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PEOPLE OF THE PHIL. vs. LUA CHU, ET AL.

EN BANC
[G.R. No. 34917. September 7, 1931.] THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, plaintiff-appellee, vs. LUA CHU and UY SE TIENG, defendants-appellants. Gibbs & McDonough, Gullas, Lopez & Tuao, H. Alo and Manuel C. !iones for appellants. Atto!ne"-Gene!al #a!anilla for appellee. SYLLABUS 1. !!EGA! "#$R%A% $N $& $# '"( #RE%EN)E) AC*' ESCENCE $& SECRE% SER+ CE C, E&, N$ $BS%AC!E %$ #R$SEC'% $N $& C'!#R %S. - %.e mere fa/t t.at t.e /.0ef of t.e /1stoms se/ret ser20/e pretended to a3ree to a plan for sm133l0n3 0lle3all4 0mported op01m t.ro13. t.e /1stom.o1se, 0n order t.e better to ass1re t.e se051re of sa0d op01m and t.e arrest of 0ts 0mporters, 0s no bar to t.e prose/1t0on and /on20/t0on of t.e latter.

DECISION

VILLA-REAL, # 6
p

%.e defendants !1a C.1 and '4 Se %0en3 appeal from t.e 71d3ment of t.e Co1rt of &0rst nstan/e of Ceb1 /on20/t0n3 t.em of t.e 0lle3al 0mportat0on of op01m, and senten/0n3 t.em ea/. to fo1r 4ears8 0mpr0sonment a f0ne of #19,999, :0t. s1bs0d0ar4 0mpr0sonment 0n /ase of 0nsol2en/4 not to e;/eed one<t.0rd of t.e pr0n/0pal penalt4, and to pa4 proport0onal /osts. n s1pport of t.e0r appeal, t.e appellants ass03n t.e follo:0n3 alle3ed errors as /omm0tted b4 t.e /o1rt belo: 0n 0ts 71d3ment, to :0t6
=%.e lo:er /o1rt erred6

=1. n ref1s0n3 to /ompel t.e ,on. Se/retar4 of &0nan/e or t.e ns1lar Colle/tor of C1stoms to e;.0b0t 0n /o1rt t.e re/ord of t.e adm0n0strat02e 0n2est03at0on a3a0nst >oa?10n Nat020dad, /olle/tor of /1stoms of Ceb1, and >1an Samson, s1per20s0n3 /1stoms se/ret ser20/e a3ent of Ceb1, bot. of :.om .a2e s0n/e been d0sm0ssed from ser20/e. =@. n .old0n3 0t as a fa/t t.at $no do1bt man4 t0mes op01m /ons03nments .a2e passed t.r1 t.e /1stom.o1se :0t.o1t t.e Ano:led3e of