculated. Normally with the above figures, the blower is
chosen from manufacturers catalogues, and power thus specified according
to the type of blower chosen.
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The blower power requirement is determined as follows:
Equation 11
P
k
k
p q
p
p
i a
i
k
k

_
,

1
]
1
1
1

0 000278
1
1
2
1
,
,

where
P Power kW
p
2
Blower discharge pressure kPa
k Constant factor for blowers 1,395
total efficiency %/100
This is the combined value of the blower, electric motor
and transmission efficiencies (=
kj

v
)
Equation 11 for calculating blower power can also be expressed in the
following form:
Equation 12
P p q
p
p
i a
i

_
,

1
]
1
1
0 000982
1
2
0 283
,
,
,

Blower efficiency (
k
) varies between 0,65 and 0,75 in rotary displacement
blowers and between 0,7 and 0,8 in turbo blowers. The value 0,9 can be used
for the combined efficiency of the electric motor and transmission (
m

v
).
7.7.1.1 Pressure Losses in the Pipework
Pressure losses in the pipework of an aeration system can be evaluated on
the basis of a nomogram (Figure 10). This nomogram is proposed for straight
pipes.
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Figure 10: Pipe pressure loss nomogram
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The pressure loss in T -connections, 90 bows, valves, flanges, etc. can be
evaluated as an equivalent length of the pipe. Typically this equivalent is
expressed as a multiplier of the pipe diameter. Values are expressed in
various technical handbooks and manufacturers' technical information.
Below there are two examples of how to use the nomogram.
Example 1. Select zone header (and flange) diameter. Air flow is 1500 m
3
/h
(20C, 101,3 kPa). KKI 215 diffuser, 2 m
3
/h/diffuser. Water depth is 6 m.
1. Correct the volumetric air flow into actual conditions:
Pressure is 101,3 + 5,75 (= diffuser submergence) + 4 (= diffuser pressure
loss) = 162,8 kPa
Temperature is 273 + 20 (= ambient) + 60 (= warming up in blower) - 30 (=
estimated cooling in main and distribution headers and dropleg) = 323 K.
Corrected air flow is 1500 (101,3/162,8) (323/293) = 1029 m
3
/h

2. Start reading the nomogram at bottom line at 1029 (see Figure 11).
3. Move vertically until the line Velocity of air = 20 m/s
4. Read the value of the line Inside diameter = 0,135 m
5. Select pipe 150 mm (= next standard size).
6. Of the left vertical axis you can also read that the pressure loss in pipe
(150 mm) is 0,022 Pa/m.
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Figure 11: Use of the nomogram, example 1
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Example 2. There are 40 pcs of KKI 215 diffusers installed on a 40 m long
header pipe. Air flow per diffuser is 2 m
3
/h. Water depth is 6 m and ambient
air temperature is 20 C. Air cooling in pipework is assumed to be 30 C.
What is maximum air velocity in header pipe? What is the pressure difference
at the beginning and at the end of the pipe? What is the pressure difference
compared to pressure loss in a diffuser? What is the difference of air flow to
the first and last diffusers in the header pipe?
1. Correct the air flow (as in example 1)
Pressure is 101,3 + 57,5 + 4 = 162,8 kPa
Temperature is 273 + 20 + 60 - 30 = 323 K
Air flow = 40 2 (101,3/162,8) (323/293) = 54,8 m
3
/h
Air velocity is 54,8 (4/( 0,09
2
3600)) = 2,39 m/s
2. Air velocity can be read from the nomogram by starting from the base line
at 54,8 m
3
/h and moving vertically until Inside diameter = 0,09 m. We can
read: Maximum air velocity is 2,4 m/s.
3. We can read the maximum pressure loss to be in the beginning of the pipe
1,1 Pa/m. Because air flow is decreasing along the pipe we can not use this
value for the whole pipe. To simplify the calculations we can split the pipe in
four sections having axial air flows of 54,8; 41,1; 27,4 and 13,7. Using the
nomogram as in point 2, we get the pressure losses correspondingly: 1,1;
0,39; 0,27 and < 0,1. Total pressure loss in the pipe is
10 1,1 + 10 0,65 + 10 0,27 + 10 0,1 = 21,3 Pa.
4. Proportional pressure difference is 21,3/400 100 = 5,1 %
5. Because the pressure loss versus air flow of the diffuser is practically
linear, the difference in the air flow from the first and last diffusers is
maximum 5,1 % = 0,051 2 = 0,10 m
3
/h.
6. Note that the values used are maximum values and if integrating the
pressure losses along the pipe in a smaller section a somewhat lower value
for the air flow difference would be obtained.
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Figure 12: Use of the nomogram, example 2
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7.7.2 Dimensioning of Air Piping for NOPOL

DDS
The recommended actual air flow velocity ranges for different air distribution
pipes are as follows (see Figure 13):
main header (1) 6 - 9 m/s
distribution headers (2) 10 - 15 m/s
droplegs (3) and zone headers (4) 18 - 25 m/s
Figure 13: Recommended actual air flow velocities in distribution pipes
Even distribution of air flow to different aeration basins and diffuser groups is
achieved by an appropriate grading of flow velocities. Smaller flow velocities
and larger pipe diameter also reduce vibration and noise.
Air flow velocity can be calculated using Equation 13 which corrects the
pressure and temperature change caused by the compression of air:
Equation 13
v q
D
T
T
P
P
a
D
p
s
s



4
3600
2
2

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where
v air velocity m/s
q
a
air intake rate m
3
/h
D
D
diameter of pipe m
T
p
average temperature in distribution pipe K
T
s
air temperature under standard conditions K
P
2
blower discharge pressure kPa
P
s
atmospheric pressure under standard conditions kPa
The head losses in the pipework can be taken from nomograms or calculated
using the Darcy-Weisbach equation.
7.7.3 Air Filtering System for NOPOL

DDS
The purpose of air filtration is to avoid internal clogging of the diffusers and
excessive wear to both blowers and piping.
Fine bubble diffusers have a specific need for air filtration. The pores in the
porous discs and rubber membranes are very small, ranging from a few
microns to a hundred microns. Therefore, in order to avoid even partial
clogging, with a consequent loss of performance and increase in back
pressure, filtration should always be included in the air production plant.
Feed air must be conducted through a fine filter. In order to reduce the load
on fine filters and to prolong their life, coarse filters should always be used as
pre-treatment before fine filtering.
There are many types of filters available on the market, but here is a
combination suggested for normal cases:
For MKL 215 and HKL 215:
Coarse filter G3 CEN Class (European Committee for Standardisation) with
an efficiency of 38 42 % at 2.0 - 3.0 m particle, and fine filter F8 CEN
Class with an efficiency of 95 - 99 % at 0.75 - 1.0 m particle.
For PIK 300, KKI 215 and PRK 300:
Coarse filter as above. Fine filter F6 (35 40 % at 0.75 - 1.0 m particle and
80 - 85 % at 2.0 - 3.0 m).
If the intake air contains excessive amounts of harmful gases like SO
2
, Cl
2
or
H
2
O, it may be necessary to complement the air filtering system, for instance
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with an active carbon filter. In special cases the manufacturer of the diffusers
should be consulted.
Note that the normal blower intake filters are for the protection of the blower
alone, and generally not enough for the protection of the diffusers. When
filtration is carried out according to the above requirements, the blower
suction filters can be omitted.
Fibreglass type of filters or silencers may not be used!
The choice of filter arrangement depends on the size of the air production
plant:
In small plants (air flow up to 2 - 3 m
3
/s) a simple single fixed filter unit can
be used, utilising a single housing containing both coarse and fine filters
In large plants (> 3 - 4 m
3
/s) the use of separate filters should be
considered, the fine filters being wallmounted after the coarse filters
Automatic roller filters (dry filters) have proved to be the most appropriate for
use as coarse filters. The exchange interval of the filter fabric is normally 1 - 2
years. Fine filters cannot be regenerated. The exchange interval for them is
normally 0,5 - 1 year.
The following conditions should be taken into account when dimensioning the
filtration system:
icy conditions and / or a high dust concentration in the air; guide value for
initial head loss is approximately 15 mm water column (150 Pa) and for
head loss before filter change approximately 60 mm water column (60 Pa)
recommended maximum values are the following
initial head loss 50 mm
final head loss 150 mm
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8 NOPOL O.K.I. Aeration System Design
8.1 NOPOL

O.K.I. Aerator Mixer.............................................................8.1


8.1.1 Scope of Delivery ........................................................................8.2
8.1.2 Type of Aerator............................................................................8.4
8.1.3 Standard Oxygen Transfer Efficiency of Aerators.......................8.5
8.1.4 Basin Shape................................................................................8.6
8.1.5 Submersion Depth.......................................................................8.6
8.1.6 Air Flow .......................................................................................8.6
8.1.7 Mixing..........................................................................................8.7
8.2 Designing the Aeration System..........................................................8.8
8.2.1 Number of Aerators .....................................................................8.8
8.2.2 Cable and Hose Length Determination .......................................8.8
8.2.2.1 ............................................................. Process Air Hose Length 8.8
8.2.2.2 .................................................................. Electric Cable Length 8.9
8.2.2.3 .................................................................... Lifting Cable Length 8.9
8.2.2.4 ..........................................................Protection Air Hose Length 8.9
8.3 Upgrading of O.K.I. 1000 Series Aerators..........................................8.9
8.3.1 Example 1....................................................................................8.9
8.3.2 Example 2..................................................................................8.10
8.4 Layout Design ..................................................................................8.10
8.4.1 Aerator Location........................................................................8.11
8.4.2 Lifting Cable ..............................................................................8.12
8.4.3 Electric Cables and Protection Air Hose Attachments ..............8.12
8.4.4 Process Air Hose.......................................................................8.12
8.4.5 Hose Flanges ............................................................................8.15
8.4.6 Frequency Converter Control ....................................................8.15
8.4.7 Blower Air Delivery Control .......................................................8.16
8.4.8 Air Distribution Control ..............................................................8.16
8.5 Electric System Design.....................................................................8.17
8.5.1 Over Current Relay ...................................................................8.17
8.5.2 Motor Protection........................................................................8.17
8.5.2.1 ..................................................................................Thermistors 8.17
8.5.2.2 .............................................................................. Thermal Units 8.18
8.5.3 Starting Current .........................................................................8.18
8.5.4 Electro-magnetic Disturbances .................................................8.18
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8.6 Air Distribution Design......................................................................8.18
8.6.1 Process Air ................................................................................8.18
8.6.1.1 .................................................................................... Flow Rate 8.18
8.6.1.2 ..........................................................................................Valves 8.19
8.6.2 Hood Protection Air (100 and 200 series O.K.I. aerators).........8.20
8.6.2.1 ..........................................................................................Valves 8.20
8.6.2.2 ......................................................... Flow Rate and Flow Meters 8.20
8.7 Lifting System...................................................................................8.21
8.8 Work Safety......................................................................................8.22
8.9 Air Filtration......................................................................................8.22
8.10 Water Separators..........................................................................8.23
8.11 Installation, Operation and Maintenance......................................8.24
8.11.1 General .....................................................................................8.24
8.11.2 Manuals.....................................................................................8.24
8.11.3 Installation Supervision.............................................................8.24
8.12 Guarantees ...................................................................................8.25
We reserve the right to make technical changes.
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8 NOPOL

O.K.I. AERATION SYSTEM DESIGN


8.1 NOPOL

O.K.I. Aerator Mixer


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8.1.1 Scope of Delivery
For the design of O.K.I. aeration system it is necessary to make difference
between the components, which are part of the aerator, and the components,
which are necessary for aeration. The components of the O.K.I. aerator can
be divided into two categories:
Preinstalled:
Power and Signal Cables with airlocks
Protection Air Hose of EPDM rubber, only in 100- and 200-series
Lifting Cable with breaking strength of more than 100kN

Separate:

Process Air Hose of EPDM rubber
Hose flanges, hose clamps and rubber straps
Installation and Operation Manual
The difference between the traditional O.K.I. 100 or 200 series and the new
O.K.I. 1000 series is in the motor and the gear reducer. The new 1000 series
has a submersible motor and a gear reducer. O.K.I. 100 or 200 series
aerators have a hood to protect the motor. In addition, there is a protection air
hose made of EPDM rubber. The protection air system is designed to
pressurise the hood above the level of the surrounding hydrostatic pressure,
no matter how deep O.K.I. Aerator is installed. Thanks to the fact that the
motor and the gear reducer are submersible, no protection air is needed in
O.K.I. 1000 series.
NOPOL

O.K.I. serves also as a mixer in normal aeration operation. Mixing


without air supply is permitted only at the lower speed of the two-speed
aerator and with O.K.I. 200 series aerators. It is not allowed to operate O.K.I.
100 series aerator at high speed without air.
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1 Frame
2 Rotor
3 Stator and stator ducts
4 Nameplate
5 Hose flange seal
6 Hose flange
7 Hose clamp
8 Rubber strap
9 Process air hose
10 Shaft seal
11 Drive unit (geared motor)
12 Lifting bail
13 Lifting cable
14 Power cable(s)
15 Signal cable
16 Cable support
Figure 1: Exploded view of O.K.I. 1000 series
1 Frame
2 Rotor
3 Stator and stator ducts
4 Nameplates
5 O-rings
6 Inlet and outlet valve systems
7 Cable inlet element
8 Shaft seal
9 Drive unit (geared motor)
10 Cooling jackets
11 Cooling fan
12 Hood
13 Lifting cable
14 Hose flange seal
15 Hose flange
16 Hose clamps
17 Expansion system
18 Rubber strap
19 Process air hose
20 Signal cable
21 Protection air hose
22 Power cable(s)
Figure 2: Exploded view of O.K.I. 100 series.
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1 Stator and stator ducts
2 Rotor
3 Extension channels
4 Nameplates
5 O-rings
6 Inlet and outlet valve systems
7 Cable inlet element
8 Hose flange seal
9 Shaft seal
10 Drive unit (geared motor)
11 Hood
12 Lifting cable
13 Hose flange
14 Hose clamps
15 Oil expansion system
16 Rubber strap
17 Process air hose
18 Signal cable
19 Protection air hose
20 Power cable(s)
Figure 3: Exploded view of O.K.I. 200 series.
8.1.2 Type of Aerator
Before choosing the type of the O.K.I. aerator the criteria of aeration system
have to be determined by the system designer. Together with oxygen
transfer, mixing, process and process control are examples of these criteria.
NOPOL

O.K.I. 100 series is used in applications were stainless steel


material is required.
NOPOL

O.K.I. 1000 A models are only meant for continuous aeration. AM


models are designed for continuous aeration and mixing. Both A and AM
models are equipped with one speed motor. AM2 models are equipped with
two-speed motors and can be used for continuous aeration at high speed and
mixing at low speed without air.
It is advisable to follow the rule that the biggest aerator possible for the case
is chosen and the calculation is carried out accordingly. With this aerator the
possibility of designing the system is checked.
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The minimum required number of the aerator is determined according to
following. Under any circumstances the aerators must have enough aeration
and mixing capacity and all the other criteria are filled.
8.1.3 Standard Oxygen Transfer Efficiency of Aerators
SOTR curves are based on clean water test at standard conditions (+10
o
C,
101,3 kPa). In the curves the air flow is given in standard conditions (+20
o
C,
101,3 kPa). The values presented in the curves are valid for standard
installations. The SOTR curves are in the NOPOL

O.K.I. product manual.


NOPOL

O.K.I. aerator has an active area where oxygen transfer efficiency is


the same as presented in the efficiency curves. In cases where O.K.I.
aerators have to cover wider area than presented in the curves, a SOTR
value correction factor should be used.
Unaerated area creates spiral flows in the basin and thus decreases the
detention time of the bubbles and consequently reduces SOTR values. The
influence of the spiral flows on the system efficiency shall be corrected by
multiplying the SOTR value with the correction factor shown in Table 1.
Corrected SOTR is calculated with following formula:
SOTR = SOTR
std
* k
2
Table 1: Correction factors for SOTR efficiency
Unit area / Active
area
Correction
coefficient, k
2
m
2
/ m
2
1,0 1,00
1,5 0,95
2,0 0,90
2,5 0,85
3,0 0,80
>3,5 0,75
Unit area of one O.K.I. unit is obtained by dividing the basin bottom area with
number of aerators:
A
OKI
= A
b
/ N
In cases of tapered aeration, selectors etc. the calculations are made using
zone area and number of aerators in aeration zone.
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8.1.4 Basin Shape
Aeration basin depth has major impact to Oxygen Transfer Efficiency. Deep
aeration basin should be designed to reach high aeration efficiency. The
optimum water depth for aeration with O.K.I. aerators is 6 - 12 m. In the plug
flow process, the ratio between basin width and depth should be
approximately 1,0 to 2,0, which in practice means basin widths of 6 to 24 m.
For process technology reasons the ratio between basin length and width
should not exceed 15:1.
To reach optimum aeration configuration, the mixing areas of O.K.I. aerators
should be taken into account as well as lifting possibilities. More detailed
information about mixing areas are presented in chapter 5.2 and information
about lifting is in chapter 5.9.
8.1.5 Submersion Depth
The oxygenation rate can be raised by increasing the submersion depth of
the aerators. The improved efficiency of oxygen transfer thus obtained is
mainly due to the longer contact time between water and bubbles and to the
higher oxygen saturation concentration achieved. Submersion depth also
affects to the efficiency of the aerator, maximum and minimum air flow due to
compressibility of the air. In deeper basin actual flow in cubic meters is lower
than shallow basins.
8.1.6 Air Flow
With NOPOL

O.K.I. aerators, air flow is expressed in cubic meters (20


o
C,
101,3 kPa) per minute per aerator unit m
3
/min.
The model of the aerator determines the appropriate range of the air flow into
aerator. Too high air flow /unit will dramatically decrease the efficiency. Also
the risk of mechanical failure increases due to unbalanced air distribution in
aerator.
The power consumption of the O.K.I. aerator increases with decreasing air
flow. Running with too low air flow overloads the electrical motor and might
cause serious mechanical damage in the motor. The minimum air flow for
aerators is shown in efficiency curves. AM models of the 1000-series are
capable to handle air flow down to zero without overloading the motor.
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The optimum air flow / aerator depends on the water depth and compressor
efficiency.
The design air flow of the aerators is a result of the number of aerators and
the required SOTR. When designing the aeration system it is not advisable to
use the maximum allowable air flow rate per unit, since the limitations for
maximum air flow rates are for individual aerators only. The air distribution
system has to be designed in such a way that in any running circumstances
the air flow rate for each O.K.I. aerator remains between the given minimum
and maximum limits.
8.1.7 Mixing
In order to function properly the different processes require different mixing
capabilities in the basin. It has to be noted that the given curves for mixing
characteristics are valid only in aeration use, where the rising air bubbles
have a remarkable mixing effect.
100-series aerators directly connected to electric net are not meant to be
used without process air flow. This restricts the use of single speed O.K.I. in
other circumstances than continuous aeration. When using these aerators
through frequency converters it is possible to use them also for pure mixing. It
is required, however, that the speed of rotation has to be limited so that the
power consumption decreases. It has to be remembered that, due to the
lower speed of rotation of the rotor, mixing capability decreases. The given
mixing characteristics are not valid any more in aeration.
Figure 4: Mixing requirement curve
100 series double speed aerators are to be used also for pure mixing, but at
lower speed. At lower speed the mixing characteristics curves are not valid.
3
5 3
[m]
12
Water
Depth
6
Rated Power
per cubic meter
basin volume
15
[W/m]
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200-series single speed aerators are to be used for aeration and for mixing.
Combined with frequency converter the energy consumption can be
optimised.
The maximum mixing capacity is not always needed in processes. From time
to time less mixing is sufficient to keep the process working. Double speed
aerators and aerators used through frequency converters are suitable for
these purposes.
8.2 Designing the Aeration System
8.2.1 Number of Aerators
Calculation example
Design data:
Water depth 8 m
SOTR required 630 kg O
2
/h
Basin dimensions 27 m x 70 m = 1890 m
2
1. Shape and dimensions of the basin are known (70 x 27 x 8 m
3
)
2. Required standard oxygen transfer is known (630 kg O
2
/h)
3. O.K.I. 133-51 is chosen using SOTR curves
4. Active area of one O.K.I. 133-51 aerator is 590 m3 (O.K.I. mixing
characteristics table)
5. Minimum number of O.K.I. 133-51 aerators is calculated by dividing the
basin area by the active area of one unit. 1890 m3 / 590 m3 = 3,2 => 4
units are enough for mixing
6. Required SOTR for one aerator is 630 kg O
2
/h / 4 = 157,5 kg O
2
/h
7. Five (5) O.K.I. 133-51 aerators are needed to meet the SOTR required
8. Required SOTR per one O.K.I. 133-51 is 630 kg O
2
/h / 5 = 126 kg O
2
/h
9. 126 kg O
2
/h can be reached with O.K.I. 133-51 at 22 m3/min air feed
10. Layout has to be finalised
8.2.2 Cable and Hose Length Determination
8.2.2.1 Process Air Hose Length
After the final layout for O.K.I. aerators has been done, the determination of
the process air hose length has to be done carefully. Table 2 can be used as
aid.
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8.2.2.2 Electric Cable Length
The length of the electric cable has to be determined after the layout is ready,
process air hose determination has been done and the location of the electric
connection box is known. The length of the electric cable is the distance
between the process air hose connection and the electric connection box plus
the length of the process air hose.
8.2.2.3 Lifting Cable Length
The length of the lifting cable is recommended to be as short as possible.
However, it has to be long enough to reach the attachment point at the basin
edge.
8.2.2.4 Protection Air Hose Length
Protection air hose is only needed for 100 and 200 series O.K.I. aerators.
The length of the protection air hose has to be determined after the layout is
ready, process air hose determination has been done and the location of the
protection air supply joint is known. The length of the process air hose is the
distance between the process air hose connection and the protection air
supply joint plus the length of the process air hose. The length of the
protection air hose has to be accurate in order to prevent condensation of
water in the hose.
8.3 Upgrading of O.K.I. 1000 Series Aerators
8.3.1 Example 1
Original choice O.K.I. 1090A-18AM
rated power 18,5 kW
air flow 20,0 m
3
/min
SOTR 133 kg O
2
/h
water depth 10 m
Upgraded aerator O.K.I. 1090B-18A
rated power 18,5 kW
air flow 20,0 m
3
/min
SOTR 150 kg O
2
/h
water depth 10 m
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What is required to achieve this?
The first stage in the gear box is replaced by a new one 103 rpm => 112 rpm
8.3.2 Example 2
Original choice O.K.I. 1050A-03A
rated power 3,0 kW
air flow 7,5 m
3
/min
SOTR 19 kg O
2
/h
water depth 7 m
Upgraded aerator O.K.I. 1050B-04A
rated power 4,0 kW
air flow 7,5 m
3
/min
SOTR 26 kg O
2
/h
water depth 7 m
What is required to achieve this?
Motor is replaced by a new one 3,0 kW => 4,0 kW
The first stage in the gear box is replaced by a new one 142 rpm => 157 rpm
8.4 Layout Design
Generally O.K.I. aerators are located in a basin so that there is adequate
mixing in every spot of the basin. The aeration system has to be adapted to
the needs, because usually the needed oxygen amount in different parts of
the basin is unequal.
The easiest way to put the aerators into a basin is to place them evenly on
the bottom. Diversified density can be advisable if the oxygen demand is
bigger in some parts of the basin, like usually in the beginning of the aeration
basin. It is also, however, easy to alter the aerator density afterwards.
Uneven need for aeration is better to take into account beforehand.
Otherwise, the required oxygen has to be reached for example by means of
valves. Immoderate valve control could lead to excessive oxygen amount and
that could load the aerators excessively. Extreme amount of pumped air could
lead even to decline in aeration capacity.
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Figure 5: Aerators in different layouts
If the aerator density decreases substantially in some parts of the basin, there
is a risk that the mixing capacity will not be adequate.
8.4.1 Aerator Location
When placing the aerators in the basin, sufficient space is to be left between
them as well as between them and the basin walls. If the aerators are too
close one to the other or to the wall, a fall in the oxygenation capacity is to be
expected at the aerators in question. The height difference between the
aerators must not exceed 50 mm in the basin.
There are, for each aerator type, minimum lead values for the distances from
the wall and from the next aerator corresponding to the guarantee conditions.
If these values cannot be respected, a consultation with the nearest NOPOL

