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3B Wave Motion II Chapter 5 Nature of Waves

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009



1
5 Nature of Waves

Practice 5.1 (p. 7)
1 B
2 D
3 (a) Transverse wave
(b) Longitudinal wave
4 (a) Water wave and EM wave
(b) Sound wave
5 For case I, energy is transferred to the cork
directly from the stone. For case II, energy is
transferred to the cork through water waves.
6 An object floating on water vibrates as a wave
passes it. The energy of the object comes
from what starts the wave, e.g. a stone.

Practice 5.2 (p. 21)
1 C
2 C
3 A
4 D
5 C
6 C
7 B
8 (a) C
(b) A
(c) B
9 (a) Wavelength =
25
4
= 0.16 m
(b) Speed =
taken time
travelled distance

=
10
4
= 0.4 m s
1

(c) Frequency =

v
=
16 . 0
4 . 0
= 2.5 Hz
10 W and Y are momentarily at rest.
X is moving upwards.
Z is moving downwards.
11 (a) (i) Speed = f = 5 0.2 = 1 m s
1

(ii) Period =
f
1
=
5
1
= 0.2 s
(b) A heavier string (length unchanged) has
greater mass per unit length. Therefore,
the wave speed decreases.
12 (a) Wave speed =
taken time
travelled distance

=
3
5

= 1.6667
= 1.67 m s
1

(b) By v = f,
Wavelength =
f
v
=
2
6667 . 1
= 0.833 m
13 (a) Wavelength =
3
12
= 4 m
(b) Wave speed =
2
12
= 6 m s
1

(c) By v = f,
frequency =

v
=
4
6
= 1.5 Hz

Practice 5.3 (p. 29)
1 B
2 A
3 (a) Wavelength = 20 cm
(b) Speed = f =
T

=
1 . 0
2 . 0
= 2 m s
1

4 (a) Amplitude = 50 cm
(b) Time taken = 2 2 = 4 s
5 From the graph, the period of the wave is 4 s.
By v = f,
wavelength =
f
v
= vT = 10 4 = 40 m
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 5 Nature of Waves

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

2
6



7 (a) (i) Amplitude = 15 cm
(ii) Wavelength = 2 m
(iii) Particle W has at least oscillated for
0.5 period from t = 0 to t = 0.2 s.
Minimum frequency =
2 . 0
5 . 0

= 2.5 Hz
(iv) Minimum wave speed
= minimum frequency
= 2.5 2 = 5 m s
1

(b) (i) Particles X and Z are in phase.
(ii) Particles W and Y are in antiphase.
(iii) Particle W is on a wave crest at
t = 0.6 s.
8 (a) (i) Wavelength = 6.4 cm
(ii) Since particle P undergoes the
smallest number of oscillation at
the instances shown, P should have
oscillated for
4
1
period from t = 0
to t = 0.5 s.
Frequency =
5 . 0
25 . 0
= 0.5 Hz
(iii) Speed = f
= 0.5 0.064
= 0.032 m s
1

(b) The wave is travelling towards the right.

Revision exercise 5
Multiple-choice (p. 34)
1 C
2 A
3 C
4 D
From the displacementdistance graph,
wavelength of the wave is 0.5 m.
By v = f,
frequency =

v
=
5 0
20
.
= 40 Hz
5 A
6 C
By v = f,
wavelength =
f
v
=
3
12
= 4 km
A and B are
4
1
1 apart. Therefore, when A is
on a crest, B is at its equilibrium position.
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 5 Nature of Waves

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

3
7 C
The maximum wavelength is 0.4 m.
Maximum speed
= frequency maximum wavelength
= 10 0.4
= 4 m s
1

8 C
Period = 16 s
Wavelength = 40 cm
Speed = f =
T

=
16
4 . 0
= 0.025 m s
1

Distance travelled
= vt = 0.025 4 = 0.1 m = 10 cm
9 D
10 (HKALE 2003 Paper II Q14)
11 D
12 (HKCEE 2005 Paper II Q15)
13 (HKCEE 2005 Paper II Q34)
14 (HKCEE 2005 Paper II Q35)
15 D
16 (HKCEE 2006 Paper II Q16)

Conventional (p. 36)
1 (a) Transverse pulse is generated. (1A)
(b) Speed of the pulse
=
taken time
travelled distance
(1M)
=
1
2

= 2 m s
1
(1A)
2 (a) The wavelength is 0.2 m. (1A)
(b) Particles P and R are momentarily at
rest. (2 1A)
Particle Q is moving upwards. (1A)
Particles O and S are moving
downwards. (2 1A)
3 (a) By v = f, (1M)
frequency =

v
=
04 . 0
01 . 0
= 0.25 Hz (1A)
(b)

(Correct wavelength) (1A)
(Correct amplitude) (1A)
(Correct waveform after 1 s) (1A)
4 (a) Speed of pulse =
taken time
travelled distance
(1M)
=
1
5

= 5 m s
1
(1A)
(b) By v = f, (1M)
wavelength =
f
v
=
4
5
= 1.25 m (1A)
(c) The wavelength decreases. (1A)
(d) Stretch the spring more / use a lighter
spring with the same length. (1A)
5 (a) (i) Amplitude = 2 cm (1A)
(ii) Wavelength = 2 4 = 8 cm (1A)
(iii) Period =
4
16
= 4 s (1A)
(iv) Frequency =
T
1
(1M)
=
4
1

= 0.25 Hz (1A)
(b) (i) Particles R and S are moving
upwards. (2 1A)
(ii) Particles P and T are moving
downwards. (2 1A)
(iii) Particle Q is momentarily at rest.
(1A)
(c) Particle Q will return to the equilibrium
position. (1A)
6 (a) A is moving downwards. (1A)
B and C are moving upwards. (2 1A)
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 5 Nature of Waves

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4
(b) The greatest displacement
= amplitude of the wave (1A)
= 1 cm (1A)
(c) Wavelength = 4 cm (1A)
(d)


(Correct waveform) (1A)
(Correct positions of A, B and C) (1A)
7 (a) (i) Amplitude = 2 cm (1A)
(ii) Wavelength = 5 m (1A)
(b) Point B is 1 cm from the equilibrium
position (1A)
(c) (i) Frequency
=
2
5

= 2.5 Hz (1A)
Speed
= f (1M)
= 2.5 5
= 12.5 m s
1
(1A)
(ii) Time required
=
speed
travelled distance
(1M)
=
12.5
25

= 2 s (1A)
(d)

(Label X, Y and Z correctly) (3 1A)
(e)

(Correct axes) (1A)
(Correct curve) (1A)
(Correct period and amplitude) (1A)
8 When the frequency of the wave produced
by the transverse wave model increases, wave
speed increases (1A)
while wavelength keeps constant. (1A)
For a real wave on a string, when its
frequency increases, its wavelength decreases
(1A)
while the wave speed keeps constant. (1A)
9 (a) (i) Amplitude = 4 cm (1A)
(ii) Wavelength = 4.8 cm (1A)
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 5 Nature of Waves

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5
(b) (i) Period =
f
1
(1M)
=
2
1

= 0.5 s (1A)
(ii)

(A correctly marked.) (1A)
(c)

(Correct labelled axes) (1A)
(Correct amplitude) (1A)
(Correct period) (1A)
(Correct waveform) (1A)
10 From the figure, the period of the wave is 2 s.
The wave has travelled a distance of one
wavelength from t = 0 to t = 2 s. Therefore,
the displacementdistance graph of the wave
is as follows.