t.e /1stoms se/ret ser20/e.8 =3. n re7e/t0n3 t.e defendants8 t.eor4 t.at t.e sa0d >1an Samson 0n deno1n/0n3 t.e a//1sed :as a/t1ated b4 a des0re to prote/t .0mself and to 0n71re e;</olle/tor >oa?10n Nat020dad, .0s b0tter enem4, :.o :as partl4 0nstr1mental 0n t.e d0sm0ssal of Samson from t.e ser20/e. =4. n f0nd0n3 t.at t.e /ond1/t of >1an Samson, d0sm0ssed /.0ef /1stoms se/ret ser20/e a3ent of Ceb1, 0s abo2e reproa/. and 1tterl4 0rre/on/0lable :0t. t.e /orr1pt mot02es attr0b1ted to .0m b4 t.e a//1sed. =B. n perm0tt0n3 >1an Samson, prose/1t0on star :0tness, to rema0n 0n t.e /o1rt room :.0le ot.er prose/1t0on :0tnesses :ere test0f40n3, desp0te t.e pre20o1s order of t.e /o1rt e;/l1d0n3 t.e Go2ernment :0tnesses from t.e /o1rt room, and 0n ref1s0n3 to allo: t.e defense to 0n?10re from ns1lar Colle/tor of C1stoms Aldanese re3ard0n3 t.e off0/0al /ond1/t of >1an Samson as s1per20s0n3 /1stoms se/ret ser20/e a3ent of Ceb1. =C. n 3020n3 f1ll /red0t to t.e test0mon4 of sa0d >1an Samson. =7. n ref1s0n3 to .old t.at >1an Samson 0nd1/ed t.e defendant '4 Se %0en3 to order t.e op01m from ,on3Aon3. =D. n a//ept0n3 E;.0b0ts E and E<1 as t.e tr1e and /orre/t trans/r0pt of t.e /on2ersat0on bet:een >1an Samson and t.e appellant '4 Se %0en3. =9. n a//ept0n3 E;.0b0t & as t.e tr1e and /orre/t trans/r0pt of t.e /on2ersat0on bet:een >1an Samson and t.e appellant !1a C.1. =19. n f0nd0n3 ea/. of t.e appellants '4 Se %0en3 and !1a C.1 310lt4 of t.e /r0me of 0lle3al 0mportat0on of op01m, and 0n senten/0n3 ea/. to s1ffer fo1r 4ears8 0mpr0sonment and to pa4 a f0ne of #19,999 and t.e /osts, desp0te t.e pres1mpt0on of 0nno/en/e :.0/. .as not been o2er/ome, desp0te t.e 1nla:f1l 0nd1/ement, desp0te t.e 0n.erent :eaAness of t.e e20den/e presented b4 t.e prose/1t0on, emanat0n3 from a sp0r0t of re2en3e and from a /ontam0nated, poll1ted so1r/e.=