O.K.I. representative is recommended, in order to find an acceptable solution


case by case.
Aerators can be placed without applying the given minimum values, but the
installations often have to be especially modified. An excessive density can
cause heavy turbulence in the basin with subsequent movement of the
machines.
UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION
AERATORS DEVIDED TO
SEPARATE BASINS
TAPERED SYSTEM
SELECTOR IN THE MIDDLE,
AERATION BASIN AROUND IT
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8.4.2 Lifting Cable
When delivered to the clients, O.K.I. aerators are fitted with a lifting cable.
The steel loop at the upper end of the cable is fixed at a distance of about
four meters from the upper flange of the process air hose. In this way, rubbing
between process air hose and lifting cable can be avoided. In round basins,
where air distribution pipes are placed in the middle of the basin this would
be impossible. The lifting cables can then be attached to the outer edge of
the basin, for example. In a case like this Nopon must be contacted.
8.4.3 Electric Cables and Protection Air Hose Attachments
All O.K.I. aerators are equipped with power and signal cables. O.K.I: 100 and
200 series aerators are additionally equipped with protection air hose, which
is used to pressurise the hood of the O.K.I. aerator. Reliable attachments and
support for the cables and hoses have to be prepared.
The cables and the hoses are bound into a bundle to the side of the process
air hose by using special rubber straps (provided by Nopon Oy). With the
straps bound it is easy to carry out.
When defining the length of the cables and hoses it is important to take into
account that the cables and hoses are tied up all the way to the process air
hose. Further, they still have to reach the terminal box, which is not
necessarily near to connection flange of the process air hose.
Protection air hose have to be cut to a right length in order to avoid the
situation where condensed water is gathered in the hose. Condensed water
could block the reliable work of pressurising valves. Too long cables and
hoses must be cut to a right length on installation site.
8.4.4 Process Air Hose
Defining the length of the process air hose is an important part of the layout
design of any aeration system with NOPOL

O.K.I. aerators. The design of


the air distribution pipelines of the plant is closely connected with this
definition. The main rule is that the process air hose is designed as short as
possible, i.e. air distribution system is to be taken as close as possible to
each aerator. In addition, a regulation valve is to be installed between each
process air hose and the air distribution pipe in order to enable eventual
counter pressure regulation. Sometimes a throttle valve is required.
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In basins where the O.K.I. aerators are installed at more than 8 meters
depth, a special heavy-duty hose is used instead of the standard hose.
Compressing the air deeper causes heating. High waste water temperature
and/or high ambient temperature also contribute to the heating. The heavy
duty process air hose tolerates temperatures up to 130 C for a long time.
Both types resist temperatures down to 40 C. In extreme situations Nopon
Oy has to be contacted.
When the position of the connecting point and the location of the O.K.I. in the
basin have been defined, the length of the process air hose is determined.
The hose must have free space to move in sewage whirls. There must not be
any obstacles like the basin wall or other hoses or lifting wires in close
proximity to hose. Table 2 can be used as aid for determining the hose
length.
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Table 2: Determination of process air hose length
15 16 17 18 19 20 20,5 21,5 22,5 23,5 24,5 25,5 26,5 27,5 28,5 29,5 30,5 31,5
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20,5 21,5 22,5 23,5 24,5 25,5 26,5 27,5 28,5 29,5 30,5
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20,5 21,5 22,5 23,5 24,5 25,5 26,5 27,5 28,5 29,5
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20,5 21,5 22,5 23,5 24,5 25,5 26,5 27,5 28,5
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20,5 21,5 22,5 23,5 24,5 25,5 26,5 27,5
WATER
DEPTH
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20,5 21,5 22,5 23,5 24,5 25,5 26,5
(Y) 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20,5 21,5 22,5 23,5 24,5 25,5
8 9,5 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20,5 21,5 22,5 23,5 24,5
7 8,5 9,5 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20,5 21,5 22,5 23,5
6 7,5 8,5 9,5 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20,5 21,5 22,5
5 6,5 7,5 8,5 9,5 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20,5 21,5
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
DISTANCE FROM AIR CONNECTION FLANGE (X)
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8.4.5 Hose Flanges
Alignment and attachments of the hose flanges and couplings should be
included in the overall designing of the pipework. It is recommended that the
hose flanges point directly towards the O.K.I. aerators This way most of the
strain and tension affecting the hose and the cables can be avoided.
O.K.I. aerator is delivered with two different kinds of hose flanges. By using
them optimising the process air hose length and the alignment of hose
flanges can be done locally.
Figure 6: Recommended installation of hose flanges
8.4.6 Frequency Converter Control
One way to control O.K.I. aeration system is to use frequency converter.
Frequency converters can be used together with aerators or with plant air
blowers. In the control system of the process, the dissolved oxygen is
measured in the basin. It is advisable to use more than one probe, since the
probes are rather sensitive for malfunction. The information from dissolved
oxygen probe is taken to processor, which controls the speed of the rotation
of the aerator rotor or the speed of blower.
The simplest way to use frequency converter is to use it for adjusting the
speed of blower. By doing this the air feed is controlled all around the basin.
A more complicated and more expensive solution is to control the speed of
the O.K.I. rotor rotation. The installation of a frequency converter is advisable
only in the case that the aerator really needs the speed adjustment. The main
rule for controlling the speed of the O.K.I. rotor rotation is to only reduce it in
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order to avoid exceeding the maximum power allowed of the particular O.K.I.
It is also possible to increase the speed of rotor rotation. To do this first
consult the local aerator supplier or Nopon Oy.
When designing the process where the O.K.I. aerator is used through a
frequency converter, it has to be noted that the oxygen transfer is reduced
when reducing the speed of rotation. A 5 % decrease in speed reduces the
power consumption of O.K.I. aerator by 15 % and the oxygen transfer
capacity by 5 - 15 % depending on the water depth and air flow rate.
In case the plant has more than one blower connected to plant air manifold, it
is beneficial to control the process by switching the blower on/off and by
using one of the blowers through a frequency converter. Furthermore, if the
O.K.I. aerators are also operated through the frequency converter, the speed
of rotation can be controlled as well.
If wished, a one-speed aerator can be used without process air if a frequency
converter is used
Use of frequency converters can also be motivated when regulation /
optimisation of aeration is required.
8.4.7 Blower Air Delivery Control
In the previous section controlling the process by frequency converter was
described. A more inexpensive, easy and rough way to control O.K.I. aeration
system is in case of several blowers to control the number of blowers in
operation. The feedback from dissolved oxygen probes controls the blowers
so that the right number of blowers is in operation. In addition, some of the
O.K.I. can be stopped when air flow rate is reduced. It has to be noted that
the process might need all the mixing capacity of the aerators.
8.4.8 Air Distribution Control
The control system of the process can be implemented manually or
automatically via feed back from the dissolved oxygen probes. The control of
the air flow rate to each O.K.I. is done by means of the process air valves in
line. Stepless valve is the most suitable for this purpose.
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8.5 Electric System Design
The purpose of this chapter is to clarify those points of the electric plan that
are important to know already in the design phase.
O.K.I. aerator is delivered to customer without any connecting plugs due to
varying national standards and wishes of the customers. Cable-ends are
sealed with plastic foil. Cable terminal boxes are not included in the delivery.
8.5.1 Over Current Relay
The electric system to which the O.K.I. aerators are connected has to contain
an excess current relay, which is regulated to go off at a level of 90 % current
of the nominal effect of the gear motor.
The task of the over current relay is to protect the electric motor of the O.K.I.
aerator from overload and eventual damage caused by overload. The O.K.I.
installation, operation and maintenance manual gives the limit values for the
excess current relay separately for each aerator type.
8.5.2 Motor Protection
O.K.I. aerators are equipped with winding protection devices embedded in
each winding. They are connected in series. 100 and 200 series models are
protected with thermistors and 1000 series models with thermal units.
These devices as such do not protect the electric motor of the O.K.I. aerator,
but they have to be connected by means of a secondary contactor to the main
contactor, connected to the electric feed of the electric motor of the aerator.
8.5.2.1 Thermistors
Excessive temperature in any of the thermistors causes a notable increase of
the total resistance in the thermistors. When the temperature exceeds the
determined limit temperature and the thermistors are connected in the
system, increase of the resistance makes, via the main contactor, the aerator
stop.
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8.5.2.2 Thermal Units
These are mechanical switches, which operate exactly in the same way as
thermistors, but they are based on mechanical function. They operate with a
constant pressure up to the switching point. Then at the present switching
point the mechanically and electrically unstressed bimetallic disc snaps over
and via the main contactor makes the aerator stop.
8.5.3 Starting Current
When designing the electric system it is to be noted that the current required
when starting an O.K.I. aerator is about 6 to 7 times more than the nominal
current of the electric motor of the aerator. This imposes certain requirements
for example for the choice of the fuses.
8.5.4 Electro-magnetic Disturbances
During the operation of the O.K.I. aerators it is to be ensured that the aerator
does not cause electro-magnetic disturbances in the ambient or the ambient
for the operation of O.K.I. Environmental standards determine the tolerances.
8.6 Air Distribution Design
8.6.1 Process Air
One or several blowers can produce the required process air. It is advisable
to design the system so that more than one blower is used. Then the system
is more reliable against defects on blowers. When using only one big blower
the efficiency of air production is higher compared to two smaller units at full
load.
By using at least two blowers a very simple control system can be achieved.
8.6.1.1 Flow Rate
Each type of O.K.I. aerator has its own air flow range. The range is
dependent on the depth of the basin. When designing the O.K.I. aeration
system the air flow ranges have to be taken into account both in normal
operation and in maintenance.
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O.K.I. aeration system should not be designed by using the allowed maximum
air flow rate per aerator. In the following the obvious problems have been
described, if the maximum air flow rate has been used in design work.
Very often in order to control air distribution between the aerators, process air
valves are used. When using valve controlled process air distribution the
maximum air flow rates can be easily exceeded. On the other hand in
aeration system, where only few aerators are installed, the maximum allowed
air flow rate is exceeded during the maintenance work of O.K.I. aerator. If the
maximum air flow rate has been used in designing the process, the control of
the process is difficult, and at high waste water load can result in air flow
increase. As the form of the SOTR curve indicates, the required oxygen level
is not reached by increasing the air flow. The upper limit of air flow rate in
each O.K.I. is at the level where increase of air does not significantly affect
the oxygen transfer rate. The increase of air cause only more vibration and
the turbulence on the water surface will increase. This will in turn increase the
forces against process air hoses.
8.6.1.2 Valves
Very common and simple way to control the oxygen level in different parts of
the basin is to open and close the process air valves connected to each
O.K.I. aerator. When choosing the valve it has to be noted that the valve has
to be stepless.
Figure 7: Typical ball valve characteristics
Flow
Range
100%
100% Opening
Position
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8.6.2 Hood Protection Air (100 and 200 series O.K.I. aerators)
O.K.I. aerators of the 100 and 200 series, when submerged, need in addition
to process air, protection air for the hood. The protection air is needed to
keep the pressure in the hood just above the surrounding hydrostatic
pressure. For protection air supply there are two different possibilities.
1. Protection air is taken from the plant air manifold, the same pipeline where
process air is flowing. The required pressure is always at the right level.
This solution is suitable for the aeration systems where process air is
continuously on. The hood has protection air supply all the time.
2. Protection air can be produced by a separate compressor. The air is
distributed through separate pipelines to each O.K.I. aerator. The
advantage of the system is that when stopping the process air hose the air
flow inside the hood is always secured. In this alternative the pressure
reduction valve is needed in case the supply pressure might exceed the
surrounding hydrostatic pressure by 0,1 bar.
8.6.2.1 Valves
Protection air supply joint to each O.K.I. is advised to be equipped with shut
off valve. The control of the protection air flow can be done by the valve,
especially when using separate protection air supply. If protection air is taken
from the plant air manifold the control of the air flow is not needed. There is,
however, an advantage in using the valve in this case also, since the air feed
to one individual O.K.I. can be shut off for the maintenance work.
8.6.2.2 Flow Rate and Flow Meters
Since the purpose of protection air is only to maintain the pressure in the
hood just above the surrounding pressure, the air amount needed is not high.
Protection air is also cooling the air inside the hood.
Too high an air flow rate might damage the non-return valve in the hood and
cause air to escape the hood in case the protection air is temporarily not in
use. In normal use the required protection air feed is about 10 l/min per
aerator.
Depending on the application, it can be advisable to equip each protection air
joint with a flow meter. Especially the systems where separate protection air
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supply is used, the protection air flow might exceed the recommended air flow
rate to aerator and therefore flow meters are needed.
8.7 Lifting System
When designing the sewage plant the space for lifting system have to be
taken into consideration. In practice the size and the depth of the basin
defines the size of the crane needed.
Lifting height is defined by the lifting cable and by the height of the outer
basin wall. In addition, the height of the O.K.I. has to take into account. The
most common way to lift the O.K.I. is to use mobile crane. The greater lifting
range is in question the heavier lifting equipment is needed. The weight and
the size of the crane are issues, which have to be included in designing
maintenance roads and lifting areas around the basin.
It is possible to use stationary crane above the basin. In that case adequate
space for lifting the O.K.I. over the basin wall and the site where to lower the
O.K.I. outside the basin must be provided.
When transport distances in the basin area are long, it is possible to use
removable float (Nopon Oy will not provide). The O.K.I. is first lifted onto a
float, which is used to transport the O.K.I. to point where it can be lifted out of
the basin with a lighter crane.
Points to be taken into consideration when lifting the O.K.I.:
n Lifting capacity of the crane has to exceed the total weight of an
O.K.I. (2,5 t is adequate for every case)
n When designing the lifting procedure, note that the cables and the
hoses must not be subject for chafing nor tension caused by
pipework and structures around the basin area.
n Lifting range of the crane, so that all aerators can be placed into
their positions in basin.
n The space which an O.K.I. needs as a temporary standing place
outside the basin.
n If possible, the crane should be placed so that as many aerators as
possible could be placed from one crane position.
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8.8 Work Safety
It is necessary to pay attention to safety aspects when designing the basin
structures. Aerator control and maintenance procedures must be carried
through without any safety risks.
Basin structures must be designed so that maintenance personnel does not
have to hang above the aeration basin in operation when carrying out
installation or maintenance procedures, especially not when they are doing
electric and hose connections. Hose flanges or electric connections should
never be located outside a service bridge.
When upgrading the aeration system with O.K.I. aerators, it sometimes
requires renovations of the service bridges or the pipework, etc. Please
contact Nopon Oy for further information if necessary.
National regulations with the electrical installations must be respected.
8.9 Air Filtration
Cleanliness of the air supplied to the aerators is affected by cleanliness of the
suction air, filtration of air and cleanliness of the air pipes. Suction air should
be free from particles such as dust, leaves, etc. and drops of liquids.
The blowers need certain cleanliness of the air they are transmitting.
Filtration according to EU5 standards are enough for most of the blower types
(this has to be checked from the manufacture of each blower used).
The same filtration rate is enough for NOPOL

O.K.I. aerator mixers process


air. In process air, particles smaller than 1 mm in diameter do not cause any
problem. The process air has to be free of abrasive material causing erosion
of the piping and components of the aerator.
The requirements for the protection air of O.K.I. 100 and 200 series are
stricter. Foreign particles may stick into the non-return valves of the
protection air system. Untight non-return valves may risk the aerator to leak
water into the hood. For protection air filtration rate of EU5 is required.
With capacities of up to about 10.000 m
3
/h it is often appropriate to provide
each blower with a separate filter-equipped air intake directly from the outside
air. At large plants a special air intake room should be constructed and
equipped with soundproofing.
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8.10 Water Separators
Protection air fed into the pressurising system of a NOPOL

O.K.I. aerator of
aerator mixer must not contain condensed water. Water may cause excessive
corrosion inside the unit.
Condensed water has to be removed from protection air before connection of
the protection air hose. If protection air is taken directly from the process air
pipe protection air connection should be upwards. If the process air
connections are downwards, condensed water is removed with process air.
Figure 8: Protection air taken from process air pipe
In case there is a separate pipe for the protection air, a water separator
should be installed. The separator must be situated before the protection air
connections of the aerators. A water trap is recommended to collect the
condensed water of the protection air.
Figure 9: Water separator installed to water trap of separate protection air
pipe
Process air containing condensed water does not affect the operation of a
NOPOL

O.K.I. aerator.
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8.11 Installation, Operation and Maintenance
8.11.1 General
The NOPOL

O.K.I. aerator is easy and fast to install. When done correctly
and when using correct equipment a small crew can install several aerators
per day. This also makes the installation less costly.
The NOPOL

O.K.I. aerators can be installed in basins with a variety of
constructions. As the units are not mounted to the bottom, the installation is
possible also in basins with bottom made of gravel or other porous material.
However, there are requirements on sturdiness, thickness, etc. The correct
installation of all aeration equipment is essential.
Whereas the airtightness is the crucial question in most other installations
and therefore careful tests have to be performed, in the case of O.K.I.
aerators this has been pre-tested already at the factory before the aerator
has been shipped. Therefore the NOPOL

O.K.I. is ready for use as shipped.