(Correct labelled axes) (1A)
(Correct amplitude) (1A)
(Correct wavelength) (1A)
(Correct waveform) (1A)
11 (a) (i) Frequency =
5
10
(1M)
= 2 Hz (1A)
(ii) Wavelength =
8
12
(1M)
= 1.5 m (1A)
(iii) Speed = f
= 2 1.5 (1M)
= 3 m s
1
(1A)
(b) (i) Amplitude =
2
13 15
cm (1M)
= 1 cm (1A)
(ii) The waves carry less energy at Q
than at P. (1A)
12 (HKCEE 2002 Paper I Q4)
13 (a) (i) incorrect
The amplitude of a wave is the
maximum displacement of a
particle in the wave from its
equilibrium position. (1A)
(ii) correct (1A)
(iii) incorrect
The distance travelled by the wave
in the periodic time. (1A)
(iv) correct (1A)
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 5 Nature of Waves

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6
(b) Any two of the following: (2 1A)
The velocity of the wave is in the
direction of propagation while the
velocity of a piece of rope is at right
angles to this.
The velocity of the wave is constant
while the velocity of a piece of rope
varies (with time or displacement).
The velocity of the wave is non-zero
while the average velocity of a piece of
rope is zero.
(c) Energy spreads out over larger
circumference / energy is continuously
lost from wave. (1A)
14 (a) (i) Transverse wave (1A)
(ii) EM wave (1A)
(b)

(i) (Arrow correctly drawn) (1A)
(ii) 0.4 m (1A)
(iii) (Q correctly labelled) (1A)
(iv) Wavelength (1A)
(v) (R correctly labeled) (1A)
(vi) (1) Speed
=
taken time
travelled distance
(1M)
=
20 . 0
1 . 0

= 0.5 m s
1
(1A)
(2) By v = f, (1M)
frequency =

v

=
0 . 1
5 . 0

= 0.5 Hz (1A)
(3) Period =
f
1
=
5 . 0
1
= 2.0 s (1A)

Physics in articles (p. 40)
(a) It is a transverse wave (1A)
because each persons motion is
perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
(1A)
(b) The wavelength of a typical Mexican wave is
9 m. (1A)
By v = f, (1M)
frequency =

v
=
9
12
= 1.33 Hz (1A)
(c) Similarity: Both waves on a string and
Mexican waves transfer a disturbance from
one place to another. (1A)
Difference: Waves on a string transfer energy
while Mexican waves do not. (1A)
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 6 Wave Phenomena

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1
6 Wave Phenomena

Practice 6.1 (p. 48)
1 D
2 D
3

4 (a) The wave speed remains to be 3 cm s
1
.
(b) By v = f, when the frequency is
doubled and the speed remains
unchanged, the wavelength is halved.
Therefore the new wavelength is 1 cm
and the new wavefronts are as shown.

5 Wave troughs are shown on the screen as dark
lines.
Wave crests are shown on the screen as bright
lines.
6 (a) The wavelength of the wave is 2 cm.
(b) The frequency of the wave is 10 Hz.
Speed of water waves
= f = 10 2 = 20 cm s
1
(c) Increasing the frequency does not
change the wave speed, so the new
speed is 20 cm s
1
.
By v = f, when the frequency is
doubled and the speed remains
unchanged, the wavelength is halved.
Therefore the new wavelength is 1 cm.
7 (a) Wavelength =
5
5
= 1 cm
(b) Speed =
taken time
travelled distance

=
5 . 2
5
= 2 cm s
1

(c) By v = f,
frequency =

v
=
1
2
= 2 Hz
(d) Reduce the speed of the vibrator by half.

Practice 6.2 (p. 57)
1 D
2 B
3 D
4

o + 65 + 90 = 180
o = 25
u = 90 = 90 | = o = 25
5
shallow
deep
v
v
=
shallow
deep



1
2
=
3

deep


deep
= 6 cm
The wavelength in the deep region is 6 cm.
6 By n
XY
=
Y
X
v
v
,
speed in region X = v
Y
n
XY

= 4 1.25
= 5 cm s
1

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2
7

8

9

10 (a)
In region A In region B
Frequency 12 Hz 12 Hz
Wavelength 2 cm 1.5 cm
Wave speed 24 cm s
1
18 cm s
1
(b) Region A is deeper.
11

12 (a)

(b) Wave speed in the deep region
= f = 2 3 = 6 cm s
1

(c) (i) The speed of the waves in the
shallow region is 3 cm s
1
.
(ii) By v = f,
wavelength =
f
v
=
2
3
= 1.5 cm
13 (a) Region B is deeper.
(b) By
B
A
v
v
=
B
A

,
wavelength in region A
=
B
A
v
v

B
= 5 . 1
3
2
= 1 cm
(c)

3B Wave Motion II Chapter 6 Wave Phenomena

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3
(d) Refractive index from A to B
=
B
A
v
v
=
3
2
= 0.667

Practice 6.3 (p. 64)
1 D
2 C
3 A
4 (a) Diffraction of waves is the spreading of
waves around the edge into the shadow
of an obstacle without a change in speed.
(b)

5 (a)



(b) Diffraction
(c)



6 (a)

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4
(b) No, I do not agree with the company.
This is because ocean waves diffract into
the bay, so that the water in the bay may
not be calm enough for the sports.
7 (a) This design provides an entrance for the
ships and at the same time reduces the
amount of waves entering the typhoon
shelter.
(b) I do not agree with him.
If breakwaters are built as in Figure d,
water waves would diffract through the
opening and travel into the typhoon
shelter.

Practice 6.4 (p. 76)
1 D
2 A
3 D
4 B
5 (a) & (b)

(P can be any point on the antinodal
lines labelled by A(P).)
(Q can be any point on the nodal lines
labelled by N(Q).)
(c) Move the sources further apart. /
Decrease the wavelength of waves.
6 (a) Waves are arriving in phase at point P
but in antiphase at point Q.
(b) Path difference at point P
= YP XP
= 3.5 2.5
=
= 2 cm
Path difference at point Q
= XQ YQ
= 3.5 3
= 0.5
= 1 cm
(c) Constructive interference happens at
point P.
Destructive interference happens at point
Q.
7 (a) By v = f,
wavelength =
f
v
=
15
30
= 2 cm
(b) Path difference at point A
= QA PA
= 66 60
= 6 cm
(c) Path difference at point A = 6 cm = 3
Constructive interference will be
observed at point A.
8 (a) Destructive interference
(b) Constructive interference takes place at
positions where the path difference
equals
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
+ n , where n = 0, 1, 2...
Destructive interference takes place at
positions where the path difference
equals n, where n = 0, 1, 2...
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 6 Wave Phenomena

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5
9 (a) (i)

(ii)

(b) When t = 2 s, P, Q and R are
momentarily at rest.