%.e follo:0n3 are 1n/ontrad0/ted fa/ts pro2ed be4ond a reasonable do1bt at t.e tr0al6 Abo1t t.e m0ddle of t.e mont. of No2ember, 19@9, t.e a//1sed '4 Se %0en3 :rote to .0s /orrespondent 0n ,on3Aon3 to send .0m a s.0pment of op01m. Abo1t No2ember 4, 19@9, after t.e /.0ef of t.e /1stoms se/ret ser20/e of Ceb1, >1an Samson, .ad ret1rned from a 2a/at0on 0n E1rope, .e /alled 1pon t.e t.en /olle/tor of /1stoms for t.e #ort of Ceb1, >oa?10n Nat020dad, at .0s off0/e, and t.e latter, after a s.ort /on2ersat0on, asAed .0m .o: m1/. .0s tr0p .ad /ost .0m. E.en t.e /.0ef of t.e se/ret ser20/e told .0m .e .ad spent #@,B99, t.e sa0d /olle/tor of /1stoms tooA from a dra:er 0n .0s table, t.e amo1nt of #399, 0n paper mone4, and .anded 0t to .0m, sa40n36 =%.0s 0s for 4o1, and a s.0pment :0ll arr02e s.ortl4, and 4o1 :0ll soon be able to re/o1p 4o1r tra2ell0n3 e;penses.= >1an Samson tooA t.e mone4, left, and p1t 0t 0nto t.e safe 0n .0s off0/e to be Aept 1nt0l .e del02ered 0t to t.e pro20n/0al treas1rer of Ceb1. A :eeA later, Nat020dad /alled Samson and told .0m t.at t.e s.0pment .e .ad referred to /ons0sted of op01m, t.at 0t :as abo1t to arr02e, and t.at t.e o:ner :o1ld 3o to Samson8s .o1se to see .0m. %.at 2er4 n03.t '4 Se %0en3 :ent to Samson8s .o1se and told .0m .e .ad /ome b4 order of Nat020dad to talA to .0m abo1t t.e op01m. %.e sa0d a//1sed 0nformed Samson t.at t.e op01m s.0pment /ons0sted of 3,999 t0ns, and t.at .e .ad a3reed to pa4 Nat020dad #C,999 or #@ a t0n, and t.at t.e op01m .ad been 0n ,on3Aon3 s0n/e t.e be30nn0n3 of $/tober a:a0t0n3 a s.0p t.at :o1ld 3o d0re/t to Ceb1. At abo1t C o8/lo/A 0n t.e afternoon of No2ember @@, 19@9, one Nam %a0 loaded on t.e steams.0p %ola&bugan, :.0/. t.e 'a(ie!a )ilipina - a s.0pp0n3 /ompan4 0n Ceb1 .ad .ad b10lt 0n ,on3Aon3, 3D /ases /ons03ned to '4 Se.en3 and marAed ='. !. ,.= Abo1t t.e same date Nat020dad 0nformed Samson t.at t.e op01m .ad alread4 been p1t on board t.e steams.0p Folamb13an, and 0t :as a3reed bet:een t.em t.at Samson :o1ld re/e02e #@,999, Nat020dad #@,999, and t.e rema0n0n3 #@,999 :o1ld be d0str0b1ted amon3 /erta0n emplo4ees 0n t.e /1stom.o1se. "ean:.0le, '4 Se %0en3 /ont0n1ed .0s 0nter20e:s :0t. Samson. %o:ards t.e end of No2ember, Nat020dad 0nformed t.e latter t.at t.e %ola&bugan .ad ret1rned to ,on3Aon3 on a//o1nt of /erta0n en30ne tro1ble, and rema0ned t.ere 1nt0l )e/ember 7t.. n 20e: of t.0s, t.e s.0pper se2eral t0mes attempted to 1nload t.e s.0pment, b1t .e :as told ea/. t0me b4 t.e /apta0n, :.o needed t.e /ar3o for ballast, t.at t.e s.0p :as abo1t to sa0l, and t.e 39 /ases rema0ned on board. %.e %ola&bugan arr02ed at Ceb1 on t.e morn0n3 of )e/ember 14, 19@9. E.0le .e :as e;am0n0n3 t.e man0fests, Samson deta0led one of .0s men to :at/. t.e s.0p. After /onferr0n3 :0t. Nat020dad, t.e latter 0nstr1/ted .0m to do e2er4t.0n3 poss0ble to .a2e t.e /ar3o 1nloaded, and to re?10re '4 Se %0en3 to pa4 o2er t.e