8.11.2 Manuals
Detailed instructions for installation, operation and maintenance of the
NOPOL

O.K.I. aerators are presented in the manuals, which are delivered
with every delivery of NOPOL

O.K.I. aerators. Also a video describing the
installation is delivered with every delivery. Following these instructions any
organisation, familiar with the kind of environment that a treatment plant is,
can make the installation safely and correctly. If the operation manual is
adhered to, even first time operators of a treatment plant can start the
operation. In many cases it is though advisable to arrange training. Nopon Oy
can make a proposal for training program and offer for its possible part if
requested to. Maintenance of a plant equipped with NOPOL

O.K.I. aerators
is likewise relatively easy. Without emptying the basin hoisting the machines
from the basin and following the service instructions the aerators can be
serviced without interrupting the process.
8.11.3 Installation Supervision
In order to secure that the installation has been done properly Nopon has
created easy to use forms which the installation crew has to fill in during the
installation. Following these instructions and filling in these forms safe and
correct installation is secured. In some cases it wise to buy installation
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supervision from Nopon Oy. The supervision is an additional security that the
installation is done properly and that the operation can be started safely.
Sometimes performance tests are also done. It is normally cost-efficient to
perform the installation supervision and the performance tests during same
time especially if tests are purchased from outside source.
8.12 Guarantees
According to the General Guarantee Terms for NOPOL

Aeration Systems,
the Sellers responsibility covers defects occurring within two years from the
taking into operation of the aeration system, however, not later than after 30
months from the delivery.
It is the Purchasers responsibility to take care that the installation and
operation of the equipment is carried out in accordance with the Sellers
instructions. Guarantee terms are valid only under the following conditions
1. The evenness of air distribution has to be checked. If unevenness occurs
necessary measures have to be undertaken to secure even distribution.
2. The guarantee is valid only if the installation and operation of the
equipment is carried out according to the Seller's instructions and the
Installation Supervision Document which is included in the installation
instructions, has been returned to the Seller, duly signed by the person in
charge of the assembly.
3. After the equipment has been taken into operation, a data log has to be
maintained showing the operational conditions for the full operating
period. The data log shall include at least following: quantity of air used,
pressure loss of the aeration system and quantification of failures in the
air supply. The Seller may at reasonable time and forewarning without
causing unreasonable work for Purchaser review the data records.
The aeration efficiency of O.K.I. aerators is guaranteed in clean water on
standard conditions. Standard temperature for water is 10 C and for process
air 20 C. Standard pressure for process air is 101,3 kPa. SOTR values are
calculated according to ASCE (1984) standard. SOTR guarantee is valid only
if installation has been done according the instructions of the manufacturer.
Nopon Oy Aeration manual Document level 4 Date:17.07.1998
9 Aeration in Pulp and Paper Industry
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9 Aeration in Pulp and Paper Industry
9.1 Design of the Activated Sludge Plant for the Pulp and Paper
Industry
9.2 Waste Water Treatment in Pulp and Paper Industry
NOPON OY Design of the activated sludge plant for the pulp and paper industry Date: 09.07.1998
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DESIGN OF THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PLANT
FOR THE PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY
ENVIRO DATA OY
Engineering & Consultants
NOPON OY Design of the activated sludge plant for the pulp and paper industry Date: 09.07.1998
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1 INTRODUCTION
The pulp and paper production affects the environment in a number of ways.
Pollutants are discharged into the air and water, noise is generated and the
mill buildings and stacks constitute a feature of the landscape.
The air and water pollutants originating from the wood components and from
the escaping process chemicals may be formed process discharges.
Most of the solid water pollutants from pulp and paper mills consist of fibers
from the process. There are also inorganic salts, bark and wood fragments,
mineral fillers etc. these suspended solids are removed from the effluents
using sedimentation flotation and filtration processes. The common name for
them is the primary treatment.
The dissolved water pollutants from the process can be classified into easily
and slowly biodegradable materials. There are also some coloured
compounds, toxic material and salts.
Part of the material emitted from pulp and paper mills is rapidly degraded by
the micro-organisms in the water. In the biological degradation of organic
material dissolved oxygen is consumed. In extremely cases this can lead to
oxygen depletion, which severely affects aquatic life.
Biological destruction of the dissolved organic compounds is also widely used
for the purification of the pulp and paper mill effluents.
There are several biological methods and probably the most widely used of
them are:
- aerated lagoons
- trickling filters and biodisc filters
- activated sludge
- several anaerobic methods
The fundamental characteristics of the different biological treatment methods
are approximately the same. However, the basic design and facilities used for
different methods differ greatly. In this paper the activated sludge process is
discussed in details. This method utilises an active mass of flocculent micro-
organisms to convert organic matter aerobically into cellular material. It can be
efficiently separated from its suspending liquid by physical processes. Waste
water and micro-organisms are aerated in an aeration basin using nowadays
mostly diffused aeration.
The activated sludge process is widely used for many waste waters. However,
there are remarkable differences in design when the method is used for
different kind of effluents. The design of the activated sludge plant for the pulp
and paper mill effluents are discussed in this paper.
NOPON OY Design of the activated sludge plant for the pulp and paper industry Date: 09.07.1998
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2 EFFLUENT LOADINGS
The main raw material for pulp is normally plant fibres. A constantly increasing
part of these fibres is recycled. Most of the pulp is still produced from
temperature zone softwoods but the utilisation of hardwoods has increased
rapidly over the last decade. Today approximately 40 % of total amount of
wood used for industrial purposes is hardwood. Another source for raw
materials is recycled paper which in 1985 made up about 30 % of the total
fiber consumption. Since that the consumption of recycled paper has
increased little faster than the consumption of virgin fibres.
Non wood fibers (bagasse, bamboo, straw etc) in 1985 supplied less than 7 %
of the total fibre consumption. However, in certain regions non-wood fibres
constitute an important raw material for the pulp and paper industry.
2.1 Chemical Composition of Fibrous Raw Materials
Wood substance is essentially composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
There are also various amounts of inorganic constituents (ash). The
elementary composition of the organic part of dry wood, with small variations,
is about:
- carbon 50 %
- hydrogen 6 %
- oxygen 44 %
The composition of annual plants (grass etc) is very similar, the carbon
content being a little lower and the oxygen content a little higher than the
values shown above.
The wood and plant fibres consist of the following main components:
cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, extractives and inorganics (see Table 2.1).
The distribution of these components varies between plant and wood species.
There are also differences within the same species because of variation in the
composition of the soil.
NOPON OY Design of the activated sludge plant for the pulp and paper industry Date: 09.07.1998
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Table 2.1 Chemical character and content in woods plants of fibre components 1.
Fibre component Approximate compo- Approximate degree Degree of Aproximate content of :
sition of base of polymerization DP crystallization soft- hard- annual plants
molecules woods % woods% ( straw, bagasse ) %
cellulose 1000-10 000 crystalline 35-45 40-50 30-40
hemicellulose 50 - 500 amorphous 25-30 20-40 20-35
holocellulose - - - 65-70 60-80 70-80
lignin 5 - 100 amorphous 26-33 19-40 12-20
extractives terpenes 1 - 3 - 2-4 1-5 1-3
resin acids
fatty acids
phytosterols
inorganics alkali carbonates silica - - 0.2-0.6 0.2-4 2-18
( ashcontent )
C H O
6 12 6
C H O
6 12 6
C H O (OCH )
9 9 2 3
C H O
5 10 5
(C H O etc )
18 32 2
(C H O etc )
29 50
(C H ) ,etc
5 8 n
(C H O etc )
20 30 2
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If the species are classified into three groups: Softwoods, hardwoods and annual
plants, it is found that the quantitative distribution of five component groups falls
within approximate limits indicated in Table 2.2.
Table 2.2 Chemical composition of fibrous raw material
1
.
Group Raw cellulose lingnin hot water alcoholbenzen ash
material soluble soluble
Grasses Cereal
straw 34 - 40 16 - 20 9 - 15 2 - 5 4 - 11
rice
straw 28 - 41 10 - 17 13 - 17 1 - 7 14 - 22
bamboo 35 - 47 22 - 30 16 - 21 3 - 6 1 - 5
soft- Norwegian
woods spruce 43 29 2.3 1.8 0.4
Scots
pine 43 29 3.9 4.8 0.4
Southern
pines 41 - 44 25 - 28 2.5 - 2.4 2.5 - 3.6 0.2
hard- American
woods aspen 52 19 2.1 2.9 0.4
Eucalyptus
globulus 47 20 2.4 1.5 0.4
Birch 41 20 1.5 2.8 0.4
Gmelina
arborea 46 na 6 4 0.8
Before making paper and board, the fibrous raw material must be pulped. There are
several different types of pulping methods used for making different kind of pulps.
Chemical and dissolving pulps are both of the chemical type, which means that the
fibres are liberated by chemical dissolution of the lignin middle lamella. Thus no
chemical action in refinors or beaters is required for fibre separation.
Semichemical pulps are treated by chemical pulping process followed by a treatment
in mechanical fiberising equipment. When the cooking yield of the semichemical pulp
is as high as 85 - 95 %, the term chemimechanical pulp is used.
It is also possible to make pulps using only mechanical means.
There are no well-defined yield limits between various groups of pulps. The following
table gives a rough indication of the yields for the main pulp groups.
NOPON OY Design of the activated sludge plant for the pulp and paper industry Date: 09.07.1998
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Table 2.3 The yield for the main pulp groups
1
.
Pulp group Pulp yield
%
Process
examples
mechanical 90 - 97 GWD, TMP, RMP
chemimechanical 85 - 95 CTMP, Cold soda
semimechanical 60 - 85 NSSC
chemical 40 - 60 kraft, sulphite
dissolving 30 - 45 kraft, sulphite
For the NSSC, Kraft and sulphite pulping methods the chemical recovery is common
practice.
2.2 Effluent Loadings of Some Pulping and Paper Making Methods
The aim of this study is to describe the design of the activated sludge plant for the
pulp and paper industry.
This biological treatment of wastewater is primarily to reduce the content of soluble
organic compounds.
The content of soluble organic compounds is expressed using effluent parameters
like BOD (biological oxygen demand) and COD (chemical oxygen demand). The use
of these parameters is based on the great importance of oxygen level in the receiving
water.
The effluent loadings from different pulping and paper making processes greatly raw
material, the process type and the equipment used. For the design of the activated
sludge process a very important part of the work is the gathering of the effluent
loading data. The following kind information will be needed:
- monthly averages
- weekly averages
- daily averages
- daily minimum and maximum values
- for flow data also hourly maximum and minimum values
This kind of information is possible to collect from existing plants but it is also needed
for the Greenfield mills. Many serious mistakes have been made especially
concerning the short time minimum and maximum values.
The major part of the suspended solids (SS) in the mill effluents usually consists of
fibres or fibre particles.
Fibres are detrimental because they tend to settle in the receiving water forming fibre
banks in which fermentation may occur. This may cause oxygen depletion for the
NOPON OY Design of the activated sludge plant for the pulp and paper industry Date: 09.07.1998
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decomposing. Mechanical pulp fibres decompose slowly while chemical fibres
decompose more rapidly.
The pulp mill effluents also contain suspended solids like lime mud and the paper mill
effluents various kind of fillers like china clay, talc etc.
The contents of easily biodegradable compounds are usually measured by the BOD
test. A considerable part of the wood components dissolved in the pulping and
belching processes is easily biodegradable. Examples of such compounds are low
molecular (molecular weight less than 700 daltons) hemicelluloses, methanol, acetic
acid, formic acid, sugars etc.
Slowly biodegradable compounds in the mill effluents mainly consist of high
molecular substances (molecular weight over 1000 daltons) of lignin and
carbohydrate origin the amount of such compounds can be estimated by measuring
the COD-value and subtracting the BOD-value from it. Living organisms can slowly
degrade and also absorb them. The may also cause to living organisms biological
changes.
There has been also noticed some toxic effects of the pulp and paper mill effluents.
The most well known toxic compound is resin acids and also some unsaturated fatty
acids. Much work has also been done to evaluate the toxic effects of the bleach plant
effluents.
The discharges from the pulp industry may have pH-changing effects in the receiving
waters.
Dissolved inorganic salts from the pulp and paper processes are usually harmless to
aquatic life. However the salts containing nitrogen and phosphorus act as fertilizers in
the recipient. They must also be added during the activated sludge treatment.
The pulp and paper making processes and the effluent loadings from the sub
processes will not be discussed in details. For giving an idea and summarising some
loading example are given there is also the Table 2.4 concerning the present total
effluent loadings of some pulp and paper making processes.
Before cooking or refining the fibrous raw material it is prepared in a section of the
mill called the wood room, barking house etc. The effluent loadings from the dry and
wet debarking of Scandinavian softwoods and hardwoods are given in Table 2.4
Table 2.4. Effluent loadings from dry and wet debarking of Scandinavian soft- and
hardwoods. Figures kg / tonne dry wood.
Debarking BOD COD SS
Softwoods ( dry ) 0-2 0-5 0-5
Softwoods ( wet ) 1-5 5-10 2-5
Hardwoods ( wet ) 1-5 7-15 2-7
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Figures are for the effluents after good mechanical screening. Sedimentation can
greatly decrease these figures.
The environmental effects from mechanical pulping are mainly limited to effects of
dissolved organic substance and fibres. There is a certain BOD-value and the
effluents are normally also toxic to fish.
The bleaching of the mechanical pulp especially with the peroxide greatly increases
the effluent loading.
Table 2.5 gives a summary of discharges from ground-wood and TMP process lines.
Table 2.5 Effluent loadings from ground-wood and TMP- processes. Figures are in
kg / tonne air dry pulp.
Process Raw
material
BOD COD SS
Groundwood spruce 10 - 20 20 - 50 10 - 30
TMP spruce 15 - 30 25 - 60 10 - 30
Sedimentation decreases dissolved and solid materials.
The loading of the mechanical pulps greatly also depends on the yield.
The type of fibrous raw material has only little influence on the COD and also on the
BOD values (see Figure 1).
NOPON OY Design of the activated sludge plant for the pulp and paper industry Date: 09.07.1998
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Figure 1. Chemical oxygen demand as a function of pulp yield.
In chemical pulping the fibers are liberated by breaking down and dissolving the
lignin by chemical reactions semichemical pulping (NSSC) is characterised by a
combination of chemical and mechanical attack.
In mechanical and semimechanical pulping a recovery system for the chemicals is
normally used. Most of the effluent loading is coming from the bleaching of the pulp.
A number of in-plant technologies are available to reduce the discharge to water from
the cooking-washing-screening section of the mills. Likewise the pollution due to
condensates and accidental spills can be reduced efficiently. When these measures
have been carried out the bleach plant effluent is the dominating source of pollution
(Table 2.6).
R
e
l
e
a
s
e
d

C
O
D

k
g

/

d
r
y

p
u
l
p
Mi croscal e cooki ng - col d soda
Alder
Beech
Eucal yptus
Persi mmon
Spruce
Laboratory - scale
Gmel i na - col d soda
Mixed hardwoods - bisulfite
Adjustment to a straight line produces at all points
COD = 1.365 * TS - 9.4 r = 0.997
For mi croscal e cooki ng al one
(the line in the figure):
COD = 1.296 * TS + 0.36 r = 0.9991
For labrotary-scale cooking alone
COD = 1.369 * TS - 7.7 r = 0.994
NOPON OY Design of the activated sludge plant for the pulp and paper industry Date: 09.07.1998
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Table 2.6 The discharges (in kg / t air dry pulp) to the water from different mill
departments. Softwood sulphate pulping.
Source of discharges BOD
4
2
16
3
Cooking-washing-screening
Condensates
Bleaching
Accidental spills
25
There are, however, available measures for the decreasing the effluent loading from
the bleach. Basically there are three ways to reduce the bleach plant discharge:
- using of the more effective delignifying methods like cooking and the
oxygen bleaching
- external treatment of the bleach plant effluents (ultrafiltration, lignin
removal process LRP etc.)
- use of bleaching chemicals which give rise to less polluting material
Some of these methods are also widely used (especially belonging to the first
category) and the effluent loading from the bleaching have been greatly reduced.
Wastepaper is an increasingly important raw material for production of newsprint,
tissues and some printing and writing papers.
The greatest portion of wastepaper is not chemically treated but is pulped
mechanically. Processing with chemicals (deinking) is, however, necessary for
newsprint and writing paper.
The important distinction between these systems is, that in deinking some of the
fillers ink particles, hot melts etc. are removed. The effluent loading is then also
higher. If bleaching is used for these fibers the effluent loading will increase more
(see Table 2.7).
Table 2.7 Approximate BOD, COD and SS ( in kg / ton air dry pulp ) in pulping of
waste paper including deinking and bleaching.
TYPES OF TREATMENT BOD COD SS
Mechanical pulping only 15 40 50
Pulping including deinking 20-40 50-90 150-200
Bleaching 10-20 20-40 -
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Papermaking needs large quantities of water. However, the volume of polluted
effluent varies from mill to mill with the degree of white water system closure. The
pollutants consists of suspended solids (fibers, inorganic fillers) as well as dissolved
substances (dissolved wood components, papermaking additives etc.). Generally the
main part of the dissolved wood origin substances is generated in the pulp mill and
follows the pulp to the paper mill.
Pulp drying is less water consuming and less polluting than paper making.
For summarising the BOD-loading the Table 2.8 has been made.
Table 2.8 The typical water consumption and effluent loading for some pulp and
paper mills. Figures kg or m
3
/ tone air dry products before mechanical treatment.
Effluent
Volume
SS BOD
Kraft pulp, unbleached 40 - 60 10 - 20 8 - 20
Kraft pulp, bleached 50 - 80 10-40 20-40
Kraft pulp, bleached ( O
2
delignification ) 50 80 10 - 40 12 - 18
Sulphite pulp, unbleached ( Ca ) 80 - 100 20 - 50 30 - 70
Sulphite pulp, bleached ( Ca ) 150 - 180 20 - 60 45 - 85
Groundwood 10 - 15 10 - 30 8 - 14
RPM 8 - 15 10 - 40 12 - 18
TMP, unbleached 10 - 30 10 - 40 15 - 25
TMP, bleached 10 - 30 10 - 40 20 - 30
Chemimechanical (NSSC) 30 - 60 15 - 50 10 - 25
Newsprint 20 - 30 8 - 20 2 - 4
Magazine paper 20 - 30 10 - 20 2 - 4
Woodfree printing paper 30 - 50 12 - 25 3 - 6
Kraft paper 10 - 20 8 - 15 1 - 3
Folding board 20 - 30 2 - 8 2 - 5
Liner board 10 - 20 10 - 25 1 - 3
NOPON OY Design of the activated sludge plant for the pulp and paper industry Date: 09.07.1998
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3 COMPREHENSIVE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS DESIGN
The activated sludge process is a continuous system in which aerobic biological
growth are mixed with wastewater, then separated and concentrated in a gravity
clarifier. The relationships that govern the activated sludge process are
2

,3
.
cells
Organics + aO
2
+ N +P new cells + CO
2
+ H
2
O +
non-degradable soluble residue
Cells + bO
2
CO
2
+ H
2
O + N + P + Non degradable cellular residue
The parameter necessary to generate a process design are the fraction of organics
removed oxidised for energy, denoted by the coefficient a, the fraction of organics
and synthesised into biomass, denoted by the coefficient a, a reaction rate coefficient
K, and the rate of endogenous oxidation b. These coefficients are obtained from
literature, from experience elsewhere, or from laboratory or pilot plant studies on
specific wastewaters. The design parameters employed in this chapter are shown in
Figure 2.
Flow = Q AERATION BASIN FLOW = Q+R FLOW = Q
VOLUME = V
BOD =
o
S MLVSS = X
V
BOD = S
e
MLSS = X VSS = X
e
RECYCLE FLOW = R VSS =X
V
Figure 2. Design parameters
There are several design methods but the basic features are very similar.
The following system is originally expressed by Adams et al.
Organic removal characteristics
The overall reaction batch oxidation conditions can frequently be expressed as an
exponential of the form:
S
e /
S

= e
KX
v
t/s

( 3 -1)
CLARIFIER
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where:
S
e
= Influent total BOD, COD or TOC, mg/l
o
S = Effluent soluble BOD, COD or TOC, mg/l
X
v
= Average MLVSS concentration, mg/l
t = Aeration time, days
K = organic removal rate coefficient, day
1
There is an increasing use of the completely mixed activated sludge system,
particularly in the treatment of the industrial wastes. In this case the soluble organic
concentration in the effluent is equal to that in the aeration tank. Organic removal in a
completely-mixed reactor under steady state conditions is defined by the relationship:
) (
) (
y S K
t X
S S S
e
v
e

o o
( 3 2 )
In cases where COD or TOC is used and non-biodegradable organics are present, y
represents the concentration of none-biodegradable organics in mg/l. For BOD data,
y is usually equal to zero. Equation 3 2 implies that as the concentration of organics
remaining in the reactor decreases, the rate removal also degreases since the
organics remaining are progressively more difficult to remove. The reaction rate
coefficient, K has been found to be temperature dependent and can be corrected for
temperature by a coefficient, , as follows:
K
2
= K
1

( T
2
-T
1
)
Where :
K
2
organic removal rate coefficient at temperature, T
2
, C
o
,day
-1
K
1
organic removal rate coefficient at temperature, T
1
, C
o
,day
-1
tempereture coefficient
Although usually varies from 1,02 to 1,09 for activated sludge systems, it is
recommended that should be experimentally defined for the specific waste water in
question.
The performance of the activated sludge process and the characteristics of the
sludge are related to the organic loading (F/M) and to the sludge age (G). High
loadings (low sludge ages) can lead to dispersed or filamentous sludges with poor
settling properties. Low loadings (high sludge ages) can result in floc oxidation and
dispersion.
The organic loading is defined by the relationship:
F / M = S

/ X
v
t
And the sludge age by the relationship:
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Where:
F / M food to micro-organism ratio, kg organics applied / kg MLVSS- day
S
0
influent total BOD, COD or TOC, kg / day
X
v
average MLVSS in the aeration basin, kg / day
G sludge age, days
v
X Excess biological volatile sludge production, kg VSS/ day
The biomass solids generated in the process are composed of approximately 50 70
percent biodegradable organic material and 30 50 percent non-biodegradable
organic material.
As the sludge age in the process is increased, the non-biodegradable accumulates
and the biodegradable fraction of the volatile suspended solids, x, decreases. The
biodegradable fraction can be following relationship:
v
r v v r v r
bX
aS bX X aS bX aS
x
2
) 7 , 0 )( 4 ( ) (
2
+ +
( 3-5 )
where :
X biodegradable fraction of MLVSS
a sludge synthesis coefficient, kg VSS produced / kg organics removed, normal
values between 0,3 0,5
S
r
organics ( BOD, COD or TOC ) removed, kg / day
b sludge auto-oxidation coefficient, kg VSS oxidiSed /day-kg MLVSS in the
aeration basin, normal values between 0,05-0,2
X
v
average MLVSS in the aeration basin kg.
Nutrient requirements
The growth of the biomass and sludge settleability can be adversely affected if
nitrogen and phosphorus are not supplied in supplied in sufficient amounts. The
biomass (volatile solids) generated in the activated sludge process usually contains
approximately 12 - 14 % nitrogen and 2,5 - 3 % phosphorus. However, as the organic
loading degreases (the sludge age increases) and the biomass becomes more
endogenous, the nitrogen content will approach 5 - 7 % of the total weight of biomass
and the phosphorus content, 0,8 - 1,0 %.
The nitrogen and phosphorus requirements can be estimated by the nutrient losses
with the excess bio-sludge and the effluent.
G
X
X
v
v