Practice 6.5 (p. 88)
1 C
2 A
3 D
4 B
5 B
Wavelength =
5 . 1
6 . 0
= 0.4 m
Wave speed = f = 50 0.4 = 20 m s
1
6 (a) Wavelength = 70 2 = 140 cm
(b) Holding the racquet at point A can
reduce the vibrations felt by the hand.
This is because the amplitude of
vibration at point A is smaller than that
at point B.
7 (a) A travelling wave carries and transmits
energy from one place to another. On the
contrary, energy in a stationary wave is
localized.
(b) Both of them do not transfer matter.
8 (a)

(b)

9 (a) They are all momentarily at rest.
(b) (i) Particles B and C are vibrating in
phase.
(ii) Particles B and C are vibrating in
antiphase with particle D.

Revision exercise 6
Multiple-choice (p. 93)
1 B
By
shallow
deep
v
v
=
shallow
deep

,
v
shallow
=
deep
shallow

v
deep

=
5 . 1
1
12
= 8 cm s
1
2 B
3 D
4 B
5 C
6 D
(2):
By v = f,
wavelength =
f
v
=
5
1 . 0
= 0.02 m = 2 cm
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 6 Wave Phenomena

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6
Path difference at P = 6 4 = 2 cm =
Constructive interference occurs at P.
7 C
8 D
9 C
At the mid-point between X and Y, the path
difference is 0 and constructive interference
takes place.
Then consider the left side of the mid-point.
Let the path difference be A.
Constructive interference takes place when
A = n = 3n
Also, A s XY = 17 cm
3n = A s 17
n s 5.67
Therefore, the number of points of
constructive interference on the left side of
the mid-point is 5.
By symmetry, there are also 5 points of
constructive interference on the right side of
the mid-point.
total number of points of constructive
interference = 5 + 1 + 5 = 11
10 C
11 D
12 C
13 (HKCEE 2004 Paper II Q25)
14 (HKCEE 2005 Paper II Q36)
15 (HKALE 2005 Paper II Q29)
16 A
17 (HKALE 2006 Paper II Q7)
18 C
Wavelength = 2 0.60 = 1.20 m
Speed = f = 300 1.20 = 360 m s
1
Conventional (p. 96)
1 (12 0.5 A)

Wave
speed
Wavelength
Direction
of travel
Reflection no change no change change
Refraction change change
change / no
change (at
i = 0)
Diffraction no change no change change
Interference no change no change no change
2 (Correct reflected pulse drawn) (3 1A)
(a)

(b)

(c)

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7
3 (a) Largest possible wavelength
= 2L = 2 10 = 20 m (1A)
(b) Wave speed = f (1M)
= 4 20
= 80 m s
1
(1A)
(c) A stationary wave could be produced.
(1A)
Wave speed of the new stationary wave
= 80 m s
1
(1A)
By v = f,
wavelength of the new stationary wave
=
f
v
=
2 4
80

= 10 m (1A)
4

(Axes with correct labels) (1A)
(Correct amplitude) (1A)
(Correct period) (1A)
(Correct shape) (1A)
5 (a)

(Decreasing wavelength) (1A)
(Correct change in amplitude) (1A)
(b) Refraction (1A)
(c) The sloped edge of the ripple tank can
reduce reflection of waves. (1A)
(d) Using spongy edge can also achieve the
purpose mentioned in (c). (1A)
6 (a)

(Shorter wavelength) (1A)
(Less bending) (1A)
(b)

(Shorter wavelength in region A than
that in Figure e) (1A)
(Less bending) (1A)
(Shorter wavelength in region B than in
region A) (1A)
7 (a) Wavelength of waves in region A
=
5
2 0.
= 0.04 m (1A)
Speed of waves in region A
= f (1M)
= 5 0.04
= 0.2 m s
1
(1A)
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 6 Wave Phenomena

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8
(b) (i) Region B is deeper. (1A)
(ii) The frequency is unchanged, which
is 5 Hz. (1A)
Speed of waves in region B
=
4
5
0.2
= 0.25 m s
1
(1A)
By v = f, (1M)
wavelength of waves in region B
=
f
v
=
5
25 0.
= 0.05 m (1A)
(c)

(Correct wave direction) (1A)
(Longer wavelength) (1A)
(d) We can put a sheet of perspex in the
ripple tank. The water above the perspex
is shallower than elsewhere. (1A)
8 (a) Path difference at P
= AP BP = 2 cm =
2
1
(1A)
Therefore, destructive interference
occurs. (1A)
(b) Particle P will vibrate up and down with
a larger amplitude. (1A)
By v = f, doubling the frequency halves
the wavelength, so the new wavelength
is 2 cm. (1A)
The path difference at P, which is 2 cm,
is now equal to . (1A)
Therefore, constructive interference
occurs there. (1A)
The displacementtime graph of particle
P is as shown.

(Correct labelled axes) (1A)
(Correct shape of the graph) (1A)
9 (a) For constructive interference,
largest possible wavelength
= path difference (1A)
= 2 cm (1A)
(b) For destructive interference,
path difference =
2
1
(1M)
2 =
2
1

= 4 cm (1A)
The largest possible wavelength of the
waves is 4 cm.
(c) Path difference at Q
= 22 21 = 1 cm (1A)
Therefore, the largest possible
wavelength is 1 cm (i.e. path difference
at Q = and path difference at P = 2).
(1A)
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9
(d) He cannot obtain a clear interference
pattern (1A)
because the two sources are incoherent.
(1A)
10 (a) The boat oscillates up and down. (1A)
(b) When waves approach the shore, their
wave speed (1A)
and wavelength decrease. (1A)
(c) (i) A tsunami is a transverse wave.
(1A)
This is because the moving
direction of water molecules
(vertical) is perpendicular to the
direction of travel of the tsunami
(horizontal). (1A)
(ii) Speed =
taken time
travelled distance

=
60 8
1000 100

(1M)
= 208 m s
1
(1A)
(iii) The depth of seabed in the ocean
varies from place to place. (1A)
Therefore, refraction occurs and
the wavefront bends. (1A)
(iv) The statement is incorrect. (1A)
When water waves travel from the
centre of earthquake to the shore,
water is not transferred. (1A)
Only energy is transferred by the
water waves. (1A)
11 (a) After reflection, the reflected waves
move away from the barrier at 45 to the
normal, and (1A)
they interfere with the incident waves.
(1A)
(b) (i) From Figure j, there are 4 waves
over 1.4 cm and the scale used by
the figure is 1 : 25. (1A)
Wavelength of the wave
=
4
4 1.
25
= 8.75 cm (1A)
(ii)