#C,999. $n t.e morn0n3 of No2ember 1C, 19@9, Nat020dad told Samson t.at '4 Se %0en3 alread4 .ad t.e papers read4 to :0t.dra: t.e /ases marAed ='. !. ,.= from t.e /1stom.o1se. Samson t.en told Nat020dad 0t :o1ld be better for '4 Se %0en3 to 3o to .0s .o1se to .a2e a talA :0t. .0m. '4 Se %0en3 :ent to Samson8s .o1se t.at n03.t and :as told t.at .e m1st pa4 o2er t.e #C,999 before taA0n3 t.e op01m o1t of t.e /1stom.o1se. '4 Se %0en3 s.o:ed Samson t.e b0ll of lad0n3 and on lea20n3 sa0d6 = :0ll tell t.e o:ner, and see :.et.er :e /an taAe t.e mone4 to 4o1 tomorro:.= %.e follo:0n3 da4 Samson 0nformed Colonel &ran/0s/o of t.e Constab1lar4, of all t.at .ad taAen pla/e, and t.e sa0d /olonel 0nstr1/ted t.e pro20n/0al /ommander, Capta0n B1en/onse7o, to d0s/1ss t.e /apt1re of t.e op01m o:ners :0t. Samson. B1en/onse7o and Samson a3reed to meet at t.e latter8s .o1se t.at same n03.t. %.at afternoon Samson :ent to t.e off0/e of t.e pro20n/0al f0s/al, reported t.e /ase to t.e f0s/al, and asAed for a steno3rap.er to taAe do:n t.e /on2ersat0on .e :o1ld .a2e :0t. '4 Se %0en3 t.at n03.t 0n t.e presen/e of Capta0n B1en/onse7o. As t.e f0s/al d0d not .a2e a 3ood steno3rap.er a2a0lable, Samson 3ot one >1mapao, of t.e la: f0rm of Rodr031e5 G Ha/ar0as, on t.e re/ommendat0on of t.e /o1rt steno3rap.er. $n t.e e2en0n3 of )e/ember 17, 19@9, as a3reed, Capta0n B1en/onse7o, !0e1tenant &ernando, and t.e steno3rap.er :ent to Samson8s .o1se and /on/ealed t.emsel2es be.0nd a /1rta0n made of str0ps of :ood :.0/. .1n3 from t.e :0ndo: o2erlooA0n3 t.e entran/e to t.e .o1se on t.e 3ro1nd floor. As soon as t.e a//1sed '4 Se %0en3 arr02ed, Samson asAed .0m 0f .e .ad bro13.t t.e mone4. ,e repl0ed t.at .e .ad not, sa40n3 t.at t.e o:ner of t.e op01m, :.o :as !1a C.1, :as afra0d of .0m. Samson t.en told .0m to tell !1a C.1 not to be afra0d, and t.at .e m03.t /ome to Samson8s .o1se. After po0nt0n3 o1t to '4 Se %0en3 a ba/A door entran/e 0nto t.e 3arden, .e asAed .0m :.ere t.e op01m :as, and '4 Se %0en3 ans:ered t.at 3,@B@ t0ns. '4 Se %0en3 ret1rned at abo1t 19 o8/lo/A t.at n03.t a//ompan0ed b4 .0s /odefendant !1a C.1, :.o sa0d .e :as not t.e sole o:ner of t.e op01m, b1t t.at a man from "an0la, named %an, and anot.er 0n Amo4 :ere also o:ners. Samson t.en asAed !1a C.1 :.en .e :as 3o0n3 to 3et t.e op01m, and t.e latter ans:ered t.at '4 Se %0en3 :o1ld taAe /.ar3e of t.at. $n be0n3 asAed 0f .e .ad bro13.t t.e #C,999, !1a C.1 ans:ered, no, b1t prom0sed to del02er 0t :.en t.e op01m :as 0n '4 Se %0en38s :are.o1se. After t.0s /on2ersat0on, :.0/. :as taAen do:n 0n s.ort.and, Samson tooA t.e a//1sed !1a C.1 as0de and asAed .0m6 = sa4, old fello:, :.4 d0dn8t 4o1 tell me abo1t t.0s before br0n30n3 t.e op01m .ereI= !1a C.1 ans:ered6 = mposs0ble, s0r( 4o1 :ere not .ere, 4o1 :ere 0n Spa0n on 2a/at0on.= $n be0n3 asAed b4 Samson .o: .e .ad /ome to br0n3 0n t.e op01m, !1a C.1 ans:ered6 = :as 0n a /o/Ap0t one S1nda4 :.en t.e /olle/tor /alled me as0de and sa0d t.ere :as 3ood b1s0ness, be/a1se op01m bro13.t a 3ood pr0/e, and .e needed mone4.= All t.0s /on2ersat0on :as o2er.eard b4 Capta0n B1en/onse7o. t :as t.en a3reed t.at '4 Se %0en3 s.o1ld taAe t.e papers :0t. .0m at 19 o8/lo/A ne;t morn0n3. At t.e appo0nted .o1r, '4 Se %0en3 and one '4 A4 arr02ed at Samson8s .o1se, and as '4 Se %0en3 :as .and0n3 /erta0n papers o2er to .0s /ompan0on, '4 A4, Capta0n B1en/onse7o, :.o .ad been .0d0n3, appeared and arrested t.e t:o C.0namen, taA0n3 t.e aforement0oned papers, :.0/. /ons0sted of b0lls of lad0n3 JE;.0b0ts B and