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Oxygen requirements
It has been shown previously that the total oxygen requirements in a biological
system are related to the oxygen consumed to supply energy for synthesis and the
oxygen consumed for endogenous respiration. This assumes that oxygen must be
supplied to the system in order to:
1. provide oxygen for biological organic removal ( aS
r
);
2. provide oxygen for endogenous respiration where cells lyse and release soluble
oxidizable organic compounds ( bxX
v
);
3. provide oxygen requirement for chemical oxidation as measured by the immediate
oxygen demand test ( R
c
);
4. provide oxygen for the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate ( R
n
).
This expression is : R
r
= aS
r
+ bxX
v
+ R
c
+ R
n
Where :
R
r
total oxygen utilisation, kg O
2
/day
a oxygen utilisation coefficient for synthesis, kg O
2
utilisation/kg organics
removed ( normal values 0,5 - 0,9 )
b oxygen utilisation coefficient for endogenous activities, kg O
2
utilised / day
kg MLVSS ( normal values 0,05 - 0,2 )
R
c
chemical oxygen demand as measured by the immediate oxygen demand
test, kg O
2
/day ( normal value 0,5 5% from the total COD )
R
n
oxygen utilised in the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, kg O
2
/day
X
v
average MLVSS in the aeration basin, kg
Excess sludge production
In the activated sludge system, excess sludge must be periodically wasted. Wasted
is sludge is usually digested and dewatered before final disposal. The mathematical
relationship used to compute sludge accumulation includes the following
components:
1. increase in sludge attributable to influent SS which are not degraded in the
process ( fX
1
);
2. increase in biological volatile sludge due to cellular synthesis ( aS
r
);
3. decrease in biological volatile sludge due to cellular oxidation or endogenous
respiration ( bxX
v
);
4. decrease in sludge due to suspended solids lost in the effluent ( X
e
)
The expression for computing excess biological volatile sludge production,
v
X , is :
v r
bxX aS X ( 3 10 )
The expression for computing total sludge production, X , is :
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e
v
v
x
X
f
X
fX X


where:
X total excess sludge production, kg SS/day
f non-biodegradable fraction of the influent suspended solids
X
1
influent suspended solids, kg SS/day
f
v
volatile fraction of MLSS in aeration basin, MLSS
X
e
effluent suspended solids, kg SS/day
v
X excess biological volatile sludge production, kg VSS/day
X
v
average MLVSS in the aeration basin.
It must be once again pointed out that the required design parameters, especially the
kinetic parameters, must if possible be developed from comprehensive bench and
sometimes also pilot scale studies. For calculating the oxygen transfer see also the
appendix 1.
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4 DESCRIPTION OF FACILITIES
The activated sludge plant consists of several sub-processes (bioreactor,
sedimentation etc.). It also necessary to have some preliminary treatment before
passing to the main treatment plant. The mill wastewater treatment includes normally
the following unit process and operations:
- Screening
- sand trap
- primary clarification or flotation
- emergency spill pond
- cooling system
- equalization pond
- nutrient addition facilities
- aerated bioreactors
- secondary clarification
- primary and secondary sludge collection and pumping
- sludge thickening and dewatering facilities
- treated effluent pipeline, foam control facilities and submerged
receiving water outfall and diffuser
The screening equipment are normally medium coarse screens with spacings from
10 - 25 mm. Sand removal is normally designed for sand particles with diameter
bigger than 0,3 mm.
The design of the primary clarification is normally based on the surface loading and
retention time. The maximum loadings are measured with the proper bench scale
testes.
The volume of emergency spill pond is normally 4 - 8 hours and it is designed as big
as possible, taking into the consideration the site layout.
The volume of the equalization pond is based on the variation of COD and BOD of
the influent.
The design of the activated sludge plant is described more in details chapter 3.
The calculations necessary for the aeration are expressed in appendix 1. It is
possible to use surface aerators, but in many cases it is more economical and also
from the technical point of view more practical to use submerged aerators.
The construction materials normally used for the pulp and paper effluent are selected
according the construction, corrosion and economical reasons.
NOPON OY Design of the activated sludge plant for the pulp and paper industry Date: 09.07.1998
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5 INSTRUMENTATION
The effluent treatment plant will be monitored very often by the mill distributed control
system (DCS) from the mill control room or from the water treatment plant control
room. The control is often also divided so that the sludge handling will be controlled
from the boiler house and the other parts of the plant from the effluent plant control
room the present trend is also to develop and use expert systems. The kind of work
has started some years ago and the results are encouraging.
Process variables such as pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and temperature are
monitored throughout the plant and displayed on the DCS. A DCS l/O rack is located
in the electrical substation.
Primary sludge, waste activated sludge to the thickening, the adding of nutrients and
polymers are all flow controlled.
The cooling system is temperature controlled.
Important control parameter for the waste activated sludge removal is also the sludge
age. A new parameter for the same purpose is also the rotation number.
The DCS provides the operator interface to remotely START / STOP pumps and to
remotely OPEN / CLOSE sluice gates.
All kind of reports are also distributed through the DCS system.
NOPON OY Design of the activated sludge plant for the pulp and paper industry Date: 09.07.1998
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6 COST ESTIMATES
The investment cost for the activated sludge plant depends on the effluent flow,
BOD-loading, the necessary pre-treatment, mill site conditions etc. The variation is
great. One example of the distribution main activities for the investment costs is
following:
%
Civil works and underground piping 33
Main equipment and piping 33
Instrumentation and electrification 15
Design and project managments 9
Contingencies 10
Total 100
Figure 4 Investment costs for the activated sludge plants constructed in Finland in
1980s, the price level 1990.
To the Figure 4 has collected the investment costs for the activated sludge plants of
some Finnish pulp and paper mills. The prices are revised with the construction index
and correspond to the price level of 1990.
10 20 30 40 50 60 70
50
100
150
200
250
Effluent loading, BOD t/d
I
n
v
e
s
t
m
e
n
t
,

1
0

m
k
7
NOPON OY Design of the activated sludge plant for the pulp and paper industry Date: 09.07.1998
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The operating and maintenance costs also depend greatly on the local conditions.
One example of the percent age distribution of the operating costs is the following:
%
Energy 30
Chemical 35
Manpower 10
Monitoring 5
Sludge transport 10
Maintenance cost (1,5-2,5% from the
investment)
10
Total 100
Operating cost for some pulp and paper industry activated sludge plants has been
shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5 The operating cost mk/t BOD
7
removed. The information is based on the
Finnish experience. The price level is 1990.
10 20 30 40 50 60
400
500
600
700
800
900
O
p
e
r
a
t
i
n
g

c
o
s
t
,

m
k
/
t

B
O
D

-
r
e
d
Effluent loading, BOD t/d 7
NOPON OY Design of the activated sludge plant for the pulp and paper industry Date: 09.07.1998
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7 TRAINING AND START-UP
The training and the start-up periods are important for the successful operating of the
activated sludge plant. It is necessary to give different kind of training for the all mill
personality. Especially effective it is naturally for the plant operators.
It has been noticed that it is most easy to learn the operating of all equipment. More
difficult is to understand the bioprocesses and control of the plant. This part of the
training needs special attention.
The start-up period is always difficult and it should be reserved time enough (3-4
months) for this part of work. It should also be noted the limitations given by the cold
season.
NOPON OY Design of the activated sludge plant for the pulp and paper industry Date: 09.07.1998
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Appendix 1
OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS AND THE AERATION SYSTEM
1 OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS
The oxygen requirements are normally calculated for the average influent BOD
multiplied with the factor 1,1 - 1,3 and for the summer conditions.
For calculating the oxygen consumption it is possible to use following formula:
This expression is: R
r
= aS
r
+ bxX
v
+ R
c
+ R
n
Where:
R
r
total oxygen utilisation, kg O
2
/day
a oxygen utilisation coefficient for synthesis, kg O
2
utilisation/kg organics
removed (normal values 0,5 - 0,9)
b oxygen utilisation coefficient for endogenous activities, kg O
2
utilised / day
kg MLVSS (normal values 0,05 - 0,2)
R
c
chemical oxygen demand as measured by the immediate oxygen demand
test, kg O
2
/day (normal value 0,5 5 % from the total COD)
R
n
oxygen utilised in the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, kg O
2
/day
X
v
average MLVSS in the aeration basin, kg
2 OXYGEN TRANSFER EFFICIENCY OF AERATORS AT FIELD CONDITIONS
Manufactures rate their equipment in tap water at standard atmospheric pressure,
zero dissolved oxygen and 20 C
o
. The following equation is used to correct the
stated transfer capacity for actual design conditions.
( ) [ ]
w T
s L sw
C C C N N
20
/


o
ratio of oxygen transfer rate in waste water to that in clean water
ratio to dissolved oxygen concentration at saturation in waste water to that in
clean water (usually 0,9 to 0,95 for most waste waters)
temperature correction coefficient: for diffused air system between 1,02-1,03
T
w
effluent temperature
C
sw
saturation oxygen concentration, temperature T
w
C
s
oxygen concentration, temperature 20 C
o
, pressure 1 bar
N

oxygen transfer capacity kg O
2
/h or kg O
2
/kW at standard conditions
N oxygen transfer capacity (temperature T
w
and waste water)
NOPON OY Design of the activated sludge plant for the pulp and paper industry Date: 09.07.1998
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It is also possible to use nomogram or other graphic calculation methods for the
transformation.
3 OXYGEN DEMAND DISTRIBUTION AND MIXING
If a plug-flow or a selector type aeration tank is used it is important to check and
calculate the oxygen demand distribution along the length of the tank. These
calculations should be based on the oxygen utilisation rate measurements made
during the pilot tests. It is also possible to get valuable information from the existing
full size plants.
Very often 40 50 % of the total oxygen input is needed in the first 1/3 of the tank
volume. In the last 1/3 the oxygen consumption will be only 15 - 20 % of the total
oxygen consumption.
In a real plug-flow tank the length to width ratio (L:W) is over 1:8 often 1:10 - 1:20.
It is also important to remember the mixing requirements. Normally 10 - 30 W/m
3
effect input is needed for keeping the aeration tank mixed.

1
UNEP manual Environmental Management in the Pulp and Paper Industry, volumes 1 and 2
2
Jrgensen E, Gromiec M (editors): Mathematical Models in Biological Waste Water Treatment,
Development in Environmental Modelling, Elsevier, Amsterdam 1985
3
Adams C E, Eckenfelder W, Jr.: Process Design Techniques for Industrial Waste Treatment, Enviro
Press, Nashville 1974
NOPON OY Waste Water Treatment in Pulp and Paper Industry Date: 09.08.1997
Written by: MR Inspected by: Accepted by:
WASTE WATER TREATMENT
IN PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY
PREPARED FOR NOPON OY BY HEIKKI SIITONEN, DUOPLAN OY
NOPON OY Waste Water Treatment in Pulp and Paper Industry Date: 09.08.1997
Written by: MR Inspected by: Accepted by:
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 SHORT DESCRIPTION OF MAIN PULP AND PAPER MAKING
PROCESSES................................................................................................. 1
1.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................. 1
1.2 PULPING PROCESSES............................................................................. 1
1.2.1 General ...................................................................................... 1
1.2.2 Sulphate Pulping........................................................................ 2
1.2.3 Sulphite Pulping ......................................................................... 5
1.3 PAPERMAKING PROCESSES..................................................................... 7
1.3.1 General ...................................................................................... 7
1.3.2 Newsprint................................................................................... 8
1.3.3 LWC .......................................................................................... 9
1.3.4 Other Paper Grades................................................................... 9
1.3.5 Board Manufacturing.................................................................. 9
1.3.6 Effluent Loads from Paper and Board Making Processes ......... 10
2 EFFLUENT DISCHARGE REGULATIONS FOR PULP AND PAPER
INDUSTRY IN EUROPE, NORTH AMERICA AND FAR EAST..................... 11
2.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................ 11
2.2 EUROPE.............................................................................................. 11
2.2.1 Finland..................................................................................... 11
2.2.2 Sweden.................................................................................... 12
2.2.3 Norway .................................................................................... 13
2.2.4 Germany.................................................................................. 13
2.2.5 France ..................................................................................... 15
2.2.6 United Kingdom........................................................................ 17
2.2.7 Italy.......................................................................................... 17
2.2.8 Spain ....................................................................................... 18
2.3 NORTH AMERICA.................................................................................. 19
2.3.1 The USA.................................................................................. 19
2.3.2 Canada.................................................................................... 21
2.4 INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS.............................................................. 21
2.4.1 The Helsinki Convention (HELCOM) ........................................ 21
2.4.2 Proposals of the Nordic Council of Ministers............................. 24
2.5 FAR EAST............................................................................................ 25
2.5.1 Japan....................................................................................... 25
2.5.2 China ....................................................................................... 27
2.5.3 Indonesia ................................................................................. 34
3 MAIN PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION................................... 35
3.1 GENERAL ............................................................................................ 35
3.2 MAJOR PHASES OF ORGANIC MATERIAL BIO-OXIDATION........................... 35
3.3 MOLECULAR OXYGEN DEMAND.............................................................. 35
3.3.1 General .................................................................................... 35
3.3.2 Determination of AOR.............................................................. 36
3.3.3 Determination of SOTR............................................................ 37
ABBREVIATIONS
NOPON OY Waste Water Treatment in Pulp and Paper Industry Date: 09.08.1997
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AD Air Dry Pulp
AOR actual oxygen requirement
AOX adsorbable organic halides
BAT Best Available Technology
BCT Best Conventional Pollutant Control Technology
BMP Best Management Practices
BOD
7
Biological oxygen demand
BPT Best Practicable Control Technology
COD
Cr
chemical oxygen demand
CMP chemi-mechanical pulp
CTMP chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp
ECF elemental chlorine free
EPA Environment Protection Agency
HELCOM Helsinki Convention
ISO brightness
LWC light weight coated
MLVSS mixed liquor volatile suspended solids
NSPS New Source Performance Standards
NSSC neutral sulphite semi-chemical
P.E. population equivalent
PSES Pre-treatment Standards for Existing Sources
PSNS Pre-treatment Standards for New Sources
RCF recycled fiber
SOTR standard oxygen transfer rate
SS suspended solids
TCF total chlorine chemical free
TMP thermo-mechanical pulp
TSS total suspended solids
VSS volatile suspended solids
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1 SHORT DESCRIPTION OF MAIN PULP AND PAPER MAKING
PROCESSES
1.1 General
In the following, an overall description of significant current pulp and paper
making processes is presented. Also, effluent release and loads will be
specified in each process modification.
Main pulping processes consist of sulphate (or Kraft), sulphite and semi-
chemical (NSSC) processes.
In a world-wide scale, main paper making processes are those producing
newsprint, fine papers (e.g. LWC, uncoated printing and writing papers) and
paperboards (e.g. packaging boards, liner and fluting). In this context, only
basic main production phases are discussed, as the actual paper machine
installations contain various details depending on e.g. the machine supplier.
1.2 Pulping Processes
1.2.1 General
The aim of all pulping processes is to separate or dissolve lignin derived
material from raw material, wood (e.g. spruce, pine, birch, aspen, oak) or non-
wood species (e.g. straw, bagasse, hemp), and release valuable cellulose
fibers to be recovered and processed for further use. Various pulping
modifications are in use and the processes are chosen mainly depending on
the type of the raw material and the quality requirements of the end product.
All pulping methods consist of the following subprocesses (note. small mills
can lack some operations, e.g. bleaching or recovery of cooking chemicals):
- debarking (or raw material handling)
- chipping
- cooking (or digesting)
- washing and screening
- bleaching and screening
- drying
- recovery of cooking chemicals
Common mill operations for all pulping modifications are briefly outlined in the
following.
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In debarking, bark and other impurities like sand, are removed. Cutted wood
logs are fed to a rotating debarking drum, where bark is separated by the
friction of the logs and the drum wall. Fresh or recirculated water can be
introduced into the debarking drum and the process is called wet debarking.
Wet debarking is needed when high quality end products, e.g. viscose pulp
are produced. In dry debarking, the drum operates without water, and the
debarked logs are washed at the outlet of the debarking drum. Dry debarking
is widely used in modern pulp mills world-wide. Effluent loads from wet and
dry debarking are shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Effluent loads from debarking
Load Dry debarking Wet debarking
Flow, m
3
/ADt 0 - 1 1 - 3
TSS, kg/ADt 0.5 - 3 2 - 5
BOD
7
, kg/ADt 0 - 2 1 - 5
COD
Cr
, kg/ADt 0 - 5 5 - 10
In chipping, the debarked logs are chipped to small particles to be fed to
cooking. Chipping can take place directly after debarking or after log storage.
No process effluent exist from chipping.
Drying of pulp can be carried out by a cylinder or a fourdrinier type machine.
Dry section can be steam heated cylinder or air float dryer type. Flash drying
after mechanical dewatering, using hot gases from a separate burner system
is also a common application. Effluent amount from drying varies depending
on the type of the machinery, typical values being 2-4 m
3
/ADt in modern mills.
Other more specific mill operations are described in each process concept
below.
1.2.2 Sulphate Pulping
In sulphate (Kraft) processes, major part of organic lignin material present in
raw material is separated from cellulose in heated pressurised vessels, using
alkaline sulphur containing liquor, so-called white liquor. This process is
called cooking. Current cooking modifications consist of batch and continuous
systems. In modern mills, no process effluent exist from cooking, except floor
drains.
After cooking, the pulp (or brown stock) is washed and screened. The
purpose of washing is to clean the pulp prior to bleaching and also to recover
cooking chemicals. Washing machinery consists of drums or presses in
series, also so-called diffusers are used. The aim of screening is to separate
NOPON OY Waste Water Treatment in Pulp and Paper Industry Date: 09.08.1997
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impurities (knots, bark etc.) from pulp to maintain high quality of the end
product. Common screening equipment are pressure screens and
hydrocyclones. No effluent exist from modern washing and screening plant,
except accidental floor drains.
Bleaching and post screening follows washing, when e.g. market pulps are
produced. Bleaching can be understood as a continuation stage after
cooking, where the rest of the lignin material is removed from pulp. At the
same time, chromophoric compounds, which cause the dark colour of the
brown stock, are dissolved or turned to non-colour compounds. Often in
modern Kraft mills, so called oxygen bleaching is used as a pre-bleaching
stage before final bleaching. Oxygen bleaching occurs in pressurised alkaline
circumstances with molecular oxygen gas. Oxygen stage is incorporated in
the black liquor recovery cycle and thus no effluent is released from oxygen
bleaching.
In modern mills, major part of a Kraft mill's effluent loads is originated from
final bleaching. Bleaching applications include systems which use chlorine
chemicals (chlorine gas, chlorine dioxide and hypochlorites) and non-chlorine
chemicals like hydrogen peroxide, ozone, peracetic acid or mixture of these.
Today, bleaching systems are divided into ECF (elemental chlorine free) and
TCF (total chlorine chemical free) bleaching plants. ECF bleaching means
bleaching without chlorine gas using chlorine dioxide. TCF bleaching
sequence includes e.g. ozone and peroxide stages. Chlorine gas use is
decreasing dramatically e.g. in Europe, but in North American mills gaseous
chlorine is still a relative common bleaching chemical. When gaseous
chlorine is used in bleaching, so-called chlorinated organics are released in
the effluent. These compounds can be toxic to aquatic life depending on their
molecular weight. Total amount of chlorinated compounds are measured
using AOX (adsorbable organic halides) test method. Chlorinated compounds
are decomposed to some extent in aerobic waste water treatment, e.g. in
activated sludge plants. In Table 2, ECF and TCF bleaching effluents are
compared.
Table 2: Effluent loads from ECF and TCF bleaching
Load ECF
1
TCF
2
Flow, m
3
/ADt 20 - 30 10 - 15
TSS, kg/ADt 2 - 5 1 - 3
BOD
7
, kg/ADt 10 - 15 10 - 15
COD
Cr
, kg/ADt 30 - 40 20 - 30
AOX, kg/ADt < 0.8 0

1
Bleaching: softwood, kappa(in) 13 - 15, sequence D-EOP-D-D, brightness 90 % ISO
2
Bleaching: softwood, kappa(in) 8 - 10, sequence AZ-EOP-P, brightness 85 - 90 % ISO, no
recovery of effluents
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Chlorinated phenols, kg/ADt < 0.1 0
Screening after bleaching typically consists of pressure and centrifugal
screens.
Recovery of cooking chemicals begins in pulp washing where the reacted
lignin-containing liquor, so-called black liquor, is separated from pulp. Black
liquor is collected into storage tanks from which it is pumped to evaporation
for water removal and increasing dry solids content. After evaporation, the
strong black liquor is incinerated in the recovery boiler. The recovery boiler
produces energy for the pulp mill and recovers also the inorganic cooking
chemicals (sodium and sulphur) as smelt. The smelt is dissolved in weak
white liquor (recycled from causticizing plant) and the formed green liquor is
fed to causticizing. In the causticizing department, burnt lime is added to the
green liquor and the end product is cooking liquor, so-called white liquor.
White liquor is a mixture of sodium sulphide and sodium hydroxide solution.
In causticizing, burnt lime reacts with sodium carbonate in green liquor and
calcium carbonate, or lime mud precipitation occurs. Lime mud is washed,
dewatered and led to lime kiln for recovery of lime. In modern Kraft mills, no
continuous process effluent exist from the cooking chemicals recovery cycle.
Momentary spills as black liquor and white liquor leakages can occur.
Currently these spills are collected in a storage tank and recycled to process.
In Table 3, typical effluent loads from Kraft mill operations are shown.
Table 3: Typical effluent loads from Kraft pulping (softwood, ECF bleaching)
Mill department Flow BOD
7
COD
Cr
AOX
m
3
/ADt kg/ADt kg/ADt kg/ADt
Debarking 2 2 5 -
Bleaching
3
30 10 30 1
Condensates
4
2 2 4 -
Spills 5 3 6 -
TOTAL 39 17 45 1
In Figure 1, fresh water and effluent flows of a typical ECF Kraft mill are
presented.