(Correct shape) (2 1A)
(Constant separation between wave
crests) (1A)
(c) (i) Constructive interference (1A)
(ii) At point G, destructive interference
occurs, (1A)
so the amplitude of the wave is
always zero and there is no wave
energy at that point. (1A)
(iii)

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Constructive interference occurs
when the path difference is 0, ,
2... (1A)
and destructive interference occurs
when the path difference is

2
1
,
2
1
1 ,
2
1
2 ... (1A)
At F and H, since the path
difference is 0 and respectively,
constructive interference occurs.
Similarly, constructive interference
occurs along PQ and TU and forms
lines of big crests and troughs.
(1A)
At G, since the path difference is

2
1
, destructive interference
occurs. Similarly, destructive
interference occurs along RS and so
a line of calm water is formed.
(1A)
12 (a) 2 waves travel in opposite directions.
(1A)
The 2 waves should have similar
amplitude. (1A)
Stationary wave forms only at certain
frequencies. (1A)
(b) The displacement of a point on the string
is perpendicular to the mean position of
the string. (1A)
(c) The amplitude of the oscillation of point
A is larger than that of point B, (1A)
and they are in antiphase. (1A)
(d) Wavelength = 1.2 m (1M)
By v = f, (1M)
frequency =

v
=
2 . 1
2 . 6
= 5.17 Hz (1A)
(e)

(i) (6 loops) (1A)
(ii) (P, Q and R located appropriately,
i.e. they are not in neighbouring
loops of each other.) (1A)
13 (HKCEE 2005 Paper I Q5)
14 (a) Node (1A)
(b) Wavelength =
5 . 2
2 . 1
= 0.48 m (1M)
Speed = f = 75 0.48 = 36 m s
1
(1A)
(c) A stationary wave with two loops on the
string has wavelength equal to 1.2 m.
By v = f,
frequency =

v
=
2 . 1
36
= 30 Hz (1A)

Physics in articles (p. 100)
(a) The minimum size that ordinary optical
microscopes can resolve is about 200 nm.
(1A)
(b) Diffraction (1A)
(c) Light diffracts around the edges of objects of
size comparable to the wavelength. (1A)
As a result, fine details close to the
wavelength look blurred. (1A)
(d) The microscopes that use X-rays have a
higher resolving power. (1A)
This is because X-rays have a much shorter
wavelength. (1A)
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 7 Light Waves

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

1
7 Light Waves

Practice 7.1 (p. 108)
1 D
2 C
3 C
4 In the visible spectrum, red light has the
longest wavelength and violet light has the
shortest. The wavelength of red light is about
700 nm. The wavelength of violet light is
about 400 nm.
5 (a) The points of constructive interference
form the bright fringes.
(b) The points of destructive interference
form the dark fringes.
6 Light waves must come from two coherent
sources.
Amplitude of light waves must be the same or
almost the same.
Separation between the two sources should be
comparable to the wavelength of light.

Practice 7.2 (p. 123)
1 D
2 B
3 A
4 C
5 D
6 B
7 C
Peaks points of constructive interference
Distance between points of constructive
interference = 9 4 = 2.25 cm
On a plane 2d away from the double-slit,
distance between points of constructive
interference = 2.25 2 = 4.5 cm
Therefore, the fringe separation is 45 cm.
8 (a) More fringes which are closer together
are observed.
(b) The fringes would be of larger width and
the separations are larger.
(c) More fringes which are closer together
are observed.
(d) More fringes which are closer together
are observed.
9 (a) Ay =
a
D

=
3
9
10 12 . 0
8 . 0 10 660



= 4.4 10
3
m
(b) Ay =
10
10 6
2

= 6 10
3
m
By Ay =
a
D
,
a =
y
D
A

=
3
9
10 6
6 . 0 10 560


= 5.6 10
5
m
(c) tan u
3
=
D
y
3

=
7 . 0
10 6 . 1
2


u
3
= 1.31
Ay =
3
3
y

By Ay =
a
D
,
=
D
y aA

=
D
ay
3
3

=
7 . 0 3
10 6 . 1 10 09 . 0
2 3




= 6.86 10
7
m
(d) By tan u
2
=
D
y
2
, we have y
2
= D tan u
2
.
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 7 Light Waves

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

2
Ay =
2
2
y

=
2
tan
2
u D

=
2
2 . 2 tan 1 . 1

= 2.113 10
2

= 2.11 10
2
m
By Ay =
a
D
,
a =
y
D
A


=
2
9
10 113 . 2
1 . 1 10 590



= 3.08 10
5
m
(e) tan u
4
=
D
y
4

=
9 . 0
10 3 . 2
2


u
4
= 1.46
Path difference at the fourth fringe
= a sin u
4

= 0.1 10
3
sin 1.46
= 2.55 10
6
m
=
4
10 55 . 2
6

= 6.38 10
7
m
10 From Figure d,
Ay =
4
10 2 . 3
2

= 8 10
3
m
By Ay =
a
D
,
wavelength of the light
=
D
y aA
=
2 . 1
10 8 10 1 . 0
3 3

= 6.67 10
7
m
11 (a) By d sin u = n,
d =
u sin
n

=



12 sin
10 660 1
9

= 3.17 10
6
m
(b) tan u
2
=
D
y
2

=
2 . 1
43 . 0

u
2
= 19.7
By d sin u = n,
=
n
d u sin

=
2
7 . 19 sin 10 3 . 3
6



= 5.56 10
7
m
(c) By d sin u = n,
m =

sin
m
d u
=
9
6
10 490
8 . 22 sin 10 8 . 3


= 3
(d) By n
max
s

d
,
for (a),

d
=
9
6
10 660
10 17 . 3

= 4.80
The maximum order of fringe is 4.
For (b),

d
=
7
6
10 56 . 5
10 3 . 3

= 5.94
The maximum order of fringe is 5.
For (c),

d
=
9
6
10 490
10 8 . 3

= 7.76
The maximum order of fringe is 7.
12 By d sin u = n, we have d =
u sin
n
.
Number of lines in 1 cm of grating
=
d
2
10 1


= 0.01

sin
n
u

= 0.01
9
10 590 3
32 sin




= 2990
13 n
max
s

d
=
9
2
10 620
3000
10 1

= 5.38
The maximum order of fringe is 5.
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 7 Light Waves

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3
14 (a) Ay =
a
D
=
3
9
10 15 . 0
1 10 660