B<1K, and an 0n2o0/e :r0tten 0n C.0nese /.ara/ters, and relat0n3 to t.e art0/les des/r0bed 0n E;.0b0t B. After .a20n3 taAen '4 Se %0en3 and '4 A4 to t.e Constab1lar4 .ead?1arters, and not0f0ed t.e f0s/al, Capta0n B1en/onse7o and Samson :ent to !1a C.18s .ome to sear/. 0t and arrest .0m. n t.e po/Aet of a /oat .an30n3 on a :all, :.0/. !1a C.1 sa0d belon3ed to .0m, t.e4 fo1nd f02e letters :r0tten 0n C.0nese /.ara/ters relat0n3 to t.e op01m JE;.0b0ts G to FK. Capta0n B1en/onse7o and Samson also tooA !1a C.1 to t.e Constab1lar4 .ead?1arters, and t.en :ent to t.e /1stom.o1se to e;am0ne t.e /ases marAed ='. !. ,.= n t.e /ases marAed Nos. 11 to 1D, t.e4 fo1nd 3,@B@ op01m t0ns .0dden a:a4 0n a ?1ant0t4 of dr4 f0s.. %.e 2al1e of t.e op01m /onf0s/ated amo1nted to #B9,999.

n t.e afternoon of )e/ember 1D, 19@9, Capta0n B1en/onse7o approa/.ed !1a C.1 and asAed .0m to tell t.e tr1t. as to :.o :as t.e o:ner of t.e op01m. !1a C.1 ans:ered as follo:s6 =Capta0n, 0t 0s 1seless to asA me an4 ?1est0ons, for am not 3o0n3 to ans:er t.em. %.e onl4 t.0n3 :0ll sa4 0s t.at :.oe2er t.e o:ner of t.0s /ontraband ma4 be, .e 0s not s1/. a fool as to br0n3 0t 0n .ere :0t.o1t t.e Ano:led3e of t.ose -= po0nt0n3 to:ards t.e /1stom.o1se. %.e defense attempted to s.o: t.at after >1an Samson .ad obta0ned a loan of #@99 from '4 Se %0en3, .e 0nd1/ed .0m to order t.e op01m from ,on3Aon3 sa40n3 t.at 0t onl4 /ost from #@ to #3 a t0n t.ere, :.0le 0n Ceb1 0t /ost from #1D to #@9, and t.at .e /o1ld maAe a 3ood deal of mone4 b4 br0n30n3 0n a s.0pment of t.at dr13( t.at Samson told '4 Se %0en3, f1rt.ermore, t.at t.ere :o1ld be no dan3er, be/a1se .e and t.e /olle/tor of /1stoms :o1ld prote/t .0m( t.at '4 Se %0en3 :ent to see Nat020dad, :.o told .0m .e .ad no ob7e/t0on, 0f Samson a3reed( t.at '4 Se %0en3 t.en :rote to .0s /orrespondent 0n ,on3Aon3 to for:ard t.e op01m( t.at after .e .ad ordered 0t, Samson :ent to '4 Se %0en38s store, 0n t.e name of Nat020dad, and demanded t.e pa4ment of #C,999( t.at '4 Se %0en3 t.en :rote to .0s ,on3Aon3 /orrespondent /an/ell0n3 t.e order, b1t t.e latter ans:ered t.at t.e op01m .ad alread4 been loaded and t.e /apta0n of t.e %ola&bugan ref1sed to let .0m 1nload 0t( t.at :.en t.e op01m arr02ed, Samson 0ns0sted 1pon t.e pa4ment of t.e #C,999( t.at as '4 Se %0en3 d0d not .a2e t.at amo1nt, .e :ent to !1a C.1 on t.e n03.t of )e/ember 14t., and proposed t.at .e part0/0pate( t.at at f0rst !1a C.1 :as 1n:0ll0n3 to a//ept '4 Se %0en38s propos0t0on, b1t .e f0nall4 a3reed to pa4 #C,999 :.en t.e op01m .ad passed t.e /1stom.o1se( t.at !1a C.1 :ent to Samson8s .o1se on t.e n03.t of )e/ember 17t., be/a1se Samson at last a3reed to del02er t.e op01m :0t.o1t f0rst re/e020n3 t.e #C,999, pro20ded !1a C.1 personall4 prom0sed to pa4 .0m t.at amo1nt. %.e appellants maAe ten ass03nments of error as /omm0tted b4 t.e tr0al /o1rt 0n 0ts 71d3ment. Some refer to t.e ref1sal of t.e tr0al 71d3e to perm0t t.e presentat0on of /erta0n do/1mentar4 e20den/e, and to t.e e;/l1s0on of >1an Samson, t.e pr0n/0pal