3
Includes brown stock washing loss and drying machine
4
From cooking and evaporation
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Figure 1: Water recycling in bleached Kraft pulp mill
1.2.3 Sulphite Pulping
In sulphite processes, delignification or cooking takes place typically in acidic
circumstances, with sulphite and bisulphite ions present and calcium,
magnesium, ammonium or sodium as base options. Also, alkaline sulphite
pulping methods using e.g. antraquinone as accelerator are in use. Also,
high-yield semi-chemical processes are in use, e.g. NSSC (neutral sulphite
semi-chemical) modifications.
After cooking, the pulp is washed and screened. In modern sulphite mills,
washing and screening equipment are similar to those used in Kraft mills. No
process effluent is released from cooking, washing and screening.
Common bleaching methods of sulphite pulp are ECF (chlorine dioxide) and
TCF processes. Sulphite pulp is generally easier to be bleached than Kraft
pulp and modern mills use 100 % TCF bleaching sequences to reach
bleached market pulp brightness. In the past, when producing e.g. viscose
pulp, effluent flows and loads were huge from bleaching plant. Today,
NOPON OY Waste Water Treatment in Pulp and Paper Industry Date: 09.08.1997
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pollution loads from sulphite bleacheries are close to the loads of respective
Kraft bleaching plants. In case of TCF bleaching, effluent loads are practically
equal to the Kraft pulp TCF bleaching.
Recovery of cooking chemicals is possible if the base is sodium or
magnesium. The recovery systems consist of several phases and cooking liquor
is prepared by absorbing sulphur dioxide to alkaline base solution. Waste pulping
liquor is evaporated and incinerated in a furnace. For different bases, possible
recovery systems are shown in Figure 2. As an example, in case of magnesium
base, recovery block diagram is presented in Figure 3.
Figure 2: Recovery systems
NOPON OY Waste Water Treatment in Pulp and Paper Industry Date: 09.08.1997
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Figure 3: Recovery block diagram
Typical effluent loads from sulphite pulping are specified in Table 4.
Table 4: Typical effluent loads from modern sulphite pulping (waste liquor
recovery degree over 97 %)
Mill department Flow BOD
7
COD
Cr
AOX
m
3
/ADt kg/ADt kg/ADt kg/ADt
Debarking 2 2 5 -
Bleaching
5
30 - 40 10 - 15 20 - 40 < 0.8
Condensates
6
4 - 8 20 - 30 40 - 60 -
Spills 5 5 10 -
TOTAL 41 - 55 37 - 52 75 - 115 < 0.8
1.3 Papermaking Processes
1.3.1 General
In the following, main principles of producing of various paper grades are
discussed.
Main typical waste water flows from a paper machine can be summarised as
follows:
Rejects originated from screening:
Rejects contain various impurities depending on the stock preparation and
pulp quality (bark, sticks, sand, inorganic suspended solids). Rejects are
released to main sewer or dewatered separately.
Excess white water:

5
Modern ECF bleaching includes washing loss. If TCF bleaching is used, effluent amount is
at the same level as in Kraft pulping, 10 - 15 m
3
/ADt.
6
BOD load caused mainly by evaporator condensates consisting of acetic acid.
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In paper machine circuits, white water is needed to transport pulp and
additives to paper machine wet end. At first, white water and pulp mixture
enters the head box, from where it is distributed to the wire section. Major part
of the white water is removed at the wire and final water removal occurs in the
press section. After pressing, rest of the water is evaporated from the final
product in the drying section.
Major part of the white water is recycled as dilution water and as cleaning
shower water in the paper machine operations. Part of the shower water is
fresh water, and respective amount of excess white water will be discharged
through a fibre recovery unit to the mill's effluent treatment system. Use of
fresh water, or specific waste water amount (m
3
/ADt), determines the degree
of closure of the white water system. The smaller the figure, the better is the
closure degree. Overflow of excess white water is responsible for the main
continuous effluent load from a paper mill.
Spills:
Temporary discharges consist of overflows from pulp and white water storage
and pump tanks and floor drains. The key design principle in modern paper
mills is that volumes of white water and broke (low-quality paper/pulp during
paper machine disturbances and shut-downs) storages are equal.
Main paper and board making processes are briefly described in the
following. Also, a summary table consisting of main pollutants is presented.
1.3.2 Newsprint
In newsprint production, raw materials are typically unbleached mechanical
pulp, semibleached Kraft pulp or unbleached sulphite or recycled fiber (RCF).
Stock preparation consists of two pulp lines with necessary fresh and white
water systems. Mechanical pulp line includes typically pulp storage,
equalising tank and post-refiner unit. Broke line has various pulpers, a broke
storage, a thickener, a screen and a deflaker.
Typical newsprint machine has wire, press and dryer sections, calender stack
and reeler for finished product.
White water system is composed of dilution circuits in stock preparation and a
fiber recovery filter (disc filter) for all fibercontaining effluents. Continuous
effluent from a newsprint mill originates from disc filter, so-called clear filtrate.
Clear filtrate contains 10 - 50 mg/l suspended solids, mainly fiber, and
dissolved organic compounds.
NOPON OY Waste Water Treatment in Pulp and Paper Industry Date: 09.08.1997
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1.3.3 LWC
Raw materials for LWC (light weight coated) paper are bleached mechanical
pulp, bleached sofwood Kraft pulp and coating chemicals (pigment, latex,
starch).
Stock preparation contains two pulp lines, a broke line, necessary fresh and
white water systems and dosing of coating chemicals.
Typical LWC machine has wire, press and dryer sections followed by
calender and reeler. Coating can be part of the LWC machine (so-called on-
machine coater) or a separate unit (off-machine coater).
Coating chemicals are prepared in a coating kitchen. Coating clay and filler is
delivered as bulk material and mixed with water. The coating solution is made
in batch runs. Starch is converted and dosed to the mixing tank with other
additives.
1.3.4 Other Paper Grades
Other significant paper grades currently are uncoated printing and writing
papers (SC and MF papers), packaging papers (sack papers) and tissue
grades.
1.3.5 Board Manufacturing
Liner
Liner board is typically made of two layers, the top layer is conventional Kraft
pulp and the bottom layer is high-yield Kraft pulp or recycled fiber (paper or
board).
Stock preparation includes two pulp lines, a broke line and fresh and white
water systems. White water system consists of white water storage, dilution
water distribution and fiber recovery unit for effluent to be released to main
sewer.
The board machine has two head boxes, top and bottom wires, press and
dryer sections followed by calender and reeler.
Fluting
Fluting, or corrugated medium board is made of unbleached NSSC pulp or of
recycled paper.
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Stock preparation is composed of NSSC pulp and recycled paper lines, broke
line and fresh and white water systems. White water system consists of
dilution water distribution equipment and fiber recovery system for the excess
fiber-containing effluent.
The board machine has conventional wire section, press and dryer sections,
machine calender and reeler.
Other board grades
Other common board grades are packaging paperboards (e.g. folding
boxboard).
1.3.6 Effluent Loads from Paper and Board Making Processes
In Table 5, typical effluent loads from paper and board mills are presented.
Table 5: Effluent loads from modern paper and board mills and recycled fiber
mills (note: figures include loads from mechanical pulping and necessary raw
material processing in each mill case)
Mill type Effluent SS BOD
7
COD
Cr
m
3
/ADt kg/ADt kg/ADt kg/ADt
Newsprint (TMP) 10 - 25 20 - 30 15 - 18 30 - 40
LWC 10 - 40 10 - 40 10 - 15 10 - 30
Liner and fluting 5 - 15 10 - 50 10 - 30 20 - 60
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2 EFFLUENT DISCHARGE REGULATIONS FOR PULP AND
PAPER INDUSTRY IN EUROPE, NORTH AMERICA AND FAR
EAST
2.1 General
In Europe, the current waste water regulations can differ considerably
between one country and another. In the near future, the regulations can be
expected to be uniform as various European Union's pollution control
directives will come into force in the member countries by the end of 1990s.
In the USA and Canada, the effluent regulations will be revised after the
Cluster Rule regulations will be promulgated, most probably by the end of
1997. The Cluster Rule standards will be applied in the USA, but later they
also may have certain effects on the federal and provincial regulations in
Canada.
In the Far East, Japan is the key country as to the development of
environmental regulations. The pulp and paper industry is currently in a rapid
evolving phase in the Asean region, and at the same time also pollution
control regulations will be developed and tightened.
2.2 Europe
2.2.1 Finland
A basic law for water pollution control (the Water Act) came into force in
1961.
With respect to pulp and paper industry, the basic law includes rules and
regulations for granting a waste water discharge permit. The Water Act does
not include any general standards for pollution loads of pulp and paper
industry waste waters. Instead, the Water Act demands specifications (e.g.
allowable pollution loads, measures to decrease water pollution and
monitoring programme to follow the effects of the pollutants on the receiving
water course) to be made in the operating licence of every individual waste
water discharge permit granted by a regional Water Rights Court. Most
commonly, restrictions for pollutants like COD
Cr
,(BOD
7
), AOX and phosphorus
are demanded.
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The basic law allows discharge permits for certain periods only and a new
application must be prepared before the expiry of the existing permit.
For pulp and paper industry in Finland, also Helsinki Convention (HELCOM)
recommendations and Nordic Council of Ministers recommendations are
important to be followed (see Chapters 2.4.1 and 2.4.2).
2.2.2 Sweden
No general effluent standards or norms are presently applied. In case of
individual discharge permits the authorities usually introduce two types of
allowable discharge values: so-called limit values and guide values. The limit
value is not allowed to be exceeded. The guide value may be exceeded, but
in these conditions necessary measures have to be put in use to avoid further
exceeding. Limit and guide values are typically defined as annual or monthly
average absolute loads. Water pollutants which are usually required to be
specified are COD
Cr
, BOD
7
, AOX, P-tot and N-tot. In Table 6, frequency and
analysing standards are presented.
Table 6: Effluent monitoring requirements and standards in Sweden
Pollutant Sample type and frequency Analysing method
COD
Cr
Alternative 1: SS 02 81 42
4 daily and one weekend sample per
week. Analyses of COD value of each
sample (non-settled and non- filtered)
Alternative 2:
4 daily and one weekend sample per
week. Analyses of COD value of each
sample after removing coarse particles
and fibers
Filtering according to
SS 02 81 38
filter fabric 70 m
in addition:
one weekly sample per week. Analyses of
COD of non-settled and non-filtered
sample
P-tot one weekly sample per week SS 02 81 02
N-tot one weekly sample per week SS 02 81 01
BOD
7
one monthly sample per month SS 02 81 43
AOX one weekly sample per week in bleaching
plants which use chlorine chemicals
SS 02 81 04
one weekly sample per quarter in paper
production
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In some cases, also suspended solids and chlorate loads are required to be
measured and reported.
2.2.3 Norway
No general limits are applied. The restrictions for each individual mill are
determined based on the conditions of the receiving water course and the
available technology. The regulated water pollutants are suspended solids,
COD
Cr
, phosphorus and AOX.
2.2.4 Germany
The current federal minimum requirements for pulp and paper industry
effluent discharge standards are according to a separate regulation shown in
Table 7.
Table 7: Effluent discharge limit values for pulp and paper mills in Germany
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Production TSS
2)
COD
Cr
BOD
5
N
3)
P
tot
AOX
basis mg/l kg/t mg/l /kg/t mg/l mg/l kg/t
Chemical pulp
(sulphite) - 70 -/5 10
4)
2
5)
1
Paper and
board
1)
- class 1 50
6)
3 25/1 10
4)
2
5)
0.04
7)
- class 2 50
6)
6 25/2 10
4)
2
5)
0.04
7)
- class 3 50
6)
9 25/3 10
4)
2
5)
0.04
7)
- class 4 50
6)
12 -/6 - 2
5)
0.025
7)
- class 5 - 2 25/- 10
4)
2
5)
0.02
7)
- class 6 - 3(5)
8)
25/- 10
4)
2
5)
0.01
7)
- class 7 - 5 25
9)
/- 10
4)
2
5)
0.012
7)
1)
Paper and board mills are divided into the following groups:
1 Woodfree unsized
2 Woodfree sized
3 Woodfree, highly refined and special paper (with more than one quality
change per working day as annual average)
4 Pergament
5 Woodfree, coated, more than 10 g coating/m
2
(integrated)
6 Woodcontaining (integrated with mechanical pulping), end product
predominantly not from recycled fibre
7 Recycled paper, mainly based on recycled fibre
2)
filterable solids
3)
ammonium-, nitrate- and nitrite-N
4)
when effluent amount exceeds 500 m
3
/d
5)
when effluent amount exceeds 1000 m
3
/d
6)
in cases where effluent is subjected to biological treatment
7)
at specific conditions regarding the use of chlorohydrine-containing wet-strength papers
the limit value is 0.12 kg/t or 0.2 kg/t
8)
5 kg/t when over 50% of the pulp is TMP or when a substantial part of the pulp is bleached
with hydrogen peroxide
9)
if effluent amount is below 10 m
3
/t, the limit value is 50 mg/l and the specific limit value
0.25 kg/t, respectively
According to Waste Water Charges Act amendment, industrial plants are
liable to pay discharge fees, if certain limit values are exceeded. The fees are
based on damage units (Schade einheit) as presented in Table 8.
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Table 8: Damage units for determination of discharge fees, applicable to pulp
and paper mills in Germany (1991)
Pollutant Damage unit Limit value (as concentration
or annual load)
COD
Cr
50 kg 20 mg/l, 250 kg/a
AOX 2 kg 100 g/l, 10 kg/a
Phosphorus, as P 3 kg 0.1 mg/l, 15 kg/a
Nitrogen, as N 25 kg 5 mg/l, 125 kg/a
Acute toxicity to fish
- effluent amount 3000 m
3
G
F
1)
= 2
Metals and their compounds
- Hg 20 g 1 g/l, 100 g/a
- Cd 100 g 5 g/l, 500 g/a
- Cr 500 g 50 g/l, 2.5 kg/a
- Ni 500 g 50 g/l, 2.5 kg/a
- Pb 500 g 50 g/l, 2.5 kg/a
- Cu 1000 g 100 g/l, 5 kg/a
1)
G
F
is the dilution factor by which the waste water turns to non-toxic
to fish, according to a specified test method.
The present fee (since January 1, 1997) per damage unit is DEM 80. From
1999 the fee will be increased to DEM 90.
2.2.5 France
In the 1994 decree, some general requirements for the quality of the effluents
to be released to the watercourses are specified. Main requirements are the
following:
pH to be held between 5.5 - 8.5
temperature inferior to 30
o
C (35
o
C if anaerobic waste water treatment is
used)
colour inferior to 100 mg Pt/l
phenolic type substances 0.3 mg/l or 3 g/d
phenols 0.1 mg/l or 1 g/d
AOX 5 mg/l or 30 g/d
hydrocarbons totally 10 mg/l or 100 g/d
additional specific requirements for toxic and bioaccumulative substances
listed in the Annex 4 of the decree (several organic and inorganic
compounds)
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For pulp mills, the current regulations are shown in Table 9.
Table 9: Effluent discharge limit values for pulp mills in France. The values are
expressed as kg/ADt, monthly average max. values.
new mills existing mills
Mill type TSS BOD
5
COD
Cr
TSS BOD
5
COD
Cr
MECHANICAL
- unbleached 0.7 0.7 1.5 0.9 0.9 2.0
- bleached 0.7 0.7 3.0 0.9 0.9 3.9
TMP
- unbleached 0.7 0.7 4.5 0.9 0.9 5.9
- bleached 0.7 0.7 6.0 0.9 0.9 7.8
CTMP
- unbleached 0.7 3.0 12.0 0.9 3.9 15.6
- bleached 0.7 4.0 16.0 0.9 5.2 20.8
KRAFT (hardwood)
- unbleached 5.0 1.5 15.0 6.5 2.0 19.5
- bleached 5.0 2.0 25.0 6.5 2.6 32.5
KRAFT (softwood)
- unbleached 5.0 2.0 20.0 6.5 2.6 26.0
- bleached 5.0 3.0 50.0 6.5 3.9 65.0
BISULPHITE 5.0 5.0 35.0 6.5 6.5 45.5
WASTE PAPERS (deinking) 0.7 0.7 4.0 0.9 0.9 5.2
AOX restriction for bleached pulp mills is 1 kg/ADt.
The current restrictions for paper mills are presented in Table 10.
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Table 10: Effluent discharge limit values for paper mills in France. The values
are expressed as kg/ADt, monthly average max. values
New mills Existing mills
End product/capacity TSS BOD
5
COD
Cr
TSS BOD
5
COD
Cr
Capacity inferior to 60 Adt/d 2.0 4.0 8.0
Paper with more than 90%
virgin fibre, without fillers
0.7 0.7 2.5 1.5 1.0 4.0
Paper with more than 90%
virgin fibre, with fillers or
coating
0.7 0.7 3.0 1.5 1.5 6.0
Paper with more than 90%
virgin fibre with fillers and
coating
0.7 0.7 3.0 1.5 2.0 8.0
Paper with more than 90%
waste paper, without fillers
0.7 0.7 3.0 1.5 1.5 6.0
Paper with more than 90%
waste paper, with fillers or
coating
0.7 0.7 4.0 1.5 2.0 8.0
Paper with more than 90%
waste paper, with fillers and
coating
0.7 0.7 4.0 1.5 2.0 8.0
Fluting 1.9 1.9 8.0
In each case the daily maximum value can be twice as high as the monthly
average maximum value in the above-mentioned tables.
2.2.6 United Kingdom
Emission limits for point sources, e.g. industrial plants, are determined to
maintain the quality objectives of the receiving water, taking into account all
others discharges to the same water course as well. Typically, regulations are
set for waste water flow, TSS, BOD, COD and pH. These requirements vary
to some extent depending on the type of the receiving water (e.g. river, inland
lake, estuary).
Discharges of waste water to public sewers are controlled by the Water
Industry Act and the Trade Effluents (Prescribed Processes and Substances)
Regulations 1989. A consent is also required, when waste water is released
to a common sewer.
2.2.7 Italy
According to the Law 1976, waste water standards are divided into three
categories:
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Tabella A Industrial waste waters when discharged directly to water
course
Tabella B Industrial waste waters when discharged to municipal sewage
treatment plant
Tabella C Municipal sewage (over 50 P.E.)
In Table 11, limit values according to Tabella A are presented.
Table 11: Industrial effluent discharge limits in Italy according to Tabella A
(direct release to water course)
Object Limit value Remarks
pH 5.5 - 9.5 After dispersion, 50 m from the discharge point
6.5 - 8.5
Total suspended
solids (TSS)
80 mg/l Filter openings 0.45

m
Settleable solids 0.5 ml/l Imhoff cone, 2 hours
BOD
5
40 mg/l For certain industrial effluents, the limit may be
equal to 70% of the total BOD
5
release
COD
Cr
160 mg/l
Temperature increment < 3
o
C In rivers, after the dispersion zone
Colour non-visible When dilution is 1:20
Total phosphorus 10 mg/l In certain lakes and dams 0.5 mg/l
2.2.8 Spain
General limit values for industrial effluent discharges are given in the Law
1985. These limit values also form a basis for a discharge fee (tax) system.
The annual fee (F) is determined by the following equation:
F = C x P, where C = annual contaminating units
P = contaminating unit price
C = K x Q, where C = annual contaminating units
K = quality factor, dependent on the pollutants in
the effluent
Q = annual effluent flow, m
3
(Note. so called clean
waters, e.g. from cooling units, can be
excluded)
The discharge tax system is applied for mills which release their effluents to a
river or a lake.
In Table 12, limit values divided into three categories, are presented.
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Table 12: Effluent discharge limit values for calculation of discharge fees in
Spain
Subject Max. limit value
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3
pH
1)
5.5 - 9.5 5.5 - 9.5 5.5 - 9.5
Suspended solids, mg/l
2)
300 150 80
Settleable solids, ml/l
3)
2 1 0.5
Coarse solids none none none
BOD
5
, mg/l
4)
300 60 40
COD
Cr
, mg/l 500 200 160
Temperature increment,
o
C
5)
3 3 3
Colour, non-visible
6)
1:40 1:30 1:20
Total phosphorus, mg/l
7)
20 20 10
1)
After dispersion, 50 from the discharge point resp. level 6.5-8.5
2)
Filter openings 0.45

m
3)
Imhoff cone, 2 h settling
4)
For certain industrial effluents, the limit may be equal to 70% of the total
BOD
5
release
5)
In rivers after dispersion zone. In lakes, max. effluent temperature is 20
o
C
6)
Colour to be determined through 10 cm of diluted effluent in each category
7)
In certain lakes and dams the limit value is 0.5 mg/l
The authorities determine the quality factors for each categories. The most
polluting substance as specified in Table 12 determines the category and
resp. quality factor to be used.
The general minimum requirements have been issued primarily to be able to
be used in the discharge tax system. Additional regulations can be set up e.g.
based on the type and use of the receiving water.
2.3 North America
2.3.1 The USA
The EPA issues technology-based effluent limit values guidelines on a
federal level for effluent discharges. These are mainly adopted as such in the
state legislation.
Concerning the current effluent discharge regulations, various technological
concepts are determined as a basis for the requirements. In the following,
these definitions are presented:
BPT (Best Practicable Control Technology) effluent guidelines apply to
discharges of conventional pollutants (BOD
5
, TSS, pH, fecal coliforms, oil
and grease)
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BCT (Best Conventional Pollutant Control Technology) presently is equal
to BPT

BAT (Best Available Technology) standards define for the direct discharge
limits of toxic and non-conventional pollutants. Presently, the BAT concept
has limited significance as it only concerns mills which use chlorophenol-
based biocides.

NSPS (New Source Performance Standards) are applied to new or rebuilt
mills discharging their effluents directly to watercourses. NSPS regulations
include conventional, non-conventional and toxic pollutants.