= 4.4 10
3
m
Distance between the fringes
= 3 Ay
= 3 4.4 10
3

= 1.32 cm
(b) Distance between the fringes
= 2.5 Ay
= 2.5 4.4 10
3

= 1.1 cm
15 No, this is because the light from the two slits
is coherent while that from the two lamps is
not. An observable interference pattern cannot
be formed by incoherent light sources.
16 Monochromatic light has a single wavelength
only, so the interference pattern formed is
sharp and clear.
17 (a) tan u =
1
7 . 0

u = 35.0
The angle of the third order bright fringe
is 35.0.
(b) By d sin u = n,
wavelength =
n
d u sin

=
3
0 . 35 sin
3200
10 1
2



= 5.97 10
7
m

Practice 7.3 (p. 131)
1 C
2 D
3 C
4 C
5 D
6 Among the EM waves, radio waves have the
longest wavelength and gamma rays have the
shortest.
7 Radio waves, microwaves, infra-red radiation,
X-rays, gamma rays
8 For 470 MHz,
=
f
v
=
6
8
10 470
10 3

= 0.638 m
For 478 MHz,
=
f
v
=
6
8
10 478
10 3

= 0.628 m
The range of the broadcasting wavelength
ranges from 0.628 m to 0.638 m.
9 Time taken =
speed
distance
=
8
11
10 3
10 5 . 1

= 500 s
10 (a) Low frequency waves have longer
wavelengths so that they spread out
more on diffraction and can bend around
different obstacles.
High frequency waves have shorter
wavelengths, so they spread out very
little on diffraction and cannot bend
around different obstacles.
(b) Time lag =
speed
distance

=
8
10 3
2 1000 1000



= 6.67 10
3
s

Revision exercise 7
Multiple-choice (p. 134)
1 A
tan u =
7 . 1
48 . 0

u = 15.77
By d sin u = n,
wavelength =
n
d u sin

=
1
77 . 15 sin
5300
10 1
2



= 5.13 10
7
m = 513 nm
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 7 Light Waves

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

4
2 B
Distance between the radar and the object
=
2
1
(3 10
8
1.8 10
5
) = 2700 m
3 B
4 D
5 B
6 C
By Ay =
a
D
,
D =

y aA
=
9
3 3
10 570
10 75 . 1 10 2 . 0


= 0.61 m
7 D
For the first order bright fringe,
d sin u = n

300
10 1
3

sin u
1
= 1 550 10
9

u
1
= 9.50
For the second order bright fringe,
d sin u = n

300
10 1
3

sin u
2
= 2 550 10
9

u
2
= 19.27
Angle between the first order bright fringe
and the second order bright fringe
= u
2
u
1
= 19.27 9.50 = 9.77
8 B
9 (HKCEE 2004 Paper II Q45)
10 B
For the second order maximum,
d sin u = n
4 sin u
2
= 2
u
2
= 30
For the third order maximum,
d sin u = n
4 sin u
3
= 3
u
3
= 48.6
Angle between the second order maximum
and third order maximum

= u
3
u
2
= 48.6 30 = 18.6
11 (HKALE 2007 Paper II Q10)
12 (HKALE 2007 Paper II Q11)

Conventional (p. 135)
1 (a) P (1A)
(b) They have the same speed in a vacuum.
(1A)
(c) 3 10
8
m s
1
(1A)
(d) P is infra-red radiation. (1A)
S is ultra-violet radiation. (1A)
2 (a)

(Correct labelled axes) (1A)
(A series of peak and zeros) (1A)
(Magnitudes of the peaks decrease as u
increases.) (1A)
(b) Let y be the maximum distance from B
that observation can be carried out.
y = D tan 5 = 8.75 10
2
D
On the other hand, we have:
Ay =
a
D

=
3
9
10 15 . 0
10 590

D

= 3.93 10
3
D
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 7 Light Waves

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

5

y
y
A
=
D
D
3
2
10 93 . 3
10 75 . 8

= 22.3
Number of bright fringes which can be
observed = 22 + 22 + 1 = 45 (1A)
(Using correct method) (1A)
3 (a) Wavelength =
f
v
(1M)
=
6
8
10 3 90
10 3

.

= 3.32 m (1A)
(b) (i) Infra-red radiation (1A)
(ii) The wavelength of infra-red
radiation ranges from
10
4
m to 10
6
m which is much
smaller than the wavelength of the
EM waves mentioned in (a). (1A)
4 (a)

(Correct labels: translucent screen,
double-slit and laser pointer) (3 1A)
(Correct positions: double-slit in
between laser pointer and translucent
screen) (1A)
(b) A series of evenly spaced dark and
bright fringes is produced. (1A)
The points of constructive interference
correspond to the bright fringes. (1A)
The points of destructive interference
correspond to the dark fringes. (1A)
(c) (i) There are also fringes in the pattern
(diffraction pattern). Light spreads
into the shadow of the slit. (1A)
(ii) The fringes of blue light are closer
together than those of red light.
(1A)
(d) Any two of the following: (2 1A)
The light source should be strong.
All slits should be as narrow as possible.
The slit separation should be very small.
The screen should be placed far away
enough from the slits so that the
separation of fringes is observable while
the intensity is not too low.
(Or other reasonable answers)
5 (a) Grating spacing =
4000
10 1
2


= 2.5 10
6
m (1A)
(b) By d sin u = n, (1M)
2.5 10
6
sin u
4
= 4 610 10
9

u
4
= 77.4 (1A)
The angle of the 4
th
order bright fringe is
77.4.
(c) By d sin u = n, (1M)
grating spacing of the new grating
=
u sin
n

=



4 . 77 sin
10 610 3
9
(1M)
= 1.88 10
6
m (1A)
6 (a) By Ay =
a
D
, (1M)
=
D
y aA

In this case, a = x m, Ay = y m, D = 1 m.
Therefore, in numerical values,
= xy (1A)
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 7 Light Waves

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

6
(b) Wavelength of light
= xy
= 0.11 10
3
0.5 10
2
(1M)
= 5.5 10
7
m (1A)
7 Different coloured lights have different
wavelengths. (1A)
For lights of any wavelengths, constructive
interference occurs and forms bright fringes at
the centre of the pattern. (1A)
Therefore, at the centre of the pattern, there is
a mixture of bright fringes of different colours,
forming a bright fringe of white colour. (1A)
8 Direct the light from the laser pointer to the
double-slit. (1A)
Capture the interference pattern on the screen.
The screen should be placed far away enough
from the double-slit so that the separation of
fringes is measurable. (1A)
By Ay =
a
D
,
wavelength of monochromatic light =
D
y aA
(1A)
where a is the slit separation of the double-slit,
Ay is the fringe separation and D is the
distance of the screen from the double-slit.
(1A)
With the central bright fringe in the centre,
measure the distance between several fringes
with the ruler and then calculate the value of
Ay. Also, measure the value of D. (1A)
Then we can calculate the wavelength using
the above equation.
9 (a) Wavelength of light X in a vacuum
=
f
v
(1M)
=
14
8
10 25 . 6
10 3