:0tness for t.e Go2ernment, from t.e /o1rt room d1r0n3 t.e .ear0n3( ot.ers refer to t.e adm0ss0on of t.e alle3ed statements of t.e a//1sed taAen 0n s.ort.and( and t.e ot.ers to t.e s1ff0/0en/4 of t.e e20den/e of t.e prose/1t0on to establ0s. t.e 310lt of t.e defendants be4ond a reasonable do1bt. E0t. respe/t to t.e presentat0on of t.e re/ord of t.e adm0n0strat02e pro/eed0n3s a3a0nst >oa?10n Nat020dad, /olle/tor of /1stoms of Ceb1, and >1an Samson, s1per20s0n3 /1stoms se/ret ser20/e a3ent of Ceb1, :.o :ere d0sm0ssed from t.e ser20/e, t.e tr0al /o1rt d0d not err 0n not perm0tt0n3 0t, for, :.ate2er t.e res1lt of t.ose pro/eed0n3s, t.e4 /annot ser2e to 0mpea/. t.e :0tness >1an Samson, for 0t 0s not one of t.e means pres/r0bed 0n se/t0on 34@ of t.e Code of C020l #ro/ed1re to t.at end. E0t. re3ard to t.e tr0al 71d3e8s ref1sal to order t.e e;/l1s0on of >1an Samson, t.e pr0n/0pal :0tness of t.e Go2ernment, from t.e /o1rt room d1r0n3 t.e .ear0n3, 0t 0s :0t.0n t.e po:er of sa0d 71d3e to do so or not, and 0t does not appear t.at .e .as ab1sed .0s d0s/ret0on J1C Corp1s >1r0s, D4@K. Ne0t.er d0d t.e tr0al 71d3e err :.en .e adm0tted 0n e20den/e t.e trans/r0pt of t.e steno3rap.0/ notes of t.e defendants8 statements, s0n/e t.e4 /onta0n adm0ss0ons made b4 t.emsel2es, and t.e person :.o tooA t.em 0n s.ort.and attested at t.e tr0al t.at t.e4 :ere fa0t.f1ll4 taAen do:n. Bes0des t.e /ontents are /orroborated b4 1n0mpea/.ed :0tnesses :.o .eard t.e statements. As to :.et.er t.e probator4 fa/ts are s1ff0/0ent to establ0s. t.e fa/ts alle3ed 0n t.e 0nformat0on, :e f0nd t.at t.e test0mon4 302en b4 t.e :0tnesses for t.e prose/1t0on s.o1ld be bel0e2ed, be/a1se t.e off0/ers of t.e Constab1lar4 and t.e /.0ef of t.e /1stoms se/ret ser20/e, :.o 3a2e 0t, onl4 d0d t.e0r d1t4. As0de from t.0s, t.e defendants do not den4 t.e0r part0/0pat0on 0n t.e 0lle3al 0mportat0on of t.e op01m, t.o13. t.e a//1sed !1a C.1 pretends t.at .e :as onl4 a 31arantor to se/1re t.e pa4ment of t.e 3rat10t4 :.0/. t.e former /olle/tor of /1stoms, >oa?10n Nat020dad, .ad asAed of .0m for >1an Samson and /erta0n /1stoms emplo4ees. %.0s assert0on, .o:e2er, 0s /ontrad0/ted b4 .0s o:n statement made to >1an Samson and o2er.eard b4 Capta0n B1en/onse7o, t.at .e :as one of t.e o:ners of t.e op01m t.at .ad been 1nla:f1ll4 0mported. B1t t.e defendants8 pr0n/0pal defense 0s t.at t.e4 :ere 0nd1/ed b4 >1an Samson to 0mport t.e op01m 0n ?1est0on. >1an Samson den0es t.0s, and .0s /ond1/t 0n /onne/t0on :0t. t.e 0ntrod1/t0on of t.e pro.0b0ted dr13 0nto t.e port of Ceb1, bears .0m o1t. A p1bl0/ off0/0al :.o 0nd1/es a person to /omm0t a /r0me for p1rposes of 3a0n, does not taAe t.e steps ne/essar4 to se05e t.e 0nstr1ments of t.e /r0me and to arrest t.e offender, before .a20n3 obta0ned t.e prof0t .e .ad 0n m0nd. t 0s tr1e t.at >1an Samson smoot.ed t.e :a4 for t.e 0ntrod1/t0on of t.e pro.0b0ted dr13, b1t t.at :as after t.e a//1sed .ad alread4 planned 0ts 0mportat0on and ordered sa0d dr13,