PSES and PSNS (Pre-treatment standards for existing and new sources)
are specific standards for discharges from existing and new mills to
publicly-owned sewage treatment works.
In addition, the Cluster Rule includes the following definition for all mills:
BMP (Best Management Practices) for spent pulping liquor management
and spill prevention and control in chemical pulp mills

The current effluent discharge restrictions were adopted in 1982 and they
were determined for 24 mill types. In Table 13, an example of effluent
restrictions for major production groups are presented.
Table 13: Effective EPA effluent restrictions for six production groups,
expressed as annual averages, kg/ADt, in USA
Mill type/Group BPT NSPS
BOD
5
TSS BOD
5
TSS
A Unbleached kraft and paper 2.8 6.0 1.8 3.0
B Bleached market kraft pulp 8.05 16.4 5.5 9.5
H Bleached kraft pulp and fine paper 5.5 11.9 3.1 4.8
J Bleached sulphite pulp and paper 16.5 23.5 2.36 3.03
L TMP and paper 5.55 8.35 2.5 4.6
N Groundwood pulp and newsprint 3.9 6.85 2.5 3.8
Allowed pH range of treated effluent is 5 - 9. In wet debarking, additional BOD
load of 1.2 kg/ADt and TSS load of approximately 3.1 kg/ADt is allowed. The
NSPS restrictions include also loads from debarking plant.
State regulations can be tighter and also may include other parameters (e.g.
AOX, colour, dioxins/furans, heavy metals).
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In the Cluster Rule proposals, the production groups are planned to be
decreased to 12 and new restrictions for all production groups are to be
determined.
2.3.2 Canada
The federal regulations 1992 define the maximum BOD and TSS discharge
levels for pulp and paper mills. Also acute toxicity of the effluent is regulated
by the Federal Government.
In Table 14, the current waste water discharge limits according to the Federal
regulations are summarised.
Table 14: Effluent discharge limits (expressed as kg/ADt) by Federal
Regulations in Canada
Mill type BOD TSS
Daily Monthly Daily Monthly
Dissolving sulphite mills 45.0 27.0 62.5 37.5
Other pulp and paper
mills
12.5
(24.75)
1)
7.5
(14.85)
1)
18.75 11.25
1)
Maximum BOD that can be authorised for old mills, built before 1970
The provinces may set their own more stringent regulations.
2.4 International Conventions
2.4.1 The Helsinki Convention (HELCOM)
The basic Convention on the protection of the marine environment of the
Baltic Sea area was made at Finland's initiative in March 1974 in Helsinki.
The current amendment of the Convention includes also the definitions of
BAT and BEP. The parties agree to promote the use of BAT and BEP. BAT is
to be used for point polluting sources and BEP for all pollution sources.
Concerning pulp and paper industry, the following HELCOM recommen-
dations are adopted as revised in March 1996:
HELCOM recommendation 17/8 (Reduction of discharges from the Kraft
pulp industry)

HELCOM recommendation 17/9 (Reduction of discharges from the sulphite
pulp industry
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Discharge limits according to HELCOM 17/8 are presented in Table 15.
Table 15: Annual average discharge limit values for the Kraft pulp industry
according to HELCOM recommendation 17/8
The following annual average discharge limit values in kg per tonne of Air Dry Pulp (kg/t
ADP) produced are not exceeded from 1 January 2000 for any mill which has started to
operate before 1 January 1997:
Pulping process COD
Cr
AOX Tot-P Tot-N
Bleached pulp 30 0.4 0.04 0.4
Unbleached pulp 15 - 0.02 0.3
In countries in transition, the following annual average discharge limit values (kg/t ADP)
produced are not exceeded from 1 January 2005 for any mill which has started to operate
before 1 January 1997:
Pulping process COD
Cr
AOX Tot-P Tot-N
Bleached pulp 35 0.4 0.04 0.4
Unbleached pulp 20 - 0.02 0.3
For any mill, starting to operate or considerably increasing its capacity (by more than 50%)
after 1 January 1997, the following annual discharge limit values (kg/t ADP) exist:
Pulping process COD
Cr
AOX Tot-P Tot-N
Bleached pulp 15 0.2 0.02 0.35
Unbleached pulp 8 - 0.01 0.25
In Attachment 1, HELCOM 17/8 determines BAT for the Kraft pulp industry,
1995:
1. Dry debarking with minor waste water discharges
2. Closed screening
3. Stripping of most concentrated condensates and reuse of most
condensates in the process
4. Systems which enable the recovery of almost all spillages
5. Extended delignification in the digester followed by oxygen delignification
6. Efficient washing before the pulp leaves the closed part of the process
7. At least secondary treatment for waste water discharges
8. Partial closure of bleach plant. The main part of the discharge from the
bleach plant is piped to the recovery system
9. Use of environmentally sound chemicals in the process, for example use of
biodegradable chelating agents wherever possible
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In Attachment 2, analysing methods to be applied for AOX, COD
Cr
, Tot-P and
Tot-N are presented (all analyses should be made on unsettled, unfiltered
samples).
Discharge limits according to HELCOM 17/9 are presented in Table 16.
Table 16: Annual average discharge limit values for the sulphite pulp industry
according to HELCOM recommendation 17/9
The following annual average discharge limit values (kg/t ADP) produced are not
exceeded from 1 January 2000 (for countries in transition from 1 January 2005) for any
mill which has started to operate before 1 January 1997:
Pulping process COD
Cr
AOX Tot-P Tot-N
Bleached pulp 70 0.5 0.08 0.7
Unbleached pulp 45 - 0.06 0.6
For any mill, starting to operate or considerably increasing its capacity (by more than 50%)
after 1 January 1997, the following annual discharge limit values (kg/t ADP) exist:
Pulping process COD
Cr
AOX Tot-P Tot-N
Bleached pulp 35 0.1 0.04 0.4
Unbleached pulp 20 - 0.03 0.3
In Attachment 1 of HELCOM 17/9, BAT for the sulphite industry 1995 is
determined:
1. Dry debarking with minor waste water discharges
2. Closed screening
3. Neutralising of weak liquor before evaporation followed by re-use of the
main part of condensates in process
4. Systems which enable the recovery of almost all organic substances
dissolved in the cook (a total U-value of about 98 % is achievable)
5. No discharge from the bleach plant when the sodium based processes are
being used
6. At least secondary treatment for waste water discharges
7. Partial closure of the bleach plant when another process than sodium
based is used
8. Use of environmentally sound chemicals in the process, for example use of
biodegradable chelating agents wherever possible
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2.4.2 Proposals of the Nordic Council of Ministers
The Nordic Council of Ministers established a working group comprising
experts from Sweden, Finland, Norway and Denmark to evaluate the impacts
of the pulp and paper industry on the environment and to compile a report on
these impacts by 1993.
Based on this report, among others, the following proposals related to
environmental protection and pollution control were presented:
Effluent loads, as shown in Table 17, expressed as annual averages,
should by the end of this century not to be exceeded for any mill. For
integrated mills producing mechanical or recycled fibres pulp the figures
are kg per tonne of product, whereas for the other types of mills the figures
are kg per tonne of air dry pulp.
Table 17: Annual average limit values of effluent loads (kg/ADt) according to a
proposal by the Nordic Council of Ministers 1993. Limit values to be reached
by the end of this century
Type of mill AOX COD
Cr
Tot-P Tot-N
1)
Bleached kraft 0.4 30 0.04 0.2
Unbleached kraft - 15 0.02 0.2
Bleached sulphite 0.3 70 0.08 0.6
CTMP - 30 0.02 0.2
Mechanical
2)
- 10 0.01 0.2
Recycled fiber - 10 0.01 0.2
1)
Any nitrogen discharge associated with the use of complexing agents should be
added to the figure for tot-N given above
2)
"Mechanical" means integrated mills producing newsprint or magazine paper
In case of any new or considerably enlarged (in the order of 30 %) mill,
the following levels, as shown in Table 18, should not be exceeded as
annual averages.
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Table 18: Annual average limit values of effluent loads according to a
proposal by the Nordic Council of Ministers 1993. New and enlarged mills
Type of mill AOX COD
Cr
Tot-P Tot-N
1)
Bleached kraft 0.2 15 0.02 0.15
Unbleached kraft - 8 0.01 0.15
Bleached sulphite 0.1 35 0.04 0.3
CTMP - 15 0.01 0.1
Mechanical
2)
- 5 0.005 0.1
Recycled fibre - 5 0.005 0.1
1)
Any nitrogen discharge associated with the use of complexing agents should be
added to the figure for tot-N given above
2)
"Mechanical" means integrated mills producing newsprint or magazine paper
2.5 Far East
2.5.1 Japan
Based on the historical background and the development of the
environmental legislation and policy, Japan has been the key country in the
region since the 1960s.
The latest revision of the Water Pollution Control Law took place in June
1996. The main effort in Japan in water pollution control has put on the
protection of three water areas, namely: Tokyo Bay, Ise Bay and Seto Inland
Sea. COD restrictions announced by the Government to reduce COD loads
from industry and municipalities.
General water quality standards can be divided into two categories:
environmental quality standards for protection of human health and the
standards for the conservation of living environment. Depending on the type
and use of the watercourse, different regulations are issued (e.g. for fishery,
agricultural, water supply purposes of natural lakes, rivers and artificial
reservoirs).
Similarly, waste water standards are also applied for the protection of human
health and for the protection of the living environment.
For the protection of human health, the permissible limit values are shown in
Table 19.
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Table 19: Effluent limit values for the protection of human health in Japan
Pollutant Permissible limit, mg/l
Cadmium and its compounds 0.1
Cyanide compounds 1
Organic phosphorus compounds 1
Lead and its compounds 1
Hexavalent chromium compounds 0.5
Arsenic and its compounds 0.5
Total mercury 0.05
Alkyl mercury compounds not detectable
1)
PCB 0.03
Trichloroethylene 0.3
Perchloroethylene 0.1
1) According to the analysing method issued by the Director General of the Environment
Agency.
For all industrial facilities, the general waste water standards are shown in
Table 20.
Table 20: Effluent limit values related to the protection of living environment in
Japan
Pollutant Unit Limit value
pH 5.8 - 8.6 (release to other than coastal
waters)
5 - 9 (release to coastal waters)
BOD, COD mg/l 160 (daily average 120)
SS mg/l 200 (daily average 150)
N-hexane mg/l 5 (mineral oil)
mg/l 30 (animal fat and vegetable oil)
Phenols mg/l 5
Copper mg/l 3
Zinc mg/l 5
Dissolved Fe mg/l 10
Dissolved Mn mg/l 10
Chromium mg/l 2
Fluorine mg/l 15
Coliforms pcs/cc 3000 (daily average)
Nitrogen mg/l 120 (daily average 60)
Phosphorus mg/l 16 (daily average 8)
Note: Prefectures may, by decree, set more stringent standards locally
It must be emphasised, that in individual mill cases, the limit values as to
BOD and COD often are more stringent than those presented in Table 20. As
an example of very tight current Agreement category restrictions for a pulp
and paper mill can be presented:
NOPON OY Waste Water Treatment in Pulp and Paper Industry Date: 09.08.1997
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BOD: max. 10 mg/l (daily average 8 mg/l)
COD: max. 30 mg/l (daily average 18 mg/l)
SS: max. 15 mg/l (daily average 10 mg/l)
In the end of 1980s, the release of dioxins in pulp mill effluents became
concerned as a major environmental hazard, related to the use of chlorine
gas in bleaching. In December 1990, the industry issued a voluntary target for
AOX release being 1.5 kg/ADt to be reached by the end of 1993. The actual
AOX discharge in 1993 from 31 bleached Kraft mills and from 2 dissolving
pulp mills was on the average 0.8 kg/ADt (min. 0.4 and max. 1.3 kg/ADt).
2.5.2 China
The recent key effluent regulations are the following:
Regulations on prevention and cure of water pollution for paper industry
(issued by Environmental Protection Committee of State Council, Ministry
of Light Industry, Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Finance on
December 20, 1988)
Standards of discharge of water pollutants for paper industry, GB 3544-92
(in force after July 1, 1992)
The 1988 regulations include, among others, the following definitions and
requirements for pulp and paper industry:
Classification of pulp and paper mills:
The so-called large enterprise means a mill with pulp production more than
30 000 ADt/a. The middle enterprise has a production between 10 000 to
30 000 ADt/a and a small enterprise produces less than 10 000 Adt/a.

Before 1995, large and middle size enterprises using alkaline pulping
processes, should have a chemical recovery system. The efficiency of the
chemical (black liquor) recovery must reach the following percentages:
wood pulping > 90%
bamboo, reed, silver grass, bagasse > 80%
straw > 75%
Before 1995, the small chemical pulping enterprises with alkali recovery
unit, must reach the following chemical recovery efficiency levels:
production from 7000 to 10000 ADt/a > 70%
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production from 4000 to 7000 ADt/a > 60%
production from 3000 to 4000 ADt/a > 50%
Before 1995, the small chemical pulping enterprises without alkali recovery
unit, should control and decrease the black liquor discharges with respect
to COD and BOD
5
loads as follows:
production from 5000 to 10000 ADt/a > 60% reduction
production from 3000 to 5000 ADt/a > 50% reduction
production less than 3000 ADt/a > 30% reduction
Enterprises that are based on chemi-mechanical, alkaline half-chemical
pulping or lime straw pulping, or alkaline hemp/cotton pulping (including
viscose pulping), should have waste water treatment and these mills
should decrease organic pollution loads more than 50 % before 1995.

The enterprises that are based on acid sulphite pulping process must use
acid recovery process or waste water must meet the standards regulated
by the state or local governments before 1995.

Waste water originating from neutral sulphite pulping process should be
used in agriculture or should have other utilisation. Before 1995, the
utilisation degree should be 60 % or more.

Any enterprise that has not reached the 1988 regulation standards before
the end of 1995, must propose a plan consisting of optional measures to
decrease effluent loads to acceptable levels. The plan will be checked,
accepted and executed by local people's government.
GB 3544-92 standard determines the characteristics of effluents from pulp
and paper mills. The acceptable pollution loads depend on the type of the mill
and the watercourse the effluent is released. The water quality standards,
applied in the GB 3544-92, are:
GB 3097 Quality Standards of Sea Water
GB 3838 Environmental Quality Standard of Surface Water
GB 6920 Water Quality. Determination of pH Value. Glass
Electrode Method
GB 7488 Water Quality. Determination of Biochemical Oxygen
Demand for 5 Days (BOD
5
). Dilution and Inoculation Methods
GB 11901 Water Quality. Determination of Suspended Substance.
Gravimetry.
GB 11914 Water Quality. Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand
(COD). Dichromate Method.
Waste water quality standards are divided into three categories:
NOPON OY Waste Water Treatment in Pulp and Paper Industry Date: 09.08.1997
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1
st
class The first class standards are applied to waste waters discharged
to III grade water area specified in GB 3838 (except protection areas of
water bodies) and to II grade marine area according to GB 3097.

2
nd
class The second class standards are applied to waste waters
discharged to IV and V grade water area in GB 3838 and to III grade
marine area in GB 3097

3
rd
class The third class standards are applied to waste waters
discharged to sewers of cities or towns having a waste water (sewage)
treatment plant.
The standard values are given as the allowable maximum concentrations and
specific effluent amounts.
In Table 21, Table 22 and Table 23, waste water restrictions for pulp and
paper mills implemented before January 1, 1989 are shown.
Table 21: First class limit values for effluent discharges from pulp and paper
mills implemented before January 1, 1989 in China
Mill type I Class limit values
Effluent amount BOD
5
COD
Cr
SS
m
3
/ADt mg/l mg/l mg/l
Integrated pulp and paper mills:
Wood-based
Unbleached 220 150 350 200
Bleached 320 150 350 200
Non-wood-based
Unbleached 270 150 350 200
Bleached 370 150 350 200
Non-integrated paper mills:
Paper and paperboard 80 60 150 100
Note. Allowable pH range for all types of waste waters is 6 - 9
NOPON OY Waste Water Treatment in Pulp and Paper Industry Date: 09.08.1997
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Table 22: Second class limit values for effluent discharges from pulp and
paper mills implemented before January 1, 1989 in China
Mill type II Class limit values
Effluent amount BOD
5
COD
Cr
SS
m
3
/ADt mg/l mg/l mg/l
Integrated pulp and paper mills:
Wood-based
Unbleached 220 180 400 250
Bleached 320 180 400 250
Non-wood-based
Unbleached 270 200 450 250
Bleached 370 200 450 250
Non-integrated paper mills:
Paper and paperboard 80 80 200 250
Note. Allowable pH range for all types of waste waters is 6 - 9
Table 23: Third class limit values for effluent discharges from pulp and paper
mills implemented before January 1, 1989 in China
Mill type III Class limit values
Effluent amount BOD
5
COD
Cr
SS
m
3
/ADt mg/l mg/l mg/l
Integrated pulp and paper mills:
Wood-based
Unbleached 220 600 1000 400
Bleached 320 600 1000 400
Non-wood-based
Unbleached 270 600 1000 400
Bleached 370 600 1000 400
Non-integrated paper mills:
Paper and paperboard 80 500 1000 400
Note. Allowable pH range for all types of waste waters is 6-9
Respective waste water restrictions for the pulp and paper mills implemented
between January 1, 1989 and June 30, 1992 are presented in Table 24,
Table 25 and Table 26.
NOPON OY Waste Water Treatment in Pulp and Paper Industry Date: 09.08.1997
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Table 24: First class limit values for effluent discharges from pulp and paper
mills implemented between January 1, 1989 and June 30, 1992 in China
Mill type I Class limit values
Effluent amount BOD
5
COD
Cr
SS
m
3
/ADt mg/l mg/l mg/l
Integrated pulp and paper mills:
Wood-based
Unbleached 190 30 100 70
Bleached 280 30 100 70
Non-wood-based
Unbleached 230 30 100 70
Bleached 330 30 100 70
Non-integrated paper mills:
Paper and paperboard 70 30 100 70
Note. Allowable pH range for all types of waste waters is 6 - 9
Table 25: Second class limit values for effluent discharges from pulp and
paper mills implemented between January 1, 1989 and June 30, 1992 in
China
Mill type II Class limit values
Effluent amount BOD
5
COD
Cr
SS
m
3
/ADt mg/l mg/l mg/l
Integrated pulp and paper mills:
Wood-based
Unbleached 190 150 350 200
Bleached 280 150 350 200
Non-wood-based
Unbleached 230 150 450 200
Bleached 330 150 450 200
Non-integrated paper mills:
Paper and paperboard 70 60 150 200
Note. Allowable pH range for all types of waste waters is 6 - 9
NOPON OY Waste Water Treatment in Pulp and Paper Industry Date: 09.08.1997
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Table 26: Third class limit values for effluent discharges from pulp and paper
mills implemented between January 1, 1989 and June 30, 1992 in China
Mill type III Class limit values
Effluent amount BOD
5
COD
Cr
SS
m
3
/ADt mg/l mg/l mg/l
Integrated pulp and paper mills:
Wood-based
Unbleached 190 600 800 400
Bleached 280 600 800 400
Non-wood-based
Unbleached 230 600 1000 400
Bleached 330 600 1000 400
Non-integrated paper mills:
Paper and paperboard 70 500 500 400
Note. Allowable pH range for all types of waste waters is 6 - 9
For new mills and mills built after July 1, 1992, the waste water restrictions
are specified in Table 27, Table 28 and Table 29.
Table 27: First class limit values for effluent discharges from new pulp and
paper mills implemented after July 1, 1992 in China
Mill type I class limit values
Effluent
flow
BOD
5
COD
Cr
Suspended
solids
AOX
m3/ADt kg/t mg/l kg/t mg/l kg/t mg/l kg/t mg/l
Integrated pulp
and paper mils:
Wood-based
unbleached 150 4,5 30 15 100 10,5 70
bleached 240 7,2 30 24 100 16,8 70 1,5 8
Non-wood
based
unbleached 190 5,7 30 19 100 13,3 70
bleached 290 8,7 30 29 100 20,3 70 1,5 7
Non-integrated
paper mills:
paper and
paperboard
60 1,8 30 6 100 4,2 70
Note: Allowable pH range for all types of waste waters is 6 - 9
NOPON OY Waste Water Treatment in Pulp and Paper Industry Date: 09.08.1997
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Table 28: Second class limit values for effluent discharges from new pulp and
paper mills implemented after July 1, 1992 in China
Mill type II Class limit values
Effluent
flow
BOD
5
COD
Cr
Suspended
solids
AOX
m
3
/ADt kg/t mg/l kg/t mg/l kg/t mg/l kg/t mg/l
Integrated pulp
and paper mills:
Wood-based
Unbleached 150 15 100 52.5 350 30 200
Bleached 240 28.8 120 84 350 48 200 2.5 10
Non-wood-
based
Unbleached 190 28.5 150 85.5 450 38 200
Bleached 290 43.5 150 130.
5
450 58 200 2.5 9
Non-integrated
paper mills:
Paper and
paperboard
60 3.6 60 9 150 6 100
Note. Allowable pH range for all types of waste waters is 6 - 9
Table 29: Third class limit values for effluent discharges from new pulp and
paper mills implemented after July 1, 1992 in China
Mill type III Class limit values
Effluent
flow
BOD
5
COD
Cr
Suspended
solids
m
3
/ADt kg/t mg/l kg/t mg/l kg/t mg/l
Integrated pulp
and paper mills:
Wood-based
Unbleached 150 75 500 120 800 60 400
Bleached 240 120 500 192 800 96 400
Non-wood-based
Unbleached 190 114 600 171 900 76 400
Bleached 290 174 600 261 900 116 400
Non-integrated
paper mills:
Paper and
paperboard
60 400 500 400
Note. Allowable pH range for all types of waste waters is 6 - 9
NOPON OY Waste Water Treatment in Pulp and Paper Industry Date: 09.08.1997
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2.5.3 Indonesia
Since 1991, effluent restrictions applicable to currently operating pulp and
paper mills using Best Practicable Technology (BPT) have been in force.
These regulations should be applied and reached by all mills in 1995, see
Table 30 below.
Table 30: Effluent restrictions for pulp and paper industry in Indonesia in 1995.
Figures represent maximum values which are not to be exceeded.
Load Pulp mills Paper mills Integrated mills
mg/l kg/ADt mg/l kg/ADt mg/l kg/ADt
BOD
5
150 15 125 10 150 25.5
COD 350 35 250 20 350 59.5
TSS 200 20 125 10 150 25.5
pH 6 - 9 6 - 9 6 - 9 6 - 9 6 - 9 6 - 9
Effl. flow 100 m
3
/ADt 80 m
3
/ADt 170 m
3
/ADt
Regulations based on Best Available Technology (BAT) have been issued for
design of new or rebuild pulp and paper mills to be in force from 1995. These
BAT regulations are planned to be applied to all mills by the year 2000.
These limit values are shown in Table 31.
Table 31: Effluent restrictions for pulp and paper industry in Indonesia in 2000.
Figures represent maximum values which are not to be exceeded.
Process Flow BOD
5
COD TSS
m
3
/ADt mg/l kg/ADt mg/l kg/ADt mg/l kg/ADt
PULP
Kraft unbl. 50 75 3.75 200 10 60 3
Kraft bl. 85 100 8.5 350 29.75 100 8.5
Dissolving 95 100 9.5 300 28.5 100 9.5
CMP and
groundwood
60 50 3 120 7.2 75 4.5
Semi-chem. 70 100 7 200 14 100 7
Soda pulp 80 100 8 300 24 100 8
De-inked 60 100 6 300 18 100 6
PAPER
Fine bl. 50 100 5 200 10 100 5
Coarse 40 90 3.6 175 7 80 3.2
Cigarrette 175 60 10.5 100 17.5 45 7.8
Other bl. 35 75 2.6 160 5.6 80 2.8
Note. pH in all process effluents should be between 6 - 9
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3 MAIN PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION
3.1 General
The following summary concerns mainly biological oxidation of organic
compounds present in pulp and paper industry effluents. Pulp and paper
industry effluents differ e.g. from municipal sewage treatment, as the quality
of the effluents can vary a lot and in general, complete nitrogen removal
needs not to be included in the aeration design (except in case of ammonium
sulphite process effluents).
3.2 Major Phases of Organic Material Bio-oxidation
In biological treatment, microbes degrade and remove organic material
present in mill effluents in the following ways:
1. capturing of organic suspended matter by biosludge
2. adsorption of colloidal substances on the bioflocs
3. biosorption of soluble organic compounds by microbes
Also sorption of non-degradable organic compounds on biosludge can occur.
Sorptive properties depend on the treatment method, e.g. plug-flow systems
have better sorptive biosludge than completely mixed systems.
It is clear, based on the above-mentioned phenomena, that removal of
organic matter from waste waters is a complex multi-stage process. Molecular
oxygen supplied by the aeration equipment, is needed mainly to satisfy 3.
organic matter removal stage. The biosorption rate is directly proportional to
the concentration of biosludge, the sludge age and the characteristics of the
soluble organic compounds. Degradation of compounds in stages 1. and 2.
can also occur and in this way additional soluble organic material for
metabolism of microbes can be generated.
3.3 Molecular Oxygen Demand
3.3.1 General
Much discussion takes place today about the reliable basis of the design
criteria for aeration equipment (BOD, COD or TOC). The two essential stages
in the design procedure of an aeration system are:
Determination of actual oxygen requirement (AOR)
Determination of standard oxygen transfer rate (SOTR)
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In this context, main emphasis is laid on the AOR procedure. SOTR value,
and the respective aeration system, depends on many specific items, such as
the shape and depth of the aeration basin and the type of the aeration
equipment. SOTR value must be determined and tested by the aeration
equipment supplier in each case.
3.3.2 Determination of AOR
In case of pulp and paper mill effluents, AOR value includes dissolved
molecular oxygen needed in aerobic biological processes for:
assimilative respiration
endogenous respiration
chemical oxidation of some inorganic compounds, e.g. sulphides
biological oxidation of ammonia to nitrate (if present)
AOR requirements vary considerably depending on the efficiency degree of
the process, sludge and organic volume loadings, detention time of the
effluent in the aeration basin, sludge age etc. Determination of correct AOR
value for each pulp and paper mill effluent type requires a profound long term
field experience of similar effluent treatment plants. The aeration equipment
supplier should ask for the AOR value from the client to be able to give proper
guarantees for the oxygenation capacity of the aeration equipment.
The general equation for oxygen demand is:
AOR = a' x BOD
rem
+ b' x MLVSS
aer
+ k x COD
Cr
+ 4,6 x NH
4
(rem)
where a' oxygen consumed in assimilative respiration (pulp
and paper mill effluents typically 0,5 - 0,8)
BOD
rem
BOD removal in treatment, kg/d
b' oxygen consumed in endogenous respiration
(range 0,05 - 0,2)
MLVSS
aer
active biomass in aeration
k fraction of COD which requires molecular oxygen
capable to oxidise certain inorganic compounds
(typically 0,01 - 0,1)
NH
4
(rem) ammonium nitrogen removal, kg/d
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Denitrification is not needed in the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents
and thus anoxic stage is not required. However, in case of ammonium
sulphite mills, nitrogen restrictions may require also denitrification. Presently,
no experience of total nitrogen removal from pulp mill effluents is available.
As indicated earlier, coefficients a' and b' are specific for each type of pulp
and paper mill effluent. Even within a certain effluent category, e.g. newsprint
mill effluent, the coefficients can vary to some extent mill by mill. If pilot trials
can be carried out, the coefficients a' and b' can be determined as follows:
equation between specific BOD removal (kg BOD/kg VSS,d) and oxygen
consumption (kg O
2
/kg VSS,d) will be made based on the pilot tests in
different loading conditions. Typically, the function will be linear, and the
coefficient a' can be obtained as the angle coefficient and b' can be
obtained when the specific oxygen consumption = 0 (ordinate value).
No clear categories of a' and b' for e.g. for pulp mill effluents and paper mill
effluents can be shown. If no pilot trials are possible to be made, as a first
assumption for both pulp and paper mill effluents, a' = 0,6 and b' = 0,1 values
can be used.
For safety reasons, specially in case of pulp mill effluents, coefficient k = 0,1
is recommended to be used.
3.3.3 Determination of SOTR
The following equation between AOR and SOTR exists:
AOR = SOTR x (( c
T
x - c
L
)/c
S
) x x
T-20
)
where c
T
oxygen saturation concentration in temperature T
actual O
2
saturation conc. in effluent/clean water O
2
conc.
c
L
dissolved oxygen concentration in aeration
c
S
saturated O
2
concentration in clean water at temp. T
mass transfer coefficient, K
l
a(effl.) / K
L
a(tap water)
temperature coefficient for mass transfer
T temperature in aeration
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10 Glossary Page: 1.1 (18)
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10 Glossary
10.1 Symbols ........................................................................................10.1
10.2 Terms............................................................................................10.4
10.3 Conversion Factors.....................................................................10.17
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10 Glossary Page: 10.1 (18)
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10 GLOSSARY
10.1 Symbols
a Total mass transfer area per volumetric unit
a* Substrate respiration rate
a Coefficient caused by pressure
A Area of air/water boundary surface m
2
AOR Actual Oxygen Requirement kg O
2
/d
b Endogenous respiration rate
B Quantity of removed BOD kg/d
BOD Biological Oxygen Demand mg/l
BR Volumetric load kg BOD/m
3
d
C