= 4.8 10
7
m (1A)
(b) (i) At the 0
th
order fringe (1A)
(ii) Grating spacing
=
3500
10 1
2


= 2.86 10
6
m (1M)
By d sin u = n,
2.86 10
6
sin u = 4 4.8 10
7

u = 42.2 (1M)
Distance of the 4
th
order fringe
from the 0
th
order fringe
= 0.4 tan 42.2 = 0.363 m (1A)
The region is about 0.363 m away
from the centre of the interference
pattern.
(iii) Light Y also produces bright fringe
in the region stated in (b)(ii).
Apply d sin u = n,
2.86 10
6
sin 42.2 = n (1M)
n = 1.92 10
6
m
Since is between 600 nm and 650
nm, n should be equal to 3. (1M)
Therefore,
3 = 1.92 10
6
m
= 6.40 10
7
m = 640 nm (1A)
The wavelength of light Y is
640 nm.
10 (a) Constructive interference (1A)
(b) Figure e shows that P is on the second
peak from A, so the path difference at P
is 2. (1M)
YP XP = 25 21 = 2 (1M)
= 2 cm (1A)
The wavelength of the microwaves is
2 cm.
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 7 Light Waves

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7
(c)

(Peak at A) (1A)
(Larger distance between peaks) (1A)
11 (a) (i) The waves at A and D are in phase.
(1A)
(ii) 4 (1A)
(iii) From Figure f, we have:
CE = 4 = 2d sin u
2 = d sin u (1A)
(b) n
max
s

d
=
9
5
10 486
10 5 . 4
1

= 4.57 (1M)
The highest order diffracted image that
could be produced is 4. (1A)
12 (HKCEE 2006 Paper I Q1)
13 (a) Omission: should have stated that waves
must come together/meet. (1A)
Error: Displacement of the resultant
wave(not amplitude). (1A)
(b) (i)

(Mark and label a and d) (1A)
Y represents the fringe separation.
(1A)
(ii) Waves start in phase at slits. (1A)
Waves from slits come together on
screen. (1A)
At the centre of the pattern, waves
travel the same distance, (1A)
so they are in phase and bright
fringe is formed. (1A)
Elsewhere on screen, waves arrive
completely out of phase in some
places, and dark fringes are formed.
(1A)
At some others, waves arrive in
phase and bright fringes are formed.
(1A)
(For effective communication)(1C)
14 (a) (i) Measure wavelengths / observe
spectra. (1A)
(ii) d =
5000
10 1
2

= 2.0 10
6
m (1A)
(iii) Apply d sin u = n. (1M)
For red light:
2.0 10
6
sin u = 2 700 10
9

u = 44.4
For green light:
2.0 10
6
sin u = 2 550 10
9

u = 33.4
(Either one calculated correctly.)
(1A)
The green light gives a second
order maximum at an angle of
diffraction between 33 and 34.
(1A)
(b) (i) Rearrange d sin u = n, (1M)
we have:
n = u sin


d

Since sin u s 1,
n s

d
1 =

d
(1A)
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 7 Light Waves

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

8
(ii) (1)

d
=
9
6
10 550
10 0 . 2

= 3.64
The maximum order is 3. (1A)
(2)

d
=
9
6
10 700
10 0 . 2

= 2.86
The maximum order is 2. (1A)
(iii) Total number of bright spots
= 2 (3 + 2) + 1
= 11 (1A)

Physics in articles (p. 138)
1 (a) Directly above the radar station (1A)
(b) The exhaust in a stealth fighter passes
through cooling vents before flowing out
of the plane. (1A)
This reduces the temperature and hence
the infra-red radiation emitted by the
exhaust. (1A)
2 (a) (i) We could direct light to the plane
transmission grating to produce an
interference pattern. (1A)
Apply the equation d sin u = n to
find the wavelength of light. (1A)
Then find the frequency of light by
f =

1
. (1A)
(ii) By d sin u = n, (1M)
=
n
d u sin

=
1
4 . 11 sin
3000
10 1
2



= 6.59 10
7
m (1M)
Frequency of light
=

1

=
7
10 59 . 6
1


= 1.52 10
6
Hz (1A)
(b) A grating has more slits (1A)
and allows more light to pass through.
(1A)
(c) Scientists could use plane transmission
grating to determine the frequencies of
light that comes from an astronomical
body. (1A)
Then they could deduce which kinds of
elements the body contains. (1A)
This helps scientists very much because
most of the bodies in space are not
possible to reach. (1A)
3 (a) For steam cooking, energy is conducted
to the water from the stove to produce
steam. (1A)
When steam condenses on the food, a
large amount of latent heat is transferred
to the food by conduction. (1A)
For cooking in a microwave oven,
energy is transferred to the food by
radiation. (1A)
(b) Interference (1A)
(c) (i)

(Reduced wavelength in meat)(1A)
(Decreasing amplitude in meat)
(1A)
(ii) The centre of the food is heated by
conduction. (1A)
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 8 Sound

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

1
8 Sound

Practice 8.1 (p. 152)
1 C
2 D
v =
1
21 . 0
= 0.21 m s
1
By v = f,
frequency of the wave =

v
=
105 . 0
21 . 0
= 2.0 Hz
3 D
Amplitude of the wave
= displacement of bead c
= 3 cm
Beads e and m are two successive
compressions in the wave.
Separation between them is equal to the
wavelength of the wave.
= 8 5 = 40 cm
4 A
Period of bead c = 4 0.1 = 0.4 s
Frequency =
T
1
=
4 0
1
.
2.5 Hz
5 (a)

(b)

6 (a) Longitudinal wave
(b)

(c) (i) Wavelength = 3.4 m
(ii) Frequency =
period
1


01 0
1
.

= 100 Hz
(iii) Speed = f = 100 3.4 = 340 m s
1


Practice 8.2 (p. 161)
1 C
2 C
To produce the second echo, sound travels
from the boy to cliff A, then to cliff B and
finally to the boy again. That is, the sound has
travelled a distance of 2AB.
By s = vt,
2AB = 340 1.68
AB = 286 m
3 By v = f,
=
f
v
=
262
340
= 1.30 m
Therefore, the distance between two
successive compressions is 1.30 m.
4 Length of the lake = vt = 333
2
5 1.
= 250 m
5 (a) By v = f,
=
f
v
=
1000
340
= 0.34 m
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 8 Sound

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

2
The two loudspeakers are 1 m apart.

34 0
0 1
.
.
= 2.94
Therefore, they are 2.94 wavelengths
apart.
(b) The positions of constructive
interference (loud sounds) in the
interference pattern become more widely
spaced.
6 (a) By v = f,
f =

v
=
33 1
340
.
= 256 Hz
Speed of sound in the medium
= f = 256 5.47 = 1400 m s
1

(b) Refraction
7 (a) By v = f,
=
f
v
=
500
340
= 0.68 m

68 0
5 1
.
.
= 2.21
The width of the doorway is 2.21 times
the wavelengths.
(b) Since the width of the doorway is
comparable to the wavelength of the
sound waves, sound waves diffract
around the doorway when they pass
through it.
8 (a)