lea20n3 onl4 0ts 0ntrod1/t0on 0nto t.e /o1ntr4 t.ro13. t.e Ceb1 /1stom.o1se to be mana3ed, and .e d0d not do so to .elp t.em /arr4 t.e0r plan to a s1//essf1l 0ss1e, b1t rat.er to ass1re t.e se051re of t.e 0mported dr13 and t.e arrest of t.e sm133lers. %.e do/tr0nes referr0n3 to t.e entrapment of offenders and 0nst03at0on to /omm0t /r0me, as la0d do:n b4 t.e /o1rts of t.e 'n0ted States, are s1mmar05ed 0n 1C Corp1s >1r0s, pa3e DD, se/t0on B7, as follo:s6
=EN%RA#"EN% AN) NS% GA% $N. - E.0le 0t .as been sa0d t.at t.e pra/t0/e of entrapp0n3 persons 0nto /r0me for t.e p1rpose of 0nst0t1t0n3 /r0m0nal prose/1t0ons 0s to be deplored, and :.0le 0nst03at0on, as d0st0n310s.ed from mere entrapment, .as often been /ondemned and .as somet0mes been .eld to pre2ent t.e a/t from be0n3 /r0m0nal or p1n0s.able, t.e 3eneral r1le 0s t.at 0t 0s no defense to t.e perpetrator of a /r0me t.at fa/0l0t0es for 0ts /omm0ss0on :ere p1rposel4 pla/ed 0n .0s :a4, or t.at t.e /r0m0nal a/t :as done at t.e $de/o4 sol0/0tat0on8 of persons seeA0n3 to e;pose t.e /r0m0nal, or t.at dete/t02es fe03n0n3 /ompl0/0t4 0n t.e a/t :ere present and apparentl4 ass0st0n3 0n 0ts /omm0ss0on. Espe/0all4 0s t.0s tr1e 0n t.at /lass of /ases :.ere t.e offense 0s one of a A0nd .ab0t1all4 /omm0tted, and t.e sol0/0tat0on merel4 f1rn0s.es e20den/e of a /o1rse of /ond1/t. "ere de/ept0on b4 t.e dete/t02e :0ll not s.0eld defendant, 0f t.e offense :as /omm0tted b4 .0m free from t.e 0nfl1en/e or t.e 0nst03at0on of t.e dete/t02e. %.e fa/t t.at an a3ent of an o:ner a/ts as a s1pposed /onfederate of a t.0ef 0s no defense to t.e latter 0n a prose/1t0on for lar/en4, pro20ded t.e or030onal des03n :as formed 0ndependentl4 of s1/. a3ent( and :.ere a person approa/.ed b4 t.e t.0ef as .0s /onfederate not0f0es t.e o:ner or t.e p1bl0/ a1t.or0t0es, and, be0n3 a1t.or05ed b4 t.em to do so, ass0sts t.e t.0ef 0n /arr40n3 o1t t.e plan, t.e lar/en4 0s ne2ert.eless /omm0tted. t 0s 3enerall4 .eld t.at 0t 0s no defense to a prose/1t0on for an 0lle3al sale of l0?1or t.at t.e p1r/.ase :as made b4 a $spotter,8 dete/t02e, or .0rded 0nformer( b1t t.ere are /ases .old0n3 t.e /ontrar4.=

As :e .a2e seen, >1an Samson ne0t.er 0nd1/ed nor 0nst03ated t.e .ere0n defendants<appellants to 0mport t.e op01m 0n ?1est0on, as t.e latter /ontend, b1t pretended to .a2e an 1nderstand0n3 :0t. t.e /olle/tor of /1stoms, >oa?10n Nat020dad - :.o .ad prom0sed t.em t.at .e :o1ld remo2e all t.e d0ff0/1lt0es 0n t.e :a4 of t.e0r enterpr0se so far as t.e /1stom.o1se :as /on/erned - not to 3a0n t.e #@,999 0ntended for .0m o1t of t.e transa/t0on, b1t 0n order t.e better to ass1re t.e se051re of t.e pro.0b0ted dr13 and t.e arrest of t.e s1rrept0t0o1s 0mporters. %.ere 0s /erta0nl4 not.0n3 0mmoral 0n t.0s or a3a0nst t.e p1bl0/ 3ood :.0/. s.o1ld pre2ent t.e Go2ernment from prose/1t0n3 and p1n0s.0n3 t.e /1lpr0ts, for t.0s 0s not a /ase :.ere an 0nno/ent person 0s 0nd1/ed to /omm0t a /r0me merel4 to prose/1te .0m, b1t 0t 0s s0mpl4 a trap set to /at/. a /r0m0nal. E.erefore, :e are of op0n0on and so .old, t.at t.e mere fa/t t.at t.e /.0ef of t.e /1stoms se/ret ser20/e pretended to a3ree to a plan for sm133l0n3 0lle3all4

0mported op01m t.ro13. t.e /1stom.o1se, 0n order t.e better to ass1re t.e se051re of sa0d op01m and t.e arrest of 0ts 0mporters 0s no bar to t.e prose/1t0on and /on20/t0on of t.e latter. B4 20rt1e :.ereof, f0nd0n3 no error 0n t.e 71d3ment appealed from, t.e same 0s .ereb4 aff0rmed, :0t. /osts a3a0nst t.e appellants. So ordered. A(ancea, C.#., #ohnson, *t!eet, Malcol&, +illa&o!, ,o&ualdez and -&pe!ial, ##., /on/1r.