* Steady state dissolved oxygen (DO) saturation


concentration attained at infinite time at water
temperature T and field atmospheric pressure.
The value can be estimated as follows
C

* = C
ST
{ 1+0.035 (h-0.25)} mg O
2
/l
where:
C
ST
= the table value for dissolved oxygen (DO)
at the temperature T at surface level mg O
2
/l
C*
10
Saturation dissolved oxygen concentration
at 10 C g O
2
/m
3
C

*
20
Steady state dissolved oxygen (DO) saturation
concentration attained at infinite time at water
temperature 20 C and standard atmospheric
pressure (101.3 kPa).
The value can be estimated as follows:
C

*
20
= C
ST,20
(1+0.035 h) mg O
2
/l
where:
C
ST,20
= the table value for dissolved oxygen (DO)
at the temperature 20 C at surface level = 9,07 mg O
2
/l
C
L
Actual oxygen concentration in aeration tank g O
2
/m
3
C
t
Dissolved oxygen concentration at time t g O
2
/m
3
D Diameter of the pipe m
DD Area density of diffusers m
2
/m
2
D
L
Molecular diffusion of oxygen through boundary
fluid film
DO Dissolved oxygen mg O
2
/l
e Standard oxygen transfer efficiency at chosen
aeration depth %
e
2
Oxygen absorption given by the curves %
E Process efficiency %
EPDM ethylene-propylene-diene
f Coefficient of BOD conversion
f
r
Temperature correction coefficient
F/M Food-to-micro-organism loading
(sludge loading) kgBOD/kgMLSS d
F/V Volumetric load kgBOD/m
3
d
G Velocity gradient 1/s
h Submersion depth of diffusers m
h Depth of the oxygen absorption curves measured m
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H Henrys constant (mg/l)/(kN/m
2
)
HDPE hihg density polyethylene
k Constant factor for blowers 1.395
k Ammonium oxygenation coefficient
k
1
Flow rate correction factor
k
dim
Hourly variation factor
K
L
Mass transfer coefficient of boundary fluid film
K
L
a Apparent volumetric mass transfer coefficient
in clean water at temperature T 1/d
l Length of aeration tank m
L Imaginary thickness of boundary fluid film m
MLSS Mixed liquor suspended solids kg/m
3
MLVSS Mixed liquor volatile suspended solids kg/m
3
n exponent
N Number of diffusers
N, N
D
Total nitrogen concentration of effluent kg N/m
3
No Total nitrogen concentration of influent kg N/m
3
NH
4,o
Ammonium concentration of influent kg N/m
3
NH
4
Ammonium concentration of effluent kg N/m
3
NH
4
, NH Ammonium reduction kg N/m
3
N
R
, N
T
Total nitrogen reduction kg N/d
N(NO
3
)
A
Nitrate concentration of effluent kg N/m
3
N(ges)
Z
Total nitrogen concentration of influent kg N/m
3
N(NH
4
)
A
Ammonium concentration of effluent kg N/m
3
N(org)
A
Organic nitrogen of effluent kg N/m
3
N
s
Nitrogen bonded to excess sludge kg N/m
3
O
C
Oxygenation capacity kg O
2
/h
OVR Actual oxygen requirement kg O
2
/m
3
h
p Atmospheric pressure kPa
p Water pressure above the diffuser kPa, mmHg
p
2
Blower discharge pressure kPa
p
a
Head loss in diffusers kPa
p
b
Head loss in inlet valves and filters kPa
P.E. population equivalent
PE polyethylene
p
h
Hydrostatic pressure at the diffuser kPa
p
i
Atmospheric pressure at the altitude of the plant kPa
p
p
Head loss in pipework including control valves kPa
PP polypropylene
p
s
Atmospheric pressure at standard conditions kPa
P Required power kW
P
X
Net production of biomass kg MLVSS/d
q
a
Air flow m
3
/h
q
a
Blower air flow in real conditions m
3
/h
q
a,d
Air flow/diffuser m
3
/h
q
dim
Hourly design flow m
3
/h
q
i
, q Influent flow m
3
/h
Q
d
Domestic sewage flow m
3
/d
Q
dim
Daily design flow m
3
/d
Q
e
Effluent flow m
3
/d
Q
e
, Q Influent flow m
3
/d
Q
I
Industrial sewage flow m
3
/d
Q
L
Leakages m
3
/d
Q
max
Maximum daily flow m
3
/d
Q
r
Return sludge flow m
3
/d
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Q
w
Excess sludge flow m
3
/d
R Actual oxygen requirement kg O
2
/d
S Substrate (BOD) reduction kg/m
3
S
e
, S Effluent substrate (BOD) concentration kg/m
3
S
i
, S
o
Influent substrate (BOD) concentration kg/m
3
SOTE Standard Oxygen Transfer Efficiency %
SOTR Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate kg/h
SVI Sludge volume index ml/g
t time min, h
t
d
Hours of domestic sewage flow per day h
t
I
Hours of industrial sewage flows per day h
T Temperature of clean or process water C, K
T
i
Maximum intake air temperature during
summertime K
T
p
Average temperature in distribution pipes K
T
s
Air temperature in standard conditions K
TS
R
Concentration of suspended solids in the
aeration basin kg MLSS/m
3
v Air flow velocity in pipe m/s
V Aeration volume m
3
w Width of aeration tank m
x Proportion of active biomass
X Concentration of suspended solids in the
aeration tank kg MLSS/m
3
X
o
Mol fraction of oxygen in aeration air
X
O2
, C
i
Oxygen content in the air kg O
2
/m
3
X
e
Concentration of suspended solids in the
effluent kg SS/m
3
X
r
Return sludge suspended solids kg MLSS/m
3
X
w
Concentration of suspended solids in
excess sludge kg MLSS/m
3
Proportion of the total oxygen transfer
coefficient measured in sewage and in clean water
Proportion of the DO saturation coefficients
measured in sewage and in clean water
Specific weight of water kg/dm
3
Dynamic viscosity Ns/m
2
Temperature correction coefficient

c
Mean cell residence time (sludge age) d

h
Hydraulic retention time h
Total efficiency of blower %
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10.2 Terms
acid clean a general expression for cleaning DDS systems by volatile acid (HCI,
HCOOH) during operation
acidity the capacity of a solution to react with hydroxyl ions. Acidity is
measured by titration with a standard alkaline solution (base) to a
specified end point. Typically, it is measured in milligrams of calcium
carbonate per litre.
activated sludge Sludge withdrawn from a secondary clarifier following the activated
sludge process. Activated sludge consists mostly of biomass, with
some inorganic settleable solids. Return sludge is recycled to the
head of the process; waste (excess) sludge is removed for
conditioning.
activated sludge loading The kilograms (pounds) of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in the
applied liquid per unit volume of aeration capacity or per kilogram
(pound) of activated sludge per day.
activated sludge process A biological waste water treatment process by which a mixture of
waste water and activated sludge is agitated and aerated. The
activated sludge is subsequently separated from the treated waste
water (mixed liquor) by sedimentation and wasted or returned to the
process as needed.
advanced waste water
treatment
Any physical, chemical, or biological treatment process used to
accomplish a degree of treatment greater than that achieved by
secondary treatment (see also tertiary treatment).
aeration The initiation of contact between air and liquid by one or more of the
following methods: (a) spraying the liquid in the air; (b) bubbling air
through the liquid; (c) agitating the liquid to promote surface
absorption of air.
aeration group a grid of pipes with diffusers installed forming a closed pipework
connected by one flange to the dropleg air feed pipe
aeration method a method of dissolving oxygen into water, e.g. bottom aeration, fine
bubble aeration, surface aeration, jet aeration, etc.
aeration period The time, usually expressed in hours, during which mixed liquor is
subjected to aeration in an aeration basin.
aeration system a combination of aeration equipment (aeration groups or aerators)
designed to dissolve oxygen into water (activated sludge)
aeration tank A tank in which waste water or other liquids are aerated (also called
aeration basin).
aerator aeration equipment, typically used for mechanical aeration equipment;
like O.K.I. aerators, surface aerators
aerobes Organisms that live only in aerobic conditions.
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aerobic Living or occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
aerobic respiration The breakdown of organic substances by aerobes in the presence of
oxygen.
air lift A device for raising liquid by injecting air in and near the bottom of a
riser pipe submerged in the liquid to be raised.
air lift pump A pump used for lifting activated sludge from the aeration basin or
clarifier to waste or return activated sludge. Fine-pressured air
bubbles are discharged to the water at the bottom, and the denser
surrounding water pushes up in the discharge pipe to the outlet (also
called air-lift or air-lift returns).
algae Photosynthetic, microscopic plants that can seriously deplete oxygen
in the presence of sunlight.
alpha ratio of mass transfer coefficient in waste water and clean water
ammonia A chemical combination of hydrogen (H) and nitrogen (N) occurring
extensively in nature and expressed as NH
3
.
ammonia-nitrogen Quantity of elemental nitrogen present in the form of ammonia (NH
3
).
amoeba Small, one-celled organism using pseudopodic (false feet) for
movement (see Sarcodina).
amperometric titration The electronic detection of the equivalence point in a titration, through
observation of the change in diffusion current at a suitable applied
voltage as a function of the volume of titrating solution.
anaerobes Organisms that live in the absence of oxygen.
anaerobic A condition in which no oxygen is available in the environment (for
example, a septic clarifier).
anaerobic respiration The breakdown of organic substances in the absence of oxygen.
AOR Actual Oxygen Requirement (in waste water)
bacteria A group of universally distributed, rigid, essentially unicellular
microscopic organisms lacking chlorophyll. Bacteria perform a variety
of biological treatment processes, including biological oxidation,
nitrification, and denitrification.
bacterial analysis The examination of wastewater to determine the presence, number,
and identity of bacteria (also called bacterial examination).
bacterial examination Examination of waste water to determine the presence, number, and
identity of bacteria. Also called bacterial analysis.
bacteriological count A means for quantifying numbers of organisms.
beta ratio of oxygen saturation value in waste water and clean water
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biochemical oxygen demand
(BOD)
(1) The quantity of oxygen used in the biochemical oxidation of
organic matter in a specified time, at a specified temperature, and
under specified conditions. (2) A standard test used in assessing
waste water strength.
biochemical oxygen demand
(BOD) load
The BOD content, usually expressed in kilograms (pounds) per unit of
time, of wastewater passing into a waste treatment system or to a
body of water.
biodegradable The destruction of organic materials by organisms and waste water
treatment systems.
biomass The amount (usually measured in kilograms or pounds) of biological
material contained in the treatment system.
bottom mounting bracket device for fixing and levelling an aeration system pipework on basin
bottom
centrifuge Mechanical device used to separate solids from water using a
centrifugal force (commonly called spin test when used as a process
control test).
chemical oxygen demand
(COD)
A quantitative measure of the amount of oxygen required for the
chemical oxidation of carbonaceous (organic) material in waste water,
using inorganic bichromate or permanganate salts as oxidants in a 2
hour test.
ciliated protozoa Small, one-celled organisms possessing cilia (hairlike projections used
for movement).
clarification Any process or combination of processes, the primary purpose of
which is to reduce the concentration of suspended matter in a liquid.
The term was formerly used as a synonym for settling or
sedimentation. In recent years, the latter terms are preferable when
describing the settling process.
clarified waste water Waste water from which most of the settleable solids have been
removed by sedimentation (also called settled waste water).
complete-mix Activated sludge process whereby waste water is rapidly and evenly
distributed throughout the aeration tank, unlike the conventional
aeration process (plug flow).
concentration (1) The amount of a given substance dissolved in a unit volume of
solution or applied to a unit weight of solids. (2) The process of
increasing the suspended solids per unit volume of sludge as by
sedimentation.
connection for water
drainage
a cross junction in a water collection pipe or in zone header for
connecting drainage hose (pipe)
connection sleeve part for joining pipes of the diffuser aeration system
contact stabilisation A modification of the activated sludge process using a short contact
time for adsorption of BOD followed by a long contact time for
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synthesis or stabilisation by bacteria.
contact time The period of time a substance remains in a basin (see detention
time).
conventional aeration Process design configuration whereby the organic loading in the
aeration tank is higher at the influentend than at the effluent end. The
flow passes through a serpentine system of tanks, typically side-by-
side, before passing on to the clarifier (also called plug flow).
core sampler A long, slender pole with a foot valve at the bottom end that allows the
depth of the sludge blanket to be measured (also called sludge judge).
cross junction X or T type coupling for connecting pipes of the same or different size
in straight angle
DDS disc diffuser system
declining growth phase Period of time between the log-growth phase and endogenous phase,
where the amount of food is in short supply, leading to ever-slowing
bacterial growth rates.
denitrifcation The anaerobic biological reduction of nitrate nitrogen to nitrogen gas.
Also, removal of total nitrogen from a system (see also nitrification).
depth of blanket (DOB) The level of sludge, typically measured in metres (feet), in the bottom
of the clarifier (see also sludge blanket).
design flow Engineering guidelines that typically specify the amount of influent
flow that can be expected on a daily basis over the course of a year.
Other design flows can be set for monthly and peak flows.
detention time The period of time a waste water flow is retained in a basin for storage
or completion of physical, chemical, or biological reaction (see also
contact time).
Diffuser aeration device forming air into small bubbles, used for fine bubble
bottom aeration systems
dissolved oxygen (DO) The oxygen dissolved in waste water, usually expressed in milligrams
per litre, or percent of saturation.
dissolved solids Solids in solution that cannot be removed by filtration; for example,
NaCI and other salts that must be determined by evaporation (see
also total dissolved solids).
distribution header air distribution pipe from main header to dropleg pipes
drainage connection, junction Part(s) in water collection pipe for connecting purge hose (pipe)
drainage coupling A coupling for condensate purge hose (pipe) in water drainage
connection
dropleg, dropleg pipe a pipe connecting zone header of an aeration group and distribution
header (a pipe coming from blower)
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dynamic equilibrium See population dynamics.
effluent Waste water partially or completely treated, flowing out of a basin,
treatment plant, or industrial treatment plant.
effluent quality The physical, biological, and chemical characteristics of waste water
or other liquid flowing out of a basin, pipe, or treatment plant.
effluent standard Specification of the allowable concentration or mass of a constituent
that may be discharged.
effluent stream A stream of treated waste water.
element, diffuser element a pipe (of max. 5 m length) with assembled diffusers mounted on
endogenous phase See endogenous respiration.
endogenous respiration The internal digestion of stored food within the organism occurring
when the external food sources are limited.
EPDM elastomer material used in membrane diffusers, ethylene-propylene-
diene
excess sludge The sludge produced in an activated sludge treatment process, or any
other process that requires sludge recirculation, that is not needed to
maintain the process and is withdrawn from circulation (also called
waste sludge or waste activated sludge WAS).
extended aeration A modification of the activated sludge process that provides for
aerobic sludge digestion within the aeration system. The process
includes the stabilisation of organic matter under aerobic conditions.
Effluent contains finely divided suspended matter and soluble matter.
extended aeration process A modification of the activated sludge process using long aeration
periods to promote aerobic digestion of the biological mass by
endogenous respiration.
facultative The ability of an organism to live in aerobic or anaerobic conditions.
filamentous growth Intertwined, threadlike biological growths, characteristic of some
species of bacteria, fungi, and algae. Such growths reduce sludge
settleability and dewaterability.
filamentous organisms Bacterial, fungal, and algal species that grow in thread-like colonies,
resulting in a biological mass that will not settle and may interfere with
drainage through a filter.
filamentous sludge Activated sludge characterised by excessive growth of filamentous
bacteria, resulting in poor sludge settling.
flange drilled plate for joining pipes, e.g. dropleg and zone header
floc Collections of smaller particles agglomerated into larger, more easily
settleable particles through chemical, physical, or biological treatment
(see also flocculation).
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flocculation In water and waste water treatment, the agglomeration of colloidal and
finely divided suspended matter after coagulation by gentle
mechanical or hydraulic stirring. In biological waste water treatment
where coagulation is not used, agglomeration may be accomplished
biologically.
flow The movement of water or other fluids from place to place.
flow rate Q Volume of liquid that passes through a cross-section of conduit in a
given time; measured in such units as kg/h, m
3
/s, l/d or gallons per
day.
flow recording Documentation of the quantity of rate of flow.
food to micro-organism ratio
FM
In the activated sludge process, the loading rate expressed as kg
BOD
5
/ kg mixed liquor or mixed liquor volatile suspended solids /d.
foot part of bottom mounting bracket, fixed on tank bottom
free-swimming ciliates Mobile, one-celled organisms using cilia (hairlike projections) for
movement.
fungi Small non-chlorophyll-bearing plants lacking roots, stems, or leaves.
Fungi occur in, among other places, water, waste water, or waste
water effluents and grow best in the absence of light.
header (pipe) diffuser row consisting of diffuser elements where diffusers are
mounted, connected to zone header
high-purity oxygen A modification of the activated sludge process using relatively pure
oxygen and covered aeration basins in conventional flow
arrangement.
high-rate aeration A modification of the activated sludge process whereby the mixed
liquor suspended solids loadings are kept high, allowing high food to
micro-organism FM ratios and shorter detention times.
holder pipe support, part of TPK bottom mounting bracket, syn. clamp
hydraulic loading Waste water amount applied to treatment process, usually expressed
as volume / unit time, or volume / unit time / unit surface area.
hydraulic retention time a ratio: total aeration basin volume / influent flow (m
3
/h)
influent Waste water flowing into a basin, treatment plant, or treatment
process (see antonym effluent).
inorganic compounds All those combinations of elements that do not include organic carbon.
inorganic matter Mineral-type compounds that are generally nonvolatile,
noncombustible, and nonbiodegradable. Most inorganictype
compounds, or reactions, are ionic in nature; therefore, rapid reactions
are characteristic.
Kjeldahl nitrogen test A standard analytical method used to determine the concentration of
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organically bound ammonia nitrogen state.
K
L
a Overall mass transfer coefficient of aeration system (of oxygen)
layout drawing of the placement of diffusers/aeration groups in basin bottom
log growth phase The initial stage of bacterial growth, during which there is a plentiful
supply of food, causing bacteria to grow at the maximum rate.
main body a saddle like part of diffuser for fixing diffuser to a header pipe;
diffuser disc is fixed to main body
main header air distribution pipe from the blower(s)
maximum flow The greatest volume of influent to a treatment plant within a given
time period (see peak flow).
mean cell residence time
MCRT
Average time a given unit of cell mass stays in the activated sludge
aeration tank. Mean cell residence time is typically calculated as ratio
of total mixed liquor suspended solids in aeration tank to that of waste
water.
mean flow The arithmetic average of the discharge at a given point or station on
the line of flow for some specified period of time (see design flow).
mechanical aeration (1) The mixing, by mechanical means, of wastewater and activated
sludge in the aeration tank of the activated sludge process to bring
fresh surfaces of liquid into contact with the atmosphere. (2) The
introduction of atmospheric oxygen into a liquid by the mechanical
action of a paddle, paddle wheel, spray, or turbine mechanism.
mechanical aerator A mechanical device used for introducing atmospheric oxygen into a
liquid (see also mechanical aeration).
membrane diffuser diffuser of elastic (rubber) disc or tube used as a bubble forming
device
metazoa Group of animals having bodies composed of cells differentiated into
tissues and organs and usually a digestive cavity lined with
specialised cells.
micro-organisms Microscopic organisms, either plant or animal, that are invisible or
barely visible to the naked eye. Examples are algae, bacteria,
fungi/protozoa, and viruses.
microbial activity The activities of micro-organisms resulting in chemical or physical
changes.
microbiology The study of microscopic organisms of living matter and their
processes.
microscopic examination (1) The examination of wastewater to determine the presence and
amount of plant and animal life such as bacteria, algae, and protozoa.
(2) The examination of wastewater to determine the presence of
microscopic solids. (3) The examination of microbiota in process
water, such as the mixed liquor in an activated sludge plant.
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minimum flow (1) Flow occurring in a stream during the driest period of the year
(also called low flow). a) The lowest quantity of influent to a treatment
plant or within a sewer within a given time period (see antonym peak
flow).
mixed liquor Mixture of raw or settled waste water and the activated sludge
process.
mixed liquor suspended
solids MLSS
The concentration of suspended solids in activated sludge mixed
liquor, expressed in milligrams per litre.
mixed liquor volatile
suspended solids MLVSS
That fraction of suspended solids in activated sludge mixed liquor that
can be driven off by combustion at 550 C (1022 F); indicates the
concentration of active micro-organisms available for biological
oxidation.
moving average A tool used in trend analysis for determining patterns or changes in
treatment processes. For example, a 7-day moving average would be
the sum of the datum points for 7 days divided by 7.
National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System permit
NPDES, Permit that is the basis for the monthly monitoring reports
required by most states in the U.S.
nematodes Any of a phylum (Nematoda) of elongated cylindrical worms parasitic
in animals or plants or free-living in soil or water.
nitrate An oxygenated form of nitrogen, typically written NO
3
(see nitrogen).
nitrification The oxidation of ammonia nitrogen to nitrate nitrogen in wastewater
by biological or chemical reactions (see also denitrification).
nitrite An intermediate oxygenated form of nitrogen typically written (NO
2
).
nitrogen An essential nutrient often present in waste water as ammonia, nitrate,
nitrite, and organic nitrogen. The concentrations of each form and the
sum, total nitrogen, are expressed as milligrams per litre elemental
nitrogen. Nitrogen is also present in some ground water as nitrate and
in some polluted ground water in other forms.
NOPOL