(b)

9 The nodal lines would move further apart.

Practice 8.3 (p. 171)
1 D
2 B
3 (a) By v = f,
wavelength =
f
v
=
6000
5000
= 0.833 m
(b) Yes. The frequency of sound wave does
not change while travelling in iron and
air, so it is still 6000 Hz, within the
audible frequency range.
4 s = vt = 340 2.5 = 850 m
The firework is 850 m from the audience
when it explodes.
5
340
s

5000
s
= 1.4
s = 511 m
The impact occurred at 511 m away.
6 (a) By v = f,
wavelength =
f
v
=
1000 150
1500

= 0.01 m
(b) A small wavelength results in less
diffraction when the ultrasonic waves
encounter any obstacles. Therefore,
ultrasound can be used to detect the
specific targets more accurately.
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 8 Sound

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

3
(c) Time elapsed between the two pulses
= 20 10
3
5 = 0.1 s
Distance of the shoal of fish below the
ship = 1500
2
1 0.
= 75 m
7 Distance between the bat and the bird
= 340
2
2 0.
= 34 m
8 Time period between wing beats
=
600
1
s
s = vt = 340
600
1
= 0.567 m
The sound waves travel 0.567 m between
wing beats.
9 Speed of sound =
t
s
=
015 0
0 5
.
.
= 333 m s
1


Practice 8.4 (p. 181)
1 B
2 D
3 D
4 (a)

(b)

5 (a) Period =
f
1
=
262
1
= 3.82 10
3
s
(b) By v = f,
wavelength =
f
v
=
262
340
= 1.30 m
6 (a) Noises at 130 dB produce ear pain.
(b) Students conversation, loudspeakers
(Or other reasonable answers)
(c) Students keep quiet, lower the volume of
loudspeakers
(Or other reasonable answers)
7 (a)


(b) Since low frequency noise has longer
wavelength, it bends more when passing
the barrier. Therefore, flats in the
shadow of the barrier are still affected
by the low frequency noise.
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 8 Sound

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4
Revision exercise 8
Multiple-choice (p. 184)
1 D
2 C
3 D
4 B
5 C
Path difference
= S
2
P S
1
P = 4.2 3.4 = 0.8 m
Constructive interference takes place at a
position where the path difference is equal to
whole number of wavelengths. Therefore, it is
impossible that the wavelength of the sound
equals 0.6 m.
6 B
7 B
8 A
9 C
10 D
11 D
12 (HKCEE 2005 Paper II Q13)
13 (HKCEE 2006 Paper II Q17)
14 (HKCEE 2006 Paper II Q18)
15 (HKCEE 2006 Paper II Q34)
16 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q36)
17 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q37)
18 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q39)

Conventional (p. 186)
1 (a) Assume the time of travel by light is
negligible. (1A)
Speed of sound =
t
s
(1M)
=
8 5
2000
.

= 345 m s
1
(1A)
(b) Height of the cliff = vt (1M)
= 345 0.2
= 69 m (1A)
2 (a) The elastic string sets the air particles
around it to vibrate. (1A)
The vibrations of air particles are
transmitted to Joes ear and so he can
hear the sound. (1A)
(b) (i) Frequency =
T
1
(1M)
=
3
10 2
1


= 500 Hz (1A)
(ii) Apply v = f. (1M)
wavelength =
f
v
=
500
340
= 0.68 m
(1A)
3 (a) The frequency range of the humming
sound is from 15 Hz to 80 Hz. (1A)
(b) By v = f, (1M)
For the 15 Hz sound,
=
f
v
=
15
340
= 22.7 m (1A)
For the 80 Hz sound,
=
f
v
=
80
340
= 4.25 m (1A)
The longest and shortest wavelengths of
the humming sound are respectively
22.7 m and 4.25 m.
(c) No, human cannot hear the whole range
of the humming sound. (1A)
This is because sound of frequency
below 20 Hz is out of the audible
frequency range. (1A)
4 (a) (i) When the loudspeaker produces
sounds, the loudspeaker cone
moves in and out rapidly. (1A)
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 8 Sound

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Oxford University Press 2009

5
This stretches and compresses the
air in front. (1A)
As a result, a series of rarefactions
and compressions travels through
the air and the flame follows the
motion of air. (1A)
(ii) By v = f, (1M)
wavelength of the sound
=
f
v
=
400
340
= 0.85 m (1A)
(b) The box absorbs all the energy carried
by the sound. (1A)
There is a vacuum in the box. (1A)
(Or other reasonable answers)
5 (a) Get a partner to hit a long iron rail from
a distance. (1A)
Then hear the sounds travelling through
first the rail and then the air. (1A)
(b) Time needed to travel through the air
=
340
000 10
= 29.4 s (1M)
Time needed to travel through the
ground
=
4000
000 10
= 2.5 s (1M)
Time difference
= 29.4 2.5 = 26.9 s (1A)
6 (a) (i) S
1
Q =
2 2
) 5 . 0 2 ( 8 (1M)
= 8.14 m (1A)
(ii) S
2
Q =
2 2
) 5 . 0 2 ( 8 (1M)
= 8.38 m (1A)
(b) Path difference of Q
= S
2
Q S
1
Q (1M)
= 8.38 m 8.14 m
= 0.24 m (1A)
(c) Path difference of Q =
The wavelength of the sound emitted is
0.24 m. (1A)
(d) Speed of sound in air
= f (1M)
= 1.4 1000 0.24
= 336 m s
1
(1A)
7 (a) Yes, they have the same pitch. (1A)
This is because they have the same
number of waveforms on the CRO
screen. (1A)
(b) Notes X, Y and Z have the same loudness.
(1A)
This is because the amplitudes of their
waveforms are the same. (1A)
(c) They sound differently because they
have different qualities (waveforms)
(1A)
which depend on the number (1A)
and amplitude of overtones added to the
fundamental frequency. (1A)
(d) If the note has a sound intensity level of
140 dB, it will cause permanent damage
to the ear. (1A)
8 (a) Both sound and light are waves. (1A)
Sound waves are longitudinal waves
while light waves are transverse waves.
(1A)
The travelling speed of sound waves in
the air is 330 m s
1
while the travelling
speed of light waves in the air is
3 10
8
m s
1
. (1A)
(Or other reasonable answers)
(b)


3B Wave Motion II Chapter 8 Sound

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6

For light waves:
(Decreased wavelength in water) (1A)
(The wave bends towards the normal in
water.) (1A)
For sound waves:
(Increased wavelength in water) (1A)
(The wave bends away from the normal
in water.) (1A)
9 (a)

(Correct amplitude) (1A)
(Correct period) (1A)
(b) The waveform of Michaels voice has a
larger amplitude. (1A)
The waveform of Michaels voice shows
the same fundamental frequency but
different number and amplitude of
overtones from Julias. (1A)
(c)

(Same amplitude and period) (1A)
(Correct quality) (1A)
10 (a) Interference (1A)
(b) (i) Period
=
divisions 10 in waves of number
divisions 10 by occupied time

=
25 . 2
10 5 . 0 10
3


= 2.22 10
3
s (1M)
f =
T
1
(1M)
=
3
10 22 2
1

.

= 450 Hz
By v = f, (1M)
wavelength of the sound
=
f
v
=
450
340
= 0.756 m (1A)
(ii)

(Same frequency) (1A)
(Smaller amplitude) (1A)
(c) (i) Diffraction occurs (1A)
and sound waves spread out after
passing the gap. (1A)
(ii) Increasing the pitch of the sound
means decreasing the wavelength.
(1A)
Sound waves would spread at a
smaller degree after passing the
gap. (1A)
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 8 Sound

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7
11 (a) (i) An ultrasound signal emitted by the
ship is reflected when it hits an
obstacle. (1A)
The distance between the ship and
the obstacle is equal to
2
vt
, where v
is the speed of sound in the sea and
t is the time elapsed from emitting
the signal to receiving the echo.
(1A)
(ii) Depth of the sea bed
=
2
vt
(1M)
=
2
4 . 0 1500

= 300 m (1A)
(iii) The wavelength of ultrasound is
smaller than that of audible sound,
so ultrasound diffracts less when it
meets an obstacle. This makes
ultrasound detect the locations of
obstacles more accurately. (1A)
(b) (i) X-ray is a kind of electromagnetic
wave while ultrasound is not. (1A)
X-ray is a transverse wave while
ultrasound is a longitudinal wave.
(1A)
The travelling speed of X-ray in air
(3 10
8
m s
1
) is much higher than
the travelling speed of ultrasound
in air (340 m s
1
). (1A)
(ii) X-ray may harm the foetus. (1A)
12 (a) A longitudinal wave is one in which the
vibrations of particles are along the
direction of travel of the wave. (2A)
(b) (i) E or M (1A)
(ii) A or I (1A)
(c) (i) E and M (1A)
(Or other reasonable answers)
(ii) A and E (1A)
(Or other reasonable answers)
(d) (i) Any one of the following: (1A)
A, B, H, I or J
(ii) Any one of the following: (1A)
D, E, F, L or M
(iii) Any one of the following: (1A)
C, G or K
13 (a) Take direction to the right to be positive.


(Correct curve) (1A)
(Correct labelling of particles) (1A)
(Correct displacement) (1A)
(b) Amplitude = 8 cm (1A)
Wavelength = 80 cm (1A)
(c) (i) Frequency = 5 Hz (1A)
Period =
f
1
=
5
1
= 0.2 s (1A)
Speed = f (1M)
= 5 0.8
= 4 m s
1
(1A)
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 8 Sound

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8
(ii)

(Correct labelled axes) (1A)
(Correct curve) (1A)
(d) (i)

(Correct curve) (1A)
(ii)

(Correct positions of particles)
(1A)
14 (a) (i) Sound waves are reflected by the
windows into room B. (1A)

(Correct diagram) (1A)
(ii) Open the right window instead of
the left one. (1A)

(Correct diagram) (1A)
(b) (i) Interference (1A)
(ii) Loud and soft sounds are heard
along PQ. (1A)
At some positions, sound waves
from the loudspeakers reinforce
each other (constructive
interference) and loud sounds are
formed. (1A)
At some other positions, sound
waves from the loudspeakers
cancel each other (destructive
interference) and soft sounds are
formed. (1A)
(iii) By v = f,
=
f
v
=
2000
340
= 0.17 m (1M)
Let x be the shortest possible
distance between the student and
speaker B.
Path difference = x 4 =
2
1
(1M)
x 4 =
2
1
0.17
x = 4.085 m (1A)
The shortest possible distance
between the student and speaker B
is 4.085 m.
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 8 Sound

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9
(iv) If the frequency of the sound is
increased, the wavelength of the
sound waves decreases. (1A)
Therefore, the points of destructive
interference become closer together.
(1A)
(v) Loud and soft sounds cannot be
heard (determined) along PQ. (1A)
For a song, there are sounds of
different frequencies (1A)
which form constructive and
destructive interference at different
positions. They overlap to form a
more complex pattern, so loud and
soft sounds cannot be heard along
PQ. (1A)
15 (HKALE 2004 Paper I Q3)
16 (HKCEE 2005 Paper I Q6)
17 (a) Mean time
=
3
86 002 . 0 82 002 . 0 87 002 . 0

= 0.002 85 s (1M)
Speed of sound
=
t
s
(1M)
=
85 002 . 0
00 . 1

= 351 m s
1
(1A)
(b) The distance used is not exactly 1.00 m.
(1A)
18 (a) Light travels faster than sound. (1A)
(b) Distance = vt (1M)
= 340 2.5
= 850 m (1A)
(c) Sound levels higher than 80 decibels
(1A)
can cause damage to hearing. (1A)
19 (HKCEE 2007 Paper I Q6)
20 (HKCEE 2007 Paper I Q10)

Physics in articles (p. 192)
1 (a) The barrier works by reflecting the
sound waves back to the roads. (1A)
(b) An effective barrier should have a solid,
continuous surface without any openings
or holes. (1A)
Otherwise, sound waves can pass
through the openings and diffraction will
occur. (1A)
An effective barrier must be long and
tall enough (1A)
to create a significant acoustical shadow.
(1A)
(c) No. (1A)
Since noise of low frequency has longer
wavelength, it bends more when passing
the edge of the barrier. Therefore, flats
in the shadow of the barrier are still
affected by low frequency noise. (1A)
2 (a) When we speak, vocal cords come
together and air exhaled from the lung
passes through the larynx, (1A)
setting the vocal cords to vibrate and
produce sound. (1A)
(b) One controls the tension of the vocal
cords for different pitches of sound.(1A)
The larger the tension in the vocal cord,
the higher the pitch of sound. (1A)
One controls the flow of air through the
larynx for different loudness of sound.
(1A)
The larger the flow of air through larynx,
the higher the loudness of sound. (1A)
3B Wave Motion II Chapter 8 Sound

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10
(c) By v = f, we have =
f
v
.
Longest wavelength of the sound that is
spoken by a man =
80
340
= 4.25 m (1A)
Shortest wavelength of the sound that is
spoken by a man =
200
340
=1.7 m (1A)
Longest wavelength of the sound that is
spoken by a boy =
150
340
= 2.27 m (1A)
Shortest wavelength of the sound that is
spoken by a boy =
400
340
= 0.85 m (1A)
(d) Vocal cords of men are thicker. (1A)