registered trademark of the NOPOL

DDS and NOPOL

O.K.I.
Aeration Systems (use capital letters)
NOPOL

CLEAN a method for cleaning diffusers during operation by spraying formic


acid (HCOOH) into the aeration air
NOPOL

O.K.I. submersible aerator mixer


organic Volatile, combustible, and sometimes biodegradable chemical
compounds containing carbon atoms (carbonaceous) bonded together
and with other elements. The principal groups of organic substances
found in waste water are proteins, carbohydrates, and fats and oils
(see antonyms inorganic compounds aunt inorganic matter).
organic loading The amount of organic material, typically measured as BOD
5
, applied
to a given treatment process; expressed as weight per unit time per
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unit surface area or unit weight.
organic matter Chemical substances of animal or vegetable origin or, more correctly,
containing carbon and hydrogen.
overflow rate The settling velocity of particles removed in an ideal basin if they
enter at the surface; one of the criteria for the design of settling tanks
in treatment plants. Overflow rate is expressed as volume of flow per
unit water surface area of the tank (see also surface overflow rate).
oxidation ditch A secondary waste water treatment facility that uses an oval channel
with a rotor placed across it to provide aeration and circulation. The
screened waste water in the ditch is aerated by the rotor and
circulated at about 0.3 to 0.6 m/s (I to 2 ft/sec) (see also secondary
treatment).
oxygen demand The quantity of oxygen used in the oxidation of substances in a
specified time, at a specified temperature, and under specified
conditions.
oxygen uptake rate OUR The oxygen used during biochemical oxidation, typically expressed as
milligrams O
2
per litre per hour in the activated sludge process.
peak flow The maximum rate of influent flow a treatment plant expects to
receive during a specified time period (for example, peak hourly, peak
daily, peak monthly).
PEHD high density polyethylene, used in sintered diffuser discs
pH A measure of the hydrogen-ion concentration in a solution. On the pH
scale (0 to 14), a value of 7 at 25 C (77 F) represents a neutral
condition. Decreasing values, below 7, indicate an increasing
hydrogen-ion concentration (acidity); increasing values, above 7,
indicate a decreasing hydrogen-ion concentration (alkalinity).
pin floc Small floc particles that settle poorly.
plug flow See conventional aeration.
population dynamics The ever-changing numbers of microscopic organisms within the
activated sludge process (also called dynamic equilibrium).
positive displacement pump A type of pump in which the water is induced to flow from the source
of supply through an inlet pipe and inlet valve. Water is brought into
the pump chamber by a vacuum created by the withdrawal of a piston
or pistonlike device which, on its return, displaces a certain volume of
the water contained in the chamber and forces it to flow through the
discharge valves and discharge pipes.
primary effluent The liquid portion of waste water leaving primary treatment.
primary sludge Sludge obtained from a primary settling tank.
primary treatment (1) The first major treatment in a waste water treatment facility,
usually sedimentation but not biological oxidation. (2) The removal of
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a substantial amount of suspended matter but little or no colloidal and
dissolved matter. (3) Waste water treatment processes usually
consisting of clarification with or without chemical treatment to
accomplish solids-liquid separation.
protozoa Small animals, including amoebae, ciliates, and flagellants
publicly owned treatment
works POTW
In general, another name for waste water treatment plants.
Purge hose, purge pipe hose or pipe for conducting condense water out of water drainage
pipe, to be fixed to a drainage coupling
raw influent Waste water before it receives any treatment.
receiving water A river, lake, ocean, or other watercourse to which waste water or
treated effluent is discharged
respiration The intake of oxygen and discharge of carbon dioxide during the
process of bacterial decomposition of organic materials
respiration rate See specific oxygen uptake rate SOUR
return sludge Biomass produced in the activated sludge process that is recycled to
the head of the process to promote more complete biological
oxidation (also called return activated sludge RAS).
rotifers Minute, multicelled aquatic animals possessing a circular set or sets of
ciliate resembling wheels
Sarcodina Species of amoebae found in waste water
screw-on ring ring shape part for fixing diffuser disc to main body of diffuser,
threaded or bayonet type
secchi disk A visual inspection tool to measure the clarity or turbidity of the
effluent
secondary effluent (1) The liquid portion of waste water leaving secondary treatment (2)
An effluent that contains not more than 30 mg/l each of BOD
5
and
suspended solids.
secondary treatment (1) Typically, a level of treatment that produces removal efficiencies
of 85 % for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids
(2) Sometimes used interchangeably with the concept of biological
waste water treatment, particularly activated sludge process. This
term is commonly applied to treatment that consists of clarification
followed by a biological process, with separate sludge collection and
handling.
septic See anaerobic
settleability test Determination of the settleability of solids in suspension by measuring
the volume of solids settled out of a measured sample over a
specified interval of time; typically reported in ml/l (see settleometer).
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settleometer A 2-litre or larger beaker used to conduct the settleability test
sludge (1) Accumulated solids separated from waste water during processing.
(2) The removed material resulting from flocculation, sedimentation,
and/or biological oxidation of waste water (see also activated sludge).
sludge age A ratio: excess sludge / total MLSS, the average residence time of
suspended solids in a biological waste treatment system, equal to the
total weight of suspended solids in the system divided by the total
weight of suspended solids leaving the system per unit of time
(typically per day)
sludge blanket Accumulation of sludge hydrodynamically suspended within an
enclosed body of waste water (see depth of blanket)
sludge judge See core sampler
sludge load a ratio: total BOD load (kg/d) / total MLSS
sludge return ratio a ratio: volumetric return sludge flow / influent flow; expressed in %
sludge solids Dissolved and suspended solids in sludge
sludge volume index SVI The ratio of the volume in millilitres (cubic inches) of sludge settled
from a 1000 ml (60 cu in.) sample in 30 minutes to the concentration
of mixed liquor in milligrams per litre multiplied by 1000.
solids In waste water treatment, any dissolved, suspended, or volatile
substance contained in or removed from waste water.
solids inventory The amount of sludge in the treatment system typically expressed in
kilograms (tons). The inventory of plant solids can be tracked through
use of a mass balance set of calculations.
solids loading Amount of solids applied to a treatment process per unit time per unit
volume
solids retention time SRT The average time of retention of suspended solids in a biological
waste treatment system, equal to the total weight of suspended solids
leaving the system per unit of time (typically per day).
SOTE Standard Oxygen Transfer Efficiency (%), amount of oxygen
dissolved into water per total amount of oxygen in the air fed into the
system
SOTR Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate, oxygenation capacity in clean water
in standard conditions
specific oxygen uptake rate
SOUR
Measures the microbial activity in the biological system. It is typically
expressed as milligrams O
2
per hour per gram of volatile suspended
solids (VSS) (also called respiration rate).
spin test See centrifuge
stabilisation A process used to equalise waste water flow composition before
regulated discharge
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stalked ciliates Small, one-celled organisms possessing cilia (hairlike projections used
for feeding) but that are not mobile.
step feed A procedure for adding increments of settled waste water along the
line of flow in the aeration tanks of an activated sludge plant (also
called step feed aeration).
straggler floc Large (6 mm [0.25 in.] or larger) floc particles that have poor settling
characteristics
submersion depth water depth minus diffuser level from basin bottom
suctoreans Ciliates that are stalked in the adult stage and have rigid tentacles to
catch prey.
supernatant The liquid remaining above a sediment or precipitate after
sedimentation
surface overflow rate Design criterion used in sizing clarifiers, typically expressed as
volume of flow per unit amount of clarifier surface area (m
3
/m
2
d,
gpd/sq It).
suspended solids SS (1) Insoluble solids that either float on the surface of, or are in
suspension in, water, waste water, or other liquids. (2) Solid organic or
inorganic particles (colloidal, dispersed, coagulated, flocculated)
physically held in suspension by agitation or flow.
temperature (1) Thermal state of a substance with respect to its ability to transmit
heat to its environment. a) The measure of the thermal state on some
arbitrarily chosen numerical scale such as Celsius or Fahrenheit.
tertiary treatment The treatment of waste water beyond the secondary or biological
stage. Tertiary treatment normally implies the removal of nutrients,
such as phosphorus and nitrogen, and of a high percentage of
suspended solids (see also advanced waste treatment).
total carbon TC A quantitative measure of both total inorganic (TIC) carbon and total
organic (TOC) carbon, in milligrams per litre, in water or waste water,
as determined instrumentally by chemical oxidation to CO
2
, and
subsequent infrared detection in a carbon analyser.
total dissolved solids TDS The sum of all dissolved solids (volatile and non-volatile) in waste
water.
total organic carbon TOC The amount of carbon bound in organic compounds in a sample.
Because all organic compounds have carbon as the common
element, total organic carbon measurements provide a fundamental
means of assessing the degree of organic pollution.
total oxygen demand TOD A quantitative measure of all oxidisable material in a sample of waste
water as determined instrumentally by measuring the depletion of
oxygen after high-temperature combustion.
total solids TS The sum of dissolved and suspended solids in waste water.
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total suspended solids TSS The amount of insoluble solids floating and in suspension in the waste
water. It is referred to as total nonfilterable residue.
toxicity The adverse effect on living organisms by some agent (for example,
heavy metals or pesticides)
trace nutrients Substances vital to bacterial growth. Trace nutrients are defined in
this text as nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron.
trend analysis The use of data and statistical tools to study patterns and changes in
waste water treatment processes. Computer software programs aid in
the speed and scope of this type of analysis.
tube diffuser tube, cylindrical shape diffuser
turbidity (1) A condition in water or waste water caused by the presence of
suspended matter, resulting in the scattering and absorption of light.
a) Any suspended solids imparting a visible haze or cloudiness to
water, which can be removed by filtration. (3) Analytical quantity
determined by measurements of light scattering and typically reported
in turbidity units (Formazin turbidity units (FTU) or Jackson turbidity
units (JTU)).
ultimate biochemical oxygen
demand BOD
U
(1) Commonly, the total quantity of oxygen required to satisfy
completely the first-stage biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). (2)
More strictly, the quantity of oxygen required to satisfy completely
both the first- and second-stage BODs.
uPVC unplastised polyvinyl chloride
virus The smallest lifeform capable of producing infection and disease in
humans or other large species.
volatile solids VS Material, generally organic, that can be removed from a sample by
heating, typically to 550 C (1022 F); non-volatile inorganic solids
(ash) remain.
volatile suspended solids
VSS
That fraction of suspended solids, including organic matter and
volatile inorganic salts, that will ignite and burn when placed in an
electric muffle furnace at 550 C (1022 F) for 60 minutes.
volumetric load a ratio: BOD load (kg/d) / total aerated volume
volumetric loading The amount of flow applied to a treatment process per unit time per
unit volume of the basin or clarifier.
waste sludge Biological sludge that is drawn off to be conditioned for ultimate
disposal (also called waste activated sludge WAS; see also excess
sludge and return sludge).
water collection pipe a pipe in the end of the diffuser rows connecting these and forming a
closed loop pipe work
wedge piece part for fixing diffuser main body mechanically to pipe
Nopon Oy Aeration manual Document level 4 Date:07.04.1998
10 Glossary Page: 10.17 (18)
Revision: 1 Written by: MR Inspected by: Accepted by:
weir (1) Diversion dam (2) Device that has a crest and some side
containment of known geometric shape, such as a V, trapezoid, or
rectangle, and is used to measure flow of liquid. Liquid surface is
exposed to the atmosphere. Flow is related to upstream height of
water above the crest, position of crest with respect to downstream
water surface, and geometry of the weir opening.
weir overflow rate The amount of flow applied to a treatment process (typically a
clarifier) per linear measure of weir (m
3
/m d).
washout Condition whereby excessive influent flows (typically at peak flow
conditions) cause solids in aeration basin and / or clarifier to be
carried over into downstream processes or discharged to receiving
stream.
zone header the pipe with branches for connecting diffuser elements (rows) and
one flange to connect dropleg pipe
10.3 Conversion Factors
To convert, multiply in direction shown by arrows
U.S. units SI units
acre(mgal/d) 0.1069 9.3536 ha/(10
3
m
3
/d)
Btu 1.0551 0.9478 kJ
Btu/lb 2.3241 0.4303 kJ/kg
Btu/ft
2
. F
o
.h
5.6735 0.1763
W/m
2
. C
o
bu/acre-yr 2.4711 0.4047 bu/ha.yr
ft/h 0.3048 3.2808 m/h
ft/min 18.2880 0.0547 m/h
ft
2
/capita 0.0929 10.7639 m
2
/capita
ft
3
/capita 0.0283 35.3147 m
3
/capita
ft
3
gal 7.4805 0.1337 m
3
/m
3
ft
3
/ft.min 0.0929 10.7639 m
3
/m.min
ft
3
/lb 0.0624 16.0185 m
3
/kg
ft
3
/Mgal 7.04805x10
-3
133.6805 m
3
/10
3
m
3
ft
2
/Mgal.d 407.4611 0.0025 m
2
/10
3
m
3
.d
ft
3
/ft
2
.h 0.3048 3.2808 m
3
/m
2
.h
ft
3
/10
3
gal.min 7.04805x10
-3
133.6805 m
3
/m
3
ft
3
/min 1.6990 0.5886 m
3
/h
ft
3
/s 2.8317x10
-2
35.3145 m
3
s
ft
3
/10
3
ft
3
.min 0.001 1.000.0 m
3
/m
3
.min
gal 3.7854 0.2642 L
gal/acre.d 0.0094 106.9064 m
3
/ha.d
Nopon Oy Aeration manual Document level 4 Date:07.04.1998
10 Glossary Page: 10.18 (18)
Revision: 1 Written by: MR Inspected by: Accepted by:
gal/ft.d 0.0124 80.5196 m
3
/m.d
gal/ft
2
.d 0.0407 24.5424 m
3
/m
2
.d
gal/ft
2
.d 0.0017 589.0173 m
3
/m
2
.h
gal/ft
2
.d 0.0283 35.3420 L/m
2
.min
gal/ft
2
.d 40.7458 2.4542x10
-2
L/m
2
.min
gal/ft
2
.min 2.4448 0.4090 m/h
gal/ft
2
.min 40.7458 0.0245 L/m
2
.min
gal/ft
2
.min 58.6740 0.0170 m
3
/m
2
.d
gal/min.ft 12.4193 8.052x10
-2
L/min.m
hp/10
3
gal 0.1970 5.0763 kW/m
3
hp/10
3
ft
3
26.3342 0.0380 kW/10
3
m
3
in 25.4 3.9370x10
-2
mm
in Hg(60F) 3.3768 0.2961 kPaHg(60F)
lb 0.4536 2.2046 kg
lb/acre 1.1209 0.8922 kg/ha
lb/10
3
gal0.1198 0.1198 8.3452 kg/m
3
lb/hp.h 0.6083 1.6440 kg/kw.h
lb/Mgal 0.1198 8.3454 g/m
3
lb/Mgal 1.1963x10
-4
8345.4 kg/m
3
lb/ft
2
4.8824 0.2048 kg/m
2
lb/in
2
(gage) 6.8948 0.1450 kPa(gage)
lb/ft
3
.h 16.0185 0.0624 kg/m
3
.h
lb/10
3
ft
3
.d 0.0160 62.4280 kg/m
3
.d
lb/ton 0.5000 2.0000 kg/tone
Mgalacre.d 0.9354 1.0691 m
3
/m
2
.d
Mgal/d 3.7854x10
3
0.264x10
-3
m
3
/d
Mgal/d 4.3813x10
3
22.8245 m
3
/s
min/in 3.9370 0.2540 min/10
2
mm
tons/acre 2.2417 0.4461 Mg/ha
yd
3
0.7646 1.3079 m